Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: sporadic E

59 Clinical and Molecular Characterization of 120 Families with Sporadic Juvenile Onset Open Angle Glaucoma

Authors: Bindu I. Somarajan, Viney Gupta, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Jasbir Kaur, Sunil Kumar, Shikha Gupta, Abadh K. Chaurasia, Dinesh Gupa, Abhinav Kaushik, Aditi Mehta, Vipin Gupta, Arundhati Sharma

Abstract:

Background: Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma (JOAG), affects individuals under the age of 40 years. Studies on a few families of JOAG, that led to the discovery of the Myocilin gene, reported the disease to have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, sporadic forms of JOAG been seen to be more common in some populations. Most pathological homozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene associated with JOAG have been seen among sporadic cases. Given the higher prevalence of sporadic JOAG cases in our population, we aimed to look for common mutations E229K and R368H, the two most common variants in the CYP1B1 gene associated with glaucoma. Objective: To determine the frequency and evaluate genotype phenotype correlation of CYP1B1 E229K and R368H mutations in a cohort of 120 sporadic Juvenile open angle glaucoma patients.Methods: Unrelated JOAG patients whose first degree relatives had been examined and found to be unaffected were included in the study. The patients and their parents were screened for E229K and R368H mutations. The phenotypic characteristics were compared between probands with and with out these mutations by SPSS v16. Results: Out of 120 JOAG patients included in the study, the E229K mutation was seen in 9 probands (7.5%) and R368H in 7 (5.8%). The average age of onset of the disease (p=0.3) and the highest untreated IOP (p=0.4) among those carrying mutations was not significantly different from those who did not have these mutations. The proportion of probands with angle dysgenesis among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 70% (11 out of 16) in comparison to 65% (67 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations (p=0.56). Similarly the probands with moderate to high myopia among those with E229K and R368H mutations was 20% (3 out of 16) in comparison to 18% (18 out of 104) of those who did not harbour these mutations(p=0.59). Conclusion: The frequency of E229K and R368H mutations of the CYP1B1 gene is low even among sporadic JOAG patients. Moreover there is no clinical correlation between the presence of these mutations and disease severity

Keywords: CYP1B1, gene, IOP, JOAG, mutation

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58 Analytical and Numerical Study of Formation of Sporadic E Layer with Taking into Account Horizontal and Vertical In-Homogeneity of the Horizontal Wind

Authors: Giorgi Dalakishvili, Goderdzi G. Didebulidze, Maya Todua

Abstract:

The possibility of sporadic E (Es) layer formation in the mid-latitude nighttime lower thermosphere by horizontal homogeneous and inhomogeneous (vertically and horizontally changing) winds is investigated in 3D by analytical and numerical solutions of continuity equation for dominant heavy metallic ions Fe+. The theory of influence of wind velocity direction, value, and its shear on formation of sporadic E is developed in case of presence the effect of horizontally changing wind (the effect of horizontal convergence). In this case, the horizontal wind with horizontal shear, characterized by compressibility and/or vortices, can provide an additional influence on heavy metallic ions Fe+ horizontal convergence and Es layers density, which can be formed by their vertical convergence caused as by wind direction and values and by its horizontal shear as well. The horizontal wind value and direction have significant influence on ion vertical drift velocity and its minimal negative values of divergence necessary for development of ion vertical convergence into sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear, in addition to its vertical shear, also influences the ion drift velocity value and its vertical changes and correspondingly on formation of sporadic E layer and its density. The atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), with relatively smaller horizontal wave length than planetary waves and tidal motion, can significantly influence location of ion vertical drift velocity nodes (where Es layers formation expectable) and its vertical and horizontal shear providing ion vertical convergence into thin layer. Horizontal shear can cause additional influence in the Es layers density than in the case of only wind value and vertical shear only. In this case, depending on wind direction and value in the height region of the lower thermosphere about 90-150 km occurs heavy metallic ions (Fe+) vertical convergence into thin sporadic E type layer. The horizontal wind horizontal shear also can influence on ions horizontal convergence and density and location Es layers. The AGWs modulate the horizontal wind direction and values and causes ion additional horizontal convergence, while the vertical changes (shear) causes additional vertical convergence than in the case without vertical shear. Influence of horizontal shear on sporadic E density and the importance of vertical compressibility of the lower thermosphere, which also can be influenced by AGWs, is demonstrated numerically. For the given wavelength and background wind, the predictability of formation Es layers and its possible location regions are shown. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Georgian Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant no. FR17-357.

Keywords: in-homogeneous, sporadic E, thermosphere, wind

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57 Global Developmental Delay and Its Association with Risk Factors: Validation by Structural Equation Modelling

Authors: Bavneet Kaur Sidhu, Manoj Tiwari

Abstract:

Global Developmental Delay (GDD) is a common pediatric condition. Etiologies of GDD might, however, differ in developing countries. In the last decade, sporadic families are being reported in various countries. As to the author’s best knowledge, many risk factors and their correlation with the prevalence of GDD have been studied but its statistical correlation has not been done. Thus we propose the present study by targeting the risk factor, prevalence and their statistical correlation with GDD. FMR1 gene was studied to confirm the disease and its penetrance. A complete questionnaire-based performance was designed for the statistical studies having a personal, past and present medical history along with their socio-economic status as well. Methods: We distributed the children’s age in 4 different age groups having 5-year intervals and applied structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, Karl Pearson correlation coefficient, and chi-square test.Result: A total of 1100 families were enrolled for this study; among them, 330 were clinically and biologically confirmed (radiological studies) for the disease, 204 were males (61.8%), 126 were females (38.18%). We found that 27.87% were genetic and 72.12 were sporadic, out of 72.12 %, 43.277% cases from urban and 56.72% from the rural locality, the mothers' literacy rate was 32.12% and working women numbers were 41.21%. Conclusions: There is a significant association between mothers' age and GDD prevalence, which is also followed by mothers' literacy rate and mothers' occupation, whereas there was no association between fathers' age and GDD.

