Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3433

Search results for: steering column orientation position

3433 Study of Effect of Steering Column Orientation and Operator Platform Position on the Hand Vibration in Compactors

Authors: Sunil Bandaru, Suresh Yv, Srinivas Vanapalli


Heavy machinery especially compactors has more vibrations induced from the compactor mechanism than the engines. Since the operator’s comfort is most important in any of the machines, this paper shows interest in studying the vibrations on the steering wheel for a double drum compactor. As there are no standard procedures available for testing vibrations on the steering wheel of double drum compactors, this paper tries to evaluate the vibrations on the steering wheel by considering most of the possibilities. In addition to the feasibility for the operator to adjust the steering wheel tilt as in the case of automotive, there is an option for the operator to change the orientation of the operator platform for the complete view of the road’s edge on both the ends of the front and rear drums. When the orientation is either +/-180°, the operator will be closer to the compactor mechanism; also there is a possibility for the shuffle in the modes with respect to the operator. Hence it is mandatory to evaluate the vibrations levels in both cases. This paper attempts to evaluate the vibrations on the steering wheel by considering the two operator platform positions and three steering wheel tilting angles.

Keywords: FEA, CAE, steering column, steering column orientation position

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
3432 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo


This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: friction, worm gear, column electric power steering system, simulink, bearing, EPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
3431 Friction Estimation and Compensation for Steering Angle Control for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Marcus Walter, Norbert Nitzsche, Dirk Odenthal, Steffen Müller


This contribution presents a friction estimator for industrial purposes which identifies Coulomb friction in a steering system. The estimator only needs a few, usually known, steering system parameters. Friction occurs on almost every mechanical system and has a negative influence on high-precision position control. This is demonstrated on a steering angle controller for highly automated driving. In this steering system the friction induces limit cycles which cause oscillating vehicle movement when the vehicle follows a given reference trajectory. When compensating the friction with the introduced estimator, limit cycles can be suppressed. This is demonstrated by measurements in a series vehicle.

Keywords: friction estimation, friction compensation, steering system, lateral vehicle guidance

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
3430 Research on Control Strategy of Differential Drive Assisted Steering of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

Authors: J. Liu, Z. P. Yu, L. Xiong, Y. Feng, J. He


According to the independence, accuracy and controllability of the driving/braking torque of the distributed drive electric vehicle, a control strategy of differential drive assisted steering was designed. Firstly, the assisted curve under different speed and steering wheel torque was developed and the differential torques were distributed to the right and left front wheels. Then the steering return ability assisted control algorithm was designed. At last, the joint simulation was conducted by CarSim/Simulink. The result indicated: the differential drive assisted steering algorithm could provide enough steering drive-assisted under low speed and improve the steering portability. Along with the increase of the speed, the provided steering drive-assisted decreased. With the control algorithm, the steering stiffness of the steering system increased along with the increase of the speed, which ensures the driver’s road feeling. The control algorithm of differential drive assisted steering could avoid the understeer under low speed effectively.

Keywords: differential assisted steering, control strategy, distributed drive electric vehicle, driving/braking torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3429 Effect of Column Stiffness and Orientation on Seismic Behaviour of Buildings with Vertical Irregularities

Authors: Saraswati Verma, Ankit Batra


In the modern day, structures are designed with a lot of complexities due to economical, aesthetical, and functional needs causing various levels of irregularities to be induced. In the past, several studies have repeatedly shown that irregular structures suffer more damage than regular structures during earthquakes. The present study makes an effort to study the contribution of the orientation of columns in the seismic behaviour of buildings with vertical irregularities namely, soft storey irregularity, mass irregularity and geometric irregularity. The response of the various models is analysed using sap2000 version 14. The parameters through which a comparative response is investigated are displacement, variation in the stiffness contribution, and inter-storey drift. Models with different configurations of column orientations were studied for each vertical irregularity and it was observed that column orientation contributed significantly in affecting a better seismic response. Square columns of the same cross-sectional area showed a good response as compared to that of rectangular columns. The study concludes that as displacement values for buildings with a soft storey and mass irregularity are very high, square columns could be used to minimise the effect of displacement in x and y-axis. In buildings with geometric irregularity, exterior column orientations can be played with to enhance the stiffness in the shorter direction to control the displacement and drift values in both x and y directions.

