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82 Monitoring of Formaldehyde over Punjab Pakistan Using Car Max-Doas and Satellite Observation

Authors: Waqas Ahmed Khan, Faheem Khokhaar

Abstract:

Air pollution is one of the main perpetrators of climate change. GHGs cause melting of glaciers and cause change in temperature and heavy rain fall many gasses like Formaldehyde is not direct precursor that damage ozone like CO2 or Methane but Formaldehyde (HCHO) form glyoxal (CHOCHO) that has effect on ozone. Countries around the globe have unique air quality monitoring protocols to describe local air pollution. Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical that is used in building materials and to produce many household products and medical preservatives. Formaldehyde also occurs naturally in the environment. It is produced in small amounts by most living organisms as part of normal metabolic processes. Pakistan lacks the monitoring facilities on larger scale to measure the atmospheric gasses on regular bases. Formaldehyde is formed from Glyoxal and effect mountain biodiversity and livelihood. So its monitoring is necessary in order to maintain and preserve biodiversity. Objective: Present study is aimed to measure atmospheric HCHO vertical column densities (VCDs) obtained from ground-base and compute HCHO data in Punjab and elevated areas (Rawalpindi & Islamabad) by satellite observation during the time period of 2014-2015. Methodology: In order to explore the spatial distributing of H2CO, various fields campaigns including international scientist by using car Max-Doas. Major focus was on the cities along national highways and industrial region of Punjab Pakistan. Level 2 data product of satellite instruments OMI retrieved by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique are used. Spatio-temporal distribution of HCHO column densities over main cities and region of Pakistan has been discussed. Results: Results show the High HCHO column densities exceeding permissible limit over the main cities of Pakistan particularly the areas with rapid urbanization and enhanced economic growth. The VCDs value over elevated areas of Pakistan like Islamabad, Rawalpindi is around 1.0×1016 to 34.01×1016 Molecules’/cm2. While Punjab has values revolving around the figure 34.01×1016. Similarly areas with major industrial activity showed high amount of HCHO concentrations. Tropospheric glyoxal VCDs were found to be 4.75 × 1015 molecules/cm2. Conclusion: Results shows that monitoring site surrounded by Margalla hills (Islamabad) have higher concentrations of Formaldehyde. Wind data shows that industrial areas and areas having high economic growth have high values as they provide pathways for transmission of HCHO. Results obtained from this study would help EPA, WHO and air protection departments in order to monitor air quality and further preservation and restoration of mountain biodiversity.

Keywords: air quality, formaldehyde, Max-Doas, vertical column densities (VCDs), satellite instrument, climate change

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81 Evaluation of Microstructure, Mechanical and Abrasive Wear Response of in situ TiC Particles Reinforced Zinc Aluminum Matrix Alloy Composites

Authors: Mohammad M. Khan, Pankaj Agarwal

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The present investigation deals with the microstructures, mechanical and detailed wear characteristics of in situ TiC particles reinforced zinc aluminum-based metal matrix composites. The composites have been synthesized by liquid metallurgy route using vortex technique. The composite was found to be harder than the matrix alloy due to high hardness of the dispersoid particles therein. The former was also lower in ultimate tensile strength and ductility as compared to the matrix alloy. This could be explained to be due to the use of coarser size dispersoid and larger interparticle spacing. Reasonably uniform distribution of the dispersoid phase in the alloy matrix and good interfacial bonding between the dispersoid and matrix was observed. The composite exhibited predominantly brittle mode of fracture with microcracking in the dispersoid phase indicating effective easy transfer of load from matrix to the dispersoid particles. To study the wear behavior of the samples three different types of tests were performed namely: (i) sliding wear tests using a pin on disc machine under dry condition, (ii) high stress (two-body) abrasive wear tests using different combinations of abrasive media and specimen surfaces under the conditions of varying abrasive size, traversal distance and load, and (iii) low-stress (three-body) abrasion tests using a rubber wheel abrasion tester at various loads and traversal distances using different abrasive media. In sliding wear test, significantly lower wear rates were observed in the case of base alloy over that of the composites. This has been attributed to the poor room temperature strength as a result of increased microcracking tendency of the composite over the matrix alloy. Wear surfaces of the composite revealed the presence of fragmented dispersoid particles and microcracking whereas the wear surface of matrix alloy was observed to be smooth with shallow grooves. During high-stress abrasion, the presence of the reinforcement offered increased resistance to the destructive action of the abrasive particles. Microcracking tendency was also enhanced because of the reinforcement in the matrix. The negative effect of the microcracking tendency was predominant by the abrasion resistance of the dispersoid. As a result, the composite attained improved wear resistance than the matrix alloy. The wear rate increased with load and abrasive size due to a larger depth of cut made by the abrasive medium. The wear surfaces revealed fine grooves, and damaged reinforcement particles while subsurface regions revealed limited plastic deformation and microcracking and fracturing of the dispersoid phase. During low-stress abrasion, the composite experienced significantly less wear rate than the matrix alloy irrespective of the test conditions. This could be explained to be due to wear resistance offered by the hard dispersoid phase thereby protecting the softer matrix against the destructive action of the abrasive medium. Abraded surfaces of the composite showed protrusion of dispersoid phase. The subsurface regions of the composites exhibited decohesion of the dispersoid phase along with its microcracking and limited plastic deformation in the vicinity of the abraded surfaces.

Keywords: abrasive wear, liquid metallurgy, metal martix composite, SEM

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80 Gas Chromatographic: Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Ethanolic Extracts Possessing Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Profile Effects

Authors: Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

A variety of herbal medicinal plants are known to confer beneficial effects in regards to modification of cardiovascular ri’=sk factors. The anti-hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulate fruit peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sesamum indicum seed extracts have been demonstrated. These plants are assumed to possess biologically active principles, which impart their pharmacologic activities. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts was carried out to identify the active principles and their percentages of occurrence in the analytes. Analysis of the extracts was carried out using (GS-MS QP) type Schimadzu 2010 equipped with a capillary column RTX-50 (restec), (length 30mm, diameter 0.25mm, and thickness 0.25mm). Helium was used as a carrier gas, the temperature was programmed at 200°C for 5 minutes at a rate of 15ml/minute, and the extracts were injected using split injection mode. The identification of different components was achieved from their Mass Spectra and Retention time, compared with those in the NIST library. The results revealed the presence of 80 compounds in Sudanese locally grown C. reticulata fruit peel extract, most of which were monoterpenoid compounds including Limonene (3.03%), Alpha & Gamma - terpinenes (2.61%), Linalool (1.38%), Citral (1.72%) which are known to have profound antioxidant effects. The Sesquiterpenoids Humulene (0.26%) and Caryophyllene (1.97%) were also identified, the latter known to have profound anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity in addition to the beneficiary effects in lipid regulation. The analysis of the locally grown S. indicum oily and water soluble portions of seed extract revealed the presence of a total of 64 compounds with considerably high percentage of the mono-unsaturated fatty acid ester methyl oleate (66.99%) in addition to methyl stearate (9.35%) and palmitate (15.71%) of oil portion, whereas, plant sterols including Gamma-sitosterol (13.5%), fucosterol (2.11%) and stigmasterol (1.95%) in addition to gamma-tocopherol (1.16%) were detected in extract water-soluble portion. The latter indicate various principles known to have valuable pharmacological benefits including antioxidant activities and beneficiary effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulation of serum cholesterol levels. Z. officinale rhizome extract analysis revealed the presence of 93 compounds, the most abundant were alpha-zingeberine (16.5%), gingerol (9.25%), alpha-sesquiphellandrene (8.3%), zingerone (6.78%), beta-bisabolene (4.19%), alpha-farnesene (3.56%), ar-curcumene (3.29%), gamma-elemene (1.25%) and a variety of other compounds. The presence of these active principles reflected on the activity of the extract. Activity could be assigned to a single or a combination of two or more extract components. GC-MS analysis concluded the occurrence of compounds known to possess antioxidant activity and lipid profile effects.

Keywords: gas chromatography, indicum, officinale, reticulata

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79 Use of Sewage Sludge Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in the Production of Mortars

Authors: Domagoj Nakic, Drazen Vouk, Nina Stirmer, Mario Siljeg, Ana Baricevic

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Wastewater treatment processes generate significant quantities of sewage sludge that need to be adequately treated and disposed. In many EU countries, the problem of adequate disposal of sewage sludge has not been solved, nor is determined by the unique rules, instructions or guidelines. Disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater and sludge treatment technology. Among the solutions that seem reasonable, recycling of sewage sludge and its byproducts reaches the top recommendation. Within the framework of sustainable development, recycling of sludge almost completely closes the cycle of wastewater treatment in which only negligible amounts of waste that requires landfilling are being generated. In many EU countries, significant amounts of sewage sludge are incinerated, resulting in a new byproduct in the form of ash. Sewage sludge ash is three to five times less in volume compared to stabilized and dehydrated sludge, but it also requires further management. The combustion process also destroys hazardous organic components in the sludge and minimizes unpleasant odors. The basic objective of the presented research is to explore the possibilities of recycling of the sewage sludge ash as a supplementary cementitious material. This is because of the main oxides present in the sewage sludge ash (SiO2, Al2O3 and Cao, which is similar to cement), so it can be considered as latent hydraulic and pozzolanic material. Physical and chemical characteristics of ashes, generated by sludge collected from different wastewater treatment plants, and incinerated in laboratory conditions at different temperatures, are investigated since it is a prerequisite of its subsequent recycling and the eventual use in other industries. Research was carried out by replacing up to 20% of cement by mass in cement mortar mixes with different obtained ashes and examining characteristics of created mixes in fresh and hardened condition. The mixtures with the highest ash content (20%) showed an average drop in workability of about 15% which is attributed to the increased water requirements when ash was used. Although some mixes containing added ash showed compressive and flexural strengths equivalent to those of reference mixes, generally slight decrease in strength was observed. However, it is important to point out that the compressive strengths always remained above 85% compared to the reference mix, while flexural strengths remained above 75%. Ecological impact of innovative construction products containing sewage sludge ash was determined by analyzing leaching concentrations of heavy metals. Results demonstrate that sewage sludge ash can satisfy technical and environmental criteria for use in cementitious materials which represents a new recycling application for an increasingly important waste material that is normally landfilled. Particular emphasis is placed on linking the composition of generated ashes depending on its origin and applied treatment processes (stage of wastewater treatment, sludge treatment technology, incineration temperature) with the characteristics of the final products. Acknowledgement: This work has been fully supported by Croatian Science Foundation under the project '7927 - Reuse of sewage sludge in concrete industry – from infrastructure to innovative construction products'.

