Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6398

Search results for: statistical tests

6398 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim


The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-Von-Mises test, nonparametric adherence tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
6397 Nonstationarity Modeling of Economic and Financial Time Series

Authors: C. Slim


Traditional techniques for analyzing time series are based on the notion of stationarity of phenomena under study, but in reality most economic and financial series do not verify this hypothesis, which implies the implementation of specific tools for the detection of such behavior. In this paper, we study nonstationary non-seasonal time series tests in a non-exhaustive manner. We formalize the problem of nonstationary processes with numerical simulations and take stock of their statistical characteristics. The theoretical aspects of some of the most common unit root tests will be discussed. We detail the specification of the tests, showing the advantages and disadvantages of each. The empirical study focuses on the application of these tests to the exchange rate (USD/TND) and the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Tunisia, in order to compare the Power of these tests with the characteristics of the series.

Keywords: stationarity, unit root tests, economic time series, ADF tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
6396 Statistical Randomness Testing of Some Second Round Candidate Algorithms of CAESAR Competition

Authors: Fatih Sulak, Betül A. Özdemir, Beyza Bozdemir


In order to improve symmetric key research, several competitions had been arranged by organizations like National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR). In recent years, the importance of authenticated encryption has rapidly increased because of the necessity of simultaneously enabling integrity, confidentiality and authenticity. Therefore, at January 2013, IACR announced the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR Competition) which will select secure and efficient algorithms for authenticated encryption. Cryptographic algorithms are anticipated to behave like random mappings; hence, it is important to apply statistical randomness tests to the outputs of the algorithms. In this work, the statistical randomness tests in the NIST Test Suite and the other recently designed randomness tests are applied to six second round algorithms of the CAESAR Competition. It is observed that AEGIS achieves randomness after 3 rounds, Ascon permutation function achieves randomness after 1 round, Joltik encryption function achieves randomness after 9 rounds, Morus state update function achieves randomness after 3 rounds, Pi-cipher achieves randomness after 1 round, and Tiaoxin achieves randomness after 1 round.

Keywords: authenticated encryption, CAESAR competition, NIST test suite, statistical randomness tests

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6395 Variable Selection in a Data Envelopment Analysis Model by Multiple Proportions Comparison

Authors: Jirawan Jitthavech, Vichit Lorchirachoonkul


A statistical procedure using multiple comparisons test for proportions is proposed for variable selection in a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. The test statistic in the multiple comparisons is the proportion of efficient decision making units (DMUs) in a DEA model. Three methods of multiple comparisons test for proportions: multiple Z tests with Bonferroni correction, multiple tests in 2Xc crosstabulation and the Marascuilo procedure, are used in the proposed statistical procedure of iteratively eliminating the variables in a backward manner. Two simulation populations of moderately and lowly correlated variables are used to compare the results of the statistical procedure using three methods of multiple comparisons test for proportions with the hypothesis testing of the efficiency contribution measure. From the simulation results, it can be concluded that the proposed statistical procedure using multiple Z tests for proportions with Bonferroni correction clearly outperforms the proposed statistical procedure using the remaining two methods of multiple comparisons and the hypothesis testing of the efficiency contribution measure.

Keywords: Bonferroni correction, efficient DMUs, Marascuilo procedure, Pastor et al. method, 2xc crosstabulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
6394 Investigating Relationship between Body Size and Physical Fitness Factors among University Students

Authors: Allahyar Arabmomeni, Hojjatollah Alaei


Background: The objectives of this study was to investigate effect of anthropometric variables and body composition on physical capabilities among male and female students. Materials and Methods: The study had a descriptive correlation method. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, from 2011 to 2013, which was about 7000 students. The statistical sample included 300 male and 300 female students who were randomly selected from among university students in proportion to frequency of students in each faculty. Descriptive statistical methods, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Results of this research showed that body size of male students in the studied variables was more than that of female students (p<0.05). Moreover, there was significant difference between all the variables based on significance level of the table. Also, the results taken from the Pearson correlation of this study's variables showed a positive relationship between height and leg and hand length and sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests (p<0/01). Besides, there was a positive correlation between hand length, sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests. As far as tests of length of legs and vertical jump were concerned, a highly positive correlation was observed between them. Additionally, results of this study indicated a significant correlation at alpha level of 0.05 between age and height of the students; but, there was a negative correlation between age, sit-up and 1600-m tests (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a relationship between size of weight, height, length of hands and legs and some physical fitness tests. Therefore, it is required to consider anthropometric factors in addition to gender and age while preparing norms of physical fitness since variables of height and length of hands also affect physical fitness evaluation.