Keywords: soft storey, mass irregularity, geometric irregularity, column orientation, square column

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
3428 Electronically Controlled Motorized Steering System (E-Mo Steer)

Authors: M. Prasanth, V. Nithin, R. Keerthana, S.Kalyani


In the current scenario, the steering system in automobiles is such that the motion from the steering wheel is transferred to driving wheel by mechanical linkages. In this paper, we propose a method to design a steering mechanism using servomotors to turn the wheels instead of linkages. In this method, a steering angle sensor senses the turn angle of the steering wheel and its output is processed by an electronical control module. Then the ECM compares the angle value to that of a standard value from a look-up database. Then it gives the appropriate input power and the turning duration to the motors. Correspondingly, the motors turn the wheels by means of bevel gears welded to both the motor output shafts and the wheel hubs. Thus, the wheels are turned without the complicated framework of linkages, reducing the driver’s effort and fatigue considerably.

Keywords: electronic control unit, linkage-less steering, servomotors, E-Mo Steer

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3427 Design and Validation of Different Steering Geometries for an All-Terrain Vehicle

Authors: Prabhsharan Singh, Rahul Sindhu, Piyush Sikka


The steering system is an integral part and medium through which the driver communicates with the vehicle and terrain, hence the most suitable steering geometry as per requirements must be chosen. The function of the chosen steering geometry of an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is to provide the desired understeer gradient, minimum tire slippage, expected weight transfer during turning as these are requirements for a good steering geometry of a BAJA ATV. This research paper focuses on choosing the best suitable steering geometry for BAJA ATV tracks by reasoning the working principle and using fundamental trigonometric functions for obtaining these geometries on the same vehicle itself, namely Ackermann, Anti- Ackermann, Parallel Ackermann. Full vehicle analysis was carried out on Adams Car Analysis software, and graphical results were obtained for various parameters. Steering geometries were achieved by using a single versatile knuckle for frontward and rearward tie-rod placement and were practically tested with the help of data acquisition systems set up on the ATV. Each was having certain characteristics, setup, and parameters were observed for the BAJA ATV, and correlations were created between analytical and practical values.

Keywords: all-terrain vehicle, Ackermann, Adams car, Baja Sae, steering geometry, steering system, tire slip, traction, understeer gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
3426 Mechanism Design and Dynamic Analysis of Active Independent Front Steering System

Authors: Cheng-Chi Yu, Yu-Shiue Wang, Kei-Lin Kuo


Active Independent Front Steering system is a steering system which can according to vehicle driving situation adjusts the relation of steering angle between inner wheel and outer wheel. In low-speed cornering, AIFS sets the steering angles of inner and outer wheel into Ackerman steering geometry to make vehicle has less cornering radius. Besides, AIFS changes the steering geometry to parallel or even anti-Ackerman steering geometry to keep vehicle stability in high-speed cornering. Therefore, based on the analysis of the vehicle steering behavior from different steering geometries, this study develops a new screw type of active independent front steering system to make vehicles best cornering performance at any speeds. The screw type of active independent front steering system keeps the pinion and separates the rack into main rack and second rack. Two racks connect by a screw. Extra screw rotated motion powered by assistant motor through coupler makes second rack move relative to main rack, which can adjust both steering ratio and steering geometry. First of all, this study distinguishes the steering geometry by using Ackerman percentage and utilizes the software of ADAMS/Car to construct diverse steering geometry models. The different steering geometries are compared at low-speed and high-speed cornering, and then control strategies of the active independent front steering systems could be formulated. Secondly, this study applies closed loop equation to analyze tire steering angles and carries out optimization calculations to make the steering geometry from traditional rack and pinion steering system near to Ackerman steering geometry. Steering characteristics of the optimum steering mechanism and motion characteristics of vehicle installed the steering mechanism are verified by ADAMS/Car models of front suspension and full vehicle respectively. By adding dual auxiliary rack and dual motor to the optimum steering mechanism, the active independent front steering system could be developed to achieve the functions of variable steering ratio and variable steering geometry. At last, this study uses ADAMS/Car and Matlab/Simulink to co-simulate the cornering motion of vehicles confirms the vehicle installed the Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) system has better handling performance than that with Active Independent Steering (AFS) system or with Electric Power Steering (EPS) system. At low-speed cornering, the vehicles with AIFS system and with AFS system have better maneuverability, less cornering radius, than the traditional vehicle with EPS system because that AIFS and AFS systems both provide function of variable steering ratio. However, there is a slight penalty in the motor(s) power consumption. In addition, because of the capability of variable steering geometry, the vehicle with AIFS system has better high-speed cornering stability, trajectory keeping, and even less motor(s) power consumption than that with EPS system and also with AFS system.