Keywords: cement mortar, recycling, sewage sludge ash, sludge disposal

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78 Changes of Mitochondrial Potential in the Midgut Epithelium of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) Exposed to Cadmium Concentrated in Soil

Authors: Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska, Izabela Poprawa, Alina Chachulska-Zymelka, Lukasz Chajec, Grazyna Wilczek, Piotr Wilczek, Malgorzata Lesniewska

Abstract:

Lithobius forficatus, commonly known as the brown centipede, is a widespread European species, which lives in the upper layers of soil, under stones, litter, rocks, and leaves. As the soil organism, it is exposed to numerous stressors such as xenobiotics, including heavy metals, temperature, starvation, pathogens, etc. Heavy metals are treated as the environmental pollutants of the soil because of their toxic effects on plants, animals and human being. One of the heavy metals which is xenobiotic and can be taken up by plants or animals from the soil is cadmium. The digestive system of centipedes is composed of three distinct regions: fore-, mid- and hindgut. The salivary glands of centipedes are the organs which belong to the anterior region of the digestive system and take part in the synthesis, accumulation, and secretion of many substances. The middle region having contact with the food masses is treated as one of the barriers which protect the organism against any stressors which originate from the external environment, e.g., toxic metals. As the material for our studies, we chose two organs of the digestive system in brown centipede, the organs which take part in homeostasis maintenance: the salivary glands and the midgut. The main purpose of the project was to investigate the relationship between the percentage of depolarized mitochondria, mitophagy and ATP level in cells of mentioned above organs. The animals were divided into experimental groups: K – the control group, the animals cultured in a laboratory conditions in a horticultural soil and fed with Acheta domesticus larvae; Cd1 – the animals cultured in a horticultural soil supplemented with 80 mg/kg (dry weight) of CdCl2, fed with A. domesticus larvae maintained in tap water, 12 days – short-term exposure; Cd2 – the animals cultured in a horticultural soil supplemented with 80 mg/kg (dry weight) of CdCl2, fed with A. domesticus larvae maintained in tap water, 45 days – long-term exposure. The studies were conducted using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Quantitative analysis revealed that regardless of the organ, a progressive increase in the percentage of cells with depolarized mitochondria was registered, but only in the salivary glands. These were statistically significant changes from the control. In both organs, there were no differences in the level of the analyzed parameter depending on the duration of exposure of individuals to cadmium. Changes in the ultrastructure of mitochondria have been observed. With the extension of the body's exposure time to metal, an increase in the ADP/ATP index was recorded. However, changes statistically significant to the control were demonstrated in the intestine and salivary glands. The size of this intestinal index and salivary glands in the Cd2 group was about thirty and twenty times higher, respectively than in control. Acknowledgment: The study has been financed by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant no 2017/25/B/NZ4/00420.

Keywords: cadmium, digestive system, ultrastructure, centipede

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77 Model-Based Global Maximum Power Point Tracking at Photovoltaic String under Partial Shading Conditions Using Multi-Input Interleaved Boost DC-DC Converter

Authors: Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Seyed Majid Hashemzadeh

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Solar energy is one of the remarkable renewable energy sources that have particular characteristics such as unlimited, no environmental pollution, and free access. Generally, solar energy can be used in thermal and photovoltaic (PV) types. The cost of installation of the PV system is very high. Additionally, due to dependence on environmental situations such as solar radiation and ambient temperature, electrical power generation of this system is unpredictable and without power electronics devices, there is no guarantee to maximum power delivery at the output of this system. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) should be used to achieve the maximum power of a PV string. MPPT is one of the essential parts of the PV system which without this section, it would be impossible to reach the maximum amount of the PV string power and high losses are caused in the PV system. One of the noticeable challenges in the problem of MPPT is the partial shading conditions (PSC). In PSC, the output photocurrent of the PV module under the shadow is less than the PV string current. The difference between the mentioned currents passes from the module's internal parallel resistance and creates a large negative voltage across shaded modules. This significant negative voltage damages the PV module under the shadow. This condition is called hot-spot phenomenon. An anti-paralleled diode is inserted across the PV module to prevent the happening of this phenomenon. This diode is known as the bypass diode. Due to the performance of the bypass diode under PSC, the P-V curve of the PV string has several peaks. One of the P-V curve peaks that makes the maximum available power is the global peak. Model-based Global MPPT (GMPPT) methods can estimate the optimal point with higher speed than other GMPPT approaches. Centralized, modular, and interleaved DC-DC converter topologies are the significant structures that can be used for GMPPT at a PV string. there are some problems in the centralized structure such as current mismatch losses at PV sting, loss of power of the shaded modules because of bypassing by bypass diodes under PSC, needing to series connection of many PV modules to reach the desired voltage level. In the modular structure, each PV module is connected to a DC-DC converter. In this structure, by increasing the amount of demanded power from the PV string, the number of DC-DC converters that are used at the PV system will increase. As a result, the cost of the modular structure is very high. We can implement the model-based GMPPT through the multi-input interleaved boost DC-DC converter to increase the power extraction from the PV string and reduce hot-spot and current mismatch error in a PV string under different environmental condition and variable load circumstances. The interleaved boost DC-DC converter has many privileges than other mentioned structures, such as high reliability and efficiency, better regulation of DC voltage at DC link, overcome the notable errors such as module's current mismatch and hot spot phenomenon, and power switches voltage stress reduction.

Keywords: solar energy, photovoltaic systems, interleaved boost converter, maximum power point tracking, model-based method, partial shading conditions

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76 Ordered Mesoporous Carbons of Different Morphology for Loading and Controlled Release of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

Authors: Aleksander Ejsmont, Aleksandra Galarda, Joanna Goscianska

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Smart porous carriers with defined structure and physicochemical properties are required for releasing the therapeutic drug with precise control of delivery time and location in the body. Due to their non-toxicity, ordered structure, chemical, and thermal stability, mesoporous carbons can be considered as modern carriers for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) whose effectiveness needs frequent dosing algorithms. Such an API-carrier system, if programmed precisely, may stabilize the pharmaceutical and increase its dissolution leading to enhanced bioavailability. The substance conjugated with the material, through its prior adsorption, can later be successfully applied internally to the organism, as well as externally if the API release is feasible under these conditions. In the present study, ordered mesoporous carbons of different morphologies and structures, prepared by hard template method, were applied as carriers in the adsorption and controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients. In the first stage, the carbon materials were synthesized and functionalized with carboxylic groups by chemical oxidation using ammonium persulfate solution and then with amine groups. Materials obtained were thoroughly characterized with respect to morphology (scanning electron microscopy), structure (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy), characteristic functional groups (FT-IR spectroscopy), acid-base nature of surface groups (Boehm titration), parameters of the porous structure (low-temperature nitrogen adsorption) and thermal stability (TG analysis). This was followed by a series of tests of adsorption and release of paracetamol, benzocaine, and losartan potassium. Drug release experiments were performed in the simulated gastric fluid of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer of pH 7.2 or 6.8 at 37.0 °C. The XRD patterns in the small-angle range and TEM images revealed that functionalization of mesoporous carbons with carboxylic or amine groups leads to the decreased ordering of their structure. Moreover, the modification caused a considerable reduction of the carbon-specific surface area and pore volume, but it simultaneously resulted in changing their acid-base properties. Mesoporous carbon materials exhibit different morphologies, which affect the host-guest interactions during the adsorption process of active pharmaceutical ingredients. All mesoporous carbons show high adsorption capacity towards drugs. The sorption capacity of materials is mainly affected by BET surface area and the structure/size matching between adsorbent and adsorbate. Selected APIs are linked to the surface of carbon materials mainly by hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic interactions. The release behavior of API is highly dependent on the physicochemical properties of mesoporous carbons. The release rate of APIs could be regulated by the introduction of functional groups and by changing the pH of the receptor medium. Acknowledgments—This research was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (project SONATA-12 no: 2016/23/D/NZ7/01347).

Keywords: ordered mesoporous carbons, sorption capacity, drug delivery, carbon nanocarriers

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75 Improved Elastoplastic Bounding Surface Model for the Mathematical Modeling of Geomaterials

Authors: Andres Nieto-Leal, Victor N. Kaliakin, Tania P. Molina

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The nature of most engineering materials is quite complex. It is, therefore, difficult to devise a general mathematical model that will cover all possible ranges and types of excitation and behavior of a given material. As a result, the development of mathematical models is based upon simplifying assumptions regarding material behavior. Such simplifications result in some material idealization; for example, one of the simplest material idealization is to assume that the material behavior obeys the elasticity. However, soils are nonhomogeneous, anisotropic, path-dependent materials that exhibit nonlinear stress-strain relationships, changes in volume under shear, dilatancy, as well as time-, rate- and temperature-dependent behavior. Over the years, many constitutive models, possessing different levels of sophistication, have been developed to simulate the behavior geomaterials, particularly cohesive soils. Early in the development of constitutive models, it became evident that elastic or standard elastoplastic formulations, employing purely isotropic hardening and predicated in the existence of a yield surface surrounding a purely elastic domain, were incapable of realistically simulating the behavior of geomaterials. Accordingly, more sophisticated constitutive models have been developed; for example, the bounding surface elastoplasticity. The essence of the bounding surface concept is the hypothesis that plastic deformations can occur for stress states either within or on the bounding surface. Thus, unlike classical yield surface elastoplasticity, the plastic states are not restricted only to those lying on a surface. Elastoplastic bounding surface models have been improved; however, there is still need to improve their capabilities in simulating the response of anisotropically consolidated cohesive soils, especially the response in extension tests. Thus, in this work an improved constitutive model that can more accurately predict diverse stress-strain phenomena exhibited by cohesive soils was developed. Particularly, an improved rotational hardening rule that better simulate the response of cohesive soils in extension. The generalized definition of the bounding surface model provides a convenient and elegant framework for unifying various previous versions of the model for anisotropically consolidated cohesive soils. The Generalized Bounding Surface Model for cohesive soils is a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent model that accounts for both inherent and stress induced anisotropy employing a non-associative flow rule. The model numerical implementation in a computer code followed an adaptive multistep integration scheme in conjunction with local iteration and radial return. The one-step trapezoidal rule was used to get the stiffness matrix that defines the relationship between the stress increment and the strain increment. After testing the model in simulating the response of cohesive soils through extensive comparisons of model simulations to experimental data, it has been shown to give quite good simulations. The new model successfully simulates the response of different cohesive soils; for example, Cardiff Kaolin, Spestone Kaolin, and Lower Cromer Till. The simulated undrained stress paths, stress-strain response, and excess pore pressures are in very good agreement with the experimental values, especially in extension.

