Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4306

Search results for: substrate concentration

4186 Kinetics Analysis of Lignocellulose Hydrolysis and Glucose Consumption Using Aspergillus niger in Solid State

Authors: Akida Mulyaningtyas, Wahyudi Budi Sediawan

Abstract:

One decisive stage in bioethanol production from plant biomass is the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials into simple sugars such as glucose. The produced glucose is then fermented into ethanol. This stage is popularly done in biological method by using cellulase that is produced by certain fungi. As it is known, glucose is the main source of nutrition for most microorganisms. Therefore, cutting cellulose into glucose is actually an attempt of microorganism to provide nutrition for itself. So far, this phenomenon has received less attention while it is necessary to identify the quantity of sugar consumed by the microorganism. In this study, we examined the phenomenon of sugar consumption by microorganism on lignocellulosic hydrolysis. We used oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) as the source of lignocellulose and Aspergillus niger as cellulase-producing fungus. In Indonesia, OPEFB is plantation waste that is difficult to decompose in nature and causes environmental problems. First, OPEFB was pretreated with 1% of NaOH at 170 oC to destroy lignin that hindered A.niger from accessing cellulose. The hydrolysis was performed by growing A.niger on pretreated OPEFB in solid state to minimize the possibility of contamination. The produced glucose was measured every 24 hours for 9 days. We analyzed the kinetics of both reactions, i.e., hydrolysis and glucose consumption, simultaneously. The constants for both reactions were assumed to follow the Monod equation. The results showed that the reaction constant of glucose consumption (μC) was higher than of cellulose hydrolysis (μH), i.e., 11.8 g/L and 0.62 g/L for glucose consumption and hydrolysis respectively. However, in general, the reaction rate of hydrolysis is greater than of glucose consumption since the cellulose concentration as substrate in hydrolysis is much higher than glucose as substrate in the consumption reaction.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, bioethanol, hydrolysis, kinetics

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4185 Effect of Chlorophyll Concentration Variations from Extract of Papaya Leaves on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: Eka Maulana, Sholeh Hadi Pramono, Dody Fanditya, M. Julius

Abstract:

In this paper, extract of papaya leaves are used as a natural dye and combined by variations of solvent concentration applied on DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). Indonesian geographic located on the equator line occasions the magnitude of the potential to develop organic solar cells made from extracts of chlorophyll as a substitute for inorganic materials or synthetic dye on DSSC material. Dye serves as absorbing photons which are then converted into electrical energy. A conductive coated glass layer called TCO (Transparent Conductive Oxide) is used as a substrate of electrode. TiO2 nanoparticles as binding dye molecules, redox couple iodide/ tri-iodide as the electrolyte and carbon as the counter electrode in the DSSC are used. TiO2 nanoparticles, organic dyes, electrolytes and counter electrode are arranged and combined with the layered structure of the photo-catalyst absorption layer. Dye absorption measurements using a spectrophotometer at 200-800 nm light spectrum produces a total amount of chlorophyll 80.076 mg/l. The test cell at 7 watt LED light with 5000 lux luminescence were obtained Voc and Isc of 235.5 mV and 14 μA, respectively.

Keywords: DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell), natural dye, chlorophyll, absorption

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4184 Effects of Substrate Roughness on E-Cadherin Junction of Oral Keratinocytes

Authors: Sungpyo Kim, Changseok Oh, Ga-Young Lee, Hyun-Man Kim

Abstract:

Intercellular junction of keratinocytes is crucial for epithelia to build an epithelial barrier. Junctional epithelium (JE) seals the interfaces between tooth and gingival tissue. Keratinocytes of JE attach to surfaces roughened by abrasion or erosion with aging. Thus behavior of oral keratinocytes on the rough substrates may help understand the epithelial seal of JE of which major intercellular junction is E-cadherin junction (ECJ). The present study investigated the influence of various substrate roughnesses on the development of ECJ between normal human gingival epithelial keratinocytes, HOK-16B cells. HOK-16B cells were slow in the development of ECJ on the rough substrates compared to on the smooth substrates. Furthermore, oral keratinocytes on the substrates of higher roughnesses were delayed in the development of E-cadherin junction than on the substrates of lower roughnesses. Delayed development of E-cadherin junction on the rough substrates was ascribed to the impaired spreading of cells and its higher JNK activity. Cells on the smooth substrates rapidly spread wide cytoplasmic extensions around cells. However, cells on the rough substrates slowly extended narrow cytoplasmic extensions of which number was limited due to the substrate irregularity. As these cytoplasmic extensions formed ECJ when met with the extensions of neighboring cells, thus, the present study demonstrated that a limited chance of contacts between cytoplasmic extensions due to the limited number of cytoplasmic extensions and slow development of cytoplasmic extensions brought about a delayed development of ECJ in oral keratinocytes on the rougher substrates. Sealing between cells was not complete because only part of cell membrane contributes to the formation of intercellular junction between cells on the substrates of higher roughnesses. Interestingly, inhibition of JNK activity promoted the development of ECJ on the rough substrates, of which mechanism remains to be studied further.