Keywords: anthropometric variables, physical fitness factors, students, body composition

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6393 Lambda-Levelwise Statistical Convergence of a Sequence of Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: F. Berna Benli, Özgür Keskin


Lately, many mathematicians have been studied the statistical convergence of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. We know that Lambda-statistically convergence is a kind of convergence between ordinary convergence and statistical convergence. In this paper, we will introduce the new kind of convergence such as λ-levelwise statistical convergence. Then, we will define the concept of the λ-levelwise statistical cluster and limit points of a sequence of fuzzy numbers. Also, we will discuss the relations between the sets of λ-levelwise statistical cluster points and λ-levelwise statistical limit points of sequences of fuzzy numbers. This work has been extended in this paper, where some relations have been considered such that when lambda-statistical limit inferior and lambda-statistical limit superior for lambda-statistically convergent sequences of fuzzy numbers are equal. Furthermore, lambda-statistical boundedness condition for different sequences of fuzzy numbers has been studied.

Keywords: fuzzy number, λ-levelwise statistical cluster points, λ-levelwise statistical convergence, λ-levelwise statistical limit points, λ-statistical cluster points, λ-statistical convergence, λ-statistical limit points

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6392 The Use of Psychological Tests in Polish Organizations - Empirical Evidence

Authors: Milena Gojny-Zbierowska


In the last decades psychological tests have been gaining in popularity as a method used for evaluating personnel, and they bring consulting companies solid profits rising by up to 10% each year. The market is offering a growing range of tools for the assessment of personality. Tests are used in organizations mainly in the recruitment and selection of staff. This paper is an attempt to initially diagnose the state of the use of psychological tests in Polish companies on the basis of empirical research.

Keywords: psychological tests, personality, content analysis, NEO FFI, big five personality model

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6391 The Value of Dynamic Priorities in Motor Learning between Some Basic Skills in Beginner's Basketball, U14 Years

Authors: Guebli Abdelkader, Regiueg Madani, Sbaa Bouabdellah


The goals of this study are to find ways to determine the value of dynamic priorities in motor learning between some basic skills in beginner’s basketball (U14), based on skills of shooting and defense against the shooter. Our role is to expose the statistical results in compare & correlation between samples of study in tests skills for the shooting and defense against the shooter. In order to achieve this objective, we have chosen 40 boys in middle school represented in four groups, two controls group’s (CS1, CS2) ,and two experimental groups (ES1: training on skill of shooting, skill of defense against the shooter, ES2: experimental group training on skill of defense against the shooter, skill of shooting). For the statistical analysis, we have chosen (F & T) tests for the statistical differences, and test (R) for the correlation analysis. Based on the analyses statistics, we confirm the importance of classifying priorities of basketball basic skills during the motor learning process. Admit that the benefits of experimental group training are to economics in the time needed for acquiring new motor kinetic skills in basketball. In the priority of ES2 as successful dynamic motor learning method to enhance the basic skills among beginner’s basketball.

Keywords: basic skills, basketball, motor learning, children

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6390 Analytical Slope Stability Analysis Based on the Statistical Characterization of Soil Shear Strength

Authors: Bernardo C. P. Albuquerque, Darym J. F. Campos


Increasing our ability to solve complex engineering problems is directly related to the processing capacity of computers. By means of such equipments, one is able to fast and accurately run numerical algorithms. Besides the increasing interest in numerical simulations, probabilistic approaches are also of great importance. This way, statistical tools have shown their relevance to the modelling of practical engineering problems. In general, statistical approaches to such problems consider that the random variables involved follow a normal distribution. This assumption tends to provide incorrect results when skew data is present since normal distributions are symmetric about their means. Thus, in order to visualize and quantify this aspect, 9 statistical distributions (symmetric and skew) have been considered to model a hypothetical slope stability problem. The data modeled is the friction angle of a superficial soil in Brasilia, Brazil. Despite the apparent universality, the normal distribution did not qualify as the best fit. In the present effort, data obtained in consolidated-drained triaxial tests and saturated direct shear tests have been modeled and used to analytically derive the probability density function (PDF) of the safety factor of a hypothetical slope based on Mohr-Coulomb rupture criterion. Therefore, based on this analysis, it is possible to explicitly derive the failure probability considering the friction angle as a random variable. Furthermore, it is possible to compare the stability analysis when the friction angle is modelled as a Dagum distribution (distribution that presented the best fit to the histogram) and as a Normal distribution. This comparison leads to relevant differences when analyzed in light of the risk management.

