Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4876

Search results for: the image of the city

4876 Evaluating News in Press about Konya in Context of City Image

Authors: Nur Gorkemli, Basak Solmaz

Abstract:

With globalization, competition between cities increased and therefore cities started to give more importance to be a more differentiated one among thousands of their competitors. In order to become a more livable place and appeal more tourists, more investors, more students and more people cities give importance to marketing and branding activities. City image is very important concept for building a city brand. Cinemas, books, news or information about cities create 'city image' in peoples’ minds. Every city has their own peculiarities and changing their neutral or negative image to a positive way will bring advantages to them in national and even in international arena. Konya, which is a city in central Anatolia, has been an important city since very early times in human kind. It has the ruins of one of the first settlements existed approximately 9.000 years ago. Moreover, it was the capital of Selcuk Empire before Ottoman period and also a very important city during Ottoman Empire. With this historical richness, the city has important structures and works of art from those periods. Moreover, the city is also very well-known in the world with one of the greatest philosopher, poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic Mevlana Jelaleddin Rumi, who lived most of his life in Konya. Every year nearly two million people from various cities and countries visit Mevlana Museum. With all these potentials, Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism chose Konya to be a branded city in its 2023 action plan. For branding activities, understanding city image has a crucial role. Moreover, news about cities has a great potential on building a 'city image' in minds. This study is aimed at interpreting Konya’s image by categorizing Konya’s news existed in three national newspapers, which has the highest circulation in Turkey. Content analysis method will be used in this study.

Keywords: city branding, city image, newspaper analysis, Konya

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4875 City Image of Rio De Janeiro as the Host City of 2016 Olympic Games

Authors: Luciana Brandao Ferreira, Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi, Fabiana Gondim Mariutti, Marina Toledo de Arruda Lourencao

Abstract:

Developing countries, such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are hosting sports mega-events to promote socio-economic development and image enhancement. Thus, this paper aims to verify the image of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, as the host city of 2016 Olympic Games, considering the main cognitive and affective image dimensions. The research design uses exploratory factorial analysis to find the most important factors highlighted in the city image dimensions. The data were collected by structured questionnaires with an international respondents sample (n=274) with high international travel experience. The results show that Rio’s image as a sport mega-event host city has two main factors in each dimension: Cognitive ('General Infrastructure'; 'Services and Attractions') and Affective ('Positive Feelings'; 'Negative Feelings'). The most important factor related to cognitive dimension was 'Services and Attractions' which is more related to tourism activities. In the affective dimension 'Positive Feelings' was the most important factor, which means a good result considering that is a city in an emerging country with many unmet social demands.

Keywords: Rio de Janeiro, 2016 olympic games, host city image, cognitive image dimension, affective image dimension

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4874 The Impact of Citizens’ Involvement on Their Perception of the Brand’s Image: The Case of the City of Casablanca

Authors: Abderrahmane Mousstain, Ez-Zohra Belkadi

Abstract:

Many authors support more participatory and inclusive place branding practices that empower stakeholders’ participation. According to this participatory point of view, the effectiveness of place branding strategies cannot be achieved without citizen involvement. However, the role of all residents as key participants in the city branding process has not been widely discussed. The aim of this paper was to determine how citizens’ involvement impacts their perceptions of the city's image, using a multivariate model. To test our hypotheses hypothetical-deductive reasoning by the quantitative method was chosen. Our investigation is based on data collected through a survey among 200 citizens of Casablanca. Results show that the more citizens are involved, the more they tend to evaluate the image of the brand positively. Additionally, the degree of involvement seems to impact satisfaction and a sense of belonging. As well, the more citizen develops a sense of belonging to the city, the more favorable his or her perception of the brand image is. Ultimately, the role of citizens shouldn’t be limited to reception. They are also Co-creators of the brand, who ensure the correlation of the brand with authentic place roots.