Keywords: substrate roughness, E-cadherin junction, oral keratinocyte, cell spreading, JNK

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4183 Development of an Integrated Reaction Design for the Enzymatic Production of Lactulose

Authors: Natan C. G. Silva, Carlos A. C. Girao Neto, Marcele M. S. Vasconcelos, Luciana R. B. Goncalves, Maria Valderez P. Rocha

Abstract:

Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are sugars with prebiotic function that can be synthesized chemically or enzymatically, and this last one can be promoted by the action of β-galactosidases. In addition to favoring the transgalactosylation reaction to form GOS, these enzymes can also catalyze the hydrolysis of lactose. A highly studied type of GOS is lactulose because it presents therapeutic properties and is a health promoter. Among the different raw materials that can be used to produce lactulose, whey stands out as the main by-product of cheese manufacturing, and its discarded is harmful to the environment due to the residual lactose present. Therefore, its use is a promising alternative to solve this environmental problem. Thus, lactose from whey is hydrolyzed into glucose and galactose by β-galactosidases. However, in order to favor the transgalactosylation reaction, the medium must contain fructose, due this sugar reacts with galactose to produce lactulose. Then, the glucose-isomerase enzyme can be used for this purpose, since it promotes the isomerization of glucose into fructose. In this scenario, the aim of the present work was first to develop β-galactosidase biocatalysts of Kluyveromyces lactis and to apply it in the integrated reactions of hydrolysis, isomerization (with the glucose-isomerase from Streptomyces murinus) and transgalactosylation reaction, using whey as a substrate. The immobilization of β-galactosidase in chitosan previously functionalized with 0.8% glutaraldehyde was evaluated using different enzymatic loads (2, 5, 7, 10, and 12 mg/g). Subsequently, the hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions were studied and conducted at 50°C, 120 RPM for 20 minutes. In parallel, the isomerization of glucose into fructose was evaluated under conditions of 70°C, 750 RPM for 90 min. After, the integration of the three processes for the production of lactulose was investigated. Among the evaluated loads, 7 mg/g was chosen because the best activity of the derivative (44.3 U/g) was obtained, being this parameter determinant for the reaction stages. The other parameters of immobilization yield (87.58%) and recovered activity (46.47%) were also satisfactory compared to the other conditions. Regarding the integrated process, 94.96% of lactose was converted, achieving 37.56 g/L and 37.97 g/L of glucose and galactose, respectively. In the isomerization step, conversion of 38.40% of glucose was observed, obtaining a concentration of 12.47 g/L fructose. In the transgalactosylation reaction was produced 13.15 g/L lactulose after 5 min. However, in the integrated process, there was no formation of lactulose, but it was produced other GOS at the same time. The high galactose concentration in the medium probably favored the reaction of synthesis of these other GOS. Therefore, the integrated process proved feasible for possible production of prebiotics. In addition, this process can be economically viable due to the use of an industrial residue as a substrate, but it is necessary a more detailed investigation of the transgalactosilation reaction.

Keywords: beta-galactosidase, glucose-isomerase, galactooligosaccharides, lactulose, whey

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4182 Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface

Authors: P. Abachi, T. W. Coyle, P. S. Musavi Gharavi

Abstract:

By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard. 

Keywords: bonding strength, four-point bend test, interfacial fracture toughness, modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen, plasma sprayed coating, tensile adhesion test

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4181 A Machining Method of Cross-Shape Nano Channel and Experiments for Silicon Substrate

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Zih-Wun Jhang

Abstract:

The paper innovatively proposes using the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) and AFM machine to establish a machining method of cross-shape nanochannel on single-crystal silicon substrate. As for machining a cross-shape nanochannel by AFM machine, the paper develop a method of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove at a fixed down force by using SDFE theory and combining the planned cutting path of cross-shape nanochannel up to 5th machining layer it finally achieves a cross-shape nanochannel at a cutting depth of around 20nm. Since there may be standing burr at the machined cross-shape nanochannel edge, the paper uses a smaller down force to cut the edge of the cross-shape nanochannel in order to lower the height of standing burr and converge the height of standing burr at the edge to below 0.54nm as set by the paper. Finally, the paper conducts experiments of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove on single-crystal silicon by AFM probe, and compares the simulation and experimental results. It is proved that this proposed machining method of cross-shape nanochannel is feasible.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-shape nanochannel, silicon substrate, specific down force energy (SDFE)

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4180 Effect of O2 Pressure of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanostructure on Morphology Properties for Gas Sensing

Authors: Samar Y. Al-Dabagh, Adawiya J. Haider, Mirvat D. Majed

Abstract:

Pure nanostructure TiO2 and thin films doped with transition metal Fe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si (111) substrate. The thin films structures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology properties were determined from atomic force microscopy (AFM), which shows that the roughness increases when TiO2 is doped with Fe. Results show TiO2 doped with Fe metal thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate has maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapor at 10 mbar oxygen pressure than at 0.01 and 0.1 mbar with optimum operation temperature of 250°C.

Keywords: pulsed laser deposition (PLD), TiO2 doped thin films, nanostructure, gas sensor

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4179 Fabrication of Uniform Nanofibers Using Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle Based Microfluidic Liquid Jet System

Authors: R. Vasireddi, J. Kruse, M. Vakili, M. Trebbin

Abstract:

Here we present a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) based microfluidic jetting devices for spinning of nano/microfibers. The device is fabricated by soft lithography techniques and is based on the principle of a GDVN for precise three-dimensional gas focusing of the spinning solution. The nozzle device is used to produce micro/nanofibers of a perfluorinated terpolymer (THV), which were collected on an aluminum substrate for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The influences of air pressure, polymer concentration, flow rate and nozzle geometry on the fiber properties were investigated. It was revealed that surface properties are controlled by air pressure and polymer concentration while the diameter and shape of the fibers are influenced mostly by the concentration of the polymer solution and pressure. Alterations of the nozzle geometry had a negligible effect on the fiber properties, however, the jetting stability was affected. Round and flat fibers with differing surface properties from craters, grooves to smooth surfaces could be fabricated by controlling the above-mentioned parameters. Furthermore, the formation of surface roughness was attributed to the fast evaporation rate and velocity (mis)match between the polymer solution jet and the surrounding air stream. The diameter of the fibers could be tuned from ~250 nm to ~15 µm. Because of the simplicity of the setup, the precise control of the fiber properties, access to biocompatible nanofiber fabrication and the easy scale-up of parallel channels for high throughput, this method offers significant benefits compared to existing solution-based fiber production methods.