Keywords: active front steering system, active independent front steering system, steering geometry, steering ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
3425 Driving in a Short Arm Plaster Cast Steer a Patient off Course: A Randomised, Controlled, Crossover Study

Authors: B. W. Kenny, D.Mansour, K. G. Mansour, J. Attia, B. Meads


There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about safety while immobilized in a short arm cast. There is a paucity of published literature on this topic. The purpose of this study is to specifically evaluate short arm casts and their effect on driving abilities, particularly steering and avoidance of obstacles. The ability to drive safely is extrapolated from this data. In this study, a randomised, controlled, crossover design was used to assess 30 subjects randomised into 2 groups. A Logitech force feedback steering column and simulated driving program with a standardised road course was used. Objective outcome measures were the number of times subjects drove off the track, the number of crashes, time to lap completion and subjective assessment on whether wearing a short arm plaster cast impeded their steering. Recruited subjects had no upper limb pathology. The side of the applied plaster cast was randomised. The mean lap completion time reduced with repetition, the difference being statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean number of times subjects in casts drove off the track (3 with vs. 3.07 without casts), average number of crashes (1.27 vs 0.97). Steering ability was not reduced whilst a subject was immobilised in a short arm Plaster of Paris cast, despite subject’s own impressions that their steering was impeded. This may help guide doctors in their advice to patients regarding driving in these casts.

Keywords: upper limb, arm injury, plaster cast, splint, driving, automobile, bone fracture

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
3424 Modeling and Dynamics Analysis for Intelligent Skid-Steering Vehicle Based on Trucksim-Simulink

Authors: Yansong Zhang, Xueyuan Li, Junjie Zhou, Xufeng Yin, Shihua Yuan, Shuxian Liu


Aiming at the verification of control algorithms for skid-steering vehicles, a vehicle simulation model of 6×6 electric skid-steering unmanned vehicle was established based on Trucksim and Simulink. The original transmission and steering mechanism of Trucksim are removed, and the electric skid-steering model and a closed-loop controller for the vehicle speed and yaw rate are built in Simulink. The simulation results are compared with the ones got by theoretical formulas. The results show that the predicted tire mechanics and vehicle kinematics of Trucksim-Simulink simulation model are closed to the theoretical results. Therefore, it can be used as an effective approach to study the dynamic performance and control algorithm of skid-steering vehicle. In this paper, a method of motion control based on feed forward control is also designed. The simulation results show that the feed forward control strategy can make the vehicle follow the target yaw rate more quickly and accurately, which makes the vehicle have more maneuverability.

Keywords: skid-steering, Trucksim-Simulink, feedforward control, dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3423 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee


This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, antenna array, linearly constrained minimum variance, robustness, steering vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
3422 Earphone Style Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service with Position Sensing

Authors: Dawei Cai


This paper describes a design of earphone style wearable device that may provide an automatic guidance service for visitors. With both position information and orientation information obtained from NFC and terrestrial magnetism sensor, a high level automatic guide service may be realized. To realize the service, a algorithm for position detection using the packet from NFC tags, and developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensors called as MEMS. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is only move to the object and stands for a moment. The identification program will automatically recognize the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content about the exhibit. This service should be useful for improving the understanding of the exhibition items and bring more satisfactory visiting experience without less burden.

