Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: swimming crab

121 Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metal Concentration in Water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in a Crude Oil Exposed Community (Bodo Creek), Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Ehiedu Philomina Kika, Jessica Chinonso Ehilegbu

Abstract:

The exploration and production of fossil fuel particularly crude oil has led to some serious environmental damage in some oil producing communities like the Bodo Community who rely heavily on their aquatic environment for food and water. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the level of some heavy metals in water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in the month of August, September and October from Bodo creek, Rivers State, Nigeria. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were also analyzed in-situ. The levels of heavy metals, Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) were analyzed in water and in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion. For the concentration of heavy metals in water, Pb ranged from 0.103 - 0.791 mg/l, Zn 0.0025 - 0.342 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - 0.304 mg/l, Cd 0.011 - 0.116 mg/l and Cu <0.001 - 0.079 mg/l. For the concentration of heavy metals in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), the level of Pb ranged from 0.359 - 0.849 mg/l, Zn 0.134 - 0.342 mg/l, Cd 0.053 - 0.103 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - <0.001 mg/l, Cu < 0.001 - 0.131 mg/l. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr for all water and crab samples collected from the various stations were higher than permissible level suggesting serious anthropogenic influence. Thus, precaution needs to be taken to prevent further contamination and adequate purification measures need to be put in place. Therefore, there should be periodic environmental pollution monitoring, for assessment and awareness especially with regards heavy metal.

Keywords: Bodo creek, crude oil, heavy metal, swimming crab

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120 Effects of Net Height of Crab Entangling Nets on the Capture of Targeted Economically Important Portunid Species and Non-Target Species

Authors: Rizalyn Gonzales, Harold Monteclaro

Abstract:

This study determined the effects of net height on the capture performance of crab entangling nets. Fishing trials were conducted using nets with the following net heights: 1) 12 meshes down (MD), 2) 24 MD and 3) 50 MD. A total of 1,290 individuals comprising of 87 species belonging to 53 families were caught. One-way ANOVA showed that net height significantly affects various catch parameters such as catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the total and target catch, amount of non-target catch, sizes and species richness. The use of appropriate net height is a potential technical measure for a selective but still efficient crab entangling net fishery. Lower net height significantly reduced non-target catch up to 70%. While lower nets decreased the CPUE of target catch such as blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus and christian crab Charybdis feriatus up to 65% in 12 MD, catch in 24 MD was not significantly different with that in 50 MD. The use of 24 MD also resulted in capturing larger-sized Portunus pelagicus. Catch species richness decreased up to 58% in lower nets. These results are useful to fisheries managers and government institutions to develop or improve existing regulations towards a sustainable crab fishery particularly blue swimming crabs.

Keywords: blue swimming crabs, catch per unit effort, crab entangling nets, net height

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
119 Fecundity of Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775)' in Yumurtalık Cove, Iskenderun Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean, Adana, Turkey

Authors: Canan Türeli̇, İrem Nur Yeşi̇lyurt

Abstract:

Blue swimming crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) entered to the Mediterranean with Suez Canal. It is economically important species and consumed as food in Turkey. At this study, fecundity of P. segnis was investigated in Yumurtalık Cove, Turkey. Samples were collected monthly from July 2014 to June 2015 (except February), using bottom trawl into three different depth strata; 0-10 m, 10-20 m and 20-50 m. Sand crab samples were caught all studied months. 110 Males, 70 juvenile and 140 female; 44 of them ovigerous, totally 320 samples were collected during the study period. The size of all samples varied from 38.1 to 163.17 mm carapace width and from 3.46 to 324.36 g weight. All the ovigerous crabs were caught at 0-10 m depth between July to November and in April and May, the highest number of them was observed in August and September. Mean carapace width and weight of ovigerous crabs were calculated respectively, 130.36 ± 12.82 mm (101.39-154.03), 191.02 ± 59.00 g (88.26-324.36). Mean fecundity determined 1.186.185 ± 819.510 (1.393.79-4.513.034) eggs. More fecundity and reproduction biology studies are necessary for monitoring the P. segnis population structure in Northeastern Mediterranean of Turkey.

Keywords: blue swimming crab, fecundity, portunus segnis, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
118 Morphological and Molecular Analysis of Selected Fast-Growing Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus pelagicus) in South of Sulawesi

Authors: Yushinta Fujaya, Andi Ivo Asphama, Andi Parenrengi, Andi Tenriulo

Abstract:

Blue Swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is an important commercial species throughout the subtropical waters and as such constitutes part of the fisheries resources. Data are lacking on the morphological variations of selected fast-growing crabs reared in a pond. This study aimed to analyze the morphological and molecular character of a selected fast-growing crab reared in ponds in South of Sulawesi. The crab seeds were obtained from local fish-trap and hatchery. A study on the growth was carried out in the population of crabs. The dimensions analyzed were carapace width (CW) measured after 3 months of grow out. Morphological character states were examined based on the pattern of spots on the carapace. Molecular analysis was performed using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). Genetic distance was analysed using TFPGA (Tools for Population Genetic Analyses) version 1.3. The results showed that there were variations in the growth of crabs. These crabs clustered morphologically into three quite distinct groups. The crab with white spots irregularly spread over its carapace was the largest size while the crab with large white spots scattered over the carapace was the smaller size (3%). The crab with small white spots scattered over the carapace was the smallest size found in this study. Molecular analysis showed that there are morphologically and genetically different between groups of crabs. Genetic distances among crabs ranged from 0.1527 to 0.5856. Thus, this study provides information the use of white spots pattern over carapace as indicators to identify the type of blue swimming crabs.

