Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2268

Search results for: the day volume pays

2268 Pricing and Economic Benefits of Commercial Insurance Incorporated into Home-based Hospice Care

Authors: Lie-Fen Lin, Tzu-Hsuan Lin, Ching-Heng Lin

Abstract:

Hospice care for terminally ill patients provides not only a better quality of life but also cost-saving benefits. However, the utilization of home-based hospice care (HBH care) remains low even for countries covered by National Health Insurance (NHI) programs in Taiwan. In the current commercial insurance policy, only hospital-based hospice benefits were covered. It may have an influence on the insureds chosen to receive end-of-life care in a hospitalized manner. Thus, how to propose a feasible method to advocate HBH care utilization rate of public health policies is an important issue. A total of 130,219 cancer decedents in the year 2011-2013 from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan were included in this study. By adding a day volume pays benefits of HBH care as a commercial insurance rider, will provide alternative benefits for the insureds. A multiple-state Markov chain model was incorporated to estimate the transition intensities of patients in different states at the end of their lives (Non-hospice, HBH, hospital-based hospice), and the premiums were estimated. HBH care insurance benefits provide financial support and reduce the burden of care for patients. The rate-making of this product is very sensitive while the utilization rate is rising, especially for high ages. The proposed HBH care insurance is a feasible way to reduce the financial burden, enhance the care quality and family satisfaction of insureds. Meanwhile, insurance companies can participate in advocating a good medical policy to enhance the social image. In addition, the medical costs of NHI can reduce effectively.

Keywords: home-based hospice care, commercial insurance, Markov chain model, the day volume pays

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2267 Dissecting the Hindu and New York Times Perspective on War on Terror

Authors: Shahid Minhas

Abstract:

This study 'Dissecting the Hindu and New York Times perspective on War on Terror' conducted to determine the comparative perspective and portrayal of war on Terror in Pakistan. The study also aimed to find out how these two selected countries i.e. India and America, press depict and how considerably they cover the war on terror in Pakistan, which also benefits to know the policy of government concerned. This study also analyzes to what extent Indian and American press followed its foreign policy guidelines in the coverage of the war on Terror in Pakistan. This study observes that actually, the New York Times pays little consideration to Pakistan and even the third words countries, and when it pays consideration, it tends to cover negative news. Pakistan is more frequently covers unfavorable than positive likewise encircled more frequently as a fundamentalist than a liberal state by the Hindu, While stance that Pakistan has played the anti-India tag to develop equities cultivate non-state groups as chattels.

Keywords: war on terror, terrorism, Pak-India relation, Pak-US relation

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2266 Digitalization and High Audit Fees: An Empirical Study Applied to US Firms

Authors: Arpine Maghakyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the level of industry digitalization and audit fees, especially, the relationship between Big 4 auditor fees and industry digitalization level. On the one hand, automation of business processes decreases internal control weakness and manual mistakes; increases work effectiveness and integrations. On the other hand, it may cause serious misstatements, high business risks or even bankruptcy, typically in early stages of automation. Incomplete automation can bring high audit risk especially if the auditor does not fully understand client’s business automation model. Higher audit risk consequently will cause higher audit fees. Higher audit fees for clients with high automation level are more highlighted in Big 4 auditor’s behavior. Using data of US firms from 2005-2015, we found that industry level digitalization is an interaction for the auditor quality on audit fees. Moreover, the choice of Big4 or non-Big4 is correlated with client’s industry digitalization level. Big4 client, which has higher digitalization level, pays more than one with low digitalization level. In addition, a high-digitalized firm that has Big 4 auditor pays higher audit fee than non-Big 4 client. We use audit fees and firm-specific variables from Audit Analytics and Compustat databases. We analyze collected data by using fixed effects regression methods and Wald tests for sensitivity check. We use fixed effects regression models for firms for determination of the connections between technology use in business and audit fees. We control for firm size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability and auditor quality. We chose fixed effects model as it makes possible to control for variables that have not or cannot be measured.