Keywords: global developmental delay, FMR1 gene, spearman’ rank correlation coefficient, structural equation modeling

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56 Economical Transformer Selection Implementing Service Lifetime Cost

Authors: Bonginkosi A. Thango, Jacobus A. Jordaan, Agha F. Nnachi

Abstract:

In this day and age, there is a proliferate concern from all governments across the globe to barricade the environment from greenhouse gases, which absorb infrared radiation. As a result, solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity has been an expeditiously growing renewable energy source and will eventually undertake a prominent role in the global energy generation. The selection and purchasing of energy-efficient transformers that meet the operational requirements of the solar photovoltaic energy generation plants then become a part of the Independent Power Producers (IPP’s) investment plan of action. Taking these into account, this paper proposes a procedure that put into effect the intricate financial analysis necessitated to precisely evaluate the transformer service lifetime no-load and load loss factors. This procedure correctly set forth the transformer service lifetime loss factors as a result of a solar PV plant’s sporadic generation profile and related levelized costs of electricity into the computation of the transformer’s total ownership cost. The results are then critically compared with the conventional transformer total ownership cost unaccompanied by the emission costs, and demonstrate the significance of the sporadic energy generation nature of the solar PV plant on the total ownership cost. The findings indicate that the latter play a crucial role for developers and Independent Power Producers (IPP’s) in making the purchase decision during a tender bid where competing offers from different transformer manufactures are evaluated. Additionally, the susceptibility analysis of different factors engrossed in the transformer service lifetime cost is carried out; factors including the levelized cost of electricity, solar PV plant’s generation modes, and the loading profile are examined.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic plant, transformer, total ownership cost, loss factors

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55 Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) as an Evolutionary Mismatch Disorder: An Argument for the Significance of Hyperandrogenism on Reproductive Fitness in Ancestral Populations

Authors: Courtney Manthey-Pierce, Anna Warrener

Abstract:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disruptive disorder in females. PCOS is primarily characterized by polycystic ovaries, anovulation, hirsutism, insulin resistance, and hyperandrogenism. Despite negative reproductive consequences for females from anovulation and endocrine dysfunction, genes associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS are highly hereditable (h2 = 0.72). An evolutionary mismatch occurs when a trait that evolved in one environment has become maladaptive in another environment. The idea that PCOS is an evolutionary mismatch disease has been promoted by several researchers. Each trait of the resulting PCOS phenotype should be investigated individually in order to demonstrate an evolutionary mismatch. Hyperandrogenism is often regarded as the main characteristic of PCOS Hyperandrogenism may have aided with conception in older females, increased bone mineral density, and supported prolonged breastfeeding in nutritionally distressed populations. Because of the high prevalence of PCOS in the modern world, approximately 6%, it is often argued that PCOS emerged in an ancestral population prior to the migration out of Africa approximately 200,000 years ago. This environment would be characterized by sporadic periods of nutrition deficit and resource hardships as the climate began changing. Presently, modern society is characterized by obesity and sedentary lifestyles. The prevalence of obesity renders hyperandrogenism PCOS useless as there are no periods of nutritional distress requiring androgens for increased reproductive rates. In an ancestral environment, hyperandrogenism would likely lead to sporadic anovulation and mild secondary symptoms, however high levels of androgens in a modern environment led to prolonged if not permanent infertility and excessive secondary problems. Thus, hyperandrogenism related to PCOS appears to meet evolutionary mismatch criteria. Seen in this light, PCOS may be effectively treated as a probably evolutionary mismatch.

Keywords: evolutionary mismatch, heritability, hyperandrogenism, mismatch disorder

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54 Efficient Energy Extraction Circuit for Impact Harvesting from High Impedance Sources

Authors: Sherif Keddis, Mohamed Azzam, Norbert Schwesinger

Abstract:

Harvesting mechanical energy from footsteps or other impacts is a possibility to enable wireless autonomous sensor nodes. These can be used for a highly efficient control of connected devices such as lights, security systems, air conditioning systems or other smart home applications. They can also be used for accurate location or occupancy monitoring. Converting the mechanical energy into useful electrical energy can be achieved using the piezoelectric effect offering simple harvesting setups and low deflections. The challenge facing piezoelectric transducers is the achievable amount of energy per impact in the lower mJ range and the management of such low energies. Simple setups for energy extraction such as a full wave bridge connected directly to a capacitor are problematic due to the mismatch between high impedance sources and low impedance storage elements. Efficient energy circuits for piezoelectric harvesters are commonly designed for vibration harvesters and require periodic input energies with predictable frequencies. Due to the sporadic nature of impact harvesters, such circuits are not well suited. This paper presents a self-powered circuit that avoids the impedance mismatch during energy extraction by disconnecting the load until the source reaches its charge peak. The switch is implemented with passive components and works independent from the input frequency. Therefore, this circuit is suited for impact harvesting and sporadic inputs. For the same input energy, this circuit stores 150% of the energy in comparison to a directly connected capacitor to a bridge rectifier. The total efficiency, defined as the ratio of stored energy on a capacitor to available energy measured across a matched resistive load, is 63%. Although the resulting energy is already sufficient to power certain autonomous applications, further optimization of the circuit are still under investigation in order to improve the overall efficiency.