Keywords: crab, portunus pelagicus, morphology, RAPD, Carapace

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117 Building a Stochastic Simulation Model for Blue Crab Population Evolution in Antinioti Lagoon

Authors: Nikolaos Simantiris, Markos Avlonitis

Abstract:

This work builds a simulation platform, modeling the spatial diffusion of the invasive species Callinectes sapidus (blue crab) as a random walk, incorporating also generation, fatality, and fishing rates modeling the time evolution of its population. Antinioti lagoon in West Greece was used as a testbed for applying the simulation model. Field measurements from June 2020 to June 2021 on the lagoon’s setting, bathymetry, and blue crab juveniles provided the initial population simulation of blue crabs, as well as biological parameters from the current literature were used to calibrate simulation parameters. The scope of this study is to render the authors able to predict the evolution of the blue crab population in confined environments of the Ionian Islands region in West Greece. The first result of the simulation experiments shows the possibility for a robust prediction for blue crab population evolution in the Antinioti lagoon.

Keywords: antinioti lagoon, blue crab, stochastic simulation, random walk

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
116 Does Creatine Supplementation Improve Swimming Performance?

Authors: Catrin Morgan, Atholl Johnston

Abstract:

Creatine supplementation should theoretically increase total muscle creatine and so enhance the generation of intramuscular phosphocreatine and subsequent ATP formation. The use of creatine as a potential ergogenic aid in sport has been an area of significant scientific research for a number of years. However the effect of creatine supplementation and swimming performance is a relatively new area of research and is the subject of this review. In swimming creatine supplementation could help maintain maximal power output, aid recovery and increase lean body mass. After investigating the underlying theory and science behind creatine supplementation, a literature review was conducted to identify the best evidence looking at the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The search identified 27 potential studies, and of these 17 were selected for review. The studies were then categorised into single sprint performance, which involves swimming a short distance race, or repeated interval performance, which involves swimming a series of sprints with intervals of rest between them. None of the studies on the effect of creatine controlled for the multiple confounding factors associated with measurement of swimming performance. The sample size in the studies was limited and this reduced the reliability of the studies and introduced the possibility of bias. The studies reviewed provided insufficient evidence to determine if creatine supplementation is beneficial to swimming performance. However, what data there was supported the use of creatine supplementation in repeated interval swimming rather than in single sprint swimming. From a review of the studies, it was calculated on average, there was a 1.37% increase in swimming performance with the use of creatine for repeated intervals and a 0.86% increase in performance for single sprint. While this may seem minor, it should be remembered that swimming races are often won by much smaller margins. In the 2012 London Olympics the Men’s 100 metres freestyle race was won by a margin of only 0.01 of a second. Therefore any potential benefit could make a dramatic difference to the final outcome of the race. Overall more research is warranted before the benefits of creatine supplementation in swimming performance can be further clarified.

Keywords: creatine supplementation, repeated interval, single sprint, swimming performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
115 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

Abstract:

Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
114 Effect of Fiddler Crab Burrows on Bacterial Communities of Mangrove Sediments

Authors: Mohammad Mokhtari, Gires Usup, Zaidi Che Cob

Abstract:

Bacteria communities as mediators of the biogeochemical process are the main component of the mangrove ecosystems. Crab burrows by increasing oxic-anoxic interfaces and facilitating the flux rate between sediment and tidal water affect biogeochemical properties of sediments. The effect of fiddler crab burrows on the density and diversity of bacteria were investigated to elucidate the effect of burrow on bacterial distribution. Samples collected from the burrow walls of three species of fiddler crabs including Uca paradussumieri, Uca rosea, and Uca forcipata. Sediment properties including grain size, temperature, Redox potential, pH, chlorophyll, water and organic content were measured from the burrow walls to assess the correlation between environmental variables and bacterial communities. Bacteria were enumerated with epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR green. Bacterial DNA extracted from sediment samples and the community profiles of bacteria were determined with Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). High endemism was observed among bacterial communities. Among the 152 observed OTU’s, 22 were found only in crab burrows. The highest bacterial density and diversity were recorded in burrow wall. The results of ANOSIM indicated a significant difference between the bacterial communities from the three species of fiddler crab burrows. Only 3% of explained bacteria variability in the constrained ordination model of CCA was contributed to depth, while much of the bacteria’s variability was attributed to coarse sand, pH, and chlorophyll content. Our findings suggest that crab burrows by affecting sediment properties such as redox potential, pH, water, and chlorophyll content induce significant effects on the bacterial communities.