Keywords: audit fees, auditor quality, digitalization, Big4

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2265 Effect of Modification and Expansion on Emergence of Cooperation in Demographic Multi-Level Donor-Recipient Game

Authors: Tsuneyuki Namekata, Yoko Namekata

Abstract:

It is known that the mean investment evolves from a very low initial value to some high level in the Continuous Prisoner's Dilemma. We examine how the cooperation level evolves from a low initial level to a high level in our Demographic Multi-level Donor-Recipient situation. In the Multi-level Donor-Recipient game, one player is selected as a Donor and the other as a Recipient randomly. The Donor has multiple cooperative moves and one defective move. A cooperative move means the Donor pays some cost for the Recipient to receive some benefit. The more cooperative move the Donor takes, the higher cost the Donor pays and the higher benefit the Recipient receives. The defective move has no effect on them. Two consecutive Multi-level Donor-Recipient games, one as a Donor and the other as a Recipient, can be viewed as a discrete version of the Continuous Prisoner's Dilemma. In the Demographic Multi-level Donor-Recipient game, players are initially distributed spatially. In each period, players play multiple Multi-level Donor-Recipient games against other players. He leaves offspring if possible and dies because of negative accumulated payoff of him or his lifespan. Cooperative moves are necessary for the survival of the whole population. There is only a low level of cooperative move besides the defective move initially available in strategies of players. A player may modify and expand his strategy by his recent experiences or practices. We distinguish several types of a player about modification and expansion. We show, by Agent-Based Simulation, that introducing only the modification increases the emergence rate of cooperation and introducing both the modification and the expansion further increases it and a high level of cooperation does emerge in our Demographic Multi-level Donor-Recipient Game.

Keywords: agent-based simulation, donor-recipient game, emergence of cooperation, spatial structure, TFT, TF2T

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2264 Incorporating Ground Sand in Production of Self-Consolidating Concrete to Decrease High Paste Volume and Improve Passing Ability of Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: S. K. Ling, A. K. H. Kwan

Abstract:

The production of SCC (self-consolidating concrete) generally requires a fairy high paste volume, ranging from 35% to 40% of the total concrete volume. Such high paste volume would lead to low dimensional stability and high carbon footprint. Direct lowering the paste volume would deteriorate the performance of SCC, especially the passing ability. It is often observed that at narrow gap of congested reinforcements, the paste often flows in the front leaving the coarse aggregate particle behind to block the subsequent flow of concrete. Herein, it is suggested to increase the mortar volume through incorporating ground sand with a mean size of 0.3 mm while keeping the paste volume small. Trial concrete mixes with paste volumes of 30% and 34% and different ground sand contents have been tested to demonstrate how the paste volume can be lowered without sacrificing the passing ability. Overall, the results demonstrated that the addition of ground sand would enable the achievement of high passing ability at a relatively small paste volume.

Keywords: ground sand, mortar volume, paste volume, self-consolidating concrete

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2263 Significance of Tridimensional Volume of Tumor in Breast Cancer Compared to Conventional TNM Stage

Authors: Jaewoo Choi, Ki-Tae Hwang, Eunyoung Ko

Abstract:

Backgrounds/Aims: Patients with breast cancer are currently classified according to TNM stage. Nevertheless, the actual volume would be mis-estimated, and it would bring on inappropriate diagnosis. Tridimensional volume-stage derived from the ellipsoid formula was presented as useful measure. Methods: The medical records of 480 consecutive breast cancer between January 2001 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were divided into three groups according to tumor volume by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and the ranges of each volume-stage were that V1 was below 2.5 cc, V2 was exceeded 2.5 and below 10.9 cc, and V3 was exceeded 10.9 cc. We analyzed outcomes of volume-stage and compared disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between size-stage and volume-stage with variant intrinsic factor. Results: In the T2 stage, there were patients who had a smaller volume than 4.2 cc known as maximum value of T1. These findings presented that patients in T1c had poorer DFS than T2-lesser (mean of DFS 48.7 vs. 51.8, p = 0.011). Such is also the case in OS (mean of OS 51.1 vs. 55.3, p = 0.006). The cumulative survival curves for V1, V2 compared T1, T2 showed similarity in DFS (HR 1.9 vs. 1.9), and so did it for V3 compared T3 (HR 3.5 vs. 2.6) significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that tumor volume had good feasibility on the prognosis of patients with breast cancer. We proposed that volume-stage should be considered for an additional stage indicator, particularly in early breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, tridimensional volume of tumor, TNM stage, volume stage