Keywords: citybranding, sense of belonging, satisfaction, impact, brand’s image

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4873 Self-Image of Police Officers

Authors: Leo Carlo B. Rondina

Abstract:

Self-image is an important factor to improve the self-esteem of the personnel. The purpose of the study is to determine the self-image of the police. The respondents were the 503 policemen assigned in different Police Station in Davao City, and they were chosen with the used of random sampling. With the used of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), latent construct variables of police image were identified as follows; professionalism, obedience, morality and justice and fairness. Further, ordinal regression indicates statistical characteristics on ages 21-40 which means the age of the respondent statistically improves self-image.

Keywords: police image, exploratory factor analysis, ordinal regression, Galatea effect

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4872 Integration Between Seismic Planning and Urban Planning for Improving the City Image of Tehran - Case of Tajrish

Authors: Samira Eskandari

Abstract:

The image of Tehran has been impacted in recent years due to poor urban management and fragmented governance. There is no cohesive urban beautification framework in Tehran to enforce builders take aesthetic factors seriously when design and construct new buildings. The existing guidelines merely provide people with recommendations, not regulations. Obviously, Tehran needs a more comprehensive and strict urban beautification framework to restore its image. The damaged image has impacted the city’s social, economic and environmental growth. This research aims to find and examine a solution by which the employment of urban beautification regulation would be guaranteed, and city image would be organized. The methodology is based on a qualitative approach associated with analytical methods, in-depth surveys and interviews with Tehran citizens, authorities and experts, and use of academic resources as well as simulation. As a result, one practical solution is to incorporate aesthetic guidelines into a survival-related framework like a seismic guideline. Tehran is a seismic site, and all the buildings in Tehran have to be retrofitted against earthquake during construction. Hence, by integrating seismic regulations and aesthetic disciplines, urban beautification will be somehow guaranteed. Besides, the seismic image can turn into Tehran’s brand and enhances city identity. This research is trying to increase the social, environmental, and economic interconnectedness between urban planning and seismic planning by the usage of landscape architecture methods. As a case study, the potential outcomes are simulated in Tajrish, a suburb located in the north of Tehran. The result is that, by the redefinition of the morphology of seismic retrofitting systems, used in the significant city image elements, and re-function them in accordance with the Iranian culture and traditions, the city image would become more harmonized and legible.

Keywords: earthquake, retrofitting systems, Tehran image, urban beautification

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4871 Research on the Overall Protection of Historical Cities Based on the 'City Image' in Ancient Maps: Take the Ancient City of Shipu, Zhejiang, China as an Example

Authors: Xiaoya Yi, Yi He, Zhao Lu, Yang Zhang

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, many historical cities have undergone excessive demolition and construction under the protection and renewal mechanism. The original pattern of the city has been changed, the urban context has been cut off, and historical features have gradually been lost. The historical city gradually changed into the form of decentralization and fragmentation. The understanding of the ancient city includes two levels. The first one refers to the ancient city on the physical space, which defined an ancient city by its historic walls. The second refers to the public perception of the image, which is derived from people's spatial identification of the ancient city. In ancient China, people draw maps to show their way of understanding the city. Starting from ancient maps and exploring the spatial characteristics of traditional Chinese cities from the perspective of urban imagery is a key clue to understanding the spatial characteristics of historical cities on an overall level. The spatial characteristics of the urban image presented by the ancient map are summarized into two levels by typology. The first is the spatial pattern composed of the center, axis and boundary. The second is the space element that contains the city, street, and sign system. Taking the ancient city of Shipu as a typical case, the "city image" in the ancient map is analyzed as a prototype, and it is projected into the current urban space. The research found that after a long period of evolution, the historical spatial pattern of the ancient city has changed from “dominant” to “recessive control”, and the historical spatial elements are non-centralized and fragmented. The wall that serves as the boundary of the ancient city is transformed into “fragmentary remains”, the streets and lanes that serve as the axis of the ancient city are transformed into “structural remains”, and the symbols of the ancient city center are transformed into “site remains”. Based on this, the paper proposed the methods of controlling the protection of land boundaries, the protecting of the streets and lanes, and the selective restoring of the city wall system and the sign system by accurate assessment. In addition, this paper emphasizes the continuity of the ancient city's traditional spatial pattern and attempts to explore a holistic conservation method of the ancient city in the modern context.