Keywords: wearable device, MEMS sensor, ubiquitous computing, NFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
3421 Using Adaptive Pole Placement Control Strategy for Active Steering Safety System

Authors: Hadi Adibi-Asl, Alireza Doosthosseini, Amir Taghavipour


This paper studies the design of an adaptive control strategy to tune an active steering system for better drivability and maneuverability. In the first step, adaptive control strategy is applied to estimate the uncertain parameters on-line (e.g. cornering stiffness), then the estimated parameters are fed into the pole placement controller to generate corrective feedback gain to improve the steering system dynamic’s characteristics. The simulations are evaluated for three types of road conditions (dry, wet, and icy), and the performance of the adaptive pole placement control (APPC) are compared with pole placement control (PPC) and a passive system. The results show that the APPC strategy significantly improves the yaw rate and side slip angle of a bicycle plant model.

Keywords: adaptive control, active steering, pole placement, vehicle dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3420 Mechanical Behavior of CFTR Column Joint under Pull out Testing

Authors: Nasruddin Junus


CFTR column is one of the improvements CFT columns by inserting reinforcing steel bars into infill concrete. The presence of inserting reinforcing steel bars is increasing the excellent structural performance of the CFT column, especially on the fire-resisting performance. Investigation on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column connection is summarized in the three parts; column to column joint, column to beam connection, and column base. Experiment that reported in this paper is concerned on the mechanical behavior of CFTR column joint under pull out testing, especially on its stress transfer mechanism. A number series of the pull out test on the CFT with inserting reinforcing steel bar are conducted. Ten test specimens are designed, constructed, and tested to examine experimentally the effect of the size of square steel tube, size of the bearing plate, length of embedment steel bars, kind of steel bars, and the numbers of rib plate.

Keywords: CFTR column, pull out, stress, transfer mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
3419 Orientation of Rotating Platforms on Mobile Vehicles by GNNS

Authors: H. İmrek, O. Corumluoglu, B. Akdemir, I. Sanlioglu


It is important to be able to determine the heading direction of a moving vehicle with respect to a distant location. Additionally, it is important to be able to direct a rotating platform on a moving vehicle towards a distant position or location on the earth surface, especially for applications such as determination of the Kaaba direction for daily Muslim prayers. GNNS offers some reasonable solutions. In this study, a functional model of such a directing system supported by GNNS is discussed, and an appropriate system is designed for these purposes. An application for directing system is done by using RTK and DGNSS. Accuracy estimations are given for this system.

Keywords: GNNS, orientation of rotating platform, vehicle orientation, prayer aid device

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
3418 A Study on Determining Market Orientation, Innovation Orientation and Firm Performance

Authors: Emel Gelmez, Derya Özilhan


In this study, the relationship between market orientation, innovation orientation and firm performance in the hotel enterprises in Konya was examined. Research data was obtained by survey method and the research was conducted on the enterprises operating in tourism business in Konya. Hypothesis were tested in terms of the main aim of the present study. According to the findings it was determined that there is a positive and significant relationship between each parameters.

Keywords: firm performance, innovation, innovation orientation, market orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3417 Comparative Study of Stone Column with and without Encasement Using Waste Aggregate

Authors: V. K. Stalin, V. Paneerselvam, M. Bharath, M. Kirithika


In developing countries like India due to the rapid urbanization, large amount of waste materials are produced every year. These waste materials can be utilized in the improvement of problematic soils. Stone column is one of the best methods to improve soft clay deposits. In this study, load tests were conducted to ensure the suitability of waste as column materials. The variable parameters studied are material, number of column and encasement. The materials used for the study are stone aggregate, copper slag, construction waste, for one, two and three number of columns with geotextile and geogrid encasement. It was found that the performance of waste as column material are comparable to that of conventional stone column with and without encasement. Hence, it is concluded that the copper slag and construction waste may be used as a column material in place of conventional stone aggregate to improve the soft clay advantage being utilization of waste.