Keywords: statistical slope stability analysis, skew distributions, probability of failure, functions of random variables

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6389 A Method of Detecting the Difference in Two States of Brain Using Statistical Analysis of EEG Raw Data

Authors: Digvijaysingh S. Bana, Kiran R. Trivedi


This paper introduces various methods for the alpha wave to detect the difference between two states of brain. One healthy subject participated in the experiment. EEG was measured on the forehead above the eye (FP1 Position) with reference and ground electrode are on the ear clip. The data samples are obtained in the form of EEG raw data. The time duration of reading is of one minute. Various test are being performed on the alpha band EEG raw data.The readings are performed in different time duration of the entire day. The statistical analysis is being carried out on the EEG sample data in the form of various tests.

Keywords: electroencephalogram(EEG), biometrics, authentication, EEG raw data

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
6388 Impact of Gaming Environment in Education

Authors: Md. Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan, Quazi Mahabubul Hasan, Md. Rifat Ullah


In this research, we did explore the effectiveness of the gaming environment in education and compared it with the traditional education system. We take several workshops in both learning environments. We measured student’s performance by providing a grading score (by professional academics) on their attitude in different criteria. We also collect data from survey questionnaires to understand student’s experiences towards education and study. Finally, we examine the impact of the different learning environments by applying statistical hypothesis tests, the T-test, and the ANOVA test.

Keywords: gamification, game-based learning, education, statistical analysis, human-computer interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
6387 Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability

Authors: S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Chen


Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.

Keywords: failure probability, FRP, reliability, statistical correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
6386 Identification of Rainfall Trends in Qatar

Authors: Abdullah Al Mamoon, Ataur Rahman


Due to climate change, future rainfall will change at many locations on earth; however, the spatial and temporal patterns of this change are not easy to predict. One approach of predicting such future changes is to examine the trends in the historical rainfall data at a given region and use the identified trends to make future prediction. For this, a statistical trend test is commonly applied to the historical data. This paper examines the trends of daily extreme rainfall events from 30 rain gauges located in the State of Qatar. Rainfall data covering from 1962 to 2011 were used in the analysis. A combination of four non-parametric and parametric tests was applied to identify trends at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance levels. These tests are Mann-Kendall (MK), Spearman’s Rho (SR), Linear Regression (LR) and CUSUM tests. These tests showed both positive and negative trends throughout the country. Only eight stations showed positive (upward) trend, which were however not statistically significant. In contrast, significant negative (downward) trends were found at the 5% and 10% levels of significance in six stations. The MK, SR and LR tests exhibited very similar results. This finding has important implications in the derivation/upgrade of design rainfall for Qatar, which will affect design and operation of future urban drainage infrastructure in Qatar.

Keywords: trends, extreme rainfall, daily rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, climate change, Qatar

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
6385 A Very Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based On Chaotic Maps and S-Box Tables

Authors: M. Hamdi, R. Rhouma, S. Belghith


Generating random numbers are mainly used to create secret keys or random sequences. It can be carried out by various techniques. In this paper we present a very simple and efficient pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) based on chaotic maps and S-Box tables. This technique adopted two main operations one to generate chaotic values using two logistic maps and the second to transform them into binary words using random S-Box tables. The simulation analysis indicates that our PRNG possessing excellent statistical and cryptographic properties.

Keywords: Random Numbers, Chaotic map, S-box, cryptography, statistical tests

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6384 Students' Statistical Reasoning and Attitudes towards Statistics in Blended Learning, E-Learning and On-Campus Learning

Authors: Petros Roussos


The present study focused on students' statistical reasoning related to Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing and p-values. Its objective was to test the hypothesis that neither the place (classroom, at a distance, online) nor the medium that actually supports the learning (ICT, internet, books) has an effect on understanding of statistical concepts. In addition, it was expected that students' attitudes towards statistics would not predict understanding of statistical concepts. The sample consisted of 385 undergraduate and postgraduate students from six state and private universities (five in Greece and one in Cyprus). Students were administered two questionnaires: a) the Greek version of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics, and b) a short instrument which measures students' understanding of statistical significance and p-values. Results suggest that attitudes towards statistics do not predict students' understanding of statistical concepts, whereas the medium did not have an effect.