Keywords: bioturbation, canonical corresponding analysis, fiddler crab, microbial ecology

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
113 Region-Specific Secretory Protein, α2M, in Male Reproductive Tract of the Blue Crab And Its Dynamics during Sperm transit towards Female Spermatheca

Authors: Thanyaporn Senarai, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Shinji Miyata, Chihiro Sato, Prapee Sretarugsa, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Ken Kitajima

Abstract:

In this study, we characterized a region-specific 250 kDa protein that was secreted of MSD fluid, which is believed to play dual functions in forming a spermatophoric wall for sperm physical protection, and in sperm membrane modification as part of sperm maturation process. The partial amino acid sequence and N-terminal sequencing revealed that the MSD-specific 250 kDa protein showed a high similarity with a plasma-rich protein, α-2 macroglobulin (α2M), so termed pp-α2M. This protein was a large glycoprotein contained predominantly mannose and GlcNAc. The expression of pp-α2M mRNA was detected in spermatic duct (SD), androgenic gland (AG) and hematopoietic tissue, while the protein expression was rather specific to the apical cytoplasm of MSD epithelium. The secretory pp-α2M in MSD fluid was acquired onto the MSD sperm membrane and was also found within the matrix of the acrosome. Distally, pp-α2M was removed from spermathecal sperm membrane, while its level kept constant in the sperm AC. Together the results indicate that pp-α2M is a 250 kDa region-specific secretory protein which plays roles in sperm physical protection and also acts as maturation factor in the P. pelagicus sperm.

Keywords: alpha-2 macroglobulin, blue swimming crab, sperm maturation, spermatic duct

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
112 The First Report of Fresh Water Crab Potamon Potamios (Decapoda: brachyura) in Chahnimeh’s Water Reservoirs from Sistan, Iran

Authors: Ahmad Gharaei, Javad Mirdar Harijani

Abstract:

The freshwater crab family (Potamidae Ortmann, 1896) is a big group and varies over 500 species in 74 genuses. This family distributed in South Europe, South Africa, East and South-east Asian. Iran's Sistan region located in the South East and recently after a decade of drought in the international wetland of Hamoon, in fact, the aquatic fauna in the Chahnimeh’s water reservoirs had taken refuge. This paper reports the second site for Potamon Potamios, in the southern half of the Iran. The specimens were collected from the shallow water in reservoir banks with muddy bottom in July 2010. The morphological features, habitat and systematic, are described.

Keywords: freshwater crab, potamon potamios, sistan, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
111 Immune Response and Histological Alteration in the Crab Carcinus aestuarii, Due to Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Ines Kovacic, Dijana Pavicic-Hamer, Petra Buric, Maja Levak Zorinc, Daniel M. Lyons

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, have become one of the most widely used nanoparticles in consumer products. Despite the increased use of AgNPs in science and industry over the past twenty years, only relatively recently has concern been raised over their entering brackish and marine environments. However, data on their potential impact on marine organisms, especially invertebrates are very limited. This study aimed to examine the effects of 60 nm AgNPs (10, 100, 500 and 1000 µg/l) and silver ions (100, 1000 µg/l) on the Mediterranean green crab Carcinus aestuarii Nardo, 1847. The crab mortality was assessed during seven days of exposure. After the exposure, total haemocytes (THC) and differential haemocytes number (DHC) were counted (immune response), in addition to histological examination of gills stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The effect of AgNPs and silver ions resulted in a dose dependent mortality and destruction of gills epithelium with haemocytes infiltration in the gills lacuna. Total haemocyte count was greater with increasing concentration of AgNPs, at concentrations from 10 to 500 µg/l. Hyalinocytes were the most common immunological cells noted in the crab hemolymph, while granulocytes and semigranulocytes were suppressed with increasing concentration of AgNPs (500 and 1000 µg/l). Thus, as crabs are filter feeders, they are susceptible to uptake of AgNPs by direct accumulation in gills mucus or indirectly via circulation of haemocytes in their open vascular system. Results of this study on crabs add to knowledge of the effects of AgNPs in the marine environment.

Keywords: crab, immune response, histological alteration, silver nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
110 Molecular Cloning and Identification of a Double WAP Domain–Containing Protein 3 Gene from Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

Authors: Fengmei Li, Li Xu, Guoliang Xia

Abstract:

Whey acidic proteins (WAP) domain-containing proteins in crustacean are involved in innate immune response against microbial invasion. In the present study, a novel double WAP domain (DWD)-containing protein gene 3 was identified from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designated EsDWD3) by expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and PCR techniques. The full-length cDNA of EsDWD3 was of 1223 bp, consisting of a 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 74 bp, a 3′ UTR of 727 bp with a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a polyA tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 423 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 140 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. The deduced protein sequence EsDWD3 showed 96.4 % amino acid similar to other reported EsDWD1 from E. sinensis, and phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that EsDWD3 had closer relationships with the reported two double WAP domain-containing proteins of E. sinensis species.

Keywords: Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, cloning, double WAP domain-containing protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
109 Swimming Pool Water Chlorination Detection System Utilizing TDSTestr

Authors: Fahad Alamoudi, Yaser Miaji, Fawzy Jalalah

Abstract:

The growing popularity of swimming pools and other activities in the water for sport, fitness, therapy or just enjoyable relaxation have led to the increased use of swimming pools and the establishment of a variety of specific-use pools such as spa pools, Waterslides and more recently, hydrotherapy and wave pools. In this research a few simple equipments are used for test, Detect and alert for detection of water cleanness and pollution. YSI Photometer Systems, TDSTestr High model, rio 12HF, and Electrode A1. The researchers used electrolysis as a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. The results which use 41 experiments show the higher the salt concentration, the more efficient the electrode and the smaller the gap between the plates and The lower the electrode voltage. Furthermore, it is proved that the larger the surface area, the lower the cell voltage and the higher current used the more chlorine produced.