Keywords: stone column, geocomposite, construction waste, copper slag

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3416 Two Wheels Differential Type Odometry for Robot

Authors: Abhishek Jha, Manoj Kumar


This paper proposes a new type of two wheels differential type odometry to estimate the next position and orientation of mobile robots. The proposed odometry is composed for two independent wheels with respective encoders. The two wheels rotate independently, and the change is determined by the difference in the velocity of the two wheels. Angular velocities of the two wheels are measured by rotary encoders. A mathematical model is proposed for the mobile robots to precisely move towards the goal. Using measured values of the two encoders, the current displacement vector of a mobile robot is calculated by kinematics of the mathematical model. Using the displacement vector, the next position and orientation of the mobile robot are estimated by proposed odometry. Result of simulator experiment by the developed odometry is shown.

Keywords: mobile robot, odometry, unicycle, differential type, encoders, infrared range sensors, kinematic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
3415 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain


A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3414 Autonomous Ground Vehicle Navigation Based on a Single Camera and Image Processing Methods

Authors: Auday Al-Mayyahi, Phil Birch, William Wang


A vision system-based navigation for autonomous ground vehicle (AGV) equipped with a single camera in an indoor environment is presented. A proposed navigation algorithm has been utilized to detect obstacles represented by coloured mini- cones placed in different positions inside a corridor. For the recognition of the relative position and orientation of the AGV to the coloured mini cones, the features of the corridor structure are extracted using a single camera vision system. The relative position, the offset distance and steering angle of the AGV from the coloured mini-cones are derived from the simple corridor geometry to obtain a mapped environment in real world coordinates. The corridor is first captured as an image using the single camera. Hence, image processing functions are then performed to identify the existence of the cones within the environment. Using a bounding box surrounding each cone allows to identify the locations of cones in a pixel coordinate system. Thus, by matching the mapped and pixel coordinates using a projection transformation matrix, the real offset distances between the camera and obstacles are obtained. Real time experiments in an indoor environment are carried out with a wheeled AGV in order to demonstrate the validity and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: autonomous ground vehicle, navigation, obstacle avoidance, vision system, single camera, image processing, ultrasonic sensor

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3413 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura


The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.

Keywords: bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution function

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3412 Design of a Drift Assist Control System Applied to Remote Control Car

Authors: Sheng-Tse Wu, Wu-Sung Yao


In this paper, a drift assist control system is proposed for remote control (RC) cars to get the perfect drift angle. A steering servo control scheme is given powerfully to assist the drift driving. A gyroscope sensor is included to detect the machine's tail sliding and to achieve a better automatic counter-steering to prevent RC car from spinning. To analysis tire traction and vehicle dynamics is used to obtain the dynamic track of RC cars. It comes with a control gain to adjust counter-steering amount according to the sensor condition. An illustrated example of 1:10 RC drift car is given and the real-time control algorithm is realized by Arduino Uno.

Keywords: drift assist control system, remote control cars, gyroscope, vehicle dynamics

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3411 Entropy Analysis in a Bubble Column Based on Ultrafast X-Ray Tomography Data

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert


By means of the ultrafast X-ray tomography facility, data were obtained at different superficial gas velocities UG in a bubble column (0.1 m in ID) operated with an air-deionized water system at ambient conditions. Raw reconstructed images were treated by both the information entropy (IE) and the reconstruction entropy (RE) algorithms in order to identify the main transition velocities in a bubble column. The IE values exhibited two well-pronounced minima at UG=0.025 m/s and UG=0.085 m/s identifying the boundaries of the homogeneous, transition and heterogeneous regimes. The RE extracted from the central region of the column’s cross-section exhibited only one characteristic peak at UG=0.03 m/s, which was attributed to the transition from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous flow regime. This result implies that the transition regime is non-existent in the core of the column.