Keywords: autonomous sensors, circuit design, energy harvesting, energy management, impact harvester, piezoelectricity

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53 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy

Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola

Abstract:

The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.

Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, low

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52 Pulmonary Valve Papillary Fibroelastoma: A Case Report of a Fibroelastoma Presenting as a Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Frazer Kirk, Matthew Yong, Peter Williams, Andrie Strobel

Abstract:

Pulmonary valve papillary fibroelastoma is an exceedingly rare pathology. The experience and literature regarding them are largely anecdotal and based on sporadic, single case reports. Throughout their known history, two features remain salient that they are classically asymptomatic and found incidentally. The demographic profile of those affected is unclear, as reports regarding those affected are mixed, and there is no clear gender or age predominance, although there is some suggestion of a predisposition to affect females. Nor has there been a well-structured epidemiological study of the entity. Interestingly they are becoming more common on peri-mortum examination. Here-after we describe our experience with a symptomatic presentation of pulmonary papillary fibroelastoma masquerading as a pulmonary embolism and its subsequent assessment and management, with intraoperative photography and echocardiography for reference.

Keywords: cardiac tumor, pulmonary valve, fibroelastoma, cardiac surgery

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51 Exploring Employee Experiences of Distributed Leadership in Consultancy SMEs

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Ramdane Djebarni, Russell Evans

Abstract:

Despite a growth in literature on distributed leadership, the majority of studies are centred on large public organisations particularly within the health and education sectors. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap in the literature by exploring employee experiences of distributed leadership within two commercial consultancy SME businesses in the UK and USA. The aim of the study informed an exploratory method of research to gather qualitative data drawn from semi-structured interviews involving a sample of employees in each organisation. A series of broad, open questions were used to explore the employees’ experiences; evidence of distributed leadership; and extant barriers and practices in each organisation. Whilst some of our findings aligned with patterns and practices in the existing literature, it importantly discovered some emergent themes that have not previously been recognised in the previous studies. Our investigation identified that whilst distributed leadership was in evidence in both organisations, the interviewees’ experience reported that it was sporadic and inconsistent. Moreover, non-client focused projects were reported to be less important and distributed leadership was found to be inconsistent or non-existent.

Keywords: consultancy, distributed leadership, owner-manager, SME, entrepreneur

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50 Auricular Electroacupuncture Rescued Epilepsy Seizure by Attenuating TLR-2 Inflammatory Pathway in the Kainic Acid-Induced Rats

Authors: I-Han Hsiao, Chun-Ping Huang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Epilepsy is chronic brain disorder that results in the sporadic occurrence of spontaneous seizures in the temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. Clinical antiepileptic medicines are often ineffective or little benefits in the small amount of patients and usually initiate severe side effects. This inflammation contributes to enhanced neuronal excitability and the onset of epilepsy. Auricular electric-stimulation (AES) can increase parasympathetic activity and stimulate the solitary tract nucleus to induce the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Furthermore, it may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of epilepsy. In the present study, we want to investigate the effects of AES on inflammatory mediators in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizure rats. Experimental KA injection increased expression of TLR-2 pathway associated inflammatory mediators, were further reduced by either 2Hz or 15 Hz AES in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex. We suggest that AES can successfully control the epileptic seizure by down-regulation of inflammation signaling pathway.

Keywords: auricular electric-stimulation, epileptic seizures, anti-inflammation

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49 Clonal Evaluation of Malignant Mesothelioma

Authors: Sabahattin Comertpay, Sandra Pastorino, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Mika Tanji, Oriana Strianese, Andrea Napolitano, Tracey Weigel, Joseph Friedberg, Paul Sugarbaker, Thomas Krausz, Ena Wang, Amy Powers, Giovanni Gaudino, Harvey I. Pass, Fatmagul Ozcelik, Barbara L. Parsons, Haining Yang, Michele Carbone

Abstract:

Tumors are thought to be monoclonal in origin. This paradigm arose decades ago, primarily from the study of hematopoietic malignancies and sarcomas. The clonal origin of malignant mesothelioma (MM), a deadly cancer resistant to the current therapies, has not been investigated. Examination of the pleura from patients with MM shows often the presence of multiple pleural nodules, raising the question of whether they represent independent or metastatic growth processes. To investigate the clonality patterns of MM, we used the HUMARA (Human Androgen Receptor) assay to examine 14 sporadic and 2 familial Malignant Mesotheliomas (MM). Of 16 specimens studied, 15 were informative and 14/15 revealed two electrophoretically distinct methylated HUMARA alleles, indicating a polyclonal origin for these tumors. This discovery has important clinical implications, because an accurate assessment of tumor clonality is key to the design of novel molecular strategies for the treatment of MM.