Keywords: attitudes towards statistics, blended learning, e-learning, statistical reasoning

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6383 Using Statistical Significance and Prediction to Test Long/Short Term Public Services and Patients' Cohorts: A Case Study in Scotland

Authors: Raptis Sotirios


Health and social care (HSc) services planning and scheduling are facing unprecedented challenges due to the pandemic pressure and also suffer from unplanned spending that is negatively impacted by the global financial crisis. Data-driven can help to improve policies, plan and design services provision schedules using algorithms assist healthcare managers’ to face unexpected demands using fewer resources. The paper discusses services packing using statistical significance tests and machine learning (ML) to evaluate demands similarity and coupling. This is achieved by predicting the range of the demand (class) using ML methods such as CART, random forests (RF), and logistic regression (LGR). The significance tests Chi-Squared test and Student test are used on data over a 39 years span for which HSc services data exist for services delivered in Scotland. The demands are probabilistically associated through statistical hypotheses that assume that the target service’s demands are statistically dependent on other demands as a NULL hypothesis. This linkage can be confirmed or not by the data. Complementarily, ML methods are used to linearly predict the above target demands from the statistically found associations and extend the linear dependence of the target’s demand to independent demands forming, thus groups of services. Statistical tests confirm ML couplings making the prediction also statistically meaningful and prove that a target service can be matched reliably to other services, and ML shows these indicated relationships can also be linear ones. Zero paddings were used for missing years records and illustrated better such relationships both for limited years and in the entire span offering long term data visualizations while limited years groups explained how well patients numbers can be related in short periods or can change over time as opposed to behaviors across more years. The prediction performance of the associations is measured using Receiver Operating Characteristic(ROC) AUC and ACC metrics as well as the statistical tests, Chi-Squared and Student. Co-plots and comparison tables for RF, CART, and LGR as well as p-values and Information Exchange(IE), are provided showing the specific behavior of the ML and of the statistical tests and the behavior using different learning ratios. The impact of k-NN and cross-correlation and C-Means first groupings is also studied over limited years and the entire span. It was found that CART was generally behind RF and LGR, but in some interesting cases, LGR reached an AUC=0 falling below CART, while the ACC was as high as 0.912, showing that ML methods can be confused padding or by data irregularities or outliers. On average, 3 linear predictors were sufficient, LGR was found competing RF well, and CART followed with the same performance at higher learning ratios. Services were packed only if when significance level(p-value) of their association coefficient was more than 0.05. Social factors relationships were observed between home care services and treatment of old people, birth weights, alcoholism, drug abuse, and emergency admissions. The work found that different HSc services can be well packed as plans of limited years, across various services sectors, learning configurations, as confirmed using statistical hypotheses.

Keywords: class, cohorts, data frames, grouping, prediction, prob-ability, services

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6382 Termite Mound Floors: Ready-to-Use Ecological Materials

Authors: Yanné Etienne


The current climatic conditions necessarily impose the development and use of construction materials with low or no carbon footprint. The Far North Region of Cameroon has huge deposits of termite mounds. Various tests in this work have been carried out on these soils with the aim of using them as construction materials. They are mainly geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests. The different tests gave the following values: uniformity coefficient (4.95), curvature coefficient (1.80), plasticity index (12.85%), optimum moisture content (6.70%), maximum dry density (2.05³), friction angles (14.07°), and cohesion of 100.29 kN.m2. The results obtained show that termite mound soils, which are ecological materials, are plastic and water-stable can be used for the production of load-bearing elements in construction.

