Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 9

Search results for: time-interval to reoperation

9 Time-Interval between Rectal Cancer Surgery and Reintervention for Anastomotic Leakage and the Effects of a Defunctioning Stoma: A Dutch Population-Based Study

Authors: Anne-Loes K. Warps, Rob A. E. M. Tollenaar, Pieter J. Tanis, Jan Willem T. Dekker


Anastomotic leakage after colorectal cancer surgery remains a severe complication. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent further adverse outcomes. In the literature, it has been suggested that earlier reintervention is associated with better survival, but anastomotic leakage can occur with a highly variable time interval to index surgery. This study aims to evaluate the time-interval between rectal cancer resection with primary anastomosis creation and reoperation, in relation to short-term outcomes, stratified for the use of a defunctioning stoma. Methods: Data of all primary rectal cancer patients that underwent elective resection with primary anastomosis during 2013-2019 were extracted from the Dutch ColoRectal Audit. Analyses were stratified for defunctioning stoma. Anastomotic leakage was defined as a defect of the intestinal wall or abscess at the site of the colorectal anastomosis for which a reintervention was required within 30 days. Primary outcomes were new stoma construction, mortality, ICU admission, prolonged hospital stay and readmission. The association between time to reoperation and outcome was evaluated in three ways: Per 2 days, before versus on or after postoperative day 5 and during primary versus readmission. Results: In total 10,772 rectal cancer patients underwent resection with primary anastomosis. A defunctioning stoma was made in 46.6% of patients. These patients had a lower anastomotic leakage rate (8.2% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001) and less often underwent a reoperation (45.3% vs. 88.7%, p < 0.001). Early reoperations (< 5 days) had the highest complication and mortality rate. Thereafter the distribution of adverse outcomes was more spread over the 30-day postoperative period for patients with a defunctioning stoma. Median time-interval from primary resection to reoperation for defunctioning stoma patients was 7 days (IQR 4-14) versus 5 days (IQR 3-13 days) for no-defunctioning stoma patients. The mortality rate after primary resection and reoperation were comparable (resp. for defunctioning vs. no-defunctioning stoma 1.0% vs. 0.7%, P=0.106 and 5.0% vs. 2.3%, P=0.107). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that early reinterventions after anastomotic leakage are associated with worse outcomes (i.e. mortality). Maybe the combination of a physiological dip in the cellular immune response and release of cytokines following surgery, as well as a release of endotoxins caused by the bacteremia originating from the leakage, leads to a more profound sepsis. Another explanation might be that early leaks are not contained to the pelvis, leading to a more profound sepsis requiring early reoperations. Leakage with or without defunctioning stoma resulted in a different type of reinterventions and time-interval between surgery and reoperation.

Keywords: rectal cancer surgery, defunctioning stoma, anastomotic leakage, time-interval to reoperation

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8 Impact of Obesity on Outcomes in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Adriana C. Panayi, Riaz A. Agha, Brady A. Sieber, Dennis P. Orgill


Background: Increased rates of both breast cancer and obesity have resulted in more women seeking breast reconstruction. These women may be at increased risk for perioperative complications. A systematic review was conducted to assess the outcomes in obese women who have undergone breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Methods: Cochrane, PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases were screened and data was extracted from included studies. The clinical outcomes assessed were surgical complications, medical complications, length of postoperative hospital stay, reoperation rate and patient satisfaction. Results: 33 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review and 29 provided enough data to be included in the meta-analysis (71368 patients, 20061 of which were obese). Obese women were 2.3 times more likely to experience surgical complications (95 percent CI 2.19 to 2.39; P < 0.00001), 2.8 times more likely to have medical complications (95 percent CI 2.41 to 3.26; P < 0.00001) and had a 1.9 times higher risk of reoperation (95 percent CI 1.75 to 2.07; P < 0.00001). The most common complication, wound dehiscence, was 2.5 times more likely in obese women (95 percent CI 1.80 to 3.52; P < 0.00001). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that obese women were more likely to experience surgical complications (RR 2.36, 95% CI 2.22–2.52; P < 0.00001). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that obesity increases the risk of complications in both implant and autologous reconstruction. Additional prospective and observational studies are needed to determine if weight reduction prior to reconstruction reduces the perioperative risks associated with obesity.