Keywords: gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) principle, microfluidic device, spinning, uniform nanofibers

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4178 Effect of Microfiltration on the Composition and Ripening of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati belvirdi, M. Shakerian, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The effect of Microfiltration (MF) on proteolysis, hardness, and flavor of Feta cheese during 6 mo of aging was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered two-fold in two cheese making trials. In trial 1, four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using unconcentrated milk (1X), 1.26X, 1.51X, and 1.82X Concentration Factors (CF). Casein-(CN)-to-fat ratio was constant among treatments. Proteolysis during cheese aging decreased with increasing CF due to either limitation of substrate availability for chymosin due to low moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS), inhibition of chymosin activity by high molecular weight milk serum proteins, such as α2-macroglobulin, retained in the cheese or low residual chymosin in the cheese. Hardness of fresh cheese increased, and cheese flavor intensity decreased with increasing CF. In trial 2, the 1X and 1.8X CF were compared directly. Changes made in the cheese making procedure for the 1.8X CF (more chymosin and less cooking) increased the MNFS and made proteolysis during aging more comparable for the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. The significant difference in cheese hardness due to CF in trial 1 was eliminated in trial 2. In a triangle test, panelists could not differentiate between the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. Therefore, increasing chymosin and making the composition of the two cheeses more similar allowed production of aged Fetta cheese from milk concentrated up to 1.8X by MF that was not perceived as different from aged feta cheese produced without MF.

Keywords: feta cheese, microfiltration, concentration factor, proteolysis

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4177 Removal of Nitenpyram from Farmland Runoff by an Integrated Ecological Ditches with Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Dan Qu, Dezhi Sun, Benhang Li

Abstract:

The removal of Nitenpyram from farmland runoff by an integrated eco-ditches and constructed wetland system was investigated in the case of different HRT. Experimental results show that the removal of COD, N and P was not influenced by the Nitenpyram. When the HRT was 2.5 d, 2 d, and 1 d, the Nitenpyram removal efficiency could reach 100%, 100% and 84%, respectively. The removal efficiency in the ecological ditches was about 38%-40% in the case of different HRT, while that in the constructed wetland was influenced by the HRT variation. The optimum HRT for Nitenpyram and pollutants removal was 2 d. The substrate zeolite with soil and hollow brick layer enabled higher Nitenpyram removal rates, probably due to the cooperative phenomenon of plant uptake and microbiological deterioration as well as the adsorption by the substrate.

Keywords: ecological ditch, vertical flow constructed wetland, hydraulic retention time, Nitenpyram

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4176 A Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for WLAN and WiMAX Applications

Authors: P. Krachodnok

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of a multiple U-slotted microstrip patch antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) as a superstrate for WLAN and WiMAX applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate FR4 having permittivity of 4.4 and air substrate. The characteristics of the antenna are designed and evaluated the performance of modelled antenna using CST Microwave studio. The proposed antenna dual resonant frequency has been achieved in the band of 2.37-2.55 GHz and 3.4-3.6 GHz. Because of the impact of FSS superstrate, it is found that the bandwidths have been improved from 6.12% to 7.35 % and 3.7% to 5.7% at resonant frequencies 2.45 GHz and 3.5 GHz, respectively. The maximum gain at the resonant frequency of 2.45 and 3.5 GHz are 9.3 and 11.33 dBi, respectively.

Keywords: multi-slotted antenna, microstrip patch antenna, frequency selective surface, artificial magnetic conduction

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4175 Electrical Characteristics of SiON/GaAs MOS Capacitor with Various Passivations

Authors: Ming-Kwei Lee, Chih-Feng Yen

Abstract:

The electrical characteristics of liquid phase deposited silicon oxynitride film on ammonium sulfide treated p-type (100) gallium arsenide substrate were investigated. Hydrofluosilicic acid, ammonia and boric acid aqueous solutions were used as precursors. The electrical characteristics of silicon oxynitride film are much improved on gallium arsenide substrate with ammonium sulfide treatment. With post-metallization annealing, hydrogen ions can further passivate defects in SiON/GaAs film and interface. The leakage currents can reach 7.1 × 10-8 and 1.8 × 10-7 at ± 2 V. The dielectric constant and effective oxide charges are 5.6 and -5.3 × 1010 C/cm2, respectively. The hysteresis offset of hysteresis loop is merely 0.09 V.

Keywords: liquid phase deposition, SiON, GaAs, PMA, (NH4)2S

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4174 Bioremediation as a Treatment of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wastewater

Authors: Hen Friman, Alex Schechter, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rivka Cahan

Abstract:

The treatment of aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater resulting from oil spills and chemical manufactories is becoming a key concern in many modern countries. Benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BETX) contaminate groundwater as well as soil. These compounds have an acute effect on human health and are known to be carcinogenic. Conventional removal of these toxic materials involves separation and burning of the wastes, however, the cost of chemical treatment is very high and energy consuming. Bioremediation methods for removal of toxic organic compounds constitute an attractive alternative to the conventional chemical or physical techniques. Bioremediation methods use microorganisms to reduce the concentration and toxicity of various chemical pollutants Toluene is biodegradable both aerobically and anaerobically, it can be growth inhibitory to microorganisms at elevated concentrations, even to those species that can use it as a substrate. In this research culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown in bath bio-reactor (BBR) with toluene 100 mg/l as a single carbon source under constant voltage of 125 mV, 250 mV and 500 mV. The culture grown in BBR reached to 0.8 OD660nm while the control culture that grown without external voltage reached only to 0.6 OD660nm. The residual toluene concentration after 147 h, in the BBR operated under external voltage (125 mV) was 22 % on average, while in the control BBR it was 81 % on average.