Keywords: termite mound soil, ecological materials, building materials, geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
6381 Weibull Cumulative Distribution Function Analysis with Life Expectancy Endurance Test Result of Power Window Switch

Authors: Miky Lee, K. Kim, D. Lim, D. Cho


This paper presents the planning, rationale for test specification derivation, sampling requirements, test facilities, and result analysis used to conduct lifetime expectancy endurance tests on power window switches (PWS) considering thermally induced mechanical stress under diurnal cyclic temperatures during normal operation (power cycling). The detail process of analysis and test results on the selected PWS set were discussed in this paper. A statistical approach to ‘life time expectancy’ was given to the measurement standards dealing with PWS lifetime determination through endurance tests. The approach choice, within the framework of the task, was explained. The present task was dedicated to voltage drop measurement to derive lifetime expectancy while others mostly consider contact or surface resistance. The measurements to perform and the main instruments to measure were fully described accordingly. The failure data from tests were analyzed to conclude lifetime expectancy through statistical method using Weibull cumulative distribution function. The first goal of this task is to develop realistic worst case lifetime endurance test specification because existing large number of switch test standards cannot induce degradation mechanism which makes the switches less reliable. 2nd goal is to assess quantitative reliability status of PWS currently manufactured based on test specification newly developed thru this project. The last and most important goal is to satisfy customer’ requirement regarding product reliability.

Keywords: power window switch, endurance test, Weibull function, reliability, degradation mechanism

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6380 Effectiveness of Homoeopathic Medicine Conium Maculatum 200 C for Management of Pyuria

Authors: Amir Ashraf


Homoeopathy is an alternative system of medicine discovered by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796. It has been used by several people for various health conditions globally for more than last 200 years. In India, homoeopathy is considered as a major system of alternative medicine. Homoeopathy is found effective in various medical conditions including Pyuria. Pyuria is the condition in which pus cells are found in urine. Homoeopathy is very useful for reducing pus cells, and homeopathically potentized Conium Mac (Hemlock) is an important remedy commonly used for reducing pyuria. Aim: To reduce the amount pus cells found in urine using Conium Mac 200C. Methods: Design. Small N Design. Samples: Purposive Sampling with 5 cases diagnosed as pyuria. Tools: Personal Data Schedule and ICD-10 Criteria for Pyuria. Techniques: Potentized homoeopathic medicine, Conium Mac 200th potency is used. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analyses were done using non-parametric tests. Results: There is significant pre/post difference has been identified. Conclusion: Homoeopathic potency, Conium Mac 200 C is effective in reducing the increased level of pus cells found in urine samples.

Keywords: homoeopathy, alternative medicine, Pyuria, Conim Mac, small N design, non-parametric tests, homeopathic physician, Ashirvad Hospital, Kannur

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6379 The Effect of Core Training on Physical Fitness Characteristics in Male Volleyball Players

Authors: Sibel Karacaoglu, Fatma Ç. Kayapinar


The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of the core training program on physical fitness characteristics and body composition in male volleyball players. 26 male university volleyball team players aged between 19 to 24 years who had no health problems and injury participated in the study. Subjects were divided into training (TG) and control groups (CG) as randomly. Data from twenty-one players who completed all training sessions were used for statistical analysis (TG,n=11; CG,n=10). A core training program was applied to the training group three days a week for 10 weeks. On the other hand, the control group did not receive any training. Before and after the 10-week training program, pre- and post-testing comprised of body composition measurements (weight, BMI, bioelectrical impedance analysis) and physical fitness measurements including flexibility (sit and reach test), muscle strength (back, leg and grip strength by dynamometer), muscle endurance (sit-ups and push-ups tests), power (one-legged jump and vertical jump tests), speed (20m sprint, 30m sprint) and balance tests (one-legged standing test) were performed. Changes of pre- and post- test values of the groups were determined by using dependent t test. According to the statistical analysis of data, no significant difference was found in terms of body composition in the both groups for pre- and post- test values. In the training group, all physical fitness measurements improved significantly after core training program (p<0.05) except 30m speed and handgrip strength (p>0.05). On the hand, only 20m speed test values improved after post-test period (p<0.05), but the other physical fitness tests values did not differ (p>0.05) between pre- and post- test measurement in the control group. The results of the study suggest that the core training program has positive effect on physical fitness characteristics in male volleyball players.

Keywords: body composition, core training, physical fitness, volleyball

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6378 Statistical Convergence for the Approximation of Linear Positive Operators

Authors: Neha Bhardwaj


In this paper, we consider positive linear operators and study the Voronovskaya type result of the operator then obtain an error estimate in terms of the higher order modulus of continuity of the function being approximated and its A-statistical convergence. Also, we compute the corresponding rate of A-statistical convergence for the linear positive operators.