Keywords: autologous reconstruction, breast cancer, breast reconstruction, literature review, obesity, oncology, prosthetic reconstruction

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7 The Effectiveness of Laser In situ Keratomileusis for Correction Various Types of Refractive Anomalies

Authors: Yuliya Markava


The laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is widely common surgical procedure, which has become an alternative for patients who are not satisfied with the performance of other correction methods. A high level of patient satisfaction functional outcomes after refractive surgery confirms the high reliability and safety of LASIK and provides a significant improvement in the quality of life and social adaptation. Purpose: To perform clinical analysis of the results of correction made to the excimer laser system SCHWIND AMARIS 500E in patients with different types of refractive anomalies. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 1581 operations (812 patients): 413 males (50.86%) and 399 females (49.14%) at the age from 18 to 47 years with different types of ametropia. All operations were performed on excimer laser SCHWIND AMARIS 500E in the LASIK procedure. Formation of the corneal flap was made by mechanical microkeratome SCHWIND. Results: Analyzing the structure of refractive anomalies: The largest number of interventions accounted for myopia: 1505 eyes (95.2%), of which about a low myopia: 706 eyes (44.7%), moderate myopia: 562 eyes (35.5 %), high myopia: eyes 217 (13.7%) and supermyopia: 20 eyes (1.3%). Hyperopia was 0.7% (11 eyes), mixed astigmatism: 4.1% (65 eyes). The efficiency was 80% (in patients with supermyopia) to 91.6% and 95.4% (in groups with myopia low and moderate, respectively). Uncorrected visual acuity average values before and after laser operation was in groups: a low myopia 0.18 (up 0.05 to 0.31) and 0.80 (up 0.60 to 1.0); moderate myopia 0.08 (up 0.03 to 0.13) and 0.87 ( up 0.74 to 1.0); high myopia 0.05 (up 0.02 to 0.08) and 0.83 (up 0.66 to 1.0); supermyopia 0.03 (up 0.02 to 0.04) and 0.59 ( up 0.34 to 0.84); hyperopia 0.27 (up 0.16 to 0.38) and 0.57 (up 0.27 to 0.87); mixed astigmatism of 0.35 (up 0.19 to 0.51) and 0.69 (up 0.44 to 0.94). In all cases, after LASIK indicators uncorrected visual acuity significantly increased. Reoperation was 4.43%. Significance: Clinical results of refractive surgery at the excimer laser system SCHWIND AMARIS 500E in different ametropia correction is characterized by high efficiency.

Keywords: effectiveness of laser correction, LASIK, refractive anomalies, surgical treatment

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6 Vancomycin Resistance Enterococcus and Implications to Trauma and Orthopaedic Care

Authors: O. Davies, K. Veravalli, P. Panwalkar, M. Tofighi, P. Butterick, B. Healy, A. Mofidi


Vancomycin resistant enterococcus infection is a condition that usually impacts ICUs, transplant, dialysis, and cancer units, often as a nosocomial infection. After an outbreak in the acute trauma and orthopaedic unit in Morriston hospital, we aimed to access the conditions that predispose VRE infections in our unit. Thirteen cases of VRE infection and five cases of VRE colonisations were identified in patients who were treated for orthopaedic care between 1/1/2020 and 1/11/2021. Cases were reviewed to identify predisposing factors, specifically looking at age, presenting condition and treatment, presence of infection and antibiotic care, active haemo-oncological condition, long term renal dialysis, previous hospitalisation, VRE predisposition, and clearance (PREVENT) scores, and outcome of care. The presenting condition, treatment, presence of postoperative infection, VRE scores, age was compared between colonised and the infected cohort. VRE type in both colonised and infection group was Enterococcus Faecium in all but one patient. The colonised group had the same age (T=0.6 P>0.05) and sex (2=0.115, p=0.74), presenting condition and treatment which consisted of peri-femoral fixation or arthroplasty in all patients. The infected group had one case of myelodysplasia and four cases of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. All of the infected patient had sustained an infected complication of their fracture fixation or arthroplasty requiring reoperation and antibiotics. The infected group had an average VRE predisposition score of 8.5 versus the score of 3 in the colonised group (F=36, p<0.001). PREVENT score was 7 in the infected group and 2 in the colonised group(F=153, p<0.001). Six patients(55%) succumbed to their infection, and one VRE infection resulted in limb loss. In the orthopaedic cohort, VRE infection is a nosocomial condition that has peri-femoral predilection and is seen in association with immunosuppression or renal failure. The VRE infection cohort has been treated for infective complication of original surgery weeks prior to VRE infection. Based on our findings, we advise avoidance of infective complications, change of practice in use of antibiotics and use radical surgery and surveillance for VRE infections beyond infective precautions. PREVENT score shows that the infected group are unlikely to clear their VRE in the future but not the colonised group.