Keywords: bounding surface elastoplasticity, cohesive soils, constitutive model, modeling of geomaterials

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74 Experimental and Modelling Performances of a Sustainable Integrated System of Conditioning for Bee-Pollen

Authors: Andrés Durán, Brian Castellanos, Marta Quicazán, Carlos Zuluaga-Domínguez

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Bee-pollen is an apicultural-derived food product, with a growing appreciation among consumers given the remarkable nutritional and functional composition, in particular, protein (24%), dietary fiber (15%), phenols (15 – 20 GAE/g) and carotenoids (600 – 900 µg/g). These properties are given by the geographical and climatic characteristics of the region where it is collected. There are several countries recognized by their pollen production, e.g. China, United States, Japan, Spain, among others. Beekeepers use traps in the entrance of the hive where bee-pollen is collected. After the removal of foreign particles and drying, this product is ready to be marketed. However, in countries located along the equator, the absence of seasons and a constant tropical climate throughout the year favors a more rapid spoilage condition for foods with elevated water activity. The climatic conditions also trigger the proliferation of microorganisms and insects. This, added to the factor that beekeepers usually do not have adequate processing systems for bee-pollen, leads to deficiencies in the quality and safety of the product. In contrast, the Andean region of South America, lying on equator, typically has a high production of bee-pollen of up to 36 kg/year/hive, being four times higher than in countries with marked seasons. This region is also located in altitudes superior to 2500 meters above sea level, having extremes sun ultraviolet radiation all year long. As a mechanism of defense of radiation, plants produce more secondary metabolites acting as antioxidant agents, hence, plant products such as bee-pollen contain remarkable more phenolics and carotenoids than collected in other places. Considering this, the improvement of bee-pollen processing facilities by technical modifications and the implementation of an integrated cleaning and drying system for the product in an apiary in the area was proposed. The beehives were modified through the installation of alternative bee-pollen traps to avoid sources of contamination. The processing facility was modified according to considerations of Good Manufacturing Practices, implementing the combined use of a cabin dryer with temperature control and forced airflow and a greenhouse-type solar drying system. Additionally, for the separation of impurities, a cyclone type system was implemented, complementary to a screening equipment. With these modifications, a decrease in the content of impurities and the microbiological load of bee-pollen was seen from the first stages, principally with a reduction of the presence of molds and yeasts and in the number of foreign animal origin impurities. The use of the greenhouse solar dryer integrated to the cabin dryer allowed the processing of larger quantities of product with shorter waiting times in storage, reaching a moisture content of about 6% and a water activity lower than 0.6, being appropriate for the conservation of bee-pollen. Additionally, the contents of functional or nutritional compounds were not affected, even observing an increase of up to 25% in phenols content and a non-significant decrease in carotenoids content and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: beekeeping, drying, food processing, food safety

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73 Office Workspace Design for Policewomen in Assam, India: Applications for Developing Countries

Authors: Shilpi Bora, Abhirup Chatterjee, Debkumar Chakrabarti

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Organizations of all the sectors around the world are increasingly revisiting their workplace strategies with due concern for women working therein. Limited office space and rigid work arrangements contribute to lesser job satisfaction and greater work impoundments for any organization. Flexible workspace strategies are indispensable to accommodate the progressive rise of modular workstations and involvement of women. Today’s generation of employees deserves malleable office environments with employee-friendly job conditions and strategies. The workplace nowadays stands on rapid organizational changes in progressive and flexible work culture. Occupational well-being practices need to keep pace with the rapid changes in office-based work. Working at the office (workspace) with awkward postures or for long periods can cause pain, discomfort, and injury. The world is stirring towards the era of globalization and progress. The 4000 women police personnel constitute less than one per cent of the total police strength of India. Lots of innovative fields are growing fast, and it is important that we should accommodate women in those arenas. The timeworn trends should be set apart to set out for fresh opportunities and possibilities of development and success through more involvement of women in the workplace. The notion of women policing is gaining position throughout the world, and various countries are putting solemn efforts to mainstream women in policing. As the role of women policing in a society is budding, and thus it is also notable that the accessibility of women at general police stations should be considered. Accordingly, the impact of workspace at police station on the employee productivity has been widely deliberated as a crucial contributor to employee satisfaction leading to better functional motivation. Thus the present research aimed to look into the office workstation design of police station with reference to womanhood specific issues to uplift occupational wellbeing of the policewomen. Personal interview and individual responses collected through administering to a subjective assessment questionnaire on thirty women police as well as to have their views on these issues by purposive non-probability sampling of women police personnel of different ranks posted in Guwahati, Assam, India. Scrutiny of the collected data revealed that office design has a substantial impact on the policewomen job satisfaction in the police station. In this study, the workspace was designed in such a way that the set of factors would impact on the individual to ensure increased productivity. Office design such as furniture, noise, temperature, lighting and spatial arrangement were considered. The primary feature which affected the productivity of policewomen was the furniture used in the workspace, which was found to disturb the everyday and overall productivity of policewomen. Therefore, it was recommended to have proper and adequate ergonomics design intervention to improve the office design for better performance. This type of study is today’s need-of-the-hour to empower women and facilitate their inner talent to come up in service of the nation. The office workspace design also finds critical importance at several other occupations also – where office workstation needs further improvement.

Keywords: office workspace design, policewomen, womanhood concerns at workspace, occupational wellbeing

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72 Formulation of Lipid-Based Tableted Spray-Congealed Microparticles for Zero Order Release of Vildagliptin

Authors: Hend Ben Tkhayat , Khaled Al Zahabi, Husam Younes

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Introduction: Vildagliptin (VG), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4), was proven to be an active agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. VG works by enhancing and prolonging the activity of incretins which improves insulin secretion and decreases glucagon release, therefore lowering blood glucose level. It is usually used with various classes, such as insulin sensitizers or metformin. VG is currently only marketed as an immediate-release tablet that is administered twice daily. In this project, we aim to formulate an extended-release with a zero-order profile tableted lipid microparticles of VG that could be administered once daily ensuring the patient’s convenience. Method: The spray-congealing technique was used to prepare VG microparticles. Compritol® was heated at 10 oC above its melting point and VG was dispersed in the molten carrier using a homogenizer (IKA T25- USA) set at 13000 rpm. VG dispersed in the molten Compritol® was added dropwise to the molten Gelucire® 50/13 and PEG® (400, 6000, and 35000) in different ratios under manual stirring. The molten mixture was homogenized and Carbomer® amount was added. The melt was pumped through the two-fluid nozzle of the Buchi® Spray-Congealer (Buchi B-290, Switzerland) using a Pump drive (Master flex, USA) connected to a silicone tubing wrapped with silicone heating tape heated at the same temperature of the pumped mix. The physicochemical properties of the produced VG-loaded microparticles were characterized using Mastersizer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and X‐Ray Diffractometer (XRD). VG microparticles were then pressed into tablets using a single punch tablet machine (YDP-12, Minhua pharmaceutical Co. China) and in vitro dissolution study was investigated using Agilent Dissolution Tester (Agilent, USA). The dissolution test was carried out at 37±0.5 °C for 24 hours in three different dissolution media and time phases. The quantitative analysis of VG in samples was realized using a validated High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-UV) method. Results: The microparticles were spherical in shape with narrow distribution and smooth surface. DSC and XRD analyses confirmed the crystallinity of VG that was lost after being incorporated into the amorphous polymers. The total yields of the different formulas were between 70% and 80%. The VG content in the microparticles was found to be between 99% and 106%. The in vitro dissolution study showed that VG was released from the tableted particles in a controlled fashion. The adjustment of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio of excipients, their concentration and the molecular weight of the used carriers resulted in tablets with zero-order kinetics. The Gelucire 50/13®, a hydrophilic polymer was characterized by a time-dependent profile with an important burst effect that was decreased by adding Compritol® as a lipophilic carrier to retard the release of VG which is highly soluble in water. PEG® (400,6000 and 35 000) were used for their gelling effect that led to a constant rate delivery and achieving a zero-order profile. Conclusion: Tableted spray-congealed lipid microparticles for extended-release of VG were successfully prepared and a zero-order profile was achieved.

Keywords: vildagliptin, spray congealing, microparticles, controlled release

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71 Ultrasound Disintegration as a Potential Method for the Pre-Treatment of Virginia Fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) Biomass before Methane Fermentation Process

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Marcin Zieliński, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

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As methane fermentation is a complex series of successive biochemical transformations, its subsequent stages are determined, to a various extent, by physical and chemical factors. A specific state of equilibrium is being settled in the functioning fermentation system between environmental conditions and the rate of biochemical reactions and products of successive transformations. In the case of physical factors that influence the effectiveness of methane fermentation transformations, the key significance is ascribed to temperature and intensity of biomass agitation. Among the chemical factors, significant are pH value, type, and availability of the culture medium (to put it simply: the C/N ratio) as well as the presence of toxic substances. One of the important elements which influence the effectiveness of methane fermentation is the pre-treatment of organic substrates and the mode in which the organic matter is made available to anaerobes. Out of all known and described methods for organic substrate pre-treatment before methane fermentation process, the ultrasound disintegration is one of the most interesting technologies. Investigations undertaken on the ultrasound field and the use of installations operating on the existing systems result principally from very wide and universal technological possibilities offered by the sonication process. This physical factor may induce deep physicochemical changes in ultrasonicated substrates that are highly beneficial from the viewpoint of methane fermentation processes. In this case, special role is ascribed to disintegration of biomass that is further subjected to methane fermentation. Once cell walls are damaged, cytoplasm and cellular enzymes are released. The released substances – either in dissolved or colloidal form – are immediately available to anaerobic bacteria for biodegradation. To ensure the maximal release of organic matter from dead biomass cells, disintegration processes are aimed to achieve particle size below 50 μm. It has been demonstrated in many research works and in systems operating in the technical scale that immediately after substrate supersonication the content of organic matter (characterized by COD, BOD5 and TOC indices) was increasing in the dissolved phase of sedimentation water. This phenomenon points to the immediate sonolysis of solid substances contained in the biomass and to the release of cell material, and consequently to the intensification of the hydrolytic phase of fermentation. It results in a significant reduction of fermentation time and increased effectiveness of production of gaseous metabolites of anaerobic bacteria. Because disintegration of Virginia fanpetals biomass via ultrasounds applied in order to intensify its conversion is a novel technique, it is often underestimated by exploiters of agri-biogas works. It has, however, many advantages that have a direct impact on its technological and economical superiority over thus far applied methods of biomass conversion. As for now, ultrasound disintegrators for biomass conversion are not produced on the mass-scale, but by specialized groups in scientific or R&D centers. Therefore, their quality and effectiveness are to a large extent determined by their manufacturers’ knowledge and skills in the fields of acoustics and electronic engineering.