Keywords: malignant mesothelioma, clonal origin, HUMARA, sarcomas

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48 Super Mario Guide: An Updated Roadmap on Research with Travel Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Wu Hu

Abstract:

There is an increasing amount of research bridging the gap between transportation and subjective well-being (SWB). However, travel SWB research in this area is still sporadic. Therefore, we are in need of a more systematic body of work that examines travel SWB considering various work occupations, working conditions, commuting variabilities, and other related variables, and develops updated qualitative and quantitative methods to inform the transportation design. In this Super Mario Guide, the author reflects on the related elements involved with travel SWB under four categories (having Super Mario as the protagonist): 1. the starting point including variables like living conditions; 2. the commuter including the commuter’s age, gender, occupation, and others; 3. the commuting including commuting environment, vehicles, commuting time, commuting vehicles flexibility and variability and others; 4. destination including the workplace conditions, the corporate culture on working flexibility, the employer supportiveness and others. In addition, with the rise of new vehicles such as auto-driving, this research can play a significant role to better understand travel SWB and to guide the design of more efficient travelling systems so as to improve worker performance and general SWB. The author also shares thoughts on promising areas for future research.

Keywords: transportation, subjective well-being (SWB), commuting, happiness

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47 Feasibility of Small Hydropower Plants Odisha

Authors: Sanoj Sahu, Ramakar Jha

Abstract:

Odisha (India) is in need of reliable, cost-effective power generation. A prolonged electricity crisis and increasing power demand have left over thousands of citizens without access to electricity, and much of the population suffers from sporadic outages. The purpose of this project is to build a methodology to evaluate small hydropower potential, which can be used to alleviate the Odisha’s energy problem among rural communities. This project has three major tasks: the design of a simple SHEP for a single location along a river in the Odisha; the development of water flow prediction equations through a linear regression analysis; and the design of an ArcGIS toolset to estimate the flow duration curves (FDCs) at locations where data do not exist. An explanation of the inputs to the tool, as well has how it produces a suitable output for SHEP evaluation will be presented. The paper also gives an explanation of hydroelectric power generation in the Odisha, SHEPs, and the technical and practical aspects of hydroelectric power. Till now, based on topographical and rainfall analysis we have located hundreds of sites. Further work on more number of site location and accuracy of location is to be done.

Keywords: small hydropower, ArcGIS, rainfall analysis, Odisha’s energy problem

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46 Characteristics of Oak Mushroom Cultivar, Bambithyang Developed by Golden Seed Project

Authors: Yeongseon Jang, Rhim Ryoo, Young-Ae Park, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Donha Choi, Sung-Suk Lee

Abstract:

Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, oak mushroom, is one of the most largely produced mushrooms in the world. To increase the competitiveness of Korean oak mushroom, golden seed project is ongoing. In this project, we develop new oak mushroom varieties to increase its productivity, quality, disease resistance, and so on. Through the project, new oak mushroom cultivar, Bambithyang was developed by mono-mono hybridization method. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was at 25°C on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. For the mass production test, it was cultivated using sawdust media with sawdust block type for 100 days. The temperature for primordia formation and fruit body production was broad (between 11°C and 20°C) which is good for spring and fall. Each flush period lasted for 6-7 days and the highest fruit body production was recorded in the first flush. The fruiting is sporadic. The pileus was deep brown. Its diameter was 69.2 mm and width was 17.8 mm. The stipe was ivory. It was 14.7 mm thick and 54.7 mm long. We would continue to develop new varieties while increasing the market share of domestic spawn with this variety.

Keywords: Lentinula edodes, mono-mono hybridization, new cultivar, oak mushroom

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45 Association of MIR146A rs2910164 Variation with a Predisposition to Sporadic Breast Cancer in a Pakistani Cohort

Authors: Mushtaq Ahmad, Bashir Rahman, Taqweem-ul-Haq, Fazal Jalil, Aftab Ali Shah

Abstract:

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for microRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in the progression of breast cancer (BC). We investigated the association of miR-146a rs2910164 G/C polymorphism with the risk of BC in the Pakistani population. The miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was genotyped in 300 BC-cases and 300 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using T-ARMS-PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated, and the association between genotypes and the risk of BC was calculated by odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95%). A significant difference in genotypic frequencies (χ2=63.10; p ≤ 0.0001) and allelic frequencies (OR=0.3955 (0.3132-0.4993); p ≤ 0.0001) was observed between cases and controls. Furthermore, we also found that miR-146 rs2910164 CC homozygote increased the risk of breast cancer in the dominant (OR=0.2397 (0.1629-0.3526); p=0.0001; GG vs GC+CC) and recessive (OR=2.803 (1.865- 4.213); P ≤ 0.0001; CC vs GC+GG) inheritance models. In summary, miR-146a rs2910164 G/C is significantly associated with BC in the Pakistani population. To our knowledge, this is the first study that assessed MIR146a rs2910164 G > C SNP in Pakistani population. By analyzing the secondary structure of MIR146A variant, a significant structural modification was noted. Study with a larger sample size is needed to further confirm these findings.

Keywords: breast cancer, MIR146A, microRNA, SNP

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44 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Muhammad Arshad, Shahid Majeed

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Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.