Keywords: surgical site infection, enterococcus, orthopaedic surgery, vancomycin resistance

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5 Telemedicine Versus Face-to-Face Follow up in General Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Teagan Fink, Lynn Chong, Michael Hii, Brett Knowles


Background: Telemedicine is a rapidly advancing field providing healthcare to patients at a distance from their treating clinician. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence detailing the safety and acceptability of telemedicine for postoperative outpatient follow-up. This randomized controlled trial – conducted prior to the COVID 19 pandemic – aimed to assess patient satisfaction and safety (as determined by readmission, reoperation and complication rates) of telephone compared to face-to-face clinic follow-up after uncomplicated general surgical procedures. Methods: Patients following uncomplicated laparoscopic appendicectomy or cholecystectomy and laparoscopic or open umbilical or inguinal hernia repairs were randomized to a telephone or face-to-face outpatient clinic follow-up. Data points including patient demographics, perioperative details and postoperative outcomes (eg. wound healing complications, pain scores, unplanned readmission to hospital and return to daily activities) were compared between groups. Patients also completed a Likert patient satisfaction survey following their consultation. Results: 103 patients were recruited over a 12-month period (21 laparoscopic appendicectomies, 65 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, nine open umbilical hernia repairs, six laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs and two laparoscopic umbilical hernia repairs). Baseline patient demographics and operative interventions were the same in both groups. Patient or clinician-reported concerns on postoperative pain, use of analgesia, wound healing complications and return to daily activities at clinic follow-up were not significantly different between the two groups. Of the 58 patients randomized to the telemedicine arm, 40% reported high and 60% reported very high patient satisfaction. Telemedicine clinic mean consultation times were significantly shorter than face-to-face consultation times (telemedicine 10.3 +/- 7.2 minutes, face-to-face 19.2 +/- 23.8 minutes, p-value = 0.014). Rates of failing to attend clinic were not significantly different (telemedicine 3%, control 6%). There was no increased rate of postoperative complications in patients followed up by telemedicine compared to in-person. There were no unplanned readmissions, return to theatre, or mortalities in this study. Conclusion: Telemedicine follow-up of patients undergoing uncomplicated general surgery is safe and does not result in any missed diagnosis or higher rates of complications. Telemedicine provides high patient satisfaction and steps to implement this modality in inpatient care should be undertaken.

Keywords: general surgery, telemedicine, patient satisfaction, patient safety

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4 Periareolar Zigzag Incision in the Conservative Surgical Treatment of Breast Cancer

Authors: Beom-Seok Ko, Yoo-Seok Kim, Woo-Sung Lim, Ku-Sang Kim, Hyun-Ah Kim, Jin-Sun Lee, An-Bok Lee, Jin-Gu Bong, Tae-Hyun Kim, Sei-Hyun Ahn


Background: Breast conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiation therapy is today standard therapy for early breast cancer. It is safe therapeutic procedure in early breast cancers, because it provides the same level of overall survival as mastectomy. There are a number of different types of incisions used to BCS. Avoiding scars on the breast is women’s desire. Numerous minimal approaches have evolved due to this concern. Periareolar incision is often used when the small tumor relatively close to the nipple. But periareolar incision has a disadvantages include limited exposure of the surgical field. In plastic surgery, various methods such as zigzag incisions have been recommended to achieve satisfactory esthetic results. Periareolar zigzag incision has the advantage of not only good surgical field but also contributed to better surgical scars. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncological safety of procedures by studying the status of the surgical margins of the excised tumor specimen and reduces the need for further surgery. Methods: Between January 2016 and September 2016, 148 women with breast cancer underwent BCS or mastectomy by the same surgeon in ASAN medical center. Patients with exclusion criteria were excluded from this study if they had a bilateral breast cancer or underwent resection of the other tumors or taken axillary dissection or performed other incision methods. Periareolar zigzag incision was performed and excision margins of the specimen were identified frozen sections and paraffin-embedded or permanent sections in all patients in this study. We retrospectively analyzed tumor characteristics, the operative time, size of specimen, the distance from the tumor to nipple. Results: A total of 148 patients were reviewed, 72 included in the final analysis, 76 excluded. The mean age of the patients was 52.6 (range 25-19 years), median tumor size was 1.6 cm (range, 0.2-8.8), median tumor distance from the nipple was 4.0 cm (range, 1.0-9.0), median excised specimen sized was 5.1 cm (range, 2.8-15.0), median operation time was 70.0 minute (range, 39-138). All patients were discharged with no sign of infection or skin necrosis. Free resection margin was confirmed by frozen biopsy and permanent biopsy in all samples. There were no patients underwent reoperation. Conclusions: We suggest that periareolar zigzag incision can provide a good surgical field to remove a relatively large tumor and may provide cosmetically good outcomes.