Keywords: ultrasound disintegration, biomass, methane fermentation, biogas, Virginia fanpetals

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
70 Growth Mechanism and Sensing Behaviour of Sn Doped ZnO Nanoprisms Prepared by Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: Sudip Kumar Sinha, Saptarshi Ghosh

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While there’s a perpetual buzz around zinc oxide (ZnO) superstructures for their unique optical features, the versatile material has been constantly utilized to manifest tailored electronic properties through rendition of distinct morphologies. And yet, the unorthodox approach of implementing the novel 1D nanostructures of ZnO (pristine or doped) for volatile sensing applications has ample scope to accommodate new unconventional morphologies. In the last two decades, solid-state sensors have attracted much curiosity for their relevance in identifying pollutant, toxic and other industrial gases. In particular gas sensors based on metal oxide semiconducting (wide Eg) nanomaterials have recently attracted intensive attention owing to their high sensitivity and fast response and recovery time. These materials when exposed to air, the atmospheric O2 dissociates and get absorb on the surface of the sensors by trapping the outermost shell electrons. Finally a depleted zone on the surface of the sensors is formed, that enhances the potential barrier height at grain boundary . Once a target gas is exposed to the sensor, the chemical interaction between the chemisorbed oxygen and the specific gas liberates the trapped electrons. Therefore altering the amount of adsorbate is a considerable approach to improve the sensitivity of any target gas/vapour molecule. Likewise, this study presents a spontaneous but self catalytic creation of Sn-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoprisms on Si (100) substrates through thermal evaporation-condensation method, and their subsequent deployment for volatile sensing. In particular, the sensors were utilized to detect molecules of ethanol, acetone and ammonia below their permissible exposure limits which returned sensitivities of around 85%, 80% and 50% respectively. The influence of Sn concentration on the growth, microstructural and optical properties of the nanoprisms along with its role in augmenting the sensing parameters has been detailed. The single-crystalline nanostructures have a typical diameter ranging from 300 to 500 nm and a length that extends up to few micrometers. HRTEM images confirmed the hexagonal crystallography for the nanoprisms, while SAED pattern asserted the single crystalline nature. The growth habit is along the low index <0001>directions. It has been seen that the growth mechanism of the as-deposited nanostructures are directly influenced by varying supersaturation ratio, fairly high substrate temperatures, and specified surface defects in certain crystallographic planes, all acting cooperatively decide the final product morphology. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of this rod like structures exhibits a weak ultraviolet (UV) emission peak at around 380 nm and a broad green emission peak in the 505 nm regime. An estimate of the sensing parameters against dispensed target molecules highlighted the potential for the nanoprisms as an effective volatile sensing material. The Sn-doped ZnO nanostructures with unique prismatic morphology may find important applications in various chemical sensors as well as other potential nanodevices.

Keywords: gas sensor, HRTEM, photoluminescence, ultraviolet, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
69 Hybrid Systems Avobenzone – Mesoporous Silica Modified with Zinc Oxide as Ingredients of Sunscreen Formulations

Authors: Anna Olejnik, Joanna Goscianska

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UV radiation is the main factor that is responsible for acute adverse outcomes like sunburn, erythema, pigmentation, and chronic ones like skin cancer or photo-aging. In order to protect human skin, international health organizations have recommended the application of sunscreen products that contain UV filters (chemical or physical). On the one hand, sunscreen blockers exhibit great advantages, but on the other hand, there is a growing concern regarding the safety of some organic UV filters. The most commonly applied chemical sunscreen agents undergo photo-degradation or penetrate through the stratum corneum. It was reported that the widely applied UV filter avobenzone was photounstable, and its photodegradation products could be responsible for photoallergic and cytotoxic reactions. Therefore, there is an increased need to design innovative carriers for sunscreen agents that are important for human health. So far, mesoporous materials have found applications as catalysts, adsorbents, and drug delivery carriers due to their unique properties such as high surface area (600–1000 m2/g), great stability, and high pore volume (0.6–1.0 cm3/g). Moreover, the impregnation of silica samples with Zn precursors may enhance the photoprotective effect of nanomaterials because these metal oxides are known as physical UV filters. The main scientific aim of this study was to develop and characterize novel vehicles for selected organic UV-filter such as avobenzone that could find potential application in sunscreen formulations. Initially, the mesoporous silica materials unmodified/modified with zinc oxide were obtained and characterized by various methods, including X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen sorption, infrared spectroscopy, laser diffraction, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Next, these nanomaterials were applied as carriers for avobenzone. The UV filters’ loading into mesoporous silica was achieved in adsorption processes. The obtained hybrid systems were characterized and compared by spectroscopic methods elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Afterward, the release behavior of avobenzone from unmodified and modified materials was studied. In the last step, the hybrid materials were introduced into topical formulations, and the stability of newly obtained semisolids was assessed. The results proved that the modification of mesoporous silica materials with zinc oxide changed their textural parameters. The adsorption process of avobenzone was highly dependent on the type of materials applied. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of mesoporous silica was found to increase the amount of avobenzone released compared to non-modified samples. The semisolid formulations were stable after the introduction of the hybrid system containing inorganic silica and organic UV-filter. This study gives a potential future direction for the application of nanoporous materials in skincare products. Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the financial support from National Science Center, Poland (project Miniatura 4 no. 2020/04/X/ST5/2020.

Keywords: drug adsorption, mesoporous materials, release studies, surface modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
68 Epigastric Pain in Emergency Room: Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome

Authors: Demet Devrimsel Dogan, Ecem Deniz Kirkpantur, Muharrem Dogan, Ahmet Aykut, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Ozge Ecmel Onur

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Introduction: Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome (MALS) is a rare cause of chronic abdominal pain due to external compression of the celiac trunk by a fibrous arch that unites diaphragmatic crura on each side of the aortic hiatus. While 10-24% of the population may suffer from compression of celiac trunk, it rarely causes patients to develop symptoms. The typical clinical triad of symptoms includes postprandial epigastric pain, weight loss and vomiting. The diagnosis can be made using thin section multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scans which delineate the ligament and the compressed vessel. The treatment of MALS is aimed at relieving the compression of the celiac artery to restore adequate blood flow through the vessel and neurolysis to address chronic pain. Case: A 68-year-old male presented to our clinic with acute postprandial epigastric pain. This was patients’ first attack, and the pain was the worst pain of his life. The patient did not have any other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, chest pain or dyspnea. In his medical history, the patient has had an ischemic cerebrovascular stroke 5 years ago which he recovered with no sequel, and he was using 75 mg clopidogrel and 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid. He was not using any other medication and did not have a story of cardiovascular disease. His vital signs were stable (BP:113/72 mmHg, Spo2:97, temperature:36.3°C, HR:90/bpm). In his electrocardiogram, there was ST depression in leads II, III and AVF. In his physical examination, there was only epigastric tenderness, other system examinations were normal. Physical examination through his upper gastrointestinal system showed no bleeding. His laboratory results were as follows: creatinine:1.26 mg/dL, AST:42 U/L, ALT:17 U/L, amylase:78 U/L, lipase:26 U/L, troponin:10.3 pg/ml, WBC:28.9 K/uL, Hgb:12.7 gr/dL, Plt:335 K/uL. His serial high-sensitive troponin levels were also within normal limits, his echocardiography showed no segmental wall motion abnormalities, an acute myocardial infarction was excluded. In his abdominal ultrasound, no pathology was founded. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT and CT angiography reported ‘thickened diaphragmatic cruras are compressing and stenosing truncus celiacus superior, this is likely compatible with MALS’. The patient was consulted to general surgery, and they admitted the patient for laparoscopic ligament release. Results: MALS is a syndrome that causes postprandial pain, nausea and vomiting as its most common symptoms. Affected patients are normally young, slim women between the ages of 30 and 50 who have undergone extensive examinations to find the source of their symptoms. To diagnose MALS, other underlying pathologies should initially be excluded. The gold standard is aortic angiography. Although diagnosis and treatment of MALS are unclear, symptom resolution has been achieved with multiple surgical modalities, including open, laparoscopic or robotic ligament release as well as celiac ganglionectomy, which often requires celiac artery revascularisation.