Keywords: photometer, electrode, electrolysis, swimming pool chlorination

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
108 Prototype Development of Knitted Buoyant Swimming Vest for Children

Authors: Nga-Wun Li, Chu-Po Ho, Kit-Lun Yick, Jin-Yun Zhou

Abstract:

The use of buoyant vests incorporated with swimsuits can develop children’s confidence in the water, particularly for novice swimmers. Consequently, parents intend to purchase buoyant swimming vests for the children to reduce their anxiety to water. Although the conventional buoyant swimming vests can provide the buoyant function to the wearer, their bulkiness and hardness make children feel uncomfortable and not willing to wear. This study aimed to apply inlay knitting technology to design new functional buoyant swimming vests for children. This prototype involved a shell and a buoyant knitted layer, which is the main media to provide buoyancy. Polypropylene yarn and 6.4 mm of Expandable Polyethylene (EPE) foam were fabricated in Full needle stitch with inlay knitting technology and were then linked by sewing to form the buoyant layer. The shell of the knitted buoyant vest was made of Polypropylene circular knitted fabric. The structure of knitted fabrics of the buoyant swimsuit makes them inherently stretchable, and the arrangement of the inlaid material was designed based on the body movement that can improve the ease with which the swimmer moves. Further, the shoulder seam is designed at the back to minimize the irritation of the wearer. Apart from maintaining the buoyant function to them, this prototype shows its contribution in reducing bulkiness and improving softness to the conventional buoyant swimming vest by taking the advantages of a knitted garment. The results in this study are significant to the development of the buoyant swimming vest for both the textile and the fast-growing sportswear industry.

Keywords: knitting technology, buoyancy, inlay, swimming vest, functional garment

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
107 Effects of Swimming Exercise Training on Persistent Pain in Rats after Thoracotomy

Authors: Shao-Cyuan Yewang, Yu-Wen Chen

Abstract:

Background: Exercise training is well known to alleviate chronic pain syndromes improve of chronic pain. This study investigated the effect of swimming exercise training on thoracotomy and rib retraction-induced allodynia. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats that received animal model of persistent postthoracotomy pain. All rats were divided into three groups: sham operations group (Sham), thoracotomy and rib retraction group (TRR), and TRR with swimming exercise training for 90min/day, 7 days a week for 4 weeks (TRR-SEW). The sham group did not receive retraction of the ribs. Thus, they received a pleural incision. The levels of mechanical and cold allodynia were measured by von Frey and acetone test. Results: In von Frey test, the level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. In acetone test, the level of cold allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of cold allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. Conclusions: These results suggest that swimming exercise training decreases persistent postthoracotomy pain caused by TRR surgery. It may provide one of the new therapeutic effects of swimming exercise training could alleviate persistent postthoracotomy pain.

Keywords: chronic pain, thoracotomy pain, swimming, von Frey test, acetone test

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
106 Crab Shell Waste Chitosan-Based Thin Film for Acoustic Sensor Applications

Authors: Maydariana Ayuningtyas, Bambang Riyanto, Akhiruddin Maddu

Abstract:

Industrial waste of crustacean shells, such as shrimp and crab, has been considered as one of the major issues contributing to environmental pollution. The waste processing mechanisms to form new, practical substances with added value have been developed. Chitosan, a derived matter from chitin, which is obtained from crab and shrimp shells, performs prodigiously in broad range applications. A chitosan composite-based diaphragm is a new inspiration in fiber optic acoustic sensor advancement. Elastic modulus, dynamic response, and sensitivity to acoustic wave of chitosan-based composite film contribute great potentials of organic-based sound-detecting material. The objective of this research was to develop chitosan diaphragm application in fiber optic microphone system. The formulation was conducted by blending 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution with dissolved chitosan at 0%, 1% and 2% in 1:1 ratio, respectively. Composite diaphragms were characterized for the morphological and mechanical properties to predict the desired acoustic sensor sensitivity. The composite with 2% chitosan indicated optimum performance with 242.55 µm thickness, 67.9% relative humidity, and 29-76% light transmittance. The Young’s modulus of 2%-chitosan composite material was 4.89×104 N/m2, which generated the voltage amplitude of 0.013V and performed sensitivity of 3.28 mV/Pa at 1 kHz. Based on the results above, chitosan from crustacean shell waste can be considered as a viable alternative material for fiber optic acoustic sensor sensing pad development. Further, the research in chitosan utilisation is proposed as novel optical microphone development in anthropogenic noise controlling effort for environmental and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: acoustic sensor, chitosan, composite, crab shell, diaphragm, waste utilisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
105 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Swimming Pool Hygiene and Assessment of Microbial Contamination in Educational Institution in Selangor

Authors: Zarini Ismail, Mas Ayu Arina Mohd Anuwar, Ling Chai Ying, Tengku Zetty Maztura Tengku Jamaluddin, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Nadeeya Ayn Umaisara Mohamad Nor

Abstract:

The transmission of infectious diseases can occur anywhere, including in the swimming pools. A large number of swimmers turnover and poor hygienic behaviours will increase the occurrence of direct and indirect water contamination. A wide variety of infections such as the gastrointestinal illnesses, skin rash, eye infections, ear infections and respiratory illnesses had been reported following the exposure to the contaminated water. Understanding the importance of pool hygiene with a healthy practice will reduce the risk of infection. The aims of the study are to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practices on pool hygiene among swimming pool users and to determine the microbial contaminants in swimming pools. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to 600 swimming pool users from four swimming pools belong to the three educational institutions in Selangor. Data was analyzed using SPSS Statistics version 22.0 for Windows. The knowledge, attitude and practice of the study participants were analyzed using the sum score based on Bloom’s cut-off point (80%). Having a score above the cut-off point was classified as having high levels of knowledge, positive attitude and good practice. The association between socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude with practice on pool hygiene was determined by Chi-Square test. The physicochemical parameters and the microbial contamination were determined using a standard method for examination of waste and wastewater. Of the 600 respondents, 465 (77.5%) were females with the mean age of 21 years old. Most of the respondents are the students (98.8%) which belong to the three educational institutions in Selangor. Overall, the majority of the respondents (89.2%) had low knowledge on pool hygiene, but had positive attitudes (91.3%). Whereas only half of the respondents (50%) practice good hygiene while using the swimming pools. There was a significant association between practice level on pool hygiene with knowledge (p < 0.001) and also the attitude (p < 0.001). The measurements of the physicochemical parameters showed that all 4 swimming pools had low levels of pH and two had low levels of free chlorine. However, all the water samples tested were negative for Escherichia coli. The findings of this study suggested that high knowledge and positive attitude towards pool hygiene ensure a good practice among swimming pool users. Thus, it is recommended that educational interventions should be given to the swimming pool users to increase their knowledge regarding the pool hygiene and this will prevent the unnecessary outbreak of infectious diseases related to swimming pool.

Keywords: attitude, knowledge, pool hygiene, practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
104 Association between Physical Composition, Swimming Performance and Somatotype of Male Competitive Swimmers of Age Group 10-13 Years

Authors: Ranjit Singh

Abstract:

Body fat % lean body mass and body type play vital role in sports performance. A sports person who is having optional body composition can show its performance flawlessly whereas other who is not physical fit may be more prone to injury. Competitive swimming is an association of plethora of aspects like morphological, physiological, biochemical, biomechanical and psychological. The primary key of the present research is to examine the correlation among selected morphological dimensions such as height, weight, body fat%, lean body mass, somatotype and swimming performance. The present study also focused to investigate by potential deficiencies if any and to find out remedial measures to curb the training stresses. Thirty (age group 10-14 years) swimmers undergoing training under skilled and professional coaches were selected in the present study. The morphological variables and performance criterion like 50 meter swimming time and speed were calculated by using standard training methodology. Correlation coefficient among body composition, somatotype and performance variables were assessed by using standard statistical package SPSS. Mean height, weight, fat% and lean body mass of the present group is 150.97±8.68 cm, 44.0±9.34 kg., 15.97±4.42 % and 37.10±8.77 kg respectively. Somatotype of the young swimmers of this research is revealed ectomorphic mesomorph. The analysis of the results Illustrated that swimming performance is significantly correlated (p<0.05) with height, body weight, mesomorphoic component and lean body mass. Body fat is significantly and negatively correlated (p<0.05) with mesomorphic component, lean body mass and swimming speed. From this present study, it can be concluded that along with techniques and tactics other the physical attributes also play significant role in swimming performance which can help the swimmers to excel in higher level of competition and swimmers having improved morphological qualities can ultimately perform well.

Keywords: body fat, mass, mesomorphic component, somatotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
103 The Effect of 6 Weeks Endurance Swimming Training on Blood Glucose and Cardiac Tissue Antioxidants in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Kh. Dehkordi, R. Sharifi Gholam, S. Arshadi

Abstract:

Objective: Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and possibly causes various forms of tissue damage inpatients with diabetes. Antioxidants defend against the harmful effect of free radicals, which are associated with heart disease, cancer, arthritis, aging and many other diseases1). Antioxidants are very stable molecules capable of neutralizing free radicals by donating an electron to them.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of swimming training, fenugreek seed extract and glibenclamide on plasma glucose and cardiac antioxidants activity in diabetic rats. Design: For this purpose, fifty male wistar rats were divided into five groups, two groups of control rats (diabetic control [DC] and healthy control [HC]), one group of endurance swimming training (EST), one group of fenugreek seed extract highdose (F1, 1.74 g/kg b.w), one group of fenugreek seed extract middle dose (F2, 0.87 g/kg b.w), one group of glibenclamide (G, 0.5 mg/kg b.w). Materials and Methods: Diabetes induced by streptozotocine (STZ), data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey test. Significance level was 0.05. Results: All of the groups' exception of HC showed significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.05), but the diabetic control and swimming training group exhibited a more decrease. All of the groups have shown a significant decrease in plasma glucose than DC group (P < 0.05) but this reduction was more in G group than DC no HC group. S, G and HC groups have shown significant increase in cardiac antioxidant than DC group (P < 0.05) but there wasn't significant difference in other groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The present results indicate that regular swimming training lead to decrease in plasma glucose and enhanced cardiac antioxidants in diabetic rats.