Keywords: Poisson distribution, Voronovskaya, modulus of continuity, a-statistical convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
6377 Unit Root Tests Based On the Robust Estimator

Authors: Wararit Panichkitkosolkul


The unit root tests based on the robust estimator for the first-order autoregressive process are proposed and compared with the unit root tests based on the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator. The percentiles of the null distributions of the unit root test are also reported. The empirical probabilities of Type I error and powers of the unit root tests are estimated via Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that all unit root tests can control the probability of Type I error for all situations. The empirical power of the unit root tests based on the robust estimator are higher than the unit root tests based on the OLS estimator.

Keywords: autoregressive, ordinary least squares, type i error, power of the test, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
6376 South African Students' Statistical Literacy in the Conceptual Understanding about Measures of Central Tendency after Completing Their High School Studies

Authors: Lukanda Kalobo


In South Africa, the High School Mathematics Curriculum provides teachers with specific aims and skills to be developed which involves the understanding about the measures of central tendency. The exploration begins with the definitions of statistical literacy, measurement of central tendency and a discussion on why statistical literacy is essential today. It furthermore discusses the statistical literacy basics involved in understanding the concepts of measures of central tendency. The statistical literacy test on the measures of central tendency, was used to collect data which was administered to 78 first year students direct from high schools. The results indicated that students seemed to have forgotten about the statistical literacy in understanding the concepts of measure of central tendency after completing their high school study. The authors present inferences regarding the alignment between statistical literacy and the understanding of the concepts about the measures of central tendency, leading to the conclusion that there is a need to provide in-service and pre-service training.

Keywords: conceptual understanding, mean, median, mode, statistical literacy

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6375 Implementation of Achterbahn-128 for Images Encryption and Decryption

Authors: Aissa Belmeguenai, Khaled Mansouri


In this work, an efficient implementation of Achterbahn-128 for images encryption and decryption was introduced. The implementation for this simulated project is written by MATLAB.7.5. At first two different original images are used for validate the proposed design. Then our developed program was used to transform the original images data into image digits file. Finally, we used our implemented program to encrypt and decrypt images data. Several tests are done for proving the design performance including visual tests and security analysis; we discuss the security analysis of the proposed image encryption scheme including some important ones like key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, and statistical attacks.

Keywords: Achterbahn-128, stream cipher, image encryption, security analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
6374 The Study on Life of Valves Evaluation Based on Tests Data

Authors: Binjuan Xu, Qian Zhao, Ping Jiang, Bo Guo, Zhijun Cheng, Xiaoyue Wu


Astronautical valves are key units in engine systems of astronautical products; their reliability will influence results of rocket or missile launching, even lead to damage to staff and devices on the ground. Besides failure in engine system may influence the hitting accuracy and flight shot of missiles. Therefore high reliability is quite essential to astronautical products. There are quite a few literature doing research based on few failure test data to estimate valves’ reliability, thus this paper proposed a new method to estimate valves’ reliability, according to the corresponding tests of different failure modes, this paper takes advantage of tests data which acquired from temperature, vibration, and action tests to estimate reliability in every failure modes, then this paper has regarded these three kinds of tests as three stages in products’ process to integrate these results to acquire valves’ reliability. Through the comparison of results achieving from tests data and simulated data, the results have illustrated how to obtain valves’ reliability based on the few failure data with failure modes and prove that the results are effective and rational.

Keywords: censored data, temperature tests, valves, vibration tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
6373 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma


Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: rubber buffer, coupler, energy absorption, impact tests

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6372 Wear Resistance in Dry and Lubricated Conditions of Hard-anodized EN AW-4006 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: C. Soffritti, A. Fortini, E. Baroni, M. Merlin, G. L. Garagnani