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2262 BIASS in the Estimation of Covariance Matrices and Optimality Criteria

Authors: Juan M. Rodriguez-Diaz

Abstract:

The precision of parameter estimators in the Gaussian linear model is traditionally accounted by the variance-covariance matrix of the asymptotic distribution. However, this measure can underestimate the true variance, specially for small samples. Traditionally, optimal design theory pays attention to this variance through its relationship with the model's information matrix. For this reason it seems convenient, at least in some cases, adapt the optimality criteria in order to get the best designs for the actual variance structure, otherwise the loss in efficiency of the designs obtained with the traditional approach may be very important.

Keywords: correlated observations, information matrix, optimality criteria, variance-covariance matrix

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2261 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City

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2260 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: CM van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the inter-generational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: environment, human rights, international law, protection

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2259 The Contemporary Issues of Quality Management: Relationship between Total Quality Management and Knowledge Management

Authors: Mehrnoosh Askarizadeh

Abstract:

To meet the challenges of the new global environment, companies have started paying great attention towards quality management as an integral part of their strategic business plans. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between total quality management (TQM) and knowledge management (KM). Successful total quality management implementation throughout the organizations requires major changes in the main four aspects of knowledge management, namely: Creating, storage, sharing and application. Skill, knowledge and productivity are important factors in organization’s success and have important role. Therefore, TQM management system pays special attention to it. However, knowledge as the source is essential for organization’s survival. Our study points out how the quality management and knowledge management have been incorporated into each other for the development of the quality culture within the organization.

Keywords: knowledge management (KM), total quality management (TQM), organizational performance (OP), deming cycle

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2258 VaR Estimation Using the Informational Content of Futures Traded Volume

Authors: Amel Oueslati, Olfa Benouda

Abstract:

New Value at Risk (VaR) estimation is proposed and investigated. The well-known two stages Garch-EVT approach uses conditional volatility to generate one step ahead forecasts of VaR. With daily data for twelve stocks that decompose the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index, this paper incorporates the volume in the first stage volatility estimation. Afterwards, the forecasting ability of this conditional volatility concerning the VaR estimation is compared to that of a basic volatility model without considering any trading component. The results are significant and bring out the importance of the trading volume in the VaR measure.

Keywords: Garch-EVT, value at risk, volume, volatility

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2257 The Role of Societas Europaea in Business Environment of Czech Republic

Authors: Werner Bernatik, Pavel Adamek

Abstract:

The Societas Europaea is the legal form of company which plays its role within European Union since 2004. Since that it has settled in particular EU's member according to conditions. There is several hundreds of Societas Europaea found in EU and the article pays attention to historical background of conditions which formed the European Entrepreneurial Environment. Also, the differences of particular details of Societas Europaea are mentioned. Furthermore, the case of Czech Republic Business Environment is subject of interest where, surprisingly, the total amount of registered Societas Europaea was identified as the highest. The possible reasons of such situation are subject of research and results are to be presented in the article.

Keywords: Societas Europaea, business environment, legal form of company, entrepreneurial environment, European Union, competitivness

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2256 Effects of Hydraulic Loading Rates and Porous Matrix in Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Li-Jun Ren, Wei Pan, Li-Li Xu, Shu-Qing An

Abstract:

This study evaluated whether different matrix composition volume ratio can improve water quality in the experiment. The mechanism and adsorption capability of wetland matrixes (oyster shell, coarse slag, and volcanic rock) and their different volume ratio in group configuration during pollutants removal processes were tested. When conditions unchanged, the residence time affects the reaction effect. The average removal efficiencies of four kinds of matrix volume ratio on the TN were 62.76%, 61.54%, 64.13%, and 55.89%, respectively.