Keywords: swimming, glucose, cardiac, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
102 Socioeconomic Impact of Capture and Sale of Scylla serrata in Metuge Community

Authors: Siran Offman, TeóFilo Nhamuhuco, EzíDio Cuamba

Abstract:

Scylla serrata is important for livelihood in coastal communities in Metuge District, Northern Mozambique, where the study was conducted from June to August 2014. The aim was to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mangrove crabs captures in Metuge communities. Data was collected based on semi-structured questionnaire in the landing sites and in local crab markets. In total were inquired 26 crab collectors and 6 traders, this activity is practiced only by men, with ages ranging from 15 to 68 years old. To capture the crab the collectors use a long iron hook with 1.5-2 meters, during 5-7 times per week, spending about 5-8 hours a day. The captured varied from 2-20 kg per day. In the village 1 kg costs 1-1.5 USD and 3 USD applied by traders who sell along the streets, for tourists and specific customers from Asia, where the traders can sell until 50 kg.The incomes vary from 11-174USD per month. The value chain between the collectors and trader is unreasonable, as the second makes less effort and earns more, thereby the socio-economic impact is observed, however not high for the collectors, as the money is intended to purchase food and agricultural instruments. In another hand, 90% of collectors dropped out the school, and the money does not have a great impact as they still have precarious housing, rely on community wells to access water, do not have electric power and possess high number of family members.

Keywords: socio-economic and of, impacts, capture, sale, Scylla serrata

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
101 An Exploitation of Electrical Sensors in Monitoring Pool Chlorination

Authors: Fahad Alamoudi, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The growing popularity of swimming pools and other activities in the water for sport, fitness, therapy or just enjoyable relaxation have led to the increased use of swimming pools and the establishment of a variety of specific-use pools such as spa pools, water slides, and more recently, hydrotherapy and wave pools. In this research, a few simple equipment is used for test, detect and alert for detection of water cleanness and pollution. YSI Photometer Systems, TDSTestr High model, Rio 12HF and Electrode A1. The researchers used electrolysis as a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. The results which use 41 experiments show the higher the salt concentration, the more efficient the electrode and the smaller the gap between the plates, the lower the electrode voltage. Furthermore, it is proved that the larger the surface area, the lower the cell voltage and the higher current used the more chlorine produced.

Keywords: photometer, electrode, electrolysis, swimming pool chlorination

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100 The Effect of Relaxing Exercises in Water on Endorphin Hormone for the Beginner in Swimming

Authors: Yasmin Hussein Embaby

Abstract:

Introduction: Athletic Training has its essentials, rules, and methods that help individual in reaching the maximum possible athletic level during the exercised physical activity, therefore; it is important for those working in athletic field to recognize and understand what is going on inside our bodies. This will show the close relationship between physiology and athletic training as the science that explains the various changes that happen to respond to the practice of physical activities. Swimming is one of the water sports that play a major role in influencing the full compatibility of body parts and its systems during the practice of different swimming methods, which uses aqueous to move. It is the initial nucleus in swimming learning and through which the beginner gain a sense of security, safety and the ability to move in aqueous by learning basic skills. Research Methodology: The researcher used the experimental methodology by using pre and post measurement on two equal groups (experimental – control) because it is appropriate for the research. Conclusions: Through the results and information found by the researcher, and in light of the related studies, theoretical readings and the statistical treatments of data; the researcher reached the following conclusions: 1. Muscle relaxation exercises have a positive effect on performance level in crawl swimming and on endorphin hormone as it helps in increasing its normal rater in body, the improvement percentage for experimental group in the relaxation ability, level of endorphin hormone exceeds those of control group. 2. The validity of muscle relaxation exercises proposed for the application, which achieved its objectives, namely increasing the level of endorphin hormone in the body; where research results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of endorphin hormone in favor of the experimental sample.

Keywords: beginners, endorphin hormone, relaxing exercises, swimming

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99 Heating System for Water Pool by Solar Energy

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

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A swimming pool heating system is presented, composed of two alternative collectors with serial PVC absorber tubes that work in regimen of forced stream that is gotten through a bomb. A 500 liters reservoir was used, simulating the swimming pool, being raised some data that show the viability of the considered system. The chosen outflow was corresponding to 100 l/h. In function of the low outflow it was necessary the use of a not popular bomb, choosing the use of a low outflow alternative pumping system, using an air conditioner engine with three different rotations for the desired end. The thermal data related to each collector and their developed system will be presented. The UV and thermal degradations of the PVC exposed to solar radiation will be also boarded, demonstrating the viability of using tubes of this material as absorber elements of radiation in water heating solar collectors.