Keywords: differential diagnosis, epigastric pain, median arcuate ligament syndrome, celiac trunk

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
67 Rheolaser: Light Scattering Characterization of Viscoelastic Properties of Hair Cosmetics That Are Related to Performance and Stability of the Respective Colloidal Soft Materials

Authors: Heitor Oliveira, Gabriele De-Waal, Juergen Schmenger, Lynsey Godfrey, Tibor Kovacs

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Rheolaser MASTER™ makes use of multiple scattering of light, caused by scattering objects in a continuous medium (such as droplets and particles in colloids), to characterize the viscoelasticity of soft materials. It offers an alternative to conventional rheometers to characterize viscoelasticity of products such as hair cosmetics. Up to six simultaneous measurements at controlled temperature can be carried out simultaneously (10-15 min), and the method requires only minor sample preparation work. Conversely to conventional rheometer based methods, no mechanical stress is applied to the material during the measurements. Therefore, the properties of the exact same sample can be monitored over time, like in aging and stability studies. We determined the elastic index (EI) of water/emulsion mixtures (1 ≤ fat alcohols (FA) ≤ 5 wt%) and emulsion/gel-network mixtures (8 ≤ FA ≤ 17 wt%) and compared with the elastic/sorage mudulus (G’) for the respective samples using a TA conventional rheometer with flat plates geometry. As expected, it was found that log(EI) vs log(G’) presents a linear behavior. Moreover, log(EI) increased in a linear fashion with solids level in the entire range of compositions (1 ≤ FA ≤ 17 wt%), while rheometer measurements were limited to samples down to 4 wt% solids level. Alternatively, a concentric cilinder geometry would be required for more diluted samples (FA > 4 wt%) and rheometer results from different sample holder geometries are not comparable. The plot of the rheolaser output parameters solid-liquid balance (SLB) vs EI were suitable to monitor product aging processes. These data could quantitatively describe some observations such as formation of lumps over aging time. Moreover, this method allowed to identify that the different specifications of a key raw material (RM < 0.4 wt%) in the respective gel-network (GN) product has minor impact on product viscoelastic properties and it is not consumer perceivable after a short aging time. Broadening of a RM spec range typically has a positive impact on cost savings. Last but not least, the photon path length (λ*)—proportional to droplet size and inversely proportional to volume fraction of scattering objects, accordingly to the Mie theory—and the EI were suitable to characterize product destabilization processes (e.g., coalescence and creaming) and to predict product stability about eight times faster than our standard methods. Using these parameters we could successfully identify formulation and process parameters that resulted in unstable products. In conclusion, Rheolaser allows quick and reliable characterization of viscoelastic properties of hair cosmetics that are related to their performance and stability. It operates in a broad range of product compositions and has applications spanning from the formulation of our hair cosmetics to fast release criteria in our production sites. Last but not least, this powerful tool has positive impact on R&D development time—faster delivery of new products to the market—and consequently on cost savings.

Keywords: colloids, hair cosmetics, light scattering, performance and stability, soft materials, viscoelastic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
66 Feasibility of Washing/Extraction Treatment for the Remediation of Deep-Sea Mining Trailings

Authors: Kyoungrean Kim

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Importance of deep-sea mineral resources is dramatically increasing due to the depletion of land mineral resources corresponding to increasing human’s economic activities. Korea has acquired exclusive exploration licenses at four areas which are the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean (2002), Tonga (2008), Fiji (2011) and Indian Ocean (2014). The preparation for commercial mining of Nautilus minerals (Canada) and Lockheed martin minerals (USA) is expected by 2020. The London Protocol 1996 (LP) under International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Seabed Authority (ISA) will set environmental guidelines for deep-sea mining until 2020, to protect marine environment. In this research, the applicability of washing/extraction treatment for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings was mainly evaluated in order to present preliminary data to develop practical remediation technology in near future. Polymetallic nodule samples were collected at the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean, then stored at room temperature. Samples were pulverized by using jaw crusher and ball mill then, classified into 3 particle sizes (> 63 µm, 63-20 µm, < 20 µm) by using vibratory sieve shakers (Analysette 3 Pro, Fritsch, Germany) with 63 µm and 20 µm sieve. Only the particle size 63-20 µm was used as the samples for investigation considering the lower limit of ore dressing process which is tens to 100 µm. Rhamnolipid and sodium alginate as biosurfactant and aluminum sulfate which are mainly used as flocculant were used as environmentally friendly additives. Samples were adjusted to 2% liquid with deionized water then mixed with various concentrations of additives. The mixture was stirred with a magnetic bar during specific reaction times and then the liquid phase was separated by a centrifugal separator (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) under 4,000 rpm for 1 h. The separated liquid was filtered with a syringe and acrylic-based filter (0.45 µm). The extracted heavy metals in the filtered liquid were then determined using a UV-Vis spectrometer (DR-5000, Hach, USA) and a heat block (DBR 200, Hach, USA) followed by US EPA methods (8506, 8009, 10217 and 10220). Polymetallic nodule was mainly composed of manganese (27%), iron (8%), nickel (1.4%), cupper (1.3 %), cobalt (1.3%) and molybdenum (0.04%). Based on remediation standards of various countries, Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) were selected as primary target materials. Throughout this research, the use of rhamnolipid was shown to be an effective approach for removing heavy metals in samples originated from manganese nodules. Sodium alginate might also be one of the effective additives for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings such as polymetallic nodules. Compare to the use of rhamnolipid and sodium alginate, aluminum sulfate was more effective additive at short reaction time within 4 h. Based on these results, sequencing particle separation, selective extraction/washing, advanced filtration of liquid phase, water treatment without dewatering and solidification/stabilization may be considered as candidate technologies for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings.

Keywords: deep-sea mining tailings, heavy metals, remediation, extraction, additives

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
65 Creation of a Test Machine for the Scientific Investigation of Chain Shot

Authors: Mark McGuire, Eric Shannon, John Parmigiani

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Timber harvesting increasingly involves mechanized equipment. This has increased the efficiency of harvesting, but has also introduced worker-safety concerns. One such concern arises from the use of harvesters. During operation, harvesters subject saw chain to large dynamic mechanical stresses. These stresses can, under certain conditions, cause the saw chain to fracture. The high speed of harvester saw chain can cause the resulting open chain loop to fracture a second time due to the dynamic loads placed upon it as it travels through space. If a second fracture occurs, it can result in a projectile consisting of one-to-several chain links. This projectile is referred to as a chain shot. It has speeds similar to a bullet but typically has greater mass and is a significant safety concern. Numerous examples exist of chain shots penetrating bullet-proof barriers and causing severe injury and death. Improved harvester-cab barriers can help prevent injury however a comprehensive scientific understanding of chain shot is required to consistently reduce or prevent it. Obtaining this understanding requires a test machine with the capability to cause chain shot to occur under carefully controlled conditions and accurately measure the response. Worldwide few such test machine exist. Those that do focus on validating the ability of barriers to withstand a chain shot impact rather than obtaining a scientific understanding of the chain shot event itself. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design, fabrication, and use of a test machine capable of a comprehensive scientific investigation of chain shot. The capabilities of this machine are to test all commercially-available saw chains and bars at chain tensions and speeds meeting and exceeding those typically encountered in harvester use and accurately measure the corresponding key technical parameters. The test machine was constructed inside of a standard shipping container. This provides space for both an operator station and a test chamber. In order to contain the chain shot under any possible test conditions, the test chamber was lined with a base layer of AR500 steel followed by an overlay of HDPE. To accommodate varying bar orientations and fracture-initiation sites, the entire saw chain drive unit and bar mounting system is modular and capable of being located anywhere in the test chamber. The drive unit consists of a high-speed electric motor with a flywheel. Standard Ponsse harvester head components are used to bar mounting and chain tensioning. Chain lubrication is provided by a separate peristaltic pump. Chain fracture is initiated through ISO standard 11837. Measure parameters include shaft speed, motor vibration, bearing temperatures, motor temperature, motor current draw, hydraulic fluid pressure, chain force at fracture, and high-speed camera images. Results show that the machine is capable of consistently causing chain shot. Measurement output shows fracture location and the force associated with fracture as a function of saw chain speed and tension. Use of this machine will result in a scientific understanding of chain shot and consequently improved products and greater harvester operator safety.

Keywords: chain shot, safety, testing, timber harvesters

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
64 Explosive Clad Metals for Geothermal Energy Recovery

Authors: Heather Mroz

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Geothermal fluids can provide a nearly unlimited source of renewable energy but are often highly corrosive due to dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), Ammonia (NH3) and chloride ions. The corrosive environment drives material selection for many components, including piping, heat exchangers and pressure vessels, to higher alloys of stainless steel, nickel-based alloys and titanium. The use of these alloys is cost-prohibitive and does not offer the pressure rating of carbon steel. One solution, explosion cladding, has been proven to reduce the capital cost of the geothermal equipment while retaining the mechanical and corrosion properties of both the base metal and the cladded surface metal. Explosion cladding is a solid-state welding process that uses precision explosions to bond two dissimilar metals while retaining the mechanical, electrical and corrosion properties. The process is commonly used to clad steel with a thin layer of corrosion-resistant alloy metal, such as stainless steel, brass, nickel, silver, titanium, or zirconium. Additionally, explosion welding can join a wider array of compatible and non-compatible metals with more than 260 metal combinations possible. The explosion weld is achieved in milliseconds; therefore, no bulk heating occurs, and the metals experience no dilution. By adhering to a strict set of manufacturing requirements, both the shear strength and tensile strength of the bond will exceed the strength of the weaker metal, ensuring the reliability of the bond. For over 50 years, explosion cladding has been used in the oil and gas and chemical processing industries and has provided significant economic benefit in reduced maintenance and lower capital costs over solid construction. The focus of this paper will be on the many benefits of the use of explosion clad in process equipment instead of more expensive solid alloy construction. The method of clad-plate production with explosion welding as well as the methods employed to ensure sound bonding of the metals. It will also include the origins of explosion cladding as well as recent technological developments. Traditionally explosion clad plate was formed into vessels, tube sheets and heads but recent advances include explosion welded piping. The final portion of the paper will give examples of the use of explosion-clad metals in geothermal energy recovery. The classes of materials used for geothermal brine will be discussed, including stainless steels, nickel alloys and titanium. These examples will include heat exchangers (tube sheets), high pressure and horizontal separators, standard pressure crystallizers, piping and well casings. It is important to educate engineers and designers on material options as they develop equipment for geothermal resources. Explosion cladding is a niche technology that can be successful in many situations, like geothermal energy recovery, where high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environments are typical. Applications for explosion clad metals include vessel and heat exchanger components as well as piping.

Keywords: clad metal, explosion welding, separator material, well casing material, piping material

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63 Peculiarities of Absorption near the Edge of the Fundamental Band of Irradiated InAs-InP Solid Solutions

Authors: Nodar Kekelidze, David Kekelidze, Elza Khutsishvili, Bela Kvirkvelia

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The semiconductor devices are irreplaceable elements for investigations in Space (artificial Earth satellite, interplanetary space craft, probes, rockets) and for investigation of elementary particles on accelerators, for atomic power stations, nuclear reactors, robots operating on heavily radiation contaminated territories (Chernobyl, Fukushima). Unfortunately, the most important parameters of semiconductors dramatically worsen under irradiation. So creation of radiation-resistant semiconductor materials for opto and microelectronic devices is actual problem, as well as investigation of complicated processes developed in irradiated solid states. Homogeneous single crystals of InP-InAs solid solutions were grown with zone melting method. There has been studied the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy near fundamental absorption edge. This dependence changes dramatically with irradiation. The experiments were performed on InP, InAs and InP-InAs solid solutions before and after irradiation with electrons and fast neutrons. The investigations of optical properties were carried out on infrared spectrophotometer in temperature range of 10K-300K and 1mkm-50mkm spectral area. Radiation fluencies of fast neutrons was equal to 2·1018neutron/cm2 and electrons with 3MeV, 50MeV up to fluxes of 6·1017electron/cm2. Under irradiation, there has been revealed the exponential type of the dependence of the optical absorption coefficient vs photon energy with energy deficiency. The indicated phenomenon takes place at high and low temperatures as well at impurity different concentration and practically in all cases of irradiation by various energy electrons and fast neutrons. We have developed the common mechanism of this phenomenon for unirradiated materials and implemented the quantitative calculations of distinctive parameter; this is in a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. For the irradiated crystals picture get complicated. In the work, the corresponding analysis is carried out. It has been shown, that in the case of InP, irradiated with electrons (Ф=1·1017el/cm2), the curve of optical absorption is shifted to lower energies. This is caused by appearance of the tails of density of states in forbidden band due to local fluctuations of ionized impurity (defect) concentration. Situation is more complicated in the case of InAs and for solid solutions with composition near to InAs when besides noticeable phenomenon there takes place Burstein effect caused by increase of electrons concentration as a result of irradiation. We have shown, that in certain conditions it is possible the prevalence of Burstein effect. This causes the opposite effect: the shift of the optical absorption edge to higher energies. So in given solid solutions there take place two different opposite directed processes. By selection of solid solutions composition and doping impurity we obtained such InP-InAs, solid solution in which under radiation mutual compensation of optical absorption curves displacement occurs. Obtained result let create on the base of InP-InAs, solid solution radiation-resistant optical materials. Conclusion: It was established the nature of optical absorption near fundamental edge in semiconductor materials and it was created radiation-resistant optical material.

Keywords: InAs-InP, electrons concentration, irradiation, solid solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
62 Operational Characteristics of the Road Surface Improvement

Authors: Iuri Salukvadze

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Construction takes importance role in the history of mankind, there is not a single thing-product in our lives in which the builder’s work was not to be materialized, because to create all of it requires setting up factories, roads, and bridges, etc. The function of the Republic of Georgia, as part of the connecting Europe-Asia transport corridor, is significantly increased. In the context of transit function a large part of the cargo traffic belongs to motor transport, hence the improvement of motor roads transport infrastructure is rather important and rise the new, increased operational demands for existing as well as new motor roads. Construction of the durable road surface is related to rather large values, but because of high transport-operational properties, such as high-speed, less fuel consumption, less depreciation of tires, etc. If the traffic intensity is high, therefore the reimbursement of expenses occurs rapidly and accordingly is increasing income. If the traffic intensity is relatively small, it is recommended to use lightened structures of road carpet in order to pay for capital investments amounted to no more than normative one. The road carpet is divided into the following basic types: asphaltic concrete and cement concrete. Asphaltic concrete is the most perfect type of road carpet. It is arranged in two or three layers on rigid foundation and will be compacted. Asphaltic concrete is artificial building material, which due stratum will be selected and measured from stone skeleton and sand, interconnected by bitumen and a mixture of mineral powder. Less strictly selected similar material is called as bitumen-mineral mixture. Asphaltic concrete is non-rigid building material and well durable on vertical loadings; it is less resistant to the impact of horizontal forces. The cement concrete is monolithic and durable material, it is well durable the horizontal loads and is less resistant related to vertical loads. The cement concrete consists from strictly selected, measured stone material and sand, the binder is cement. The cement concrete road carpet represents separate slabs of sizes from 3 ÷ 5 op to 6 ÷ 8 meters. The slabs are reinforced by a rather complex system. Between the slabs are arranged seams that are designed for avoiding of additional stresses due temperature fluctuations on the length of slabs. For the joint behavior of separate slabs, they are connected by metal rods. Rods provide the changes in the length of slabs and distribute to the slab vertical forces and bending moments. The foundation layers will be extremely durable, for that is required high-quality stone material, cement, and metal. The qualification work aims to: in order for improvement of traffic conditions on motor roads to prolong operational conditions and improving their characteristics. The work consists from three chapters, 80 pages, 5 tables and 5 figures. In the work are stated general concepts as well as carried out by various companies using modern methods tests and their results. In the chapter III are stated carried by us tests related to this issue and specific examples to improving the operational characteristics.

Keywords: asphalt, cement, cylindrikal sample of asphalt, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
61 Modelling Pest Immigration into Rape Seed Crops under Past and Future Climate Conditions

Authors: M. Eickermann, F. Ronellenfitsch, J. Junk

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Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important crops throughout Europe, but pressure due to pest insects and pathogens can reduce yield amount substantially. Therefore, the usage of pesticide applications is outstanding in this crop. In addition, climate change effects can interact with phenology of the host plant and their pests and can apply additional pressure on the yield. Next to the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus L., the seed-damaging pest insects, cabbage seed weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus Marsham) and the brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) are of main economic impact to the yield. While females of C. obstrictus are infesting oilseed rape by depositing single eggs into young pods, the females of D. brassicae are using this local damage in the pod for their own oviposition, while depositing batches of 20-30 eggs. Without a former infestation by the cabbage seed weevil, a significant yield reduction by the brassica pod midge can be denied. Based on long-term, multisided field experiments, a comprehensive data-set on pest migration to crops of B. napus has been built up in the last ten years. Five observational test sides, situated in different climatic regions in Luxembourg were controlled between February until the end of May twice a week. Pest migration was recorded by using yellow water pan-traps. Caught insects were identified in the laboratory according to species specific identification keys. By a combination of pest observations and corresponding meteorological observations, the set-up of models to predict the migration periods of the seed-damaging pests was possible. This approach is the basis for a computer-based decision support tool, to assist the farmer in identifying the appropriate time point of pesticide application. In addition, the derived algorithms of that decision support tool can be combined with climate change projections in order to assess the future potential threat caused by the seed-damaging pest species. Regional climate change effects for Luxembourg have been intensively studied in recent years. Significant changes to wetter winters and drier summers, as well as a prolongation of the vegetation period mainly caused by higher spring temperature, have also been reported. We used the COSMO-CLM model to perform a time slice experiment for Luxembourg with a spatial resolution of 1.3 km. Three ten year time slices were calculated: The reference time span (1991-2000), the near (2041-2050) and the far future (2091-2100). Our results projected a significant shift of pest migration to an earlier onset of the year. In addition, a prolongation of the possible migration period could be observed. Because D. brassiace is depending on the former oviposition activity by C. obstrictus to infest its host plant successfully, the future dependencies of both pest species will be assessed. Based on this approach the future risk potential of both seed-damaging pests is calculated and the status as pest species is characterized.

Keywords: CORDEX projections, decision support tool, Brassica napus, pests

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
60 Emergency Department Utilisation of Older People Presenting to Four Emergency Departments

Authors: M. Fry, L. Fitzpatrick, Julie Considine, R. Z. Shaban, Kate Curtis

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Introduction: The vast majority of older Australians lives independently and are self-managing at home, despite a growing number living with a chronic illness that requires health intervention. Evidence shows that between 50% and 80% of people presenting to the emergency department (ED) are in pain. Australian EDs manage 7.2 million attendances every year and 1.4 million of these are people aged 65 years or more. Research shows that 28% of ED patients aged 65 years or more have Cognitive impairment (CI) associated with dementia, delirium and neurological conditions. Background: Traditional ED service delivery may not be suitable for older people who present with multiple, complex and ongoing illnesses. Likewise, ED clinical staff often perceive that their role should be focused more on immediate and potential lifethreatening illness and conditions which are episodic in nature. Therefore, the needs of older people and their family/carers may not be adequately addressed in the context of an ED presentation. Aim: We aimed to explore the utilisation and characteristics of older people presenting to four metropolitan EDs. Method: The findings being presented are part of a program of research exploring pain management practices for older persons with long bone fractures. The study was conducted across four metropolitan emergency departments of older patients (65years and over) and involved a 12-month randomised medical record audit (n=255). Results: ED presentations across four ED sites in 2012 numbered 168021, with 44778 (26.6%) patients aged 65 and over. Of the 44778 patients, the average age was 79.1 years (SD 8.54). There were more females 23932 (53.5%). The majority (26925: 85.0%) of older persons self-referred to the ED and lived independently. The majority arrived by ambulance (n=18553: 41.4%) and were allocated triage category was 3 (n=19,507:43.65%) or Triage category 4 at (n=15,389: 34.43%). The top five triage symptom presentations involved pain (n=8088; 18.25%), dyspnoea (n=4735; 10.7%), falls (n=4032; 9.1%), other (n=3984; 9.0%), cardiac (n=2987; 6.7%). The top five system based diagnostic presentations involved musculoskeletal (n=8902; 20.1%), cardiac (n=6704:15.0%), respiratory (n=4933; 11.0%), neurological (n=4909; 11.0%), gastroenterology (n=4321; 9.7%). On review of one tertiary hospital database the vital signs on average at time triage: Systolic Blood Pressure 143.6mmHg. Heart Rate 83.4 beats/minute; Respiratory Rate 18.5 breaths/ minute; Oxygen saturation 97.0% and Tympanic temperature 36.7 and Blood Glucose Level 7.4mmols/litre. The majority presented with a Glasgow Coma Score of 14 or higher. On average the older person stayed in the ED 4:56 (SD 3:28minutes).The average time to be seen was 39 minutes (SD 48 minutes). The majority of older persons were admitted (n=27562: 61.5%), did not wait for treatment (n= 8879: 0.02%) discharged home (n=16256: 36.0%). Conclusion: The vast majority of older persons are living independently, although many require admission on arrival to the ED. Many arrived in pain and with musculoskeletal injuries and or conditions. New models of care need to be considered, which may better support self-management and independent living of the older person and the National Emergency Access Targets.

Keywords: chronic, older person, aged care, emergency department

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59 Biotite from Contact-Metamorphosed Rocks of the Dizi Series of the Greater Caucasus

Authors: Irakli Javakhishvili, Tamara Tsutsunava, Giorgi Beridze

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The Caucasus is a component of the Mediterranean collision belt. The Dizi series is situated within the Greater Caucasian region of the Caucasus and crops out in the core of the Svaneti anticlinorium. The series was formed in the continental slope conditions on the southern passive margin of the small ocean basin. The Dizi series crops out on about 560 square km with the thickness 2000-2200 m. The rocks are faunally dated from the Devonian to the Triassic inclusive. The series is composed of terrigenous phyllitic schists, sandstones, quartzite aleurolites and lenses and interlayers of marbleized limestones. During the early Cimmerian orogeny, they underwent regional metamorphism of chlorite-sericite subfacies of greenschist facies. Typical minerals of metapelites are chlorite, sericite, augite, quartz, and tourmaline, but of basic rocks - actinolite, fibrolite, prehnite, calcite, and chlorite are developed. Into the Dizi series, polyphase intrusions of gabbros, diorites, quartz-diorites, syenite-diorites, syenites, and granitoids are intruded. Their K-Ar age dating (176-165Ma) points out that their formation corresponds to the Bathonian orogeny. The Dizi series is well-studied geologically, but very complicated processes of its regional and contact metamorphisms are insufficiently investigated. The aim of the authors was a detailed study of contact metamorphism processes of the series rocks. Investigations were accomplished applying the following methodologies: finding of key sections, a collection of material, microscopic study of samples, microprobe and structural analysis of minerals and X-ray determination of elements. The Dizi series rocks formed under the influence of the Bathonian magmatites on metapelites and carbonate-enriched rocks. They are represented by quartz, biotite, sericite, graphite, andalusite, muscovite, plagioclase, corundum, cordierite, clinopyroxene, hornblende, cummingtonite, actinolite, and tremolite bearing hornfels, marbles, and skarns. The contact metamorphism aureole reaches 350 meters. Biotite is developed only in contact-metamorphosed rocks and is a rather informative index mineral. In metapelites, biotite is formed as a result of the reaction between phengite, chlorite, and leucoxene, but in basites, it replaces actinolite or actinolite-hornblende. To study the compositional regularities of biotites, they were investigated from both - metapelites and metabasites. In total, biotite from the basites is characterized by an increased of titanium in contrast to biotite from metapelites. Biotites from metapelites are distinguished by an increased amount of aluminum. In biotites an increased amount of titanium and aluminum is observed as they approximate the contact, while their magnesia content decreases. Metapelite biotites are characterized by an increased amount of alumina in aluminum octahedrals, in contrast to biotite of the basites. In biotites of metapelites, the amount of tetrahedric aluminum is 28–34%, octahedral - 15–26%, and in basites tetrahedral aluminum is 28–33%, and octahedral 7–21%. As a result of the study of minerals, including biotite, from the contact-metamorphosed rocks of the Dizi series three exocontact zones with corresponding mineral assemblages were identified. It was established that contact metamorphism in the aureole of the Dizi series intrusions is going on at a significantly higher temperature and lower pressure than the regional metamorphism preceding the contact metamorphism.

Keywords: biotite, contact metamorphism, Dizi series, the Greater Caucasus

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58 Investigation of Pu-238 Heat Source Modifications to Increase Power Output through (α,N) Reaction-Induced Fission

Authors: Alex B. Cusick

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The objective of this study is to improve upon the current ²³⁸PuO₂ fuel technology for space and defense applications. Modern RTGs (radioisotope thermoelectric generators) utilize the heat generated from the radioactive decay of ²³⁸Pu to create heat and electricity for long term and remote missions. Application of RTG technology is limited by the scarcity and expense of producing the isotope, as well as the power output which is limited to only a few hundred watts. The scarcity and expense make the efficient use of ²³⁸Pu absolutely necessary. By utilizing the decay of ²³⁸Pu, not only to produce heat directly but to also indirectly induce fission in ²³⁹Pu (which is already present within currently used fuel), it is possible to see large increases in temperature which allows for a more efficient conversion to electricity and a higher power-to-weight ratio. This concept can reduce the quantity of ²³⁸Pu necessary for these missions, potentially saving millions on investment, while yielding higher power output. Current work investigating radioisotope power systems have focused on improving efficiency of the thermoelectric components and replacing systems which produce heat by virtue of natural decay with fission reactors. The technical feasibility of utilizing (α,n) reactions to induce fission within current radioisotopic fuels has not been investigated in any appreciable detail, and our study aims to thoroughly investigate the performance of many such designs, develop those with highest capabilities, and facilitate experimental testing of these designs. In order to determine the specific design parameters that maximize power output and the efficient use of ²³⁸Pu for future RTG units, MCNP6 simulations have been used to characterize the effects of modifying fuel composition, geometry, and porosity, as well as introducing neutron moderating, reflecting, and shielding materials to the system. Although this project is currently in the preliminary stages, the final deliverables will include sophisticated designs and simulation models that define all characteristics of multiple novel RTG fuels, detailed enough to allow immediate fabrication and testing. Preliminary work has consisted of developing a benchmark model to accurately represent the ²³⁸PuO₂ pellets currently in use by NASA; this model utilizes the alpha transport capabilities of MCNP6 and agrees well with experimental data. In addition, several models have been developed by varying specific parameters to investigate their effect on (α,n) and (n,fi ssion) reaction rates. Current practices in fuel processing are to exchange out the small portion of naturally occurring ¹⁸O and ¹⁷O to limit (α,n) reactions and avoid unnecessary neutron production. However, we have shown that enriching the oxide in ¹⁸O introduces a sufficient (α,n) reaction rate to support significant fission rates. For example, subcritical fission rates above 10⁸ f/cm³-s are easily achievable in cylindrical ²³⁸PuO₂ fuel pellets with a ¹⁸O enrichment of 100%, given an increase in size and a ⁹Be clad. Many viable designs exist and our intent is to discuss current results and future endeavors on this project.

Keywords: radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG), Pu-238, subcritical reactors, (alpha, n) reactions

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57 Application of the Carboxylate Platform in the Consolidated Bioconversion of Agricultural Wastes to Biofuel Precursors

Authors: Sesethu G. Njokweni, Marelize Botes, Emile W. H. Van Zyl

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An alternative strategy to the production of bioethanol is by examining the degradability of biomass in a natural system such as the rumen of mammals. This anaerobic microbial community has higher cellulolytic activities than microbial communities from other habitats and degrades cellulose to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane and CO₂. VFAs have the potential to serve as intermediate products for electrochemical conversion to hydrocarbon fuels. In vitro mimicking of this process would be more cost-effective than bioethanol production as it does not require chemical pre-treatment of biomass, a sterile environment or added enzymes. The strategies of the carboxylate platform and the co-cultures of a bovine ruminal microbiota from cannulated cows were combined in order to investigate and optimize the bioconversion of agricultural biomass (apple and grape pomace, citrus pulp, sugarcane bagasse and triticale straw) to high value VFAs as intermediates for biofuel production in a consolidated bioprocess. Optimisation of reactor conditions was investigated using five different ruminal inoculum concentrations; 5,10,15,20 and 25% with fixed pH at 6.8 and temperature at 39 ˚C. The ANKOM 200/220 fiber analyser was used to analyse in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance of the feedstuffs. Fresh and cryo-frozen (5% DMSO and 50% glycerol for 3 months) rumen cultures were tested for the retainment of fermentation capacity and durability in 72 h fermentations in 125 ml serum vials using a FURO medical solutions 6-valve gas manifold to induce anaerobic conditions. Fermentation of apple pomace, triticale straw, and grape pomace showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the effect of 15 and 20 % inoculum concentrations for the total VFA yield. However, high performance liquid chromatographic separation within the two inoculum concentrations showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in acetic acid yield, with 20% inoculum concentration being the optimum at 4.67 g/l. NDF disappearance of 85% in 96 h and total VFA yield of 11.5 g/l in 72 h (A/P ratio = 2.04) for apple pomace entailed that it was the optimal feedstuff for this process. The NDF disappearance and VFA yield of DMSO (82% NDF disappearance and 10.6 g/l VFA) and glycerol (90% NDF disappearance and 11.6 g/l VFA) stored rumen also showed significantly similar degradability of apple pomace with lack of treatment effect differences compared to a fresh rumen control (P > 0.05). The lack of treatment effects was a positive sign in indicating that there was no difference between the stored samples and the fresh rumen control. Retaining of the fermentation capacity within the preserved cultures suggests that its metabolic characteristics were preserved due to resilience and redundancy of the rumen culture. The amount of degradability and VFA yield within a short span was similar to other carboxylate platforms that have longer run times. This study shows that by virtue of faster rates and high extent of degradability, small scale alternatives to bioethanol such as rumen microbiomes and other natural fermenting microbiomes can be employed to enhance the feasibility of biofuels large-scale implementation.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carboxylate platform, rumen microbiome, volatile fatty acids

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56 Urban Sprawl: A Case Study of Suryapet Town in Nalgonda District of Telangana State, a Geoinformatic Approach

Authors: Ashok Kumar Lonavath, V. Sathish Kumar

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Urban sprawl is the uncontrolled and uncoordinated outgrowth of towns and cities. The process of urban sprawl can be described by change in pattern over time, like proportional increase in built-up surface to population leading to rapid urban spatial expansion. Significant economic and livelihood opportunities in the urban areas results in lack of basic amenities due to the unplanned growth The patterns, processes, dynamic causes and consequences of sprawl can be explored and designed with the help of spatial planning support system. In India context the urban area is defined as the population more than 5000, density more than 400 persons per sq. km and 75% of the population is involved in non-agricultural occupations. India’s urban population is increasing at the rate of 2.35% pa. The class I town’s population of India according to 2011 census is 18.8% that accounts for 60.4% of total unban population. Similarly in Erstwhile Andhra Pradesh it is 22.9% which accounts for 68.8% of total urban population. Suryapet town has historical recognition as ‘Gate Way of Telangana’ in the Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. The Municipality was constituted in 1952 as Grade-III, later upgraded into Grade-II in 1984 and to Grade-I in 1998. The area is 35 Sq.kms. Three major tanks located in three different directions and Musi River is flowing from a distance of 8 kms. The average ground water table is about 50m below ground. It is a fast growing town with a population of 1, 06,805 and 25,448 households. Density is 3051pp sq km, It is a Class I city as per population census. It secured the ISO 14001-2004 certificate for establishing and maintaining an environment-friendly system for solid waste disposal. It is the first municipality in the country to receive such a certificate. It won HUDCO award under environment management, award of appreciation and cash from Ministry of Housing and Poverty Elevation from Government of India and undivided Andhra Pradesh under UN Human Settlement Programme, Greentech Excellance award, Supreme Courts appreciation for solid waste management. Foreign delegates from different countries and also from various other states of India visited Suryapet municipality for study tour and training programs as part of their official visit Suryapet is located at 17°5’ North Latitude and 79°37’ East Longitude. The average elevation is 266m, annual mean temperature is 36°C and average rainfall is 821.0 mm. The people of this town are engaged in Commercial and agriculture activities hence the town has become a centre for marketing and stocking agricultural produce. It is also educational centre in this region. The present paper on urban sprawl is a theoretical framework to analyze the interaction of planning and governance on the extent of outgrowth and level of services. The GIS techniques, SOI Toposheet, satellite imageries and image analysis techniques are extensively used to explore the sprawl and measure the urban land-use. This paper concludes outlining the challenges in addressing urban sprawl while ensuring adequate level of services that planning and governance have to ensure towards achieving sustainable urbanization.

Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, urban sprawl, urbanization

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55 Synthesis by Mechanical Alloying and Characterization of FeNi₃ Nanoalloys

Authors: Ece A. Irmak, Amdulla O. Mekhrabov, M. Vedat Akdeniz

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There is a growing interest on the synthesis and characterization of nanoalloys since the unique chemical, and physical properties of nanoalloys can be tuned and, consequently, new structural motifs can be created by varying the type of constituent elements, atomic and magnetic ordering, as well as size and shape of the nanoparticles. Due to the fine size effects, magnetic nanoalloys have considerable attention with their enhanced mechanical, electrical, optical and magnetic behavior. As an important magnetic nanoalloy, the novel application area of Fe-Ni based nanoalloys is expected to be widened in the chemical, aerospace industry and magnetic biomedical applications. Noble metals have been using in biomedical applications for several years because of their surface plasmon properties. In this respect, iron-nickel nanoalloys are promising materials for magnetic biomedical applications because they show novel properties such as superparamagnetism and surface plasmon resonance property. Also, there is great attention for the usage Fe-Ni based nanoalloys as radar absorbing materials in aerospace and stealth industry due to having high Curie temperature, high permeability and high saturation magnetization with good thermal stability. In this study, FeNi₃ bimetallic nanoalloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying in a planetary high energy ball mill. In mechanical alloying, micron size powders are placed into the mill with milling media. The powders are repeatedly deformed, fractured and alloyed by high energy collision under the impact of balls until the desired composition and particle size is achieved. The experimental studies were carried out in two parts. Firstly, dry mechanical alloying with high energy dry planetary ball milling was applied to obtain FeNi₃ nanoparticles. Secondly, dry milling was followed by surfactant-assisted ball milling to observe the surfactant and solvent effect on the structure, size, and properties of the FeNi₃ nanoalloys. In the first part, the powder sample of iron-nickel was prepared according to the 1:3 iron to nickel ratio to produce FeNi₃ nanoparticles and the 1:10 powder to ball weight ratio. To avoid oxidation during milling, the vials had been filled with Ar inert gas before milling started. The powders were milled for 80 hours in total and the synthesis of the FeNi₃ intermetallic nanoparticles was succeeded by mechanical alloying in 40 hours. Also, regarding the particle size, it was found that the amount of nano-sized particles raised with increasing milling time. In the second part of the study, dry milling of the Fe and Ni powders with the same stoichiometric ratio was repeated. Then, to prevent agglomeration and to obtain smaller sized nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior, surfactants and solvent are added to the system, after 40-hour milling time, with the completion of the mechanical alloying. During surfactant-assisted ball milling, heptane was used as milling medium, and as surfactants, oleic acid and oleylamine were used in the high energy ball milling processes. The characterization of the alloyed particles in terms of microstructure, morphology, particle size, thermal and magnetic properties with respect to milling time was done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and differential scanning calorimetry.

Keywords: iron-nickel systems, magnetic nanoalloys, mechanical alloying, nanoalloy characterization, surfactant-assisted ball milling

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54 Advantages of Matrix Solid Phase Dispersive (MSPD) Extraction Associated to MIPS versus MAE Liquid Extraction for the Simultaneous Analysis of PAHs, PCBs and Some Hydroxylated PAHs in Sediments

Authors: F. Portet-Koltalo, Y. Tian, I. Berger, C. Boulanger-Lecomte, A. Benamar, N. Machour

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Sediments are complex environments which can accumulate a great variety of persistent toxic contaminants such as polychlorobiphenyles (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some of their more toxic degradation metabolites such as hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs). Owing to their composition, fine clayey sediments can be more difficult to extract than soils using conventional solvent extraction processes. So this study aimed to compare the potential of MSPD (matrix solid phase dispersive extraction) to extract PCBs, PAHs and OH-PAHs, in comparison with microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Methodologies: MAE extraction with various solvent mixtures was used to extract PCBs, PAHs and OH-PAHs from sediments in two runs, followed by two GC-MS analyses. MSPD consisted in crushing the dried sediment with dispersive agents, introducing the mixture in cartridges and eluting the target compounds with an appropriate volume of selected solvents. So MSPD combined with cartridges containing MIPs (molecularly imprinted polymers) designed for OH-PAHs was used to extract the three families of target compounds in only one run, followed by parallel analyses in GC-MS for PAHs/PCBs and HPLC-FLD for OH-PAHs. Results: MAE extraction was optimized to extract from clayey sediments, in two runs, PAHs/PCBs in one hand and OH-PAHs in the other hand. Indeed, the best conditions of extractions (mixtures of extracting solvents, temperature) were different if we consider the polarity and the thermodegradability of the different families of target contaminants: PAHs/PCBs were better extracted using an acetone/toluene 50/50 mixture at 130°C whereas OH-PAHs were better extracted using an acetonitrile/toluene 90/10 mixture at 100°C. Moreover, the two consecutive GC-MS analyses contributed to double the total analysis time. A matrix solid phase dispersive (MSPD) extraction procedure was also optimized, with the first objective of increasing the extraction recovery yields of PAHs and PCBs from fine-grained sediment. The crushing time (2-10 min), the nature of the dispersing agents added for purifying and increasing the extraction yields (Florisil, octadecylsilane, 3-chloropropyle, 4-benzylchloride), the nature and the volume of eluting solvents (methylene chloride, hexane, hexane/acetone…) were studied. It appeared that in the best conditions, MSPD was a better extraction method than MAE for PAHs and PCBs, with respectively, mean increases of 8.2% and 71%. This method was also faster, easier and less expensive. But the other advantage of MSPD was that it allowed to introduce easily, just after the first elution process of PAHs/PCBs, a step permitting the selective recovery of OH-PAHs. A cartridge containing MIPs designed for phenols was coupled to the cartridge containing the dispersed sediment, and various eluting solvents, different from those used for PAHs and PCBs, were tested to selectively concentrate and extract OH-PAHs. Thereafter OH-PAHs could be analyzed at the same time than PAHs and PCBs: the OH-PAH extract could be analyzed with HPLC-FLD, whereas the PAHs/PCBs extract was analyzed with GC-MS, adding only few minutes more to the total duration of the analytical process. Conclusion: MSPD associated to MIPs appeared to be an easy, fast and low expensive method, able to extract in one run a complex mixture of toxic apolar and more polar contaminants present in clayey fine-grained sediments, an environmental matrix which is generally difficult to analyze.

Keywords: contaminated fine-grained sediments, matrix solid phase dispersive extraction, microwave assisted extraction, molecularly imprinted polymers, multi-pollutant analysis

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53 Livelihood Security and Mitigating Climate Changes in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh through Agroforestry Systems

Authors: Md Shafiqul Bari, Md Shafiqul Islam Sikdar

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This paper summarizes the current knowledge on Agroforestry practices in the Barind tract of Bangladesh. The part of greater Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur and Bogra district of Bangladesh is geographically identified as the Barind tract. The hard red soil of these areas is very significant in comparison to that of the other parts of the country. A typical dry climate with comparatively high temperature prevails in the Barind area. Scanty rainfall and excessive extraction of groundwater have created an alarming situation among the Barind people and others about irrigation to the rice field. In addition, the situation may cause an adverse impact on the people whose livelihood largely depends on agriculture. The groundwater table has been declined by at least 10 to 15 meters in some areas of the Barind tract during the last 20 years. Due to absent of forestland in the Barind tract, the soil organic carbon content can decrease more rapidly because of the higher rate of decomposition. The Barind soils are largely carbon depleted but can be brought back to carbon-carrying capacity by bringing under suitable Agroforestry systems. Agroforestry has tremendous potential for carbon sequestration not only in above C biomass but also root C biomass in deeper soil depths. Agroforestry systems habitually conserve soil organic carbon and maintain a great natural nutrient pool. Cultivation of trees with arable crops under Agroforestry systems help in improving soil organic carbon content and sequestration carbon, particularly in the highly degraded Barind lands. Agroforestry systems are a way of securing the growth of cash crops that may constitute an alternative source of income in moments of crisis. Besides being a source of fuel wood, a greater presence of trees in cropping system contributes to decreasing temperatures and to increasing rainfall, thus contrasting the negative environmental impact of climate changes. In order to fulfill the objectives of this study, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was survey on the impact of existing agroforestry system on the livelihood security in the Barind tract of Bangladesh and the second one was the role of agroforestry system on the improvement of soil properties in a multilayered coconut orchard. Agroforestry systems have been generated a lot of employment opportunities in the Barind area. More crops mean involvement of more people in various activities like involvements in dairying, sericulture, apiculture and additional associated agro-based interventions. Successful adoption of Agroforestry practices in the Barind area has shown that the Agroforestry practitioners of this area were very sound positioned economically, and had added social status too. However, from the findings of the present study, it may be concluded that the majority rural farmers of the Barind tract of Bangladesh had a very good knowledge and medium extension contact related to agroforestry production system. It was also observed that 85 per cent farmers followed agroforestry production system and received benefits to a higher extent. Again, from the research study on orchard based mutistoried agroforestry cropping system, it was evident that there was an important effect of agroforestry cropping systems on the improvement of soil chemical properties. As a result, the agroforestry systems may be helpful to attain the development objectives and preserve the biosphere core.

Keywords: agroforestry systems, Barind tract, carbon sequestration, climate changes

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