Keywords: abundance, evenness, maize, richness

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43 Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci Isolated from Raw Cow Milk

Authors: Margita Čanigová, Jana Račková, Miroslav Kročko, Viera Ducková, Vladimíra Kňazovická

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The aim of the study was to test the milk samples in terms of enterococci presence and their counts. Tested samples were as follows: raw cow milk, raw cow milk stored at 10°C for 16 hours and milk pasteurised at 72°C for 15 seconds. The typical colonies were isolated randomly and identified by classical biochemical test - EN-COCCUS test (Lachema, CR) and by PCR. Isolated strains were tested in terms of antibiotic resistance by well diffusion method. Examined antibiotics were: vancomycin (30 μg/disc), gentamicin (120 μg/disc), erythromycin (15 μg/disc), teicoplanine (30 μg/disc), ampicillin (10 μg/disc) and tetracycline (30 μg/disc). Average value of enterococci counts in raw milk cistern samples (n=30) was 8.25 ± 1.37 ×103 CFU/cm3. Storage tank milk samples (n=30) showed an increase (P > 0.05) and average value was 9.16 ± 1.49 × 103 CFU/cm3. Occurrence of enterococci in pasteurized milk (n=30) was sporadic and their counts were mostly below 10 CFU/cm3. Overall, 96 enterococci strains were isolated. In samples of raw cow milk and stored raw cow milk, Enterococcus faecalis was a dominant species (58.1% and 71.7%, respectively), followed by E. faecium (16.3% and 0%, respectively). Enterococcus mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. durans and E. gallinarum were isolated, too. Resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin were found in 7.29%, 3.13%, 4.00%, 13.54% and 10.42% of isolated enterococci strains, respectively. Resistance to teicoplanine was not found in any isolated strain. All Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) belonged to E. faecalis. Obtained results confirmed that raw milk is a potential risk of enterococci resistant to antibiotics transmission into the food chain.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, enterococci, milk, biosystems engineering

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42 Muscle Relaxant Dantrolene Repurposed to Treat Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Huafeng Wei

Abstract:

Failures of developing new drugs primarily based on the amyloid pathology hypothesis after decades of efforts internationally lead to changes of focus targeting alternative pathways of pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, especially the pathological and excessive Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via ryanodine receptor (RyRs) Ca2+ channels, has been considered an upstream pathology resulting in major AD pathologies, such as amyloid and Tau pathology, mitochondria damage and inflammation, etc. Therefore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of RyRs that reduces the pathological Ca2+ release from ER and a clinically available drug for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia and muscle spasm, is expected to ameliorate AD multiple pathologies synapse and cognitive dysfunction. Our own studies indicated that dantrolene ameliorated impairment of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis in neurons developed from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) originated from skin fibroblasts of either familiar (FAD) or sporadic (SAD) AD by restoring intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Intranasal administration of dantrolene significantly increased its passage across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and, therefore its brain concentrations and durations. This can render dantrolene a more effective therapeutic drug with fewer side effects for chronic AD treatment. This review summarizes the potential therapeutic and side effects of dantrolene and repurposes intranasal dantrolene as a disease-modifying drug for future AD treatment.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, calcium, drug development, dementia, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis

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41 Safe School Program in Indonesia: Questioning Whether It Is Too Hard to Succeed

Authors: Ida Ngurah

Abstract:

Indonesia is one of the most prone disaster countries, which has earthquake, tsunami or high wave, flood and landslide as well as volcano eruption and drought. Disaster risk reduction has been developing extensively and comprehensively, particularly after tsunami hit in 2004. Yet, saving people live including children and youth from disaster risk is still far from succeed. Poor management of environment, poor development of policy and high level of corruption has become challenges for Indonesia to save its people from disaster impact. Indonesia is struggling to ensure its future best investment, children and youth to have better protection when disaster strike in school hours and have basic knowledge on disaster risk reduction. The program of safe school is being initiated and developed by Plan Indonesia since 2010, yet this effort still needs to be elaborated. This paper is reviewing sporadic safe school programs that have been implemented or currently being implemented Plan Indonesia in few areas of Indonesia, including both rural and urban setting. Methods used are in-depth interview with dedicated person for the program from Plan Indonesia and its implementing patners and analysis of project documents. The review includes program’s goal and objectives, implementation activity, result and achievement as well as its monitoring and evaluation scheme. Moreover, paper will be showing challenges, lesson learned and best practices of the program. Eventually, paper will come up with recommendation for strategy for better implementation of safe school program in Indonesia.

Keywords: disaster impact, safe school, programs, children, youth

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40 Zakariya Multaniand and his Role in the Spread of Islam and Suhrawardiyya in the Subcontinent

Authors: Mahdi Momeni

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The arrival of Mysticism to the subcontinent can be generally divided into two periods. The first period, was the Sporadic arrival of Sufis whom were traveling to the subcontinent according to the tradition of disquisition and the second period was; when the Sufi dynasties were sending missionaries and caliphs to guide and promote people from different direction to that land. Among the Sufi dynasty that entered to India in the thirteenth century, two dynasties of Chishti and Suhrawardîya were more successful than other Sufi dynasties. And thus they are very important in the spread of Islam and Mysticism to the subcontinent. Suhrawardiyya dynasty was founded by Sheikh Ziauddin Abu Najib Suhrawardi and was developed and spread by his nephew Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi Abo hafs Omar. Sheikh Shahabuddin sent many Caliphs and missionaries to India. Among these missionaries were People like Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, Seyyed Noureddin Mobarak Ghaznavi, Sheikh Jalal al-din Tabrizi and Sheikh Zakariya Multani. Since Suhrawardiyya doctrine relies on Asceticism and Sharia, so one of the important elements among Suhrawardiyya missionaries was inviting people to Islam. Accordingly Sheikh Shahab Caliphs had a great role in the spread of Islam and Mysticism in different territories, especially India. Such that it can be pointed out is the the role of Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya Multani, the founder of Suhrawardiyya Dynasty in India. Sheikh Zakaria Multani after working in three areas, establishing monasteries, training managers, having numerous trips to different places, participating to social affairs provided the spread of Islam and Mysticism in subcontinent. This paper studies his role and actions in the subcontinent.