Aluminum alloys are widely used in many engineering applications due to their advantages such ashigh electrical and thermal conductivities, low density, high strength to weight ratio, and good corrosion resistance. However, their low hardness and poor tribological properties still limit their use in industrial fields requiring sliding contacts. Hard anodizing is one of the most common solution for overcoming issues concerning the insufficient friction resistance of aluminum alloys. In this work, the tribological behavior ofhard-anodized AW-4006 aluminum alloys in dry and lubricated conditions was evaluated. Three different hard-anodizing treatments were selected: a conventional one (HA) and two innovative golden hard-anodizing treatments (named G and GP, respectively), which involve the sealing of the porosity of anodic aluminum oxides (AAO) with silver ions at different temperatures. Before wear tests, all AAO layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM/EDS), X-ray diffractometry, roughness (Ra and Rz), microhardness (HV0.01), nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Wear tests were carried out according to the ASTM G99-17 standard using a ball-on-disc tribometer. The tests were performed in triplicate under a 2 Hz constant frequency oscillatory motion, a maximum linear speed of 0.1 m/s, normal loads of 5, 10, and 15 N, and a sliding distance of 200 m. A 100Cr6 steel ball10 mm in diameter was used as counterpart material. All tests were conducted at room temperature, in dry and lubricated conditions. Considering the more recent regulations about the environmental hazard, four bio-lubricants were considered after assessing their chemical composition (in terms of Unsaturation Number, UN) and viscosity: olive, peanut, sunflower, and soybean oils. The friction coefficient was provided by the equipment. The wear rate of anodized surfaces was evaluated by measuring the cross-section area of the wear track with a non-contact 3D profilometer. Each area value, obtained as an average of four measurements of cross-section areas along the track, was used to determine the wear volume. The worn surfaces were analyzed by VPSEM/EDS. Finally, in agreement with DoE methodology, a statistical analysis was carried out to identify the most influencing factors on the friction coefficients and wear rates. In all conditions, results show that the friction coefficient increased with raising the normal load. Considering the wear tests in dry sliding conditions, irrespective of the type of anodizing treatments, metal transfer between the mating materials was observed over the anodic aluminum oxides. During sliding at higher loads, the detachment of the metallic film also caused the delamination of some regions of the wear track. For the wear tests in lubricated conditions, the natural oils with high percentages of oleic acid (i.e., olive and peanut oils) maintained high friction coefficients and low wear rates. Irrespective of the type of oil, smallmicrocraks were visible over the AAO layers. Based on the statistical analysis, the type of anodizing treatment and magnitude of applied load were the main factors of influence on the friction coefficient and wear rate values. Nevertheless, an interaction between bio-lubricants and load magnitude could occur during the tests.

Keywords: hard anodizing treatment, silver ions, bio-lubricants, sliding wear, statistical analysis

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6371 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

Authors: Vladimir S. Timofeev


In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique, author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

Keywords: characteristic function, distributional moments, robustness, outlier, statistical estimation problem, statistical simulation

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6370 Analytical and Statistical Study of the Parameters of Expansive Soil

Authors: A. Medjnoun, R. Bahar


The disorders caused by the shrinking-swelling phenomenon are prevalent in arid and semi-arid in the presence of swelling clay. This soil has the characteristic of changing state under the effect of water solicitation (wetting and drying). A set of geotechnical parameters is necessary for the characterization of this soil type, such as state parameters, physical and chemical parameters and mechanical parameters. Some of these tests are very long and some are very expensive, hence the use or methods of predictions. The complexity of this phenomenon and the difficulty of its characterization have prompted researchers to use several identification parameters in the prediction of swelling potential. This document is an analytical and statistical study of geotechnical parameters affecting the potential of swelling clays. This work is performing on a database obtained from investigations swelling Algerian soil. The obtained observations have helped us to understand the soil swelling structure and its behavior.

Keywords: analysis, estimated model, parameter identification, swelling of clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
6369 Statistical Description of Counterpoise Effective Length Based on Regressive Formulas

Authors: Petar Sarajcev, Josip Vasilj, Damir Jakus


This paper presents a novel statistical description of the counterpoise effective length due to lightning surges, where the (impulse) effective length had been obtained by means of regressive formulas applied to the transient simulation results. The effective length is described in terms of a statistical distribution function, from which median, mean, variance, and other parameters of interest could be readily obtained. The influence of lightning current amplitude, lightning front duration, and soil resistivity on the effective length has been accounted for, assuming statistical nature of these parameters. A method for determining the optimal counterpoise length, in terms of the statistical impulse effective length, is also presented. It is based on estimating the number of dangerous events associated with lightning strikes. Proposed statistical description and the associated method provide valuable information which could aid the design engineer in optimising physical lengths of counterpoises in different grounding arrangements and soil resistivity situations.

Keywords: counterpoise, grounding conductor, effective length, lightning, Monte Carlo method, statistical distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 329