Keywords: ancient city protection, ancient maps, Shipu ancient city, urban intention

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4870 The Role of Facades in Conserving the Image of the City

Authors: Hemadri Raut

Abstract:

The city is a blend of the possible interactions of the built form, open spaces and their spatial organization layout in a geographical area to obtain an integrated pattern and environment with building facades being a dominant figure in the body of a city. Façades of each city have their own inherent properties responsive to the human behaviour, weather conditions, safety factors, material availability and composition along with the necessary aesthetics in coordination with adjacent building facades. Cities experience a huge transformation in the culture, lifestyle; socioeconomic conditions and technology nowadays because of the increasing population, urban sprawl, industrialization, contemporary architectural style, post-disaster consequences, war reconstructions, etc. This leads to the loss of the actual identity and architectural character of the city which in turn induces chaos and turbulence in the city. This paper attempts to identify and learn from the traditional elements that would make us more aware of the unique identity of the local communities in a city. It further studies the architectural style, color, shape, and design techniques through the case studies of contextual cities. The work focuses on the observation and transformation of the image of the city through these considerations in the designing of the facades to achieve the reconciliation of the people with urban spaces.

Keywords: building facades, city, community, heritage, identity, transformation, urban

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4869 A Proposal for U-City (Smart City) Service Method Using Real-Time Digital Map

Authors: SangWon Han, MuWook Pyeon, Sujung Moon, DaeKyo Seo

Abstract:

Recently, technologies based on three-dimensional (3D) space information are being developed and quality of life is improving as a result. Research on real-time digital map (RDM) is being conducted now to provide 3D space information. RDM is a service that creates and supplies 3D space information in real time based on location/shape detection. Research subjects on RDM include the construction of 3D space information with matching image data, complementing the weaknesses of image acquisition using multi-source data, and data collection methods using big data. Using RDM will be effective for space analysis using 3D space information in a U-City and for other space information utilization technologies.

Keywords: RDM, multi-source data, big data, U-City

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4868 Analysis on Yogyakarta Istimewa Citygates on Urban Area Arterial Roads

Authors: Nizar Caraka Trihanasia, Suparwoko

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the design model of city gates on arterial roads as Yogyakarta’s “Istimewa” (special) identity. City marketing has become a trend among cities in the past few years. It began to compete with each other in promoting their identity to the world. One of the easiest ways to recognize the identity is by knowing the image of the city which can be seen through architectural buildings or urban elements. The idea is to recognize how the image of the city can represent Yogyakarta’s identity, which is limited to the contribution of the city gates distinctiveness on Yogyakarta urban area. This study has concentrated on the aspect of city gates as built environment that provides a diversity, configuration and scale of development that promotes a sense of place and community. The visual analysis will be conducted to interpreted the existing Yogyakarta city gates (as built environment) focussing on some variables of 1) character and pattern, 2) circulation system establishment, and 3) open space utilisation. Literature review and site survey are also conducted to understand the relationship between the built environment and the sense of place in the community. This study suggests that visually the Yogyakarta city gate model has strong visual characters and pattern by using the concept of a sense of place of Yogyakarta community value.

Keywords: visual analysis, model, Yogyakarta “Istimewa”, citygates

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4867 Analysis of Creative City Indicators in Isfahan City, Iran

Authors: Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi, Mohsen Saghaei, Fatemeh Iman

Abstract:

This paper investigates the indices of a creative city in Isfahan. Its main aim is to evaluate quantitative status of the creative city indices in Isfahan city, analyze the dispersion and distribution of these indices in Isfahan city. Concerning these, this study tries to analyze the creative city indices in fifteen area of Isfahan through secondary data, questionnaire, TOPSIS model, Shannon entropy and SPSS. Based on this, the fifteen areas of Isfahan city have been ranked with 12 factors of creative city indices. The results of studies show that fifteen areas of Isfahan city are not equally benefiting from creative indices and there is much difference between the areas of Isfahan city.