Keywords: islam, sufism, Suhrawardiyya, subcontinent, Multan

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39 Molecular Comparison of HEV Isolates from Sewage & Humans at Western India

Authors: Nidhi S. Chandra, Veena Agrawal, Debprasad Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. It spreads feco orally mainly due to contamination of drinking water by sewage. There is limited data on the genotypic comparison of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. The aim of this study was to identify genotype and conduct phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from sewage water and humans. Materials and Methods: 14 sewage water and 60 serum samples from acute sporadic hepatitis E cases (negative for hepatitis A, B, C) were tested for HEV-RNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (RTnPCR) using primers designed with in RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) region of open reading frame-1 (ORF-1). Sequencing was done by ABI prism 310. The sequences (343 nucleotides) were compared with each other and were aligned with previously reported HEV sequences obtained from GeneBank, using Clustal W software. A Phylogenetic tree was constructed by using PHYLIP version 3.67 software. Results: HEV-RNA was detected in 49/ 60 (81.67%) serum and 5/14 (35.71%) sewage samples. The sequences obtained from 17 serums and 2 sewage specimens belonged to genotype I with 85% similarity and clustering with previously reported human HEV sequences from India. HEV isolates from human and sewage in North West India are genetically closely related to each other. Conclusion: These finding suggest that sewage acts as reservoir of HEV. Therefore it is important that measures are taken for proper waste disposal and treatment of drinking water to prevent outbreaks and epidemics due to HEV.

Keywords: hepatitis E virus, nested polymerase chain reaction, open reading frame-1, nucleotidies

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38 Petro-Mineralogical Studies of Phosphorite Deposit of Sallopat Block of Banswara District, Rajasthan, India

Authors: K. F. Khan, Samsuddin Khan

Abstract:

The Paleoproterozoic phosphorite deposit of Sallopat block of Banswara district of Rajasthan belongs to kalinjara formation of lunavada group of Aravalli Super Group. The phosphorites are found to occur as massive, brecciated, laminated and stromatolitic associated with calcareous quartzite, interbedded dolomite and multi coloured chert. The phosphorites are showing alternate brown and grey coloured concentric rims which are composed of phosphate, calcite and quartz minerals. Petro-mineralogical studies of phosphorite samples using petrological microscope, XRD, FEG- SEM and EDX reveal that apatite-(CaF) and apatite-(CaOH) are phosphate minerals which are intermixed with minor amount of carbonate materials. Sporadic findings of the uniform tiny granules of partially anisotropic apatite-(CaF) along with dolomite, calcite, quartz, muscovite, zeolite and other gangue minerals have been observed with the replacement of phosphate material by quartz and carbonate. The presence of microbial filaments of organic matter and alternate concentric rims of stromatolitic structure may suggest that the deposition of the phosphate took place in shallow marine oxidizing environmental conditions leading to the formation of phosphorite layers as primary biogenic precipitates by bacterial or algal activities. Different forms and texture of phosphate minerals may be due to environmental vicissitudes at the time of deposition followed by some replacement processes and biogenic activities.

Keywords: apatite, petro-mineralogy, phosphorites, sallopat, stromatolites

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37 A Molecular Dynamics Study on Intermittent Plasticity and Dislocation Avalanche Emissions in FCC and BCC Crystals

Authors: Javier Varillas, Jorge Alcalá

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We investigate dislocation avalanche phenomena in face-centered cubic (FCC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals using massive, large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The analysis is focused on the intermittent development of dense dislocation arrangements subjected to uniaxial tensile straining under displacement control. We employ a novel computational scheme that allows us to inject an entangled dislocation structure in periodic MD domains. We assess the emission of plastic bursts (or dislocation avalanches) in terms of the sharp stress drops detected in the stress-strain curve. The plastic activity corresponds to the sporadic operation of specific dislocation glide processes exhibiting quiescent periods between successive avalanche events. We find that the plastic intermittences in our simulations do not overlap in time under sufficiently low strain rates as dissipation operates faster than driving, where the dense dislocation networks evolve through the emission of dislocation avalanche events whose carried slip adheres to self-organized power-law distributions. These findings enable the extension of the slip distributions obtained from strict displacement-controlled micropillar compression experiments towards smaller values of slip size. Our results furnish further understanding upon the development of entangled dislocation networks in metal plasticity, including specific mechanisms of dislocation propagation and annihilation, along with the evolution of specific dislocation populations through dislocation density analyses.

Keywords: dislocations, intermittent plasticity, molecular dynamics, slip distributions

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36 Litho-Structural Variations and Gold Mineralization around Wonaka Schist Belt, North West Nigeria

Authors: Umar Sambo Umar, Ahmad Isah Haruna, Abubakar Sadik Maigari, Muhammad Bello Abubakar

Abstract:

Schist belts in Nigeria occur prominently west of longitude 80 E and sporadic to the east, they are upper Proterozioc low-medium grade deformed metasediments and metavolcanics that were intruded by Pan-African granitoids. The Wonaka schist belt, though reportedly distinctive in composition and metamorphism, is the least understood; the host for primary gold were not defined, structures which may control primary enrichment have not been delineated. The aim of this work is to determine the relationship between litho-structures and the gold around Wonaka schist belt through geological field mapping, petrographic studies and structural data analysis via ArcGis 10.2, Surfer 11.0 and Stereopro 2.0. The results show that the major rock types are mica schist and migmatites, muscovites detected during microstructural analysis suggests low-grade metamorphism in the metapelites. The shear zones identified were trending North Northeast – South Southwest (NNE-SSW), fractures trend mostly Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) perpendicular to planes of gneissic foliations, these conform to the late Pan-African deformational episode. Pegmatite lodes, net self-cross cutting quartz veins as well as the quartz stringers hosted by both migmatites and schist are delineated as targets for primary gold mineralization, while major confluences of the streams serve as zones for secondary (placer) gold targets since the streams are dendritic and intermittent.