Keywords: bubble column, ultrafast X-ray tomography, information entropy, reconstruction entropy

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3410 Analysis of Correlation Between Manufacturing Parameters and Mechanical Strength Followed by Uncertainty Propagation of Geometric Defects in Lattice Structures

Authors: Chetra Mang, Ahmadali Tahmasebimoradi, Xavier Lorang


Lattice structures are widely used in various applications, especially in aeronautic, aerospace, and medical applications because of their high performance properties. Thanks to advancement of the additive manufacturing technology, the lattice structures can be manufactured by different methods such as laser beam melting technology. However, the presence of geometric defects in the lattice structures is inevitable due to the manufacturing process. The geometric defects may have high impact on the mechanical strength of the structures. This work analyzes the correlation between the manufacturing parameters and the mechanical strengths of the lattice structures. To do that, two types of the lattice structures; body-centered cubic with z-struts (BCCZ) structures made of Inconel718, and body-centered cubic (BCC) structures made of Scalmalloy, are manufactured by laser melting beam machine using Taguchi design of experiment. Each structure is placed on the substrate with a specific position and orientation regarding the roller direction of deposed metal powder. The position and orientation are considered as the manufacturing parameters. The geometric defects of each beam in the lattice are characterized and used to build the geometric model in order to perform simulations. Then, the mechanical strengths are defined by the homogeneous response as Young's modulus and yield strength. The distribution of mechanical strengths is observed as a function of manufacturing parameters. The mechanical response of the BCCZ structure is stretch-dominated, i.e., the mechanical strengths are directly dependent on the strengths of the vertical beams. As the geometric defects of vertical beams are slightly changed based on their position/orientation on the manufacturing substrate, the mechanical strengths are less dispersed. The manufacturing parameters are less influenced on the mechanical strengths of the structure BCCZ. The mechanical response of the BCC structure is bending-dominated. The geometric defects of inclined beam are highly dispersed within a structure and also based on their position/orientation on the manufacturing substrate. For different position/orientation on the substrate, the mechanical responses are highly dispersed as well. This shows that the mechanical strengths are directly impacted by manufacturing parameters. In addition, this work is carried out to study the uncertainty propagation of the geometric defects on the mechanical strength of the BCC lattice structure made of Scalmalloy. To do that, we observe the distribution of mechanical strengths of the lattice according to the distribution of the geometric defects. A probability density law is determined based on a statistical hypothesis corresponding to the geometric defects of the inclined beams. The samples of inclined beams are then randomly drawn from the density law to build the lattice structure samples. The lattice samples are then used for simulation to characterize the mechanical strengths. The results reveal that the distribution of mechanical strengths of the structures with the same manufacturing parameters is less dispersed than one of the structures with different manufacturing parameters. Nevertheless, the dispersion of mechanical strengths due to the structures with the same manufacturing parameters are unneglectable.

Keywords: geometric defects, lattice structure, mechanical strength, uncertainty propagation

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3409 Effect of Magnesium Inoculation on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Spheroidal Cast Iron Knuckle: A Focus on the Steering Arm

Authors: Steven Mavhungu, Didier Nyembwe, Daniel Sekotlong


The steering knuckle is an integral component of the suspension and stability control system of modern vehicles. Good mechanical properties with an emphasis on the fatigue properties are essential for this component as it is subjected to cyclical load of significant magnitude during service. These properties are a function of the microstructure achieved in the component during the various manufacturing processes including forging and casting. The strut mount of the knuckle is required to meet specified microstructure and mechanical properties. However, in line with the recent trend of stringent quality requirements of cast components, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have had to extend the specifications to other sections of the knuckle. This paper evaluates the effect of cored wire inoculation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the steering arm of a typical spheroidal cast iron component. The investigation shows that the use of a cored wire having higher rare earth content formulation could possibly lead to a homogeneous matrix containing consistent graphite nodule morphology. However, this was found not to be the condition for better mechanical properties along the knuckle arm in line with required specifications. The findings in this paper contribute to a better understanding of steering knuckle properties to allow its production for safer automobile applications.

Keywords: inoculation, magnesium cored wire, spheroidal graphie, steering knuckle

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3408 The Development of Space-Time and Space-Number Associations: The Role of Non-Symbolic vs. Symbolic Representations

Authors: Letizia Maria Drammis, Maria Antonella Brandimonte


The idea that people use space representations to think about time and number received support from several lines of research. However, how these representations develop in children and then shape space-time and space-number mappings is still a debated issue. In the present study, 40 children (20 pre-schoolers and 20 elementary-school children) performed 4 main tasks, which required the use of more concrete (non-symbolic) or more abstract (symbolic) space-time and space-number associations. In the non-symbolic conditions, children were required to order pictures of everyday-life events occurring in a specific temporal order (Temporal sequences) and of quantities varying in numerosity (Numerical sequences). In the symbolic conditions, they were asked to perform the typical time-to-position and number-to-position tasks by mapping time-related words and numbers onto lines. Results showed that children performed reliably better in the non-symbolic Time conditions than the symbolic Time conditions, independently of age, whereas only pre-schoolers performed worse in the Number-to-position task (symbolic) as compared to the Numerical sequence (non-symbolic) task. In addition, only older children mapped time-related words onto space following the typical left-right orientation, pre-schoolers’ performance being somewhat mixed. In contrast, mapping numbers onto space showed a clear left-right orientation, independently of age. Overall, these results indicate a cross-domain difference in the way younger and older children process time and number, with time-related tasks being more difficult than number-related tasks only when space-time tasks require symbolic representations.

Keywords: space-time associations, space-number associations, orientation, children

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3407 Numerical Investigation of the Jacketing Method of Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: S. Boukais, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, A. Kezmane


The first intent of this study is to develop a finite element model that can predict correctly the behavior of the reinforced concrete column. Second aim is to use the finite element model to investigate and evaluate the effect of the strengthening method by jacketing of the reinforced concrete column, by considering different interface contact between the old and the new concrete. Four models were evaluated, one by considering perfect contact, the other three models by using friction coefficient of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5. The simulation was carried out by using Abaqus software. The obtained results show that the jacketing reinforcement led to significant increase of the global performance of the behavior of the simulated reinforced concrete column.

Keywords: strengthening, jacketing, rienforced concrete column, Abaqus, simulation

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3406 Effect of Tube Thickness on the Face Bending for Blind-Bolted Connection to Concrete Filled Tubular Structures

Authors: Mohammed Mahmood, Walid Tizani, Carlo Sansour


In this paper, experimental testing and numerical analysis were used to investigate the effect of tube thickness on the face bending for concrete filled hollow sections connected to other structural members using Extended Hollobolts. Six samples were tested experimentally by applying pull-out load on the bolts. These samples were designed to fail by column face bending. The main variable in all tests is the column face thickness. Finite element analyses were also performed using ABAQUS 6.11 to extend the experimental results and to quantify the effect of column face thickness. Results show that, the column face thickness has a clear impact on the connection strength and stiffness. However, the amount of improvement in the connection stiffness by changing the column face thickness from 5 mm to 6.3 mm seems to be higher than that when increasing it from 6.3 mm to 8 mm. The displacement at which the bolts start pulling-out from their holes increased with the use of thinner column face due to the high flexibility of the section. At the ultimate strength, the yielding of the column face propagated to the column corner and there was no yielding in its walls. After the ultimate resistance is reached, the propagation of the yielding was mainly in the column face with a miner yielding in the walls.

Keywords: anchored bolted connection, Extended Hollobolt, column faces bending, concrete filled hollow sections

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3405 Effects of Heat Source Position on Heat Transfer in an Inclined Square Enclosure Filled with Nanofluids

Authors: Khamis Al Kalbani


The effects of a uniform heat source position on the heat transfer flow inside an inclined square enclosure filled with different types of nanofluids having various shapes of the nanoparticles are investigated numerically following one component thermal equilibrium model. The effects of the Brownian diffusion of the nanoparticles, magnetic field intensity and orientation are taken into consideration in nanofluid modeling. The heat source is placed in the middle of a wall of the enclosure while the opposite wall of it is kept at different temperature. The other walls of the enclosure are kept insulated. The results indicate that the heat source position significantly controls the heat transfer rates of the nanofluids. The distributions of the average heat transfer rates varying the position of the heat source with respect to the geometry inclination angle are calculated for the first time. The outcomes of the present research may be helpful for designing solar thermal collectors, radiators, building insulators and advanced cooling of a nuclear system.

Keywords: heat source, inclined, square enclosure, nanofluids

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3404 Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube

Authors: Bum Yean Cho, Heung-Youl Kim, Ki-Seok Kwon, Kang-Su Kim


In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.

Keywords: CFT (concrete-filled tube) column, fire resistance performance, slot, weld

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