Keywords: grading, creative city, creative city evaluation indicators, regional planning model

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4866 Looking beyond Lynch's Image of a City

Authors: Sandhya Rao

Abstract:

Kevin Lynch’s Theory on Imeageability, let on explore a city in terms of five elements, Nodes, Paths, Edges, landmarks and Districts. What happens when we try to record the same data in an Indian context? What happens when we apply the same theory of Imageability to a complex shifting urban pattern of the Indian cities and how can we as Urban Designers demonstrate our role in the image building ordeal of these cities? The organizational patterns formed through mental images, of an Indian city is often diverse and intangible. It is also multi layered and temporary in terms of the spirit of the place. The pattern of images formed is loaded with associative meaning and intrinsically linked with the history and socio-cultural dominance of the place. The embedded memory of a place in one’s mind often plays an even more important role while formulating these images. Thus while deriving an image of a city one is often confused or finds the result chaotic. The images formed due to its complexity are further difficult to represent using a single medium. Under such a scenario it’s difficult to derive an output of an image constructed as well as make design interventions to enhance the legibility of a place. However, there can be a combination of tools and methods that allows one to record the key elements of a place through time, space and one’s user interface with the place. There has to be a clear understanding of the participant groups of a place and their time and period of engagement with the place as well. How we can translate the result obtained into a design intervention at the end, is the main of the research. Could a multi-faceted cognitive mapping be an answer to this or could it be a very transient mapping method which can change over time, place and person. How does the context influence the process of image building in one’s mind? These are the key questions that this research will aim to answer.

Keywords: imageability, organizational patterns, legibility, cognitive mapping

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4865 Study on Monitoring Techniques Developed for a City Railway Construction

Authors: Myoung-Jin Lee, Sung-Jin Lee, Young-Kon Park, Jin-Wook Kim, Bo-Kyoung Kim, Song-Hun Chong, Sun-Il Kim

Abstract:

Currently, sinkholes may occur due to natural or unknown causes. When the sinkhole is an instantaneous phenomenon, most accidents occur because of significant damage. Thus, methods of monitoring are being actively researched, such that the impact of the accident can be mitigated. A sinkhole can severely affect and wreak havoc in community-based facilities such as a city railway construction. Therefore, the development of a laser / scanning system and an image-based tunnel is one method of pre-monitoring that it stops the accidents. The laser scanning is being used but this has shortcomings as it involves the development of expensive equipment. A laser / videobased scanning tunnel is being developed at Korea Railroad Research Institute. This is designed to automatically operate the railway. The purpose of the scanning is to obtain an image of the city such as of railway structures (stations, tunnel). At the railway structures, it has developed 3D laser scanning that can find a micro-crack can not be distinguished by the eye. An additional aim is to develop technology to monitor the status of the railway structure without the need for expensive post-processing of 3D laser scanning equipment, by developing corresponding software.

Keywords: 3D laser scanning, sinkhole, tunnel, city railway construction

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4864 Research Approaches for Identifying Images of the Past in the Built Environment

Authors: Ahmad Al-Zoabi

Abstract:

Development of research approaches for identifying images of the past in the built environment is at a beginning stage, and a review of the current literature reveals a limited body of research in this area. This study seeks to make a contribution to fill this void. It investigates the theoretical and empirical studies that examine the built environment as a medium for communicating the past in order to understand how images of the past are operationalized in these studies. Findings revealed that image could be operationalized in several ways depending on the focus of the study. Three concerns were addressed in this study when defining the image of the past: (a) to investigate an 'everyday' popular image of the past; (b) to look at the building's image as an integrated part of a larger image for the city; and (c) to find patterns within residents' images of the past. This study concludes that a future study is needed to address the effects of different scales (size and depth of history) of cities and of different cultural backgrounds of images of the past.