Keywords: hydraulic residence time, matrix composition, removal efficiency, volume ratio

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2255 Calculation of Detection Efficiency of Horizontal Large Volume Source Using Exvol Code

Authors: M. Y. Kang, Euntaek Yoon, H. D. Choi

Abstract:

To calculate the full energy (FE) absorption peak efficiency for arbitrary volume sample, we developed and verified the EXVol (Efficiency calculator for EXtended Voluminous source) code which is based on effective solid angle method. EXVol is possible to describe the source area as a non-uniform three-dimensional (x, y, z) source. And decompose and set it into several sets of volume units. Users can equally divide (x, y, z) coordinate system to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position of a cylindrical volume source. By determining the detection efficiency for differential volume units, the total radiative absolute distribution and the correction factor of the detection efficiency can be obtained from the nondestructive measurement of the source. In order to check the performance of the EXVol code, Si ingot of 20 cm in diameter and 50 cm in height were used as a source. The detector was moved at the collimation geometry to calculate the detection efficiency at a specific position and compared with the experimental values. In this study, the performance of the EXVol code was extended to obtain the detection efficiency distribution at a specific position in a large volume source.

Keywords: attenuation, EXVol, detection efficiency, volume source

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2254 The Law of Treaties and National Security of Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors: S. M. Tavakoli Sani, M. Sabbet Moghadam, Y. Khorram Farhadi, Iraj Rezayi Nejad

Abstract:

The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.

Keywords: treaties, national security, Iran, Islamic Revolution

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2253 The Study of Strength and Weakness Points of Various Techniques for Calculating the Volume of Done Work in Civil Projects

Authors: Ali Fazeli Moslehabadi

Abstract:

One of the topics discussed in civil projects, during the execution of the project, which the continuous change of work volumes is usually the characteristics of these types of projects, is how to calculate the volume of done work. The difference in volumes announced by the execution unit with the estimated volume by the technical office unit, has direct effect on the announced progress of the project. This issue can show the progress of the project more or less than actual value and as a result making mistakes for stakeholders and project managers and misleading them. This article intends to introduce some practical methods for calculating the volume of done work in civil projects. It then reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each of them, in order to resolve these contradictions and conflicts.

Keywords: technical skills, systemic skills, communication skills, done work volume calculation techniques

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2252 Estimation of Harmonics in Three-Phase and Six-Phase-Phase (Multi-Phase) Load Circuits

Authors: Zakir Husain, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

The harmonics are very harmful within an electrical system and can have serious consequences such as reducing the life of apparatus, stress on cable and equipment etc. This paper cites extensive analytical study of harmonic characteristics of multiphase (six-phase) and three-phase system equipped with two and three level inverters for non-linear loads. Multilevel inverter has elevated voltage capability with voltage limited devices, low harmonic distortion, abridged switching losses. Multiphase technology also pays a promising role in harmonic reduction. Matlab simulation is carried out to compare the advantage of multi-phase over three phase systems equipped with two or three level inverters for non-linear load harmonic reduction. The extensive simulation results are presented based on case studies.

Keywords: fast Fourier transform (FFT), harmonics, inverter, ripples, total harmonic distortion (THD)

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2251 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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2250 Analysis of the Influence of Fiber Volume and Fiber Orientation on Post-Cracking Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Marilia M. Camargo, Luisa A. Gachet-Barbosa, Rosa C. C. Lintz

Abstract:

The addition of fibers into concrete matrix can enhance some properties of the composite, such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths, toughness, deformation capacity and post-cracking ductility. Many factors affect the mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced concrete, such as concrete matrix (concrete strength, additions, aggregate diameter, etc.), characteristics of the fiber (geometry, type, aspect ratio, volume, orientation, distribution, strength, stiffness, etc.), specimen (size, geometry, method of preparation and loading rate). This research investigates the effects of fiber volume and orientation on the post-cracking behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Hooked-end steel fibers with aspect ratios of 45 were added into concrete with volume of 0,32%, 0,64%, 0,94%. The post-cracking behaviour was assessed by double punch test of cubic specimens and the actual volume and orientation of the fibers were determined by non-destructive tests by means of electromagnetic induction. The results showed that the actual volume of fibers in each sample differs in a small amount from the dosed volume of fibers and that the deformation and toughness of the concrete increase with the increase in the actual volume of fibers. In determining the orientation of the fibers, it was found that they tend to distribute more in the X and Y axes due to the influence of the walls of the mold. In addition, it was concluded that the orientation of the fibers is important in the post-cracking behaviour of FRC when analyzed together with the actual volume of fibers, since the greater the volume of fibers, the greater the number of fibers oriented orthogonally to the application of loadings and, consequently, there is a better mechanical behavior of the composite. These results provide a better understanding of the influence of volume and fiber orientation on the post-cracking behavior of the FRC.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, steel fibers, volume of fibers, orientation of fibers, post-cracking behaviour