Keywords: periareolar zigzag incision, breast conserving surgery, breast cancer, resection margin

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3 Management of Caverno-Venous Leakage: A Series of 133 Patients with Symptoms, Hemodynamic Workup, and Results of Surgery

Authors: Allaire Eric, Hauet Pascal, Floresco Jean, Beley Sebastien, Sussman Helene, Virag Ronald


Background: Caverno-venous leakage (CVL) is devastating, although barely known disease, the first cause of major physical impairment in men under 25, and responsible for 50% of resistances to phosphodiesterase 5-inhibitors (PDE5-I), affecting 30 to 40% of users in this medication class. In this condition, too early blood drainage from corpora cavernosa prevents penile rigidity and penetration during sexual intercourse. The role of conservative surgery in this disease remains controversial. Aim: Assess complications and results of combined open surgery and embolization for CVL. Method: Between June 2016 and September 2021, 133 consecutive patients underwent surgery in our institution for CVL, causing severe erectile dysfunction (ED) resistance to oral medical treatment. Procedures combined vein embolization and ligation with microsurgical techniques. We performed a pre-and post-operative clinical (Erection Harness Scale: EHS) hemodynamic evaluation by duplex sonography in all patients. Before surgery, the CVL network was visualized by computed tomography cavernography. Penile EMG was performed in case of diabetes or suspected other neurological conditions. All patients were optimized for hormonal status—data we prospectively recorded. Results: Clinical signs suggesting CVL were ED since age lower than 25, loss of erection when changing position, penile rigidity varying according to the position. Main complications were minor pulmonary embolism in 2 patients, one after airline travel, one with Factor V Leiden heterozygote mutation, one infection and three hematomas requiring reoperation, one decreased gland sensitivity lasting for more than one year. Mean pre-operative pharmacologic EHS was 2.37+/-0.64, mean pharmacologic post-operative EHS was 3.21+/-0.60, p<0.0001 (paired t-test). The mean EHS variation was 0.87+/-0.74. After surgery, 81.5% of patients had a pharmacologic EHS equal to or over 3, allowing for intercourse with penetration. Three patients (2.2%) experienced lower post-operative EHS. The main cause of failure was leakage from the deep dorsal aspect of the corpus cavernosa. In a 14 months follow-up, 83.2% of patients had a clinical EHS equal to or over 3, allowing for sexual intercourse with penetration, one-third of them without any medication. 5 patients had a penile implant after unsuccessful conservative surgery. Conclusion: Open surgery combined with embolization for CVL is an efficient approach to CVL causing severe erectile dysfunction.

Keywords: erectile dysfunction, cavernovenous leakage, surgery, embolization, treatment, result, complications, penile duplex sonography

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2 Dialysis Access Surgery for Patients in Renal Failure: A 10-Year Institutional Experience