Keywords: bioremediation, aromatic hydrocarbons, BETX, toluene, pseudomonas putida

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4173 Anaerobic Digestion of Green Wastes at Different Solids Concentrations and Temperatures to Enhance Methane Generation

Authors: A. Bayat, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham

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Two major categories of green waste are fruit and vegetable (FV) waste and garden and yard (GY) waste. Although, anaerobic digestions (AD) is able to manage FV waste; there is less confidence in the conditions for AD to handle GY wastes (grass, leaves, trees and bush trimmings); mainly because GY contains lignin and other recalcitrant organics. GY in the dry state (TS ≥ 15 %) can be digested at mesophilic temperatures; however, little methane data has been reported under thermophilic conditions, where conceivably better methane yields could be achieved. In addition, it is suspected that at lower solids concentrations, the methane yield could be increased. As such, the aim of this research is to find the temperature and solids concentration conditions that produce the most methane; under two different temperature regimes (mesophilic, thermophilic) and three solids states (i.e. 'dry', 'semi-dry' and 'wet'). Twenty liters of GY waste was collected from a public park located in the northern district in Tehran. The clippings consisted of freshly cut grass as well as dry branches and leaves. The GY waste was chopped before being fed into a mechanical blender that reduced it to a paste-like consistency. An initial TS concentration of approximately 38 % was achieved. Four hundred mL of anaerobic inoculum (average total solids (TS) concentration of 2.03 ± 0.131 % of which 73.4% were volatile solid (VS), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) of 4.59 ± 0.3 g/L) was mixed with the GY waste substrate paste (along with distilled water) to achieve a TS content of approximately 20 %. For comparative purposes, approximately 20 liters of FV waste was ground in the same manner as the GY waste. Since FV waste has a much higher natural water content than GY, it was dewatered to obtain a starting TS concentration in the dry solid-state range (TS ≥ 15 %). Three samples were dewatered to an average starting TS concentration of 32.71 %. The inoculum was added (along with distilled water) to dilute the initial FV TS concentrations down to semi-dry conditions (10-15 %) and wet conditions (below 10 %). Twelve 1-L batch bioreactors were loaded simultaneously with either GY or FV waste at TS solid concentrations ranging from 3.85 ± 1.22 % to 20.11 ± 1.23 %. The reactors were sealed and were operated for 30 days while being immersed in water baths to maintain a constant temperature of 37 ± 0.5 °C (mesophilic) or 55 ± 0.5 °C (thermophilic). A maximum methane yield of 115.42 (L methane/ kg VS added) was obtained for the GY thermophilic-wet AD combination. Methane yield was enhanced by 240 % compared to the GY waste mesophilic-dry condition. The results confirm that high temperature regimes and small solids concentrations are conditions that enhance methane yield from GY waste. A similar trend was observed for the anaerobic digestion of FV waste. Furthermore, a maximum value of VS (53 %) and sCOD (84 %) reduction was achieved during the AD of GY waste under the thermophilic-wet condition.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, mesophilic, total solids concentration

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4172 Production of Bioethanol from Oil PalmTrunk by Cocktail Carbohydrases Enzyme Produced by Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated from Hot spring in West Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Yetti Marlida, Syukri Arif, Nadirman Haska

Abstract:

Recently, alcohol fuels have been produced on industrial scales by fermentation of sugars derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane etc. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials to produce fermentable sugars has an enormous potential in meeting global bioenergy demand through the biorefinery concept, since agri-food processes generate millions of tones of waste each year (Xeros and Christakopoulos 2009) such as sugar cane baggase , wheat straw, rice straw, corn cob, and oil palm trunk. In fact oil palm trunk is one of the most abundant lignocellulosic wastes by-products worldwide especially come from Malaysia, Indonesia and Nigeria and provides an alternative substrate to produce useful chemicals such as bioethanol. Usually, from the ages 3 years to 25 years, is the economical life of oil palm and after that, it is cut for replantation. The size of trunk usually is 15-18 meters in length and 46-60 centimeters in diameter. The trunk after cutting is agricultural waste causing problem in elimination but due to the trunk contains about 42% cellulose, 34.4%hemicellulose, 17.1% lignin and 7.3% other compounds,these agricultural wastes could make value added products (Pumiput, 2006).This research was production of bioethanol from oil palm trunk via saccharafication by cocktail carbohydrases enzymes. Enzymatic saccharification of acid treated oil palm trunk was carried out in reaction mixture containing 40 g treated oil palm trunk in 200 ml 0.1 M citrate buffer pH 4.8 with 500 unit/kg amylase for treatment A: Treatment B: Treatment A + 500 unit/kg cellulose; C: treatment B + 500 unit/kgg xylanase: D: treatment D + 500 unit/kg ligninase and E: OPT without treated + 500 unit/kg amylase + 500 unit/kg cellulose + 500 unit/kg xylanase + 500 unit/kg ligninase. The reaction mixture was incubated on a water bath rotary shaker adjusted to 600C and 75 rpm. The samples were withdraw at intervals 12 and 24, 36, 48,60, and 72 hr. For bioethanol production in biofermentor of 5L the hydrolysis product were inoculated a loop of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then incubated at 34 0C under static conditions. Samples are withdraw after 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hr for bioethanol and residual glucose. The results of the enzymatic hidrolysis (Figure1) showed that the treatment B (OPT hydrolyzed with amylase and cellulase) have optimum condition for glucose production, where was both of enzymes can be degraded OPT perfectly. The same results also reported by Primarini et al., (2012) reported the optimum conditions the hydrolysis of OPT was at concentration of 25% (w /v) with 0.3% (w/v) amylase, 0.6% (w /v) glucoamylase and 4% (w/v) cellulase. In the Figure 2 showed that optimum bioethanol produced at 48 hr after incubation,if time increased the biothanol decreased. According Roukas (1996), a decrease in the concentration of ethanol occur at excess glucose as substrate and product inhibition effects. Substrate concentration is too high reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen, although in very small amounts, oxygen is still needed in the fermentation by Saccaromyces cerevisiae to keep life in high cell concentrations (Nowak 2000, Tao et al. 2005). The results of the research can be conluded that the optimum enzymatic hydrolysis occured when the OPT added with amylase and cellulase and optimum bioethanol produced at 48 hr incubation using Saccharomyses cerevicea whereas 18.08 % bioethanol produced from glucose conversion. This work was funded by Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE), Ministry of Education and Culture, contract no.245/SP2H/DIT.LimtabMas/II/2013

Keywords: oil palm trunk, enzymatic hydrolysis, saccharification

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4171 Study of the Combinatorial Impact of Substrate Properties on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Using Microfluidics

Authors: Nishanth Venugopal Menon, Chuah Yon Jin, Samantha Phey, Wu Yingnan, Zhang Ying, Vincent Chan, Kang Yuejun

Abstract:

Cell Migration is a vital phenomenon that the cells undergo in various physiological processes like wound healing, disease progression, embryogenesis, etc. Cell migration depends primarily on the chemical and physical cues available in the cellular environment. The chemical cue involves the chemokines secreted and gradients generated in the environment while physical cues indicate the impact of matrix properties like nanotopography and stiffness on the cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been shown to have a role wound healing in vivo and its migration to the site of the wound has been shown to have a therapeutic effect. In the field of stem cell based tissue regeneration of bones and cartilage, one approach has been to introduce scaffold laden with MSCs into the site of injury to enable tissue regeneration. In this work, we have studied the combinatorial impact of the substrate physical properties on MSC migration. A microfluidic in vitro model was created to perform the migration studies. The microfluidic model used is a three compartment device consisting of two cell seeding compartments and one migration compartment. Four different PDMS substrates with varying substrate roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity were created. Its surface roughness and stiffness was measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) while its hydrphobicity was measured from the water contact angle using an optical tensiometer. These PDMS substrates are sealed to the microfluidic chip following which the MSCs are seeded and the cell migration is studied over the period of a week. Cell migration was quantified using fluorescence imaging of the cytoskeleton (F-actin) to find out the area covered by the cells inside the migration compartment. The impact of adhesion proteins on cell migration was also quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR). These results suggested that the optimal substrate for cell migration would be one with an intermediate level of roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity. A higher or lower value of these properties affected cell migration negatively. These observations have helped us in understanding that different substrate properties need to be considered in tandem, especially while designing scaffolds for tissue regeneration as cell migration is normally impacted by the combinatorial impact of the matrix. These observations may lead us to scaffold optimization in future tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: cell migration, microfluidics, in vitro model, stem cell migration, scaffold, substrate properties

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4170 Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris

Authors: Ahmed Arkoazi, Hussein Znad, Ranjeet Utikar

Abstract:

The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: bubble column reactor, gas holdup, hydrodynamics, sparger

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4169 Optimization of Sequential Thermophilic Bio-Hydrogen/Methane Production from Mono-Ethylene Glycol via Anaerobic Digestion: Impact of Inoculum to Substrate Ratio and N/P Ratio

Authors: Ahmed Elreedy, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

This investigation aims to assess the effect of inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR) and nitrogen to phosphorous balance on simultaneous biohydrogen and methane production from anaerobic decomposition of mono-ethylene glycol (MEG). Different ISRs were applied in the range between 2.65 and 13.23 gVSS/gCOD, whereas the tested N/P ratios were changed from 4.6 to 8.5; both under thermophilic conditions (55°C). The maximum obtained methane and hydrogen yields (MY and HY) of 151.86±10.8 and 22.27±1.1 mL/gCODinitial were recorded at ISRs of 5.29 and 3.78 gVSS/gCOD, respectively. Unlikely, the ammonification process, in terms of net ammonia produced, was found to be ISR and COD/N ratio dependent, reaching its peak value of 515.5±31.05 mgNH4-N/L at ISR and COD/N ratio of 13.23 gVSS/gCOD and 11.56. The optimum HY was enhanced by more than 1.45-fold with declining N/P ratio from 8.5 to 4.6; whereas, the MY was improved (1.6-fold), while increasing N/P ratio from 4.6 to 5.5 with no significant impact at N/P ratio of 8.5. The results obtained revealed that the methane production was strongly influenced by initial ammonia, compared to initial phosphate. Likewise, the generation of ammonia was markedly deteriorated from 535.25±41.5 to 238.33±17.6 mgNH4-N/L with increasing N/P ratio from 4.6 to 8.5. The kinetic study using Modified Gompertz equation was successfully fitted to the experimental outputs (R2 > 0.9761).

Keywords: mono-ethylene glycol, biohydrogen and methane, inoculum to substrate ratio, nitrogen to phosphorous balance, ammonification

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4168 Design and Optimisation of 2-Oxoglutarate Dioxygenase Expression in Escherichia coli Strains for Production of Bioethylene from Crude Glycerol

Authors: Idan Chiyanzu, Maruping Mangena

Abstract:

Crude glycerol, a major by-product from the transesterification of triacylglycerides with alcohol to biodiesel, is known to have a broad range of applications. For example, its bioconversion can afford a wide range of chemicals including alcohols, organic acids, hydrogen, solvents and intermediate compounds. In bacteria, the 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (2-OGD) enzymes are widely found among the Pseudomonas syringae species and have been recognized with an emerging importance in ethylene formation. However, the use of optimized enzyme function in recombinant systems for crude glycerol conversion to ethylene is still not been reported. The present study investigated the production of ethylene from crude glycerol using engineered E. coli MG1655 and JM109 strains. Ethylene production with an optimized expression system for 2-OGD in E. coli using a codon optimized construct of the ethylene-forming gene was studied. The codon-optimization resulted in a 20-fold increase of protein production and thus an enhanced production of the ethylene gas. For a reliable bioreactor performance, the effect of temperature, fermentation time, pH, substrate concentration, the concentration of methanol, concentration of potassium hydroxide and media supplements on ethylene yield was investigated. The results demonstrate that the recombinant enzyme can be used for future studies to exploit the conversion of low-priced crude glycerol into advanced value products like light olefins, and tools including recombineering techniques for DNA, molecular biology, and bioengineering can be used to allowing unlimited the production of ethylene directly from the fermentation of crude glycerol. It can be concluded that recombinant E.coli production systems represent significantly secure, renewable and environmentally safe alternative to thermochemical approach to ethylene production.

Keywords: crude glycerol, bioethylene, recombinant E. coli, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
4167 Ni-Based Hardfacing Alloy Reinforced with Fused Eutectic Tungsten Carbide Deposited on Infiltrated WC-W-Ni Substrate by Oxyacetylene Welding

Authors: D. Miroud, H. Mokaddem, M. Tata, N. Foucha

Abstract:

The body of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) drill bit can be manufactured from two different materials, steel and tungsten carbide matrix. Commonly the steel body is produced by machining, thermal spraying a bonding layer and hardfacing of Ni-based matrix reinforced with fused eutectic tungsten carbide (WC/W2C). The matrix body bit is manufactured by infiltrating tungsten carbide particles, with a Copper binary or ternary alloy. By erosion-corrosion mechanisms, the PDC drill bits matrix undergoes severe damage, occurring particularly around the PDC inserts and near injection nozzles. In this study, we investigated the possibility to repair the damaged matrix regions by hardfacing technic. Ni-based hardfacing alloy reinforced with fused eutectic tungsten carbide is deposited on infiltrated WC-W-Ni substrate by oxyacetylene welding (OAW). The microstructure at the hardfacing / matrix interface is characterized by SEM- EDS, XRD and micro hardness Hv0.1. The hardfacing conditions greatly affect the dilution phenomenon and the distribution of carbides at the interface, without formation of transition zone. During OAW welding deposition, interdiffusion of atoms occurs: Cu and Sn diffuse from infiltrated matrix substrate into hardfacing and simultaneously Cr and Si alloy elements from hardfacing diffuse towards the substrate. The dilution zone consists of a nickel-rich phase with a heterogeneous distribution of eutectic spherical (Ni-based hardfacing alloy) and irregular (matrix) WC/W2C carbides and a secondary phase rich in Cr-W-Si. Hardfacing conditions cause the dissolution of banding around both spherical and irregular carbides. The micro-hardness of interface is significantly improved by the presence of secondary phase in the inter-dendritic structure.

Keywords: dilution, dissolution, hardfacing, infiltrated matrix, PDC drill bits

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4166 Evaluation of the Effect of Lactose Derived Monosaccharide on Galactooligosaccharides Production by β-Galactosidase

Authors: Yenny Paola Morales Cortés, Fabián Rico Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Serrato Bermúdez, Carlos Arturo Martínez Riascos

Abstract:

Numerous benefits of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) as prebiotics have motivated the study of enzymatic processes for their production. These processes have special complexities due to several factors that make difficult high productivity, such as enzyme type, reaction medium pH, substrate concentrations and presence of inhibitors, among others. In the present work the production of galactooligosaccharides (with different degrees of polymerization: two, three and four) from lactose was studied. The study considers the formulation of a mathematical model that predicts the production of GOS from lactose using the enzyme β-galactosidase. The effect of pH in the reaction was studied. For that, phosphate buffer was used and with this was evaluated three pH values (6.0.6.5 and 7.0). Thus it was observed that at pH 6.0 the enzymatic activity insignificant. On the other hand, at pH 7.0 the enzymatic activity was approximately 27 times greater than at 6.5. The last result differs from previously reported results. Therefore, pH 7.0 was chosen as working pH. Additionally, the enzyme concentration was analyzed, which allowed observing that the effect of the concentration depends on the pH and the concentration was set for the following studies in 0.272 mM. Afterwards, experiments were performed varying the lactose concentration to evaluate its effects on the process and to generate the data for the adjustment of the mathematical model parameters. The mathematical model considers the reactions of lactose hydrolysis and transgalactosylation for the production of disaccharides and trisaccharides, with their inverse reactions. The production of tetrasaccharides was negligible and, because of that, it was not included in the model. The reaction was monitored by HPLC and for the quantitative analysis of the experimental data the Matlab programming language was used, including solvers for differential equations systems integration (ode15s) and nonlinear problems optimization (fminunc). The results confirm that the transgalactosylation and hydrolysis reactions are reversible, additionally inhibition by glucose and galactose is observed on the production of GOS. In relation to the production process of galactooligosaccharides, the results show that it is necessary to have high initial concentrations of lactose considering that favors the transgalactosylation reaction, while low concentrations favor hydrolysis reactions.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, galactooligosaccharides, inhibition, lactose, Matlab, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
4165 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique

Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity (  ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.

Keywords: CuAlS2, evaporation, sulfurisation, thickness, resistivity, crystalline

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
4164 Evaluation of Fluoride Contents of Kirkuk City's Drinking Water and Its Source: Lesser Zab River and Its Effect on Human Health

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Safa H. Abdulrahman

Abstract:

In this study, forty samples had been collected from water of Lesser Zab River and drinking water to determine fluoride concentration and show the impact of fluoride on general health of society of Kirkuk city. Estimation of fluoride concentration and determination of its proportion in water samples were performed attentively using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The fluoride concentrations in the Lesser Zab River samples were between 0.0265 ppm and 0.0863 ppm with an average of 0.0451 ppm, whereas the average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.102 ppm and ranged from 0.010 to 0.289 ppm. A comparison between results obtained with World Health Organization (WHO) show a low concentration of fluoride in the samples of the study. Thus, for health concerns we should increase the concentration of this ion in water of Kirkuk city at least to about (1.0 ppm) and this will take place after fluorination process.

Keywords: fluoride concentration, lesser zab river, drinking water, health society, Kirkuk city

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
4163 Water Droplet Impact on Vibrating Rigid Superhydrophobic Surfaces

Authors: Jingcheng Ma, Patricia B. Weisensee, Young H. Shin, Yujin Chang, Junjiao Tian, William P. King, Nenad Miljkovic

Abstract:

Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in both nature and industry. The transfer of mass, momentum and energy can be influenced by the time of contact between droplet and surface. In order to reduce the contact time, we study the influence of substrate motion prior to impact on the dynamics of droplet recoil. Using optical high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics of macroscopic water droplets (~ 2mm) on rigid nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces vibrating at 60 – 300 Hz and amplitudes of 0 – 3 mm. In addition, we studied the influence of the phase of the substrate at the moment of impact on total contact time. We demonstrate that substrate vibration can alter droplet dynamics, and decrease total contact time by as much as 50% compared to impact on stationary rigid superhydrophobic surfaces. Impact analysis revealed that the vibration frequency mainly affected the maximum contact time, while the amplitude of vibration had little direct effect on the contact time. Through mathematical modeling, we show that the oscillation amplitude influences the possibility density function of droplet impact at a given phase, and thus indirectly influences the average contact time. We also observed more vigorous droplet splashing and breakup during impact at larger amplitudes. Through semi-empirical mathematical modeling, we describe the relationship between contact time and vibration frequency, phase, and amplitude of the substrate. We also show that the maximum acceleration during the impact process is better suited as a threshold parameter for the onset of splashing than a Weber-number criterion. This study not only provides new insights into droplet impact physics on vibrating surfaces, but develops guidelines for the rational design of surfaces to achieve controllable droplet wetting in applications utilizing vibration.

Keywords: contact time, impact dynamics, oscillation, pear-shape droplet

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
4162 High Productivity Fed-Batch Process for Biosurfactant Production for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

Authors: G. A. Amin, A. D. Al-Talhi

Abstract:

The bacterium B. subtilis produced surfactin in conventional batch culture as a growth associated product and a growth rate (0.4 h-1). A fed-batch process was developed and the fermentative substrate and other nutrients were fed on hourly basis and according to the growth rate of the bacterium. Conversion of different quantities of Maldex-15 into surfactin was investigated in five different fermentation runs. In all runs, most of Maldex-15 was consumed and converted into surfactin and cell biomass with appreciable efficiencies. The best results were obtained with fermentation run supplied with 200 g Maldex-15. Up to 35.4 g.l-1 of surfactin and cell biomass of 30.2 g.l-1 were achieved in 12 hrs. Also, markedly substrate yield of 0.269 g/g and volumetric reactor productivity of 2.61 g.1-1.h-1 were obtained confirming the establishment of a cost effective commercial surfactin production.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, biosurfactant, exponentially fed-batch fermentation, surfactin

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
4161 Comparative Efficacy of Pomegranate Juice, Peel and Seed Extract in the Stabilization of Corn Oil under Accelerated Conditions

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

Antioxidant-rich extracts were prepared from pomegranate peels, seeds and juice using methanol and ethanol and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Both analytical methods indicated a higher antioxidant activity in extracts prepared from peels, which was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid content of the various extracts. The antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts was also assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate. More specifically, preheated corn oil samples stabilized with extracts at a concentration of 250 ppm, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm were subjected to accelerated aging (100 oC, 10 days) and the extent of oxidative alteration was followed by the measurement of the peroxide, conjugated dienes and trienes, as well as p-aniside value. BHT at its legal limit (200 ppm) served as standard besides the control sample. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with each other suggesting that pomegranate extracts can stabilize corn oil effectively under accelerated conditions, at all concentrations tested. However, the magnitude of oil stabilization depended strongly on the amount of extract added and this was positively correlated with their phenolic content. Pomegranate peel extracts, which exhibited the highest not only phenolic and flavonoid content but also antioxidant activity, were more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Both methanolic and ethanolic peel extracts at a concentration of 500 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of BHT, while at a concentration of 1000 ppm they exhibited higher stabilization efficiency in comparison to BHT. Finally, heating oil samples resulted in a time dependent decrease in their antioxidant capacity. Samples containing peel extracts appeared to retain their antioxidant capacity for a longer period, indicating that these extracts contained active compounds that offered superior antioxidant protection to corn oil.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, corn oil, oxidative deterioration, pomegranate

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
4160 Effect of Substrate Type on Pollutant Removal and Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Constructed Wetlands with Ornamental Plants

Authors: Maria E. Hernnadez, Elizabeth Ramos, Claudia Ortiz

Abstract:

Pollutant removal (N-NH4, COD, S-SO4, N-NO3 and P-PO4) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) emissions were investigated in constructed wetlands CW mesocosms with four types of substrate (gravel (G) zeolite (Z), Gravel+Plastic (GP) and zeolite+plastic), all planted with the ornamental plant lily (Lilium sp). Significantly higher N-NH4 removal was found in the CW-Z (97%) and CW-ZP (85%) compared with CW-G (61%) and CW-GP (17%), also significantly lower emissions of nitrous oxide were found in CW-Z (2.2 µgm-2min-1) and CW-ZP (2.5 µgm-2min-1) compared with CW-G(7.4 µgm-2min-1 ) and CW-GP (6.30 µgm-2min-1).

Keywords: methane, nitrous oxide, lily, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
4159 Microfluidic Plasmonic Bio-Sensing of Exosomes by Using a Gold Nano-Island Platform

Authors: Srinivas Bathini, Duraichelvan Raju, Simona Badilescu, Muthukumaran Packirisamy

Abstract:

A bio-sensing method, based on the plasmonic property of gold nano-islands, has been developed for detection of exosomes in a clinical setting. The position of the gold plasmon band in the UV-Visible spectrum depends on the size and shape of gold nanoparticles as well as on the surrounding environment. By adsorbing various chemical entities, or binding them, the gold plasmon band will shift toward longer wavelengths and the shift is proportional to the concentration. Exosomes transport cargoes of molecules and genetic materials to proximal and distal cells. Presently, the standard method for their isolation and quantification from body fluids is by ultracentrifugation, not a practical method to be implemented in a clinical setting. Thus, a versatile and cutting-edge platform is required to selectively detect and isolate exosomes for further analysis at clinical level. The new sensing protocol, instead of antibodies, makes use of a specially synthesized polypeptide (Vn96), to capture and quantify the exosomes from different media, by binding the heat shock proteins from exosomes. The protocol has been established and optimized by using a glass substrate, in order to facilitate the next stage, namely the transfer of the protocol to a microfluidic environment. After each step of the protocol, the UV-Vis spectrum was recorded and the position of gold Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) band was measured. The sensing process was modelled, taking into account the characteristics of the nano-island structure, prepared by thermal convection and annealing. The optimal molar ratios of the most important chemical entities, involved in the detection of exosomes were calculated as well. Indeed, it was found that the results of the sensing process depend on the two major steps: the molar ratios of streptavidin to biotin-PEG-Vn96 and, the final step, the capture of exosomes by the biotin-PEG-Vn96 complex. The microfluidic device designed for sensing of exosomes consists of a glass substrate, sealed by a PDMS layer that contains the channel and a collecting chamber. In the device, the solutions of linker, cross-linker, etc., are pumped over the gold nano-islands and an Ocean Optics spectrometer is used to measure the position of the Au plasmon band at each step of the sensing. The experiments have shown that the shift of the Au LSPR band is proportional to the concentration of exosomes and, thereby, exosomes can be accurately quantified. An important advantage of the method is the ability to discriminate between exosomes having different origins.

Keywords: exosomes, gold nano-islands, microfluidics, plasmonic biosensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
4158 An Experimental Study on Intellectual Concentration Influenced by Indoor Airflow

Authors: Kyoko Ito, Shinya Furuta, Daisuke Kamihigashi, Kimi Ueda, Hirotake Ishii, Hiroshi Shimoda, Fumiaki Obayashi, Kazuhiro Taniguchi

Abstract:

In order to improve intellectual concentration, few studies have verified the effect of indoor airflow among the thermal environment conditions, and the differences of the season in effects have not been studied. In this study, in order to investigate the influence of the airflow in winter on the intellectual concentration, an evaluation experiment was conducted. In the previous study, an effective airflow in summer was proposed and the improvement of intellectual concentration by evaluation experiment was confirmed. Therefore, an airflow profile in winter was proposed with reference to the airflow profile in summer. The airflows are a combination of a simulative airflow and mild airflow. An experiment has been conducted to investigate the influence of a room airflow in winter on intellectual concentration. As a result of comparison with no airflow condition, no significant difference was found. Based on the results, it is a future task to ask preliminary preference in advance and to establish a mechanism that can provide controllable airflow for each individual, taking into account the preference for airflow to be different for each individual.

Keywords: concentration time ratio, CTR, indoor airflow, intellectual concentration, workplace environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
4157 Microwave-Assisted Chemical Pre-Treatment of Waste Sorghum Leaves: Process Optimization and Development of an Intelligent Model for Determination of Volatile Compound Fractions

Authors: Daneal Rorke, Gueguim Kana

Abstract:

The shift towards renewable energy sources for biofuel production has received increasing attention. However, the use and pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material are inundated with the generation of fermentation inhibitors which severely impact the feasibility of bioprocesses. This study reports the profiling of all volatile compounds generated during microwave assisted chemical pre-treatment of sorghum leaves. Furthermore, the optimization of reducing sugar (RS) from microwave assisted acid pre-treatment of sorghum leaves was assessed and gave a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.76, producing an optimal RS yield of 2.74 g FS/g substrate. The development of an intelligent model to predict volatile compound fractions gave R2 values of up to 0.93 for 21 volatile compounds. Sensitivity analysis revealed that furfural and phenol exhibited high sensitivity to acid concentration, alkali concentration and S:L ratio, while phenol showed high sensitivity to microwave duration and intensity as well. These findings illustrate the potential of using an intelligent model to predict the volatile compound fraction profile of compounds generated during pre-treatment of sorghum leaves in order to establish a more robust and efficient pre-treatment regime for biofuel production.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fermentation inhibitors, lignocellulosic pre-treatment, sorghum leaves

Procedia PDF Downloads 131