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2249 Water Budget in High Drought-Borne Area in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka during Dry Season

Authors: R. Kandiah, K. Miyamoto

Abstract:

In Sri Lanka, the Jaffna area is a high drought affected area and depends mainly on groundwater aquifers for water needs. Water for daily activities is extracted from wells. As households manually extract water from the wells, it is not drawn from mid evening to early morning. The water inflow at night provides the maximum water level that decreases during the daytime due to extraction. The storage volume of water in wells is limited or at its lowest level during the dry season. This study analyzes the domestic water budget during the dry season in the Jaffna area. In order to evaluate the water inflow rate into wells, storage volume and extraction volume from wells over time, water pressure is measured at the bottom of three wells, which are located in coastal area denoted as well A, in nonspecific area denoted as well B, and agricultural area denoted as well C. The water quality at the wells A, B, and C, are mostly fresh, modest fresh, and saline respectively. From the monitoring, we can find that the daily inflow amount of water into the wells and daily water extraction depend on each other, that is, higher extraction yields higher inflow. And, in the dry season, the daily inflow volume and the daily extraction volume of each well are almost in balance.

Keywords: accessible volume, consumption volume, inflow rate, water budget

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2248 Finite Volume Method in Loop Network in Hydraulic Transient

Authors: Hossain Samani, Mohammad Ehteram

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider finite volume method (FVM) in water hammer. We will simulate these techniques on a looped network with complex boundary conditions. After comparing methods, we see the FVM method as the best method. We compare the results of FVM with experimental data. Finite volume using staggered grid is applied for solving water hammer equations.

Keywords: hydraulic transient, water hammer, interpolation, non-liner interpolation

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2247 Li-Fi Technology: Data Transmission through Visible Light

Authors: Shahzad Hassan, Kamran Saeed

Abstract:

People are always in search of Wi-Fi hotspots because Internet is a major demand nowadays. But like all other technologies, there is still room for improvement in the Wi-Fi technology with regards to the speed and quality of connectivity. In order to address these aspects, Harald Haas, a professor at the University of Edinburgh, proposed what we know as the Li-Fi (Light Fidelity). Li-Fi is a new technology in the field of wireless communication to provide connectivity within a network environment. It is a two-way mode of wireless communication using light. Basically, the data is transmitted through Light Emitting Diodes which can vary the intensity of light very fast, even faster than the blink of an eye. From the research and experiments conducted so far, it can be said that Li-Fi can increase the speed and reliability of the transfer of data. This paper pays particular attention on the assessment of the performance of this technology. In other words, it is a 5G technology which uses LED as the medium of data transfer. For coverage within the buildings, Wi-Fi is good but Li-Fi can be considered favorable in situations where large amounts of data are to be transferred in areas with electromagnetic interferences. It brings a lot of data related qualities such as efficiency, security as well as large throughputs to the table of wireless communication. All in all, it can be said that Li-Fi is going to be a future phenomenon where the presence of light will mean access to the Internet as well as speedy data transfer.

Keywords: communication, LED, Li-Fi, Wi-Fi

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2246 The Cost-Effectiveness of High-Volume Hospital’s Surgical Care for Pancreatic Cancer: Economic Evidence Reviewed

Authors: Shannon Hearney, Jeffrey Hoch

Abstract:

Pancreatic cancer is a notoriously costly and deadly form of cancer. Many types of treatment centers exist for patients to seek care from, including high-volume centers which have shown promise to provide the highest quality of care. While it may be true that this type of center provides the best care it is unclear if that care is cost-effective. Studies in the US have confirmed that high-volume hospitals do provide higher quality of care but have shown inconsistencies in the cost-effectiveness of that care. Other studies, like those from Finland have shown that high-volume centers had lower mortality and lower costs than low-volume centers. This paper thus seeks to review the current scientific literature to better understand if high-volume centers are cost-effective in delivering care in both a European setting and in the US. A review of major reference databases such as Medline, Embase and PubMed will be conducted for cost-effectiveness studies on the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer at high-volume centers. Possible MeSH terms to be included, but not limited to, are: “pancreatic cancer”, “cost analysis”, “cost-effectiveness”, “economic evaluation”, “pancreatic neoplasms”, “surgical”, and “high-volume”. Studies must also have been available in the English language. This review will encompass European scientific literature, as well as those in the US. Based on our preliminary findings, we anticipate high-volume hospitals to provide better care at greater costs. We anticipate that high-volume hospitals may be cost-effective in different contexts depending on the national structure of a healthcare system. Countries with more centralized and socialized healthcare may yield results that are more cost-effective. High-volume centers may differ in their cost-effectiveness of the surgical care of pancreatic cancer internationally especially when comparing those in the United States to others throughout Europe.

Keywords: cost-effectiveness analysis, economic evaluation, pancreatic cancer, scientific literature review

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2245 Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Augustine Osayande

Abstract:

This research is on Major Gullies Erosion Sites and Volume of Soil Loss in Edo State, Nigeria. The primary objective was to identify notable gullies sites and quantify the volume of soil loss in the study area. Direct field observation and measurement of gullies dimensions was done with the help of research assistants using a measuring tape, Camera and 3percent accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS). The result revealed that notable gullies in the area have resulted in the loss of lives and properties, destruction of arable lands and wastage of large areas of usable lands. Gullies in Edo North have Mean Volume of Soil Loss of 614, 763.33 m³, followed by Edo South with 79,604.76 m³ and Edo Central is 46,242.98 m³ and as such an average of 1,772, 888.7m3 of soil is lost annually in the study area due to gully erosion problem. The danger of gully erosion in helpless regions like Edo State called for urgent remedies in order to arrest the further loss of soil, buildings and other properties.

Keywords: Edo, magnitude, gully, volume, soil, sloss

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2244 Mathematical Modeling of Cell Volume Alterations under Different Osmotic Conditions

Authors: Juliana A. Knocikova, Yann Bouret, Médéric Argentina, Laurent Counillon

Abstract:

Cell volume, together with membrane potential and intracellular hydrogen ion concentration, is an essential biophysical parameter for normal cellular activity. Cell volumes can be altered by osmotically active compounds and extracellular tonicity. In this study, a simple mathematical model of osmotically induced cell swelling and shrinking is presented. Emphasis is given to water diffusion across the membrane. The mathematical description of the cellular behavior consists in a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. We compare experimental data of cell volume alterations driven by differences in osmotic pressure with mathematical simulations under hypotonic and hypertonic conditions. Implications for a future model are also discussed.

Keywords: eukaryotic cell, mathematical modeling, osmosis, volume alterations

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2243 Fixing the Identity Gap in Fashion: Magazines' Role in Consumption of Clothes

Authors: Kateryna Pilyarchuk

Abstract:

A dress has, since times immemorial, been used to communicate the wearer’s identity. When a new trend is born, fashionistas buy it not only with the purpose to beautify themselves, but also to acquire the collective identity. Fashion has become a means of narrating one’s stance and status. Thus, when one spends money on a brand, one pays for some unmaterial components associated with it. This paper will present some ways in which fashion magazines promote consumerism by drawing on women’s craving for collective identity and need to fill in their identity gap by means of a purchase. By applying the method of critical discursive psychology, it will present layers of ideology and positions that become visible in framing of the message in U.S. Harper’s Bazaar. In this context, fashion decisions that are presented to its readers will be critically evaluated from the gender perspective. It will be demonstrated that what is presented as a postfeminist choice in the neoliberal society is still, to a considerable extent, oppressive and driven by the male gaze. As the findings show, the contemporary female identities in fashion are still built on the principles of traditional femininity. Magazines and fashion discourse train women that they should fear being left out of fashion and, by extension, out of the category of the sexually appealing (from the male perspective).