Keywords: solar energy, solar swimming pool, water heating, PVC tubes, alternative system

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98 Response Development of larvae Portunus pelagicus to Artificial Feeding Predigest

Authors: Siti Aslamyah, Yushinta Fujaya, Okto Rimaldi

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One of the problems faced in the crab hatchery operations is the reliance on the use of natural feed. This study aims to analyze the response of larval development and determine the initial stages crab larvae begin to fully able to accept artificial feeding predigest with the help of probiotic Bacillus sp. The experiment was conducted in June 2014 through July 2014 at the location of the scale backyard hatcheries, Bojo village Mallusettasi sub-district, district Barru. This study was conducted in two stages larval rearing. The first stage is designed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and each with 3 repetitions, ie, without the use of artificial feeding; predigest feed given from zoea 1 - megalopa; predigest feed given since zoea 2 - megalopa; predigest feed given from zoea 3 - megalopa; and feed predigest given since zoea 4 - megalopa. The second stage of the two treatments, i.e. comparing artificial feeding without and with predigest. The results showed that the artificial feeding predigest able to replace the use of natural feed started zoea 3 generated based on the survival rate. Artificial feeding predigest provide a higher survival rate (16%) compared to artificial diets without predigest only 10.8%. However, feed predigest not give a different effect on the rate of development of stadia. Cell activity in larvae that received artificial feed predigest higher with RNA-DNA ratio of 8.88 compared with no predigest only 5:36. This research is very valuable information for crab hatchery hatchery scale households have limitations in preparing natural food.

Keywords: artificial feeding, development of stadia, larvae Portunus pelagicus, predigest

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97 Effective Teaching Pyramid and Its Impact on Enhancing the Participation of Students in Swimming Classes

Authors: Salam M. H. Kareem

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Instructional or teaching procedures and their proper sequence are essential for high-quality learning outcomes. These actions are the path that the teacher takes during the learning process after setting the learning objectives. Teachers and specialists in the education field should include teaching procedures with putting in place an effective mechanism for the procedure’s implementation to achieve a logical sequence with the desired output of overall education process. Determining the sequence of these actions may be a strategic process outlined by a strategic educational plan or drawn by teachers with a high level of experience, enabling them to determine those logical procedures. While specific actions may be necessary for a specific form, many Physical Education (PE) teachers can work out on various sports disciplines. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of using the teaching sequence of the teaching pyramid in raising the level of enjoyment in swimming classes. Four months later of teaching swimming skills to the control and experimental groups of the study, we figured that using the tools shown in the teaching pyramid with the experimental group led to statistically significant differences in the positive tendencies of students to participate in the swimming classes by using the traditional procedures of teaching and using of successive procedures in the teaching pyramid, and in favor of the teaching pyramid, The students are influenced by enhancing their tendency to participate in swimming classes when the teaching procedures followed are sensitive to individual differences and are based on the element of pleasure in learning, and less positive levels of the tendency of students when using traditional teaching procedures, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform. The level of positive tendencies of students when using successive procedures in the teaching pyramid was increased, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform, because of the high level of motivation and the desire to challenge the self-provided by the teaching pyramid.

Keywords: physical education, swimming classes, teaching process, teaching pyramid

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96 Analysis of the Feasibility of Using a Solar Spiral Type Water Heater for Swimming Pool Application in Physiotherapy and Sports Centers

Authors: G. B. M. Carvalho, V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

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A heated pool makes it possible to use it during all hours of the day and in the seasons, especially in physiotherapies and sports centers. However, the cost of installation, operation and maintenance often makes it difficult to deploy. In addition, the current global policy for the use of natural resources from energy sources contradicts the most common means of heating swimming pools, such as the use of gas (Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas), the use of firewood or oil and the use of electricity (heat pumps and electrical resistances). In this sense, this work focuses on the use of solar water heaters to be used in swimming pools of physiotherapy centers, in order to analyze their viability for this purpose in view of the costs linked to the medium and/or long term heating. For this, materials of low cost, low weight, easy commercial acquisition were used besides easy manufacture. Parameters such as flow, temperature distribution, efficiency and technical-economic feasibility were evaluated.

Keywords: heating, water, pool, solar energy, solar collectors, temperature, efficiency

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95 An Invertebrate-Type Lysozyme from Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir Sinensis: Cloning and Characterization

Authors: Fengmei Li, Li Xu, Guoliang Xia

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Lysozyme is a catalytic enzyme that performs bacterial cell lysis by cleaving the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine of peptidoglycan in cell walls. In the present study, an invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozyme gene was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (designated as EsLysozyme) based on PCR-based rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology. The full-length cDNA of EsLysozyme was of 831 bp. SMART and SIGNALP 3.0 program analysis revealed that EsLysozyme contained a signal peptide and a destabilase domain. The five amino acid residues (Tyr63, Trp64, Tyr91, His110, Pro114) and the conserved motif GSLSCG(P/Y)FQI and CL(E/L/R/H)C(I/M)C in i-type lysozymes were also found in EsLysozyme. The high similarity of EsLysozyme with L. vannamei lysozymes and phylogenetic analysis suggested that EsLysozyme should be a new member of i-type lysozyme family.

Keywords: i-type lysozyme, Eriocheir sinensis, cloning, characterization

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94 Bone Mineral Density of the Lumbar Spine, Femur in Elite Egyptian Male Swimmers

Authors: Magdy Abouzeid

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Introduction: Physical activity has been shown to have a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) among children, adolescents, and adults. Sports characterized by little or moderate weight bearing or impact have a low osteogenic effect. However, the action of such sports on bone turnover remains unclear. Swimming, as a non-weight-bearing sport, has been considered to be insignificant in the maintenance of bone mass. Purpose: To examine this issue we measured (BMD) and(BMC) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in the group of elite male swimmers, and determine the effect of swimming training on bone health and compared the results with matched controls group in age, body weight and height. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male swimmers (age 20.7+/-0.8 years) training for 12-15 hours/week; and the controls group consisted of 25 non-active male (age 21.3 +/-1.3 years) were studied BMD and BMC of lumbar spine, femur were assessed via (DXA) absorptiometry. Results: There was significant difference between swimmers and control group in BMD and BMC, BMD of Swimmers was significantly greater than controls at all sites. The lumbar spine (1, 08 +/-0.202 vs., 0717+0.57 gxcm (-2), right proximal femur (1, 02 +/-, 044 vs., 771+/-, 027 gxcm (-2), and left proximal femur (1.374+/-0.212 vs. 1.01 +/-0.141 gxcm (-2). Swimmers were significantly taller, and had greater BMC and BMD compared to the controls group (P<0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that swimming training may be beneficial in the prevention or therapy of OSTEOPENIA, and may lead to increased (BMD) and (BMC) for male swimmers. Swimming may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention for the adults and adolescent. Further research with younger athletes of another type of aquatics sport is warranted to better identify the periods of BMD development during which Aquatics sport has the greatest impact on bone health.

Keywords: bone mineral density, lumbar spine, femur, swimming, DXA absorptiometry

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93 Hypothesis of a Holistic Treatment of Cancer: Crab Method

Authors: Devasis Ghosh

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The main hindrance to total cure of cancer is a) the failure to control continued production of cancer cells, b) its sustenance and c) its metastasis. This review study has tried to address this issue of total cancer cure in a more innovative way. A 10-pronged “CRAB METHOD”, a novel holistic scientific approach of Cancer treatment has been hypothesized in this paper. Apart from available Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, (which shall not be discussed here), seven other points of interference and treatment has been suggested, i.e. 1. Efficient stress management. 2. Dampening of ATF3 expression. 3. Selective inhibition of Platelet Activity. 4. Modulation of serotonin production, metabolism and 5HT receptor antagonism. 5. Auxin, its anti-proliferative potential and its modulation. 6. Melatonin supplementation because of its oncostatic properties. 7. HDAC Inhibitors especially valproic acid use due to its apoptotic role in many cancers. If all the above stated seven steps are thoroughly taken care of at the time of initial diagnosis of cancer along with the available treatment modalities of Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy and Oncosurgery, then perhaps, the morbidity and mortality rate of cancer may be greatly reduced.

Keywords: ATF3 dampening, auxin modulation, cancer, platelet activation, serotonin, stress, valproic acid

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92 Comparing Practices of Swimming in the Netherlands against a Global Model for Integrated Development of Mass and High Performance Sport: Perceptions of Coaches

Authors: Melissa de Zeeuw, Peter Smolianov, Arnold Bohl

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This study was designed to help and improve international performance as well increase swimming participation in the Netherlands. Over 200 sources of literature on sport delivery systems from 28 Australasian, North and South American, Western and Eastern European countries were analyzed to construct a globally applicable model of high performance swimming integrated with mass participation, comprising of the following seven elements and three levels: Micro level (operations, processes, and methodologies for development of individual athletes): 1. Talent search and development, 2. Advanced athlete support. Meso level (infrastructures, personnel, and services enabling sport programs): 3. Training centers, 4. Competition systems, 5. Intellectual services. Macro level (socio-economic, cultural, legislative, and organizational): 6. Partnerships with supporting agencies, 7. Balanced and integrated funding and structures of mass and elite sport. This model emerged from the integration of instruments that have been used to analyse and compare national sport systems. The model has received scholarly validation and showed to be a framework for program analysis that is not culturally bound. It has recently been accepted as a model for further understanding North American sport systems, including (in chronological order of publications) US rugby, tennis, soccer, swimming and volleyball. The above model was used to design a questionnaire of 42 statements reflecting desired practices. The statements were validated by 12 international experts, including executives from sport governing bodies, academics who published on high performance and sport development, and swimming coaches and administrators. In this study both a highly structured and open ended qualitative analysis tools were used. This included a survey of swim coaches where open responses accompanied structured questions. After collection of the surveys, semi-structured discussions with Federation coaches were conducted to add triangulation to the findings. Lastly, a content analysis of Dutch Swimming’s website and organizational documentation was conducted. A representative sample of 1,600 Dutch Swim coaches and administrators was collected via email addresses from Royal Dutch Swimming Federation' database. Fully completed questionnaires were returned by 122 coaches from all key country’s regions for a response rate of 7,63% - higher than the response rate of the previously mentioned US studies which used the same model and method. Results suggest possible enhancements at macro level (e.g., greater public and corporate support to prepare and hire more coaches and to address the lack of facilities, monies and publicity at mass participation level in order to make swimming affordable for all), at meso level (e.g., comprehensive education for all coaches and full spectrum of swimming pools particularly 50 meters long), and at micro level (e.g., better preparation of athletes for a future outside swimming and better use of swimmers to stimulate swimming development). Best Dutch swimming management practices (e.g., comprehensive support to most talented swimmers who win Olympic medals) as well as relevant international practices available for transfer to the Netherlands (e.g., high school competitions) are discussed.

Keywords: sport development, high performance, mass participation, swimming

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