Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4060

Search results for: special operations forces

4060 Western and Eastern Ways of Special Warfare: The Strategic History of Special Operations from Western and Eastern Sources

Authors: Adam Kok Wey Leong

Abstract:

Special operations were supposedly a new way of irregular warfare that was officially formed during World War 2. For example, the famous British Special Operations Executive (SOE) and the Americans’ Office for Strategic Services (OSS) – the forerunners of modern day CIA were born in World War 2. These special operations units were tasked with the conduct of sabotage and subversion activities behind enemy lines, placing great importance in forming Fifth Column activities and supporting resistance movements. This pointed to a paradoxical argument that modern day special operations is a product of Western modern military innovation but utilizing Eastern ways of ‘ungentlemanly’ warfare. This thesis is superfluous as special operations had been well practised by both ancient Western empires such as the Greeks and Romans, and around the same time in the East, such as in China, and Japan. This paper will describe the practice of special operations, first from the Western military history of the Greeks during the Peloponnesian war. It will then highlight the similar practice of special operations by the Near