Keywords: collective identity, critical discursive psychology, fashion discourse, identity gap

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2242 Investigation of Compliance of the Prevailing Import Murabah'a to Sharia

Authors: Aqeel Akhtar

Abstract:

One of prevailing modes of finance in emerging Islamic banking system is Murabah’a; a financial transaction in which cost and profit both must be recognized by buyer. Otherwise the transaction would become invalid. In this mainstream, import Murabah’a transaction is divergent in such a way that the cost is not recognized and identified due to execution of import transaction in foreign currency i.e. US Dollar and the next transaction of Murabaha’a with the client is executed in local currency. Since this transaction is executed in dual currency i.e. bank pays supplier in foreign currency and executes Murabah’a with its client in local currency and it is not allowed in according to Islamic Injunctions as mentioned in hadith narrated by Hazrat Ibn-e-Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) used to sell his camels with Dirhams and take dinars instead and vice versa. Upon revealing before the Prophet (SAW), he was advised that it must not be contingent in the agreement and the ready rate would be applied and possession of one of the consideration is compulsory. The solution in this regard is that the import Murabah’a transaction should be in single currency, however, other currency can be paid in payment at the time of payment in a very indispensable situation provided that ready rate would be applied. Moreover, some of other solutions have also been given in this regard.

Keywords: shariah compliance, import murabaha, islamic banking, product development

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2241 Conduction Accompanied With Transient Radiative Heat Transfer Using Finite Volume Method

Authors: A. Ashok, K.Satapathy, B. Prerana Nashine

Abstract:

The objective of this research work is to investigate for one dimensional transient radiative transfer equations with conduction using finite volume method. Within the infrastructure of finite-volume, we obtain the conservative discretization of the terms in order to preserve the overall conservative property of finitevolume schemes. Coupling of conductive and radiative equation resulting in fluxes is governed by the magnitude of emissivity, extinction coefficient, and temperature of the medium as well as geometry of the problem. The problem under consideration has been solved, for a slab dominating radiation coupled with transient conduction based on finite volume method. The boundary conditions are also chosen so as to give a good model of the discretized form of radiation transfer equation. The important feature of the present method is flexibility in specifying the control angles in the FVM, while keeping the simplicity in the solution procedure. Effects of various model parameters are examined on the distributions of temperature, radiative and conductive heat fluxes and incident radiation energy etc. The finite volume method is considered to effectively evaluate the propagation of radiation intensity through a participating medium.

Keywords: participating media, finite volume method, radiation coupled with conduction, transient radiative heat transfer

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2240 Relationship of Mean Platelets Volume with Ischemic Cerebrovascular Stroke

Authors: Pritam Kitey

Abstract:

Platelets play a key role in the development of atherothrombosis, a major contributor of cardiovascular evevts. The contributor of platelets to cardiovascular events has been noted for decades. Mean paltelets volume [MPV] is a marker of platelets size that is easily determined on routine automated haemograms and routinely available at low cost. Subjects with higher MPV have larger platelets that are metabolically and enzamatically more active and have greater prothombotic potential than smaller platelets. In fact several studies have demonstrated a significant association between higher MPV and an increased incidence of cerebrovascular events and all-cause mortality.

Keywords: mean paltelets volume (MPV), platelets, cerebrovascular stroke, cardiovascular events

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2239 Controlling the Expense of Political Contests Using a Modified N-Players Tullock’s Model

Authors: C. Cohen, O. Levi

Abstract:

This work introduces a generalization of the classical Tullock’s model of one-stage contests under complete information with multiple unlimited numbers of contestants. In classical Tullock’s model, the contest winner is not necessarily the highest bidder. Instead, the winner is determined according to a draw in which the winning probabilities are the relative contestants’ efforts. The Tullock modeling fits well political contests, in which the winner is not necessarily the highest effort contestant. This work presents a modified model which uses a simple non-discriminating rule, namely, a parameter to influence the total costs planned for an election, for example, the contest designer can control the contestants' efforts. The winner pays a fee, and the losers are reimbursed the same amount. Our proposed model includes a mechanism that controls the efforts exerted and balances competition, creating a tighter, less predictable and more interesting contest. Additionally, the proposed model follows the fairness criterion in the sense that it does not alter the contestants' probabilities of winning compared to the classic Tullock’s model. We provide an analytic solution for the contestant's optimal effort and expected reward.

Keywords: contests, Tullock's model, political elections, control expenses

Procedia PDF Downloads 65