Keywords: gold mineralization, Nigeria, migmatites, Wonaka schist belt

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35 Allergenic Potential of Airborne Algae Isolated from Malaysia

Authors: Chu Wan-Loy, Kok Yih-Yih, Choong Siew-Ling

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The human health risks due to poor air quality caused by a wide array of microorganisms have attracted much interest. Airborne algae have been reported as early as 19th century and they can be found in the air of tropic and warm atmospheres. Airborne algae normally originate from water surfaces, soil, trees, buildings and rock surfaces. It is estimated that at least 2880 algal cells are inhaled per day by human. However, there are relatively little data published on airborne algae and its related adverse health effects except sporadic reports of algae associated clinical allergenicity. A collection of airborne algae cultures has been established following a recent survey on the occurrence of airborne algae in indoor and outdoor environments in Kuala Lumpur. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenic potential of the isolated airborne green and blue-green algae, namely Scenedesmus sp., Cylindrospermum sp. and Hapalosiphon sp.. The suspensions of freeze-dried airborne algae were adminstered into balb-c mice model through intra-nasal route to determine their allergenic potential. Results showed that Scenedesmus sp. (1 mg/mL) increased the systemic Ig E levels in mice by 3-8 fold compared to pre-treatment. On the other hand, Cylindrospermum sp. and Hapalosiphon sp. at similar concentration caused the Ig E to increase by 2-4 fold. The potential of airborne algae causing Ig E mediated type 1 hypersensitivity was elucidated using other immunological markers such as cytokine interleukin (IL)- 4, 5, 6 and interferon-ɣ. When we compared the amount of interleukins in mouse serum between day 0 and day 53 (day of sacrifice), Hapalosiphon sp. (1mg/mL) increased the expression of IL4 and 6 by 8 fold while the Cylindrospermum sp. (1mg/mL) increased the expression of IL4 and IFɣ by 8 and 2 fold respectively. In conclusion, repeated exposure to the three selected airborne algae may stimulate the immune response and generate Ig E in a mouse model.

Keywords: airborne algae, respiratory, allergenic, immune response, Malaysia

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34 Exploring the Determinants of Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigerian Security Systems and Economy

Authors: Abara Onu, Augustine Mina Ephraim, Emmanuel Teidi

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Terrorism has been a major challenge and is so dare to the Nigerian government in recent times. The actions and activities of the Islamic sect known as Boko Haram had led to enormous loss of lives and properties in the country, mostly the Northern part of Nigeria. Some of these activities entails bombings, suicide attacks, intimidations, sporadic gunfire of the unarmed, blameless and innocent Nigerians, burning of police stations and churches, kidnappings, raping of school girls and women. Nigeria has also been included amongst one of the terrorist countries of the world. This has serious implications for the development of Nigerian economy. Although, Nigeria had made several worried hard work to deal with these challenges masqueraded by terrorism and insecurity in the country but the rate of insurgency and insecurity is still worrisome. The study looks at exploring the determinants of Boko Haram terrorism in Nigerian security systems and economy. Data used for the study work was from questionnaire administered, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method to analyse the data. The result shows that Ideology and funding are significant basic factors that propelled the Boko Haram group in Nigeria. The Boko Haram disaster poses a significant threat to Nigeria’s economy and the military is the best option and solution in tackling the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria. The work x-rayed the following recommendations; government should declare war on terrorism and as well seek support and cooperation from international communities who in time or the other might have faced with this kind ugly experience and challenge and were able to tackle it. Nigerian Military needs to be more empowered with high dangerous weapons to combat the insurgency as well as beef up security across the Country to curb the threats.

Keywords: terrorism, economy, Boko Haram, Nigeria

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33 West African Insurgents and Religious Conflict(s), Causes, Crimes and Control: An Evaluation of the Role of Economics Community of West African States

Authors: Ehosa Peter Ogbeni

Abstract:

Religious conflict and insurgency are staying as growing phenomena globally especially within the West African region: this 'new wars’ in this part of the globe has brought many of its economies to the brink of collapse, creating humanitarian casualties and concerns for the visitors and international community. This ‘ugly’ trend has also affected the social, economic and political life of the West African region. Over the years, various religious and insurgency groups have raised arms against civilians and the government, the most recent extremist group, Boko Haram continues to expand and commit violent acts, such as sporadic suicide bombings and killing of innocent citizens and foreigners within the West African region especially in countries like Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad etc. It would have been expected that academic research focus on investigating the West African region; this is not the situation as most of the research on religious conflict and insurgencies have focused more on other parts of the World. Insurgencies and Religious Conflict studies in West Africa have fallen short of literature and very limited literature covers the activities of Boko Haram arm struggle. This research therefore, aims to fill the gap by investigating the role of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in managing the growing trend of religious conflicts and insurgency in West African States, by using Boko Haram as a case to review. This research adopted the critical theory paradigm using aspects of qualitative research techniques in carrying out its investigation. The findings of this research will help develop a framework that will aid the (ECOWAS) amongst other stakeholders in managing religious and insurgency motivated conflict.