Authors: Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti, Hansraj Bookun


Introduction: Dialysis access is a key component of the care of patients with end stage renal failure. In our institution, a combined service of vascular surgeons and nephrologists are responsible for the creation and maintenance of arteriovenous fisultas (AVF), tenckhoff cathethers and Hickman/permcath lines. This poster investigates the last 10 years of dialysis access surgery conducted at St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne. Method: A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was conducted of patients of St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) utilising data collection from the Australasian Vascular Audit (Australian and New Zealand Society for Vascular Surgery). Descriptive demographic analysis was carried out as well as operation type, length of hospital stays, postoperative deaths and need for reoperation. Results: 2085 patients with renal failure were operated on between the years of 2011 and 2020. 1315 were male (63.1%) and 770 were female (36.9%). The mean age was 58 (SD 13.8). 92% of patients scored three or greater on the American Society of Anesthiologiests classification system. Almost half had a history of ischaemic heart disease (48.4%), more than half had a history of diabetes (64%), and a majority had hypertension (88.4%). 1784 patients had a creatinine over 150mmol/L (85.6%), the rest were on dialysis (14.4%). The most common access procedure was AVF creation, with 474 autologous AVFs and 64 prosthetic AVFs. There were 263 Tenckhoff insertions. We performed 160 cadeveric renal transplants. The most common location for AVF formation was brachiocephalic (43.88%) followed by radiocephalic (36.7%) and brachiobasilic (16.67%). Fistulas that required re-intervention were most commonly angioplastied (n=163), followed by thrombectomy (n=136). There were 107 local fistula repairs. Average length of stay was 7.6 days, (SD 12). There were 106 unplanned returns to theatre, most commonly for fistula creation, insertion of tenckhoff or permacath removal (71.7%). There were 8 deaths in the immediately postoperative period. Discussion: Access to dialysis is vital for patients with end stage kidney disease, and requires a multidisciplinary approach from both nephrologists, vascular surgeons, and allied health practitioners. Our service provides a variety of dialysis access methods, predominately fistula creation and tenckhoff insertion. Patients with renal failure are heavily comorbid, and prolonged hospital admission following surgery is a source of significant healthcare expenditure. AVFs require careful monitoring and maintenance for ongoing utility, and our data reflects a multitude of operations required to maintain usable access. The requirement for dialysis is growing worldwide and our data demonstrates a local experience in access, with preferred methods, common complications and the associated surgical interventions.

Keywords: dialysis, fistula, nephrology, vascular surgery

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1 Single Stage “Fix and Flap” Orthoplastic Approach to Severe Open Tibial Fractures: A Systematic Review of the Outcomes

Authors: Taylor Harris


Gustilo-anderson grade III tibial fractures are exquisitely difficult injuries to manage as they require extensive soft tissue repair in addition to fracture fixation. These injuries are best managed collaboratively by Orthopedic and Plastic surgeons. While utilizing an Orthoplastics approach has decreased the rates of adverse outcomes in these injuries, there is a large amount of variation in exactly how an Orthoplastics team approaches complex cases such as these. It is sometimes recommended that definitive bone fixation and soft tissue coverage be completed simultaneously in a single-stage manner, but there is a paucity of large scale studies to provide evidence to support this recommendation. It is the aim of this study to report the outcomes of a single-stage "fix-and-flap" approach through a systematic review of the available literature. Hopefully, this better informs an evidence-based Orthoplastics approach to managing open tibial fractures. Systematic review of the literature was performed. Medline and Google Scholar were used and all studies published since 2000, in English were included. 103 studies were initially evaluated for inclusion. Reference lists of all included studies were also examined for potentially eligible studies. Gustilo grade III tibial shaft fractures in adults that were managed with a single-stage Orthoplastics approach were identified and evaluated with regard to outcomes of interest. Exclusion criteria included studies with patients <16 years old, case studies, systemic reviews, meta-analyses. Primary outcomes of interest were the rates of deep infections and rates of limb salvage. Secondary outcomes of interest included time to bone union, rates of non-union, and rates of re-operation. 15 studies were eligible. 11 of these studies reported rates of deep infection as an outcome, with rates ranging from 0.98%-20%. The pooled rate between studies was 7.34%. 7 studies reported rates of limb salvage with a range of 96.25%-100%. The pooled rate of the associated studies was 97.8%. 6 reported rates of non-union with a range of 0%-14%, a pooled rate of 6.6%. 6 reported time to bone union with a range of 24 to 40.3 weeks and a pooled average time of 34.2 weeks, and 4 reported rates of reoperation ranging from 7%-55%, with a pooled rate of 31.1%. A few studies that compared a single stage to a multi stage approach side-by-side unanimously favored the single stage approach. Outcomes of Gustilo grade III open tibial fractures utilizing an Orthoplastics approach that is specifically done in a single-stage produce low rates of adverse outcomes. Large scale studies of Orthoplastic collaboration that were not completed in strictly a single stage, or were completed in multiple stages, have not reported as favorable outcomes. We recommend that not only should Orthopedic surgeons and Plastic surgeons collaborate in the management of severe open tibial fracture, but they should plan to undergo definitive fixation and coverage in a single-stage for improved outcomes.

Keywords: orthoplastic, gustilo grade iii, single-stage, trauma, systematic review

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