Keywords: architecture, built environment, image of the past, research approaches

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4863 Traffic Light Detection Using Image Segmentation

Authors: Vaishnavi Shivde, Shrishti Sinha, Trapti Mishra

Abstract:

Traffic light detection from a moving vehicle is an important technology both for driver safety assistance functions as well as for autonomous driving in the city. This paper proposed a deep-learning-based traffic light recognition method that consists of a pixel-wise image segmentation technique and a fully convolutional network i.e., UNET architecture. This paper has used a method for detecting the position and recognizing the state of the traffic lights in video sequences is presented and evaluated using Traffic Light Dataset which contains masked traffic light image data. The first stage is the detection, which is accomplished through image processing (image segmentation) techniques such as image cropping, color transformation, segmentation of possible traffic lights. The second stage is the recognition, which means identifying the color of the traffic light or knowing the state of traffic light which is achieved by using a Convolutional Neural Network (UNET architecture).

Keywords: traffic light detection, image segmentation, machine learning, classification, convolutional neural networks

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4862 Urban City Centres: A Study of Centres and City Structure

Authors: B. Poorna Chander

Abstract:

Urban centre is one of the most important parts of the city where all the community activities take place. They are the active zones which enhance the structure of a city. The structure of the city refers to its form, mobility patterns, and concentration of people and lifestyles of people. The purpose of the research paper is to study how does the character or structure of city changes when a new centre is established. An attempt has been made to understand this by studying how the formation of centre has been changing the form or the structure of the city since the ancient times, what are the notions of a city and a centre by various architects, by studying the various models of the future city proposed by them. And then the data has been linked to how the formation of the new centres is changing the city. As the demands of the city are increasing, it also regulates how the new centres are formed. So both, the city and the centre are interdependent on each other.

Keywords: centre, activities, lifestyles, people, form

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4861 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad

Abstract:

Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

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4860 Digital Environment as a Factor of the City's Competitiveness in Attracting Tourists: The Case of Yekaterinburg

Authors: Alexander S. Burnasov, Anatoly V. Stepanov, Maria Y. Ilyushkina

Abstract:

In the conditions of transition to the digital economy, the digital environment of the city becomes one of the key factors of its tourism attractiveness. Modern digital environment makes travelling more accessible, improves the quality of travel services and the attractiveness of many tourist destinations. The digitalization of the industry allows to use resources more efficiently, to simplify business processes, to minimize risks, and to improve travel safety. The city promotion as a tourist destination in the foreign market becomes decisive in the digital environment. Information technologies are extremely important for the functioning of not only any tourist enterprise but also the city as a whole. In addition to solving traditional problems, it is also possible to implement some innovations from the tourism industry, such as the availability of city services in international systems of booking tickets and booking rooms in hotels, the possibility of early booking of theater and museum tickets, the possibility of non-cash payment by cards of international payment systems, Internet access in the urban environment for travelers. The availability of the city's digital services makes it possible to reduce ordering costs, contributes to the optimal selection of tourist products that meet the requirements of the tourist, provides increased transparency of transactions. The users can compare prices, features, services, and reviews of the travel service. The ability to share impressions with friends thousands of miles away directly affects the image of the city. It is possible to promote the image of the city in the digital environment not only through world-scale events (such as World Cup 2018, international summits, etc.) but also through the creation and management of services in the digital environment aimed at supporting tourism services, which will help to improve the positioning of the city in the global tourism market.

Keywords: competitiveness, digital environment, travelling, Yekaterinburg

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4859 Shaping of World-Class Delhi: Politics of Marginalization and Inclusion

Authors: Aparajita Santra

Abstract:

In the context of the government's vision of turning Delhi into a green, privatized and slum free city, giving it a world-class image at par with the global cities of the world, this paper investigates into the various processes and politics of things that went behind defining spaces in the city and attributing an aesthetic image to it. The paper will explore two cases that were forged primarily through the forces of one particular type of power relation. One would be to look at the modernist movement adopted by the Nehruvian government post-independence and the next case will look at special periods like Emergency and Commonwealth games. The study of these cases will help understand the ambivalence embedded in the different rationales of the Government and different powerful agencies adopted in order to build world-classness. Through the study, it will be easier to discern how city spaces were reconfigured in the name of 'good governance'. In this process, it also became important to analyze the double nature of law, both as a protector of people’s rights and as a threat to people. What was interesting to note through the study was that in the process of nation building and creating an image for the city, the government’s policies and programs were mostly aimed at the richer sections of the society and the poorer sections and people from lower income groups kept getting marginalized, subdued, and pushed further away (These marginalized people were pushed away even geographically!). The reconfiguration of city space and attributing an aesthetic character to it, led to an alteration not only in the way in which citizens perceived and engaged with these spaces, but also brought about changes in the way they envisioned their place in the city. Ironically, it was found that every attempt to build any kind of facility for the city’s elite in turn led to an inevitable removal of the marginalized sections of the society as a necessary step to achieve a clean, green and world-class city. The paper questions the claim made by the government for creating a just, equitable city and granting rights to all. An argument is put forth that in the politics of redistribution of space, the city that has been designed is meant for the aspirational middle-class and elite only, who are ideally primed to live in world-class cities. Thus, the aim is to study city spaces, urban form, the associated politics and power plays involved within and understand whether segmented cities are being built in the name of creating sensible, inclusive cities.

Keywords: aesthetics, ambivalence, governmentality, power, World-class

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4858 A Method of the Semantic on Image Auto-Annotation

Authors: Lin Huo, Xianwei Liu, Jingxiong Zhou

Abstract:

Recently, due to the existence of semantic gap between image visual features and human concepts, the semantic of image auto-annotation has become an important topic. Firstly, by extract low-level visual features of the image, and the corresponding Hash method, mapping the feature into the corresponding Hash coding, eventually, transformed that into a group of binary string and store it, image auto-annotation by search is a popular method, we can use it to design and implement a method of image semantic auto-annotation. Finally, Through the test based on the Corel image set, and the results show that, this method is effective.

Keywords: image auto-annotation, color correlograms, Hash code, image retrieval

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4857 A Study of Thai Tourists' Image towards Local Food in Phetchaburi, Thailand in Order to Promote Food Tourism

Authors: Pimrawee Rocharungsat

Abstract:

The study of Phetchaburi Local Food Image in order to Support Tourism aimed 1) to overview Phetchaburi tourism images; and 2) to clarify Phetchaburi local food image. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis were used in this study. Questionnaires were delivered to sample group of 1,489 tourists from 8 districts of Phetchaburi. Results were found that Phetchaburi local food image could be as tool for tourism promotion. Strong place images were within Phetchaburi center city (35%) and in the markets (34.50%). As for satisfaction of local food comparing in descending order of excellent level mean score were its eminence, identity, quality, taste, creativity, and sanitation. Results of prominent images of well-known local food of Phetchaburi were Thai custard dessert, other desserts, palm and sugar palm drink and rice in ice water. The results can be applied as promotional tools for future food tourism in Phetchaburi.

Keywords: food tourism, image, tourist, Phetchaburi province

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4856 Deployment of Matrix Transpose in Digital Image Encryption

Authors: Okike Benjamin, Garba E J. D.

Abstract:

Encryption is used to conceal information from prying eyes. Presently, information and data encryption are common due to the volume of data and information in transit across the globe on daily basis. Image encryption is yet to receive the attention of the researchers as deserved. In other words, video and multimedia documents are exposed to unauthorized accessors. The authors propose image encryption using matrix transpose. An algorithm that would allow image encryption is developed. In this proposed image encryption technique, the image to be encrypted is split into parts based on the image size. Each part is encrypted separately using matrix transpose. The actual encryption is on the picture elements (pixel) that make up the image. After encrypting each part of the image, the positions of the encrypted images are swapped before transmission of the image can take place. Swapping the positions of the images is carried out to make the encrypted image more robust for any cryptanalyst to decrypt.

Keywords: image encryption, matrices, pixel, matrix transpose

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4855 Importance of E-Participation by U-Society in the Development of the U-City

Authors: Jalaluddin Abdul Malek, Mohd Asruladlyi Ibrahim, Zurinah Tahir

Abstract:

This paper is to reveal developments in the areas of urban technology in Malaysia. Developments occur intend to add value intelligent city development to the ubiquitous city (U-city) or smart city. The phenomenon of change is called the development of post intelligent cities. U-City development discourse is seen from the perspective of the philosophy of the virtuous city organized by al-Farabi. The prosperity and perfection of a city is mainly caused by human personality factors, as well as its relationship with material and technological aspects of the city. The question is, to what extent to which human factors are taken into account in the concept of U-City as an added value to the intelligent city concept to realize the prosperity and perfection of the city? Previously, the intelligent city concept was developed based on global change and ICT movement, while the U-city added value to the development of intelligent cities and focused more on the development of information and communications technology (ICT). Value added is defined as the use of fiber optic technology that is wired to the use of wireless technology, such as wireless broadband. In this discourse, the debate on the concept of U-City is to the symbiosis between the U-City and the importance of local human e-participation (U-Society) for prosperity. In the context of virtuous city philosophy, it supports the thought of symbiosis so the concept of U-City can achieve sustainability, prosperity and perfection of the city.

Keywords: smart city, ubiquitous city, u-society, e-participation, prosperity

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4854 Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Intention to Commute by Bicycle: Case Study of Mexico City

Authors: Magda Cepeda, Frances Hodgson, Ann Jopson

Abstract:

There are different barriers people face when choosing to cycle for commuting purposes. This study examined the role of psycho-social factors predicting the intention to cycle to commute in Mexico City. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was developed and utilized with a simple random sample of 401 road users. We applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and after identifying five factors, a structural equation model was estimated to find the relationships among the variables. The results indicated that cycling attributes, attitudes to cycling, social comparison and social image and prestige were the most important factors influencing intention to cycle. Although the results from this study are specific to Mexico City, they indicate areas of interest to transportation planners in other regions especially in those cities where intention to cycle its linked to its perceived image and there is political ambition to instigate positive cycling cultures. Moreover, this study contributes to the current literature developing applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

Keywords: cycling, latent variable model, perception, theory of planned behaviour

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4853 New Mahalle – A More Urban Green Inclusive Neighborhood

Authors: Eirini Oikonomopoulou

Abstract:

Paper is dealing with gentrification of a poor central historic district of Fener and Balat in Istanbul, Turkey and propose ålans and principles of a neighborhood. Istanbul is located in a special geographic place, just in the meeting of Europe and Asia and it has a long and great history, facts that had affected the urban form of the city. Trough the time different civilizations inhabited in the city and they changed it by giving different character to its parts. The modernization of Istanbul brought western ideas into the historic organic urban fabric and put in the first priority the need for a clear and strong car-road/highway network in order to improve the car accessibility along the city. Following that model, transformation of public spaces was based on the driving experience. New public spaces was formulated to be the new symbol of Turkish Republic, to give a beautiful and clean image of the modern Turkish city, as well as work as landmarks across the highway network. Even if city is upgraded, bad quality neighborhoods still exist, far and near to the historic city center. One of them is Fener/Balat, which is located in Fatih district on the European side of Istanbul. This project aims to analyze the urban qualities of that neighborhood (mahalle) and propose a better, qualitative urban space towards a denser, greener and more inclusive neighborhood which could be an example for the whole city.

Keywords: urban design, upgrade neighborhood, Istanbul, sustanability

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4852 Performance of Hybrid Image Fusion: Implementation of Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform Technique

Authors: Manoj Gupta, Nirmendra Singh Bhadauria

Abstract:

Most of the applications in image processing require high spatial and high spectral resolution in a single image. For example satellite image system, the traffic monitoring system, and long range sensor fusion system all use image processing. However, most of the available equipment is not capable of providing this type of data. The sensor in the surveillance system can only cover the view of a small area for a particular focus, yet the demanding application of this system requires a view with a high coverage of the field. Image fusion provides the possibility of combining different sources of information. In this paper, we have decomposed the image using DTCWT and then fused using average and hybrid of (maxima and average) pixel level techniques and then compared quality of both the images using PSNR.

Keywords: image fusion, DWT, DT-CWT, PSNR, average image fusion, hybrid image fusion

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4851 Assessment of Image Databases Used for Human Skin Detection Methods

Authors: Saleh Alshehri

Abstract:

Human skin detection is a vital step in many applications. Some of the applications are critical especially those related to security. This leverages the importance of a high-performance detection algorithm. To validate the accuracy of the algorithm, image databases are usually used. However, the suitability of these image databases is still questionable. It is suggested that the suitability can be measured mainly by the span the database covers of the color space. This research investigates the validity of three famous image databases.

Keywords: image databases, image processing, pattern recognition, neural networks

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4850 A Novel Combination Method for Computing the Importance Map of Image

Authors: Ahmad Absetan, Mahdi Nooshyar

Abstract:

The importance map is an image-based measure and is a core part of the resizing algorithm. Importance measures include image gradients, saliency and entropy, as well as high level cues such as face detectors, motion detectors and more. In this work we proposed a new method to calculate the importance map, the importance map is generated automatically using a novel combination of image edge density and Harel saliency measurement. Experiments of different type images demonstrate that our method effectively detects prominent areas can be used in image resizing applications to aware important areas while preserving image quality.

Keywords: content-aware image resizing, visual saliency, edge density, image warping

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4849 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

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4848 Evaluating Classification with Efficacy Metrics

Authors: Guofan Shao, Lina Tang, Hao Zhang

Abstract:

The values of image classification accuracy are affected by class size distributions and classification schemes, making it difficult to compare the performance of classification algorithms across different remote sensing data sources and classification systems. Based on the term efficacy from medicine and pharmacology, we have developed the metrics of image classification efficacy at the map and class levels. The novelty of this approach is that a baseline classification is involved in computing image classification efficacies so that the effects of class statistics are reduced. Furthermore, the image classification efficacies are interpretable and comparable, and thus, strengthen the assessment of image data classification methods. We use real-world and hypothetical examples to explain the use of image classification efficacies. The metrics of image classification efficacy meet the critical need to rectify the strategy for the assessment of image classification performance as image classification methods are becoming more diversified.

Keywords: accuracy assessment, efficacy, image classification, machine learning, uncertainty

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4847 Investigating the Impact of Super Bowl Participation on Local Economy: A Perspective of Stock Market

Authors: Rui Du

Abstract:

This paper attempts to assess the impact of a major sporting event —the Super Bowl on the local economies. The identification strategy is to compare the winning and losing cities at the National Football League (NFL) conference finals under the assumption of similar pre-treatment trends. The stock market performances of companies headquartered in these cities are used to capture the sudden changes in local economic activities during a short time span. The exogenous variations in the football game outcome allow a straightforward difference-in-differences approach to identify the effect. This study finds that the post-event trends in winning and losing cities diverge despite the fact that both cities have economically and statistically similar pre-event trends. Empirical analysis provides suggestive evidence of a positive, significant local economic impact of conference final wins, possibly through city image enhancement. Further empirical evidence shows the presence of heterogeneous effects across industrial sectors, suggesting that city image enhancing the effect of the Super Bowl participation is empirically relevant for the changes in the composition of local industries. Also, this study also adopts a similar strategy to examine the local economic impact of Super Bowl successes, however, finds no statistically significant effect.

Keywords: Super Bowl Participation, local economies, city image enhancement, difference-in-di fferences, industrial sectors

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