Keywords: religious conflict, insurgencies, Boko haram, ECOWAS (economics community of West African states), peace building, conflict resolution

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32 Questioning the Relationship Between Young People and Fake News Through Their Use of Social Media

Authors: Marion Billard

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This paper will focus on the question of the real relationship between young people and fake news. Fake news is one of today’s main issues in the world of information and communication. Social media and its democratization helped to spread false information. According to traditional beliefs, young people are more inclined to believe what they read through social media. But, the individuals concerned, think that they are more inclined to make a distinction between real and fake news. This phenomenon is due to their use of the internet and social media from an early age. During the 2016 and 2017 French and American presidential campaigns, the term fake news was in the mouth of the entire world and became a real issue in the field of information. While young people were informing themselves with newspapers or television until the beginning of the ’90s, Gen Z (meaning people born between 1997 and 2010), has always been immersed in this world of fast communication. They know how to use social media from a young age and the internet has no secret for them. Today, despite the sporadic use of traditional media, young people tend to turn to their smartphones and social networks such as Instagram or Twitter to stay abreast of the latest news. The growth of social media information led to an “ambient journalism”, giving access to an endless quantity of information. Waking up in the morning, young people will see little posts with short texts supplying the essential of the news, without, for the most, many details. As a result, impressionable people are not able to do a distinction between real media, and “junk news” or Fake News. This massive use of social media is probably explained by the inability of the youngsters to find connections between the communication of the traditional media and what they are living. The question arises if this over-confidence of the young people in their ability to distinguish between accurate and fake news would not make it more difficult for them to examine critically the information. Their relationship with media and fake news is more complex than popular opinion. Today’s young people are not the master in the quest for information, nor inherently the most impressionable public on social media.

Keywords: fake news, youngsters, social media, information, generation

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31 A Deluge of Disaster, Destruction, Death and Deception: Negative News and Empathy Fatigue in the Digital Age

Authors: Bernard Nnamdi Emenyeonu

Abstract:

Initially identified as sensationalism in the eras of yellow journalism and tabloidization, the inclusion of news which shock or provoke strong emotional responses among readers and viewers has not only remained a persistent feature of journalism but has also seemingly escalated in the current climate of digital media. Whether in relentless revelation of scandals in high places, or profiles on people displaced by sporadic wars or natural disasters; or gruesome accounts of trucks plowing into pedestrians in a city centre; or the coverage of mourners paying tributes to victims of a mass shooting, mainstream and digital media are often awash with tragedy, tears and trauma. While it may aim at inspiring sympathy, outrage or even remedial reactions, it would appear that the deluge of grief and misery in the news merely generates in the audience a feeling that borders on hearing or seeing too much to care or act. This feeling also appears to be accentuated by the dizzying diffusion of social media news and views, most of whose authenticity is not easily verifiable. Through a survey of regular consumers of news and an in-depth interview of news managers in Oman, this study, therefore, investigates public attitude to the profusion of bad news in mainstream and digital media. Among other targets, it examines whether the profusion of bad news generates empathy fatigue among the audience, and if so, whether there is any association between biographic variables (profession, age, and gender) and an inclination to empathy fatigue. It also seeks to identify which categories of bad news and media are most likely to drag the audience into indifference. In conclusion, the study discusses the implications of the findings for mass mediated advocacies such as campaigns against corruption, nuclear threats, terrorism, gun violence, sexual crimes and human trafficking among other threats to humanity.

Keywords: digital media, empathy fatigue, media campaigns, news selection

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30 Investigating the Energy Harvesting Potential of a Pitch-Plunge Airfoil Subjected to Fluctuating Wind

Authors: Magu Raam Prasaad R., Venkatramani Jagadish

Abstract:

Recent studies in the literature have shown that randomly fluctuating wind flows can give rise to a distinct regime of pre-flutter oscillations called intermittency. Intermittency is characterized by the presence of sporadic bursts of high amplitude oscillations interspersed amidst low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. The focus of this study is on investigating the energy harvesting potential of these intermittent oscillations. Available literature has by and large devoted its attention on extracting energy from flutter oscillations. The possibility of harvesting energy from pre-flutter regimes have remained largely unexplored. However, extracting energy from violent flutter oscillations can be severely detrimental to the structural integrity of airfoil structures. Consequently, investigating the relatively stable pre-flutter responses for energy extraction applications is of practical importance. The present study is devoted towards addressing these concerns. A pitch-plunge airfoil with cubic hardening nonlinearity in the plunge and pitch degree of freedom is considered. The input flow fluctuations are modelled using a sinusoidal term with randomly perturbed frequencies. An electromagnetic coupling is provided to the pitch-plunge equations, such that, energy from the wind induced vibrations of the structural response are extracted. With the mean flow speed as the bifurcation parameter, a fourth order Runge-Kutta based time marching algorithm is used to solve the governing aeroelastic equations with electro-magnetic coupling. The harnessed energy from the intermittency regime is presented and the results are discussed in comparison to that obtained from the flutter regime. The insights from this study could be useful in health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, energy harvesting, intermittency, randomly fluctuating flows

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