Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 252

Search results for: symbolic elites

252 Ethnic Xenophobia as Symbolic Politics: An Explanation of Anti-Migrant Activity from Brussels to Beirut

Authors: Annamarie Rannou, Horace Bartilow

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Global concerns about xenophobic activity are on the rise across developed and developing countries. And yet, social science scholarship has almost exclusively examined xenophobia as a prejudice of advanced western nations. This research argues that the fields of study related to xenophobia must be re-conceptualized within a framework of ethnicity in order to level the playing field for cross-regional inquiry. This study develops a new concept of ethnic xenophobia and integrates existing explanations of anti-migrant expression into theories of ethnic threat. We argue specifically that political elites convert economic, political, and social threats at the national level into ethnic xenophobic activity in order to gain or maintain political advantage among their native selectorate. We expand on Stuart Kaufman’s theory of symbolic politics to underscore the methods of mobilization used against migrants and the power of elite discourse in moments of national crises. An original dataset is used to examine over 35,000 cases of ethnic xenophobic activity targeting refugees. Wordscores software is used to develop a unique measure of anti-migrant elite rhetoric which captures the symbolic discourse of elites in their mobilization of ethnic xenophobic activism. We use a Structural Equation Model (SEM) to test the causal pathways of the theory across seventy-two developed and developing countries from 1990 to 2016. A framework of Most Different Systems Design (MDSD) is also applied to two pairs of developed-developing country cases, including Kenya and the Netherlands and Lebanon and the United States. This study sheds tremendous light on an underrepresented area of comparative research in migration studies. It shows that the causal elements of anti-migrant activity are far more similar than existing research suggests which has major implications for policy makers, practitioners, and academics in fields of migration protection and advocacy. It speaks directly to the mobilization of myths surrounding refugees, in particular, and the nationalization of narratives of migration that may be neutralized by the development of deeper associational relationships between natives and migrants.

Keywords: refugees, ethnicity, symbolic politics, elites, migration, comparative politics

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251 Institutional Preferences of Elites and Society: Paradoxes of Economic Development in Georgia

Authors: Inga Balarjishvili, Ia Natsvlishvili

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Article aims to discuss the controversial character of the institutional preferences of elites and society in modern Georgia. Desktop research method is used to formulate the findings and analyze the outcomes. It is accepted that transformation process in Post-Soviet Georgia went with the prevalence of elites’ institutional preferences over the needs of the society that induced voluntarism in the process of formation of institutions. Hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap' is put forward in the article as an effect of authoritarian modernization that is proved by instable paces of wealth and economic growth in the post-authoritarian period. On the one hand, monopolization of institutional choice by the elites, blocking formation of inclusive political and economic institutions for fear of losing status-quo worsen perspectives for achieving free availability regime. On the other hand, consciousness of the society is dominated by informal institutions, judicial nihilism and orientation on 'self-survival values.' This hinders its consolidation as a 'collective principal' against 'institutional utilitarianism,' result of which is hindered economic development.

Keywords: elites, hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap', institutional preferences, post-Soviet Georgia

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
250 Symbolic Play and Language: A Developmental Relationship

Authors: Sherri Franklin-Guy

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Play activities have long been utilized to support the development of expressive language in young children. More specifically, stages of symbolic play, or pretend play, have served as indicators of levels of cognitive development, the foundation of language. This presentation will examine the relationship between symbolic play and language development in toddlers and preschoolers. Implications for clinicians and educators will be discussed.

Keywords: cognition, language development, pretend play, symbolic play

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249 The Development of Space-Time and Space-Number Associations: The Role of Non-Symbolic vs. Symbolic Representations

Authors: Letizia Maria Drammis, Maria Antonella Brandimonte

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The idea that people use space representations to think about time and number received support from several lines of research. However, how these representations develop in children and then shape space-time and space-number mappings is still a debated issue. In the present study, 40 children (20 pre-schoolers and 20 elementary-school children) performed 4 main tasks, which required the use of more concrete (non-symbolic) or more abstract (symbolic) space-time and space-number associations. In the non-symbolic conditions, children were required to order pictures of everyday-life events occurring in a specific temporal order (Temporal sequences) and of quantities varying in numerosity (Numerical sequences). In the symbolic conditions, they were asked to perform the typical time-to-position and number-to-position tasks by mapping time-related words and numbers onto lines. Results showed that children performed reliably better in the non-symbolic Time conditions than the symbolic Time conditions, independently of age, whereas only pre-schoolers performed worse in the Number-to-position task (symbolic) as compared to the Numerical sequence (non-symbolic) task. In addition, only older children mapped time-related words onto space following the typical left-right orientation, pre-schoolers’ performance being somewhat mixed. In contrast, mapping numbers onto space showed a clear left-right orientation, independently of age. Overall, these results indicate a cross-domain difference in the way younger and older children process time and number, with time-related tasks being more difficult than number-related tasks only when space-time tasks require symbolic representations.

Keywords: space-time associations, space-number associations, orientation, children

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
248 Motherhood Practices and Symbolic Capital: A Study of Teen Mothers in Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Ampai Muensit, Maniemai Thongyou, Patcharin Lapanun

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Teen mothers have been viewed as ‘a powerless’ facing numerous pressures including poverty, immaturity of motherhood, and especially social blame.This paper argues that, to endure as an agent, they keep struggling to overcome all difficulties in their everyday life by using certain symbols to negotiate the situations they encounter, and to obtain a social position without surrendering to the dominating socio-cultural structure. Guided by Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this study looks at how teen mothers use symbolic capital in their motherhood practices. Although motherhood practices can be found in different contexts with various types of capital utilization, this paper focuses on the use of symbolic capitals in teen mothers’ practices within the contexts of the community. The study employs a qualitative methodology; data was collected from 12 informants through life history, in-depth interview, observation and the content analytical method was employed for data analysis. The findings show that child and motherhood were key symbolic capitals in motherhood practices. Employing such capitals teen mothers can achieve an acceptance from community – particularly from the new community. These symbolic capitals were the important sources of teen mothers’ power to turn the tide by changing their status – from “the powerless” to be “the agent”. The use of symbolic capitals also related to habitus of teen mothers in better compromising for an appropriate social position.

Keywords: teen mother, motherhood practice, symbolic capital, community

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247 Dissimilarity-Based Coloring for Symbolic and Multivariate Data Visualization

Authors: K. Umbleja, M. Ichino, H. Yaguchi

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In this paper, we propose a coloring method for multivariate data visualization by using parallel coordinates based on dissimilarity and tree structure information gathered during hierarchical clustering. The proposed method is an extension for proximity-based coloring that suffers from a few undesired side effects if hierarchical tree structure is not balanced tree. We describe the algorithm by assigning colors based on dissimilarity information, show the application of proposed method on three commonly used datasets, and compare the results with proximity-based coloring. We found our proposed method to be especially beneficial for symbolic data visualization where many individual objects have already been aggregated into a single symbolic object.

Keywords: data visualization, dissimilarity-based coloring, proximity-based coloring, symbolic data

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246 Dissimilarity Measure for General Histogram Data and Its Application to Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: K. Umbleja, M. Ichino

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Symbolic data mining has been developed to analyze data in very large datasets. It is also useful in cases when entry specific details should remain hidden. Symbolic data mining is quickly gaining popularity as datasets in need of analyzing are becoming ever larger. One type of such symbolic data is a histogram, which enables to save huge amounts of information into a single variable with high-level of granularity. Other types of symbolic data can also be described in histograms, therefore making histogram a very important and general symbolic data type - a method developed for histograms - can also be applied to other types of symbolic data. Due to its complex structure, analyzing histograms is complicated. This paper proposes a method, which allows to compare two histogram-valued variables and therefore find a dissimilarity between two histograms. Proposed method uses the Ichino-Yaguchi dissimilarity measure for mixed feature-type data analysis as a base and develops a dissimilarity measure specifically for histogram data, which allows to compare histograms with different number of bins and bin widths (so called general histogram). Proposed dissimilarity measure is then used as a measure for clustering. Furthermore, linkage method based on weighted averages is proposed with the concept of cluster compactness to measure the quality of clustering. The method is then validated with application on real datasets. As a result, the proposed dissimilarity measure is found producing adequate and comparable results with general histograms without the loss of detail or need to transform the data.

Keywords: dissimilarity measure, hierarchical clustering, histograms, symbolic data analysis

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245 Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations

Authors: Edris Rawashdeh, I. Abu-Falahah, H. M. Jaradat

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The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.

Keywords: dispersive wave equations, multiple soliton solution, Hirota Bilinear Method, symbolic computation

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244 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller

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In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: finite difference method, finite element method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, symbolic computation, wave propagation equations

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243 Incorporating Anomaly Detection in a Digital Twin Scenario using Symbolic Regression

Authors: Manuel Alves, Angelica Reis, Armindo Lobo, Valdemar Leiras

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In industry 4.0, it is common to have a lot of sensor data. In this deluge of data, hints of possible problems are difficult to spot. The digital twin concept aims to help answer this problem, but it is mainly used as a monitoring tool to handle the visualisation of data. Failure detection is of paramount importance in any industry, and it consumes a lot of resources. Any improvement in this regard is of tangible value to the organisation. The aim of this paper is to add the ability to forecast test failures, curtailing detection times. To achieve this, several anomaly detection algorithms were compared with a symbolic regression approach. To this end, Isolation Forest, One-Class SVM and an auto-encoder have been explored. For the symbolic regression PySR library was used. The first results show that this approach is valid and can be added to the tools available in this context as a low resource anomaly detection method since, after training, the only requirement is the calculation of a polynomial, a useful feature in the digital twin context.

Keywords: anomaly detection, digital twin, industry 4.0, symbolic regression

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242 Drama, a Microcosm of Life Experiences: An Analysis of Symbolic Order and Social Relationships in Olu Obafemi’s Play

Authors: Victor Ademulegun Arijeniwa

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This is a sociolinguistic study of Olu Obafemi’s Naira Has No Gender as a microcosm of life experiences. The paper assesses how Olu Obafemi’s use of language in the dramatic world serves as both social relationships and symbolic order of communicative roadmap that are capable of yielding well expressed and richly articulated sociolinguistic implications. Being the interface between language and social institutions, sociolinguistics and its application is highly utilitarian in linguistics analysis, especially where the language of a text appears to be deeply tensed, such as found in dramatic texts. The aim of this paper has been (i) to assess the symbolic orderly presentation of form in Olu Obafemi’Naira Has No Gender; (ii) to find out the linguistic elements and textual organization that represent social relationships in Olu Obafemi’s Naira Has No Gender. Using qualitative research design in data generation with insights from John Gumperz Interactional Sociolinguistics Theory with particular reference to contextualization cues and miscommunication, the paper identifies the implication of the dramatic discourse on society.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, Microcosm, contextualisation, miscommunication variable, identity, symbolic order

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241 The Process of Sanctification: A Bourdieusian Approach to the Declension of Power in New England Puritan Clergy

Authors: W. Scott Jackson

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This paper explains the declension of Puritan clerical power following the Great Migration up until when Massachusetts lost its charter in 1684. Historian Perry Miller argued that an overall declension in Puritan culture occurred during this period. However, that notion has been dispelled. There is a resurging field exploring declension in areas outside of Miller’s scope of Puritan culture. I determine that colonial New England existed as a functional theocracy by using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of symbolic capital to explain clerical power through symbolic and religious misdirection and conversion. I explore civil and economic power struggles in colonial New England during the decades following the Great Migration to establish that Puritan culture did not largely decline. Instead, it was the Puritan clergy’s power that waned during this period.

Keywords: Bourdieu, Historical Sociology, Symbolic Capital, Puritan

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240 Symbolic Partial Differential Equations Analysis Using Mathematica

Authors: Davit Shahnazaryan, Diogo Gomes, Mher Safaryan

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Many symbolic computations and manipulations required in the analysis of partial differential equations (PDE) or systems of PDEs are tedious and error-prone. These computations arise when determining conservation laws, entropies or integral identities, which are essential tools for the study of PDEs. Here, we discuss a new Mathematica package for the symbolic analysis of PDEs that automate multiple tasks, saving time and effort. Methodologies: During the research, we have used concepts of linear algebra and partial differential equations. We have been working on creating algorithms based on theoretical mathematics to find results mentioned below. Major Findings: Our package provides the following functionalities; finding symmetry group of different PDE systems, generation of polynomials invariant with respect to different symmetry groups; simplification of integral quantities by integration by parts and null Lagrangian cleaning, computing general forms of expressions by integration by parts; finding equivalent forms of an integral expression that are simpler or more symmetric form; determining necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficients for the positivity of a given symbolic expression. Conclusion: Using this package, we can simplify integral identities, find conserved and dissipated quantities of time-dependent PDE or system of PDEs. Some examples in the theory of mean-field games and semiconductor equations are discussed.

Keywords: partial differential equations, symbolic computation, conserved and dissipated quantities, mathematica

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239 The Effect of Taekwondo on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Arch Index

Authors: Maryam Kakavand, Samira Entezari, Sara Khoshjamalfekri, Raghad Mimar

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The objective of this study is 1) to compare elite female and beginner taekwondo players in terms of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure, and right and left longitudinal arches, and 2) to compare preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite players. To the best of authors’ knowledge, as of yet, there is no information available about the plantar pressure distribution and arch index among taekwondo players. Material and Methods: An analytical-comparative research method is applied. Therefore seven elite athletes and eight novice athletes were selected. The emed-C50 platform was used to assess plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure of different areas, and planter longitudinal arch in a second step protocol. Independent t-test and dependent t-test were used at a level of 0.05 to compare the elites and beginners' right and left feet, and preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite athletes, respectively. Results: In comparing the right and left limbs of elite and beginner groups, findings indicate that there is only a significant difference in the mean pressure of the first metatarsal of the right foot. Findings also showed a significant difference in the contact area of the toes 3, 4, 5 regions between elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups’ right and left limbs and elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs in terms of pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, and arch index. Conclusion: It seems that taekwondo exercises have affected pressure distribution patterns among advanced players causing some differences in their planter pressure distribution pattern when compared to that of beginners. Therefore, taekwondo exercises may be a factor contributing to asymmetry performance in preferred and non-preferred limbs.

Keywords: planter pressure, arch index, taekwondo, elite

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238 Gender: Schooling and Social Condition’s Women in Brazil

Authors: Simone Tamires Vieira

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This paper aims to investigate the history of women's schooling in Brazil and to reflect on the condition and social space of women today. Therefore, the following question arises as a research problem: how does the history of the school in/exclusion of women in Brazil relate to the occupations occupied today? As for the objectives, we seek to collect data on the education of women and girls in Brazil, analyze some institutionalized educational legislation and policies, reflect on issues of opportunity and deprivation in order to problematize the female condition through the review of qualitative literature. The results showed that gender and symbolic violence are powerful categories to analyze this theme since the trajectories, choices, and opportunities given to women are permeated by veiled mechanisms perpetuated by a structurally patriarchal society, focused on the interests of the elite, which denies diversity to maintain its status. The aim of this research is to contribute to reflections on the potential of dialogical action, as it highlights the forces that act and permeate the trajectories of women to empower current and future generations.

Keywords: gender, school in/exclusion symbolic violence, women, symbolic violence, women

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237 Physical, Iconographic and Symbolic Features of the Plectrum Some Reflections on Sound Production in Ancient Greek String Instruments

Authors: Felipe Aguirre

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In this paper some of the relevant features of the πλῆκτρον within GrecoLatin tradition will be analyzed. Starting from the formal aspects (shape, materials, technical properties) and the archaeological evidence, some of its symbolic implications that emerge in the light of literary and iconographic analysis will be discussed. I shall expose that, in addition to fulfilling a purely physical function within the process of sound production, the πλῆκτρον was the object of a rich imaginery that provided it with an allegorical, metaphorical-poetic and even metaphysical dimension.

Keywords: musicology, ethnomusicology, ancient greek music, plectrum, stringed instruments

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236 Symbolic Status of Architectural Identity: Example of Famagusta Walled City

Authors: Rafooneh Mokhtarshahi Sani

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This study explores how the residents of a conserved urban area have used goods and ideas as resources to maintain an enviable architectural identity. Whereas conserved urban quarters are seen as role model for maintaining architectural identity, the article describes how their residents try to give a contemporary modern image to their homes. It is argued that despite the efforts of authorities and decision makers to keep and preserve the traditional architectural identity in conserved urban areas, people have already moved on and have adjusted their homes with their preferred architectural taste. Being through such conflict of interests, have put the future of architectural identity in such places at risk. The thesis is that, on the one hand, such struggle over a desirable symbolic status in identity formation is taking place, and, on the other, it is continuously widening the gap between the real and ideal identity in the built environment. The study then analytically connects the concept of symbolic status to current identity debates. As an empirical research, this study uses systematic social and physical observation methods to describe and categorize the characteristics of settlements in Walled City of Famagusta, which symbolically represent the modern houses. The Walled City is a cultural heritage site, which most of its urban context has been conserved. Traditional houses in this area demonstrate the identity of North Cyprus architecture. The conserved residential buildings, however, either has been abandoned or went through changes by their users to present the ideal image of contemporary life. In the concluding section, the article discusses the differences between the symbolic status of people and authorities in defining a culturally valuable contemporary home. And raises the question of whether we can talk at all about architectural identity in terms of conserving the traditional style, and how we may do so on the basis of dynamic nature of identity and the necessity of its acceptance by the users.

Keywords: symbolic status, architectural identity, conservation, facades, Famagusta walled city

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235 Power Relation, Symbolic Rules and the Position of Belis in the Habitus of the East Nusa Tenggara Society’s Customary Marriage

Authors: Siti Rodliyah, Andrik Purwasito, Bani Sudardi, Abdullah Wakit

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This study employs sociological-ethnographic basic method and the cultural studies paradigm as the approach in understanding the habitus within the customary marriage of the East Nusa Tenggara society who require belis as a bride-price. The conceptual basis underlying the application of habitus theory and symbolic power in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) society refers to the Bourdieu’s framework. This study is a result of participatory observation on habitus of a marital system using belis observed by the NTT society as a cognitive structure which connects individuals to the social activities of the customary marriage and makes it unquestionable habits. Knowledge of the social world under the pretext of prosperity for the recipients (family) of a bride-price can be a political instrument for the sustainability of power relations. The ritual-mythical system in the society has never been fully present as a neutral habit. The habitus reflected in the marital relationship among the NTT society enables the men to obtain and exercise their power relations. The sustainability of power relations can be seen from the representation of the social status of a girl and the properties attached to her. This is what gave birth to a symbolic rule, in which the social rules about bride-price or belis eventually will serve the interests of those who occupy a dominant position in the social structure, namely the rich men.

Keywords: belis, habitus, East Nusa Tenggara, marital system, power, symbolic

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234 From Service to Ritual: Preliminary Development on Conceptual Framework for Designing Ritual

Authors: Yi-Jing Lee

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Prior to the development of ritual design tool and framework, this paper establishes a systematic review on the studies related to ritual and ritual design across anthropology, consumer culture, marketing, and design. It is found that following symbolic anthropologists, the ethnographic approach was adapted by consumer culture researchers to study modern rituals and marketers to enhance consumption. In the domain of design, although there are already designers aware of the importance of ritualistic dimension of human interaction, there are little frameworks for conceptualizing and developing rituals. The conceptualized framework and developing tools is proposed and suggestions of applying it is made in the end of the paper.

Keywords: ritual, ritual design, service design, symbolic interaction

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233 Discrimination Against Popular Religiosity in the Dominican Republic

Authors: Sterlyn Poueriet Gil

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Through the years, the construction of cultural identity in the Dominican Republic has been subject to multiple unfavorable conditions fostered by the elites. These conditions have led to the loss of a pattern that lasts over time; leaving this as a result of inconsistency and the diversity of elements that at first are theses and antitheses and gives form to the complexity of what we can call: "the culture of a people that tries to reinvent itself in each social-historical moment". Religion is one of those cultural elements that does not escape the will of the elites. In the country, there are multiple religious groups that, in one way or another, represent what the people are, their ancestral customs, their philosophy, and even their strengths as groups of a certain social environment. However, these have always been marginalized and discriminated against by the country's official religion and their respective denominations. The objective of this research was to verify to what extent interreligious discrimination was real, moving from the assumption to scientific evidence through the application of research techniques such as the survey, fieldwork, and qualitative analysis of the collected evidence, the supremacy of the dominant religion condemns its rites and in many cases the person himself. In many communities, freedom of worship is reserved for traditional groups, having cases in the country where the manifestations of rites such as the "gagá" and the "prillé" have been prohibited, considering them as diabolical and primitive practices; this seeks to deny the roots of a people marked by poverty and social conflicts but remains firm in the will to be.

Keywords: cultural identity, freedom of worship, gagá, popular demonstrations

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232 A Review of Lortie’s Schoolteacher

Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Lin

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Dan C. Lortie’s Schoolteacher: A sociological study is one of the best works on the sociology of teaching since W. Waller’s classic study. It is a book worthy of review. Following the tradition of symbolic interactionists, Lortie demonstrated the qualities who studied the occupation of teaching. Using several methods to gather effective data, Lortie has portrayed the ethos of the teaching profession. Therefore, the work is an important book on the teaching profession and teacher culture. Though outstanding, Lortie’s work is also flawed in that his perspectives and methodology were adopted largely from symbolic interactionism. First, Lortie in his work analyzed many points regarding teacher culture; for example, he was interested in exploring “sentiment,” “cathexis,” and “ethos.” Thus, he was more a psychologist than a sociologist. Second, symbolic interactionism led him to discern the teacher culture from a micro view, thereby missing the structural aspects. For example, he did not fully discuss the issue of gender and he ignored the issue of race. Finally, following the qualitative sociological tradition, Lortie employed many qualitative methods to gather data but only foucused on obtaining and presenting interview data. Moreover, he used measurement methods that were too simplistic for analyzing quantitative data fully.

Keywords: education reform, teacher culture, teaching profession, Lortie’s Schoolteacher

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231 Symbolic Computation for the Multi-Soliton Solutions of a Class of Fifth-Order Evolution Equations

Authors: Rafat Alshorman, Fadi Awawdeh

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By employing a simplified bilinear method, a class of generalized fifth-order KdV (gfKdV) equations which arise in nonlinear lattice, plasma physics and ocean dynamics are investigated. With the aid of symbolic computation, both solitary wave solutions and multiple-soliton solutions are obtained. These new exact solutions will extend previous results and help us explain the properties of nonlinear solitary waves in many physical models in shallow water. Parametric analysis is carried out in order to illustrate that the soliton amplitude, width and velocity are affected by the coefficient parameters in the equation.

Keywords: multiple soliton solutions, fifth-order evolution equations, Cole-Hopf transformation, Hirota bilinear method

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
230 Symbolic Analysis of Power Spectrum of CMOS Cross Couple Oscillator

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

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This paper proposes for the first time symbolic formula of the power spectrum of cross couple oscillator and its modified circuit. Many principle existed to derived power spectrum in microwave textbook such as impedance, admittance parameters, ABCD, H parameters, etc. It can be compared by graph of power spectrum which methodology is the best from the point of view of practical measurement setup such as condition of impedance parameter which used superposition of current to derived (its current injection of the other port of the circuit is zero, which is impossible in reality). Four Graphs of impedance parameters of cross couple oscillator is proposed. After that four graphs of Scattering parameters of cross couple oscillator will be shown.

Keywords: optimization, power spectrum, impedance parameters, scattering parameter

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229 A Case Study of Zhang Yimou, Using Color Evidence From “Hero and the Shadow” and How the Color Is Symbolized in Contemporary Society?

Authors: Rakiba Sultana

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This paper investigates how different colors are used and bring symbolic meaning comparatively in Zhang Yimou's movies Hero and Shadow. The study also explores how those colors are symbolized in contemporary society. The researcher analyzes the movies Hero and the Shadow to investigate them using colors and how they are used in contemporary society. Hero exposes the colorful colors to expose the Chinese traditions, whereas Shadow explores the gray, black, and white with the ink paints. Also, in contemporary society, sometimes, the author gets a similar symbolic meaning of the colors. Sometimes, the contemporary's meaning is different from the one used in these two movies.

Keywords: Chinese movie, visuals, colors, traditional painting, contemporary society, and Western countries

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228 Hysterectomy and Symbolic Damage: When the Desire for Motherhood is Reactivated in a Nun

Authors: Ndje Ndje Mireille

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The improvement in the physical aspects of hysterectomy has tended to make us forget the psychological burden of this operation for many women. African women closely associate fertility and femininity, and they fear that their desire will diminish, that they will be less desirable after having undergone a hysterectomy. Medicine may be tempted to trivialize this surgical intervention by relying on the evolution of current surgery that leaves little or no marks. It is possible to think that the uterus is useless for a nun who has decided to freely disregard her motherhood. We used the clinical research method for this study. Through a semi-directive interview guide, we collected the verbatims of an hysterectomized catholic nun. The verbatims were transcribed and analyzed with the thematic content analysis. This analysis shows that the medical reality does not always correspond to the subjective experience of women, for whom hysterectomy can imply strong symbolic damage. The uterus is not essential to life, but it is essential to give life, and this lack can reactivate a desire for motherhood. The experience of hysterectomy is unique for each woman in relation to her history. This operation will eliminate all hope of pregnancy; it will be felt as intimate mutilation and an attack on femininity, it will bring up concerns about sexuality. Even if a woman has past the age of having children, has gone through menopause, or has freely decided not to have children, she still find it difficult to accept this procedure. The lack of uterus make a woman feel useless.

Keywords: hysterectomy, symbolic damage, desire for motherhood, feminity, nun

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227 Leviathan, the Myth of Evil, Based on Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism

Authors: Maryam Pirdehghan

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The myth of Leviathan, its ontology and appearance is often one of the problems of Judeo-Christian religious commentators so that some of them have tried to interpret and explain formation or symbolic implications of this myth in different contexts their specific methods and proofs. However, the Bible has presented only vague references in this field and it is not clear why and how to develop such mentions to create a powerful myth with allegorical and symbolic capacity as Leviathan. Therefore, the paper aims to clarify the process of formation of Leviathan and explore the mythical and symbolic systems related to it, first by adopting the imagological approach and then using the Northrop Frye's Archetypal Criticism. Finally, it is concluded that The Leviathan is rooted in the stories of legendary battles of the beginning of creation and almost continues to live with the same nature into the Old Testament, but continuously, in an interactive process between the Greek and Egyptian mythological networks, it attracts more stories and implications about his existence while maintaining its satanic nature. After intense metamorphosis in Jewish interpretations, it appears in the book of Revelation and finally, becomes one of the princes of Hell in the tradition of Christian demonology. The myth, that has become the archetype and fluidized symbol of evil because of the ambiguity and lack of objectivity on its apparent characteristics, finds symbolical extensive capabilities in Judeo-Christian culture, especially in the mysticism, so that its presence or death has special implications and also fighting against it is taken into account as an external and more internal action.

Keywords: Leviathan, The Evil, Bible, myth, Northrop Frye

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226 Role of Symbolism in the Journey towards Spirituality: A Case Study of Mosque Architecture in Bahrain

Authors: Ayesha Agha Shah

Abstract:

The purpose of a mosque or a place of worship is to build a spiritual relation with God. If the sense of spirituality is not achieved, then sacred architecture appears to be lacking depth. Form and space play a significant role to enhance the architectural quality to impart a divine feel to a place. To achieve this divine feeling, form and space, and unity of opposites, either abstract or symbolic can be employed. It is challenging to imbue the emptiness of a space with qualitative experience. Mosque architecture mostly entails traditional forms and design typology. This approach for Muslim worship produces distinct landmarks in the urban neighborhoods of Muslim societies, while creating a great sense of spirituality. The universal symbolic characters in the mosque architecture had prototype geometrical forms for a long time in history. However, modern mosques have deviated from this approach to employ different built elements and symbolism, which are often hard to be identified as related to mosques or even as Islamic. This research aims to explore the sense of spirituality in modern mosques and questions whether the modification of geometrical features produce spirituality in the same manner. The research also seeks to investigate the role of ‘geometry’ in the modern mosque architecture. The research employs the analytical study of some modern mosque examples in the Kingdom of Bahrain, reflecting on the geometry and symbolism adopted in the new mosque architecture design. It buttresses the analysis by the engagement of people’s perceptions derived using a survey of opinions. The research expects to see the significance of geometrical architectural elements in the mosque designs. It will find answers to the questions such as; what is the role of the form of the mosque, interior spaces and the effect of the modified symbolic features in the modern mosque design? How can the symbolic geometry, forms and spaces of a mosque invite a believer to leave the worldly environment behind and move towards spirituality?

Keywords: geometry, mosque architecture, spirituality, symbolism

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225 Me and My Selfie: Identity Building Through Self Representation in Social Media

Authors: Revytia Tanera

Abstract:

This research is a pilot study to examine the rise of selfie trend in dealing with individual self representation and identity building in social media. The symbolic interactionism theory is used as the concept of the desired self image, and Cooley’s looking glass-self concept is used to analyze the mechanical reflection of ourselves; how do people perform their “digital self” in social media. In-depth interviews were conducted in the study with a non-random sample who owns a smartphone with a front camera feature and are active in social media. This research is trying to find out whether the selfie trend brings any influence on identity building on each individual. Through analysis of interview results, it can be concluded that people take selfie photos in order to express themselves and to boost their confidence. This study suggests a follow up and more in depth analysis on identity and self representation from various age groups.

Keywords: self representation, selfie, social media, symbolic interaction, looking glass-self

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224 The State and Poverty Reduction Strategy in Nigeria: An Assessement

Authors: Musa Ogah Ari

Abstract:

Poverty has engaged the attention of the global community. Both the rich and poor countries are concerned about its prevalence and impacts. This phenomenon is more pervasive among developing countries with the greater challenges manifesting among African countries. In Nigeria people live with very low income, and so decent three-square meals, clothes, shelter and other basic necessities are very difficult to come by for most of the population. Qualitative health facilities are seriously lacking to over 160 million population in the state. Equally lacking are educational and social infrastructures that can be available to the people at affordable rates. Roads linking the interior parts of the state are generally in deplorable conditions, particularly in the rainy season. Safe drinking water is hard to come by as the state is not properly placed and equipped to function in full capacity to serve the interest of the people. The challenges of poverty is definitely enormous for both the national and state governments consequently, debilitating scourge of poverty. As the ruling elites in Nigeria claim to reduce the rising profile of poverty through series of policies and programmes, food production, promotion and funding of co-operatives for agriculture, improvement of infrastructures at the rural areas to guaranteeing employment through skill acquisition, assistance of rural women to break away from poverty and the provision of small scale credit facilities to poor members of the public were abysmally low. It is observed that the poverty alleviation programmes and policies failed because they were by nature, character and implementation pro-elites and anti-masses. None of the programmes or policies engaged the rural poor either in terms of formulation or implementation.

Keywords: the state, poverty, government policies, strategies, social amenities, corruption

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223 Oligarchic Transitions within the Tunisian Autocratic Authoritarian System and the Struggle for Democratic Transformation: Before and beyond the 2010 Jasmine Revolution

Authors: M. Moncef Khaddar

Abstract:

This paper focuses mainly on a contextualized understanding of ‘autocratic authoritarianism’ in Tunisia without approaching its peculiarities in reference to the ideal type of capitalist-liberal democracy but rather analysing it as a Tunisian ‘civilian dictatorship’. This is reminiscent, to some extent, of the French ‘colonial authoritarianism’ in parallel with the legacy of the traditional formal monarchic absolutism. The Tunisian autocratic political system is here construed as a state manufactured nationalist-populist authoritarianism associated with a de facto presidential single party, two successive autocratic presidents and their subservient autocratic elites who ruled with an iron fist the de-colonialized ‘liberated nation’ that came to be subjected to a large scale oppression and domination under the new Tunisian Republic. The diachronic survey of Tunisia’s autocratic authoritarian system covers the early years of autocracy, under the first autocratic president Bourguiba, 1957-1987, as well as the different stages of its consolidation into a police-security state under the second autocratic president, Ben Ali, 1987-2011. Comparing the policies of authoritarian regimes, within what is identified synchronically as a bi-cephalous autocratic system, entails an in-depth study of the two autocrats, who ruled Tunisia for more than half a century, as modern adaptable autocrats. This is further supported by an exploration of the ruling authoritarian autocratic elites who played a decisive role in shaping the undemocratic state-society relations, under the 1st and 2nd President, and left an indelible mark, structurally and ideologically, on Tunisian polity. Emphasis is also put on the members of the governmental and state-party institutions and apparatuses that kept circulating and recycling from one authoritarian regime to another, and from the first ‘founding’ autocrat to his putschist successor who consolidated authoritarian stability, political continuity and autocratic governance. The reconfiguration of Tunisian political life, in the post-autocratic era, since 2011 will be analysed. This will be scrutinized, especially in light of the unexpected return of many high-profile figures and old guards of the autocratic authoritarian apparatchiks. How and why were, these public figures, from an autocratic era, able to return in a supposedly post-revolutionary moment? Finally, while some continue to celebrate the putative exceptional success of ‘democratic transition’ in Tunisia, within a context of ‘unfinished revolution’, others remain perplexed in the face of a creeping ‘oligarchic transition’ to a ‘hybrid regime’, characterized rather by elites’ reformist tradition than a bottom-up genuine democratic ‘change’. This latter is far from answering the 2010 ordinary people’s ‘uprisings’ and ‘aspirations, for ‘Dignity, Liberty and Social Justice’.

Keywords: authoritarianism, autocracy, democratization, democracy, populism, transition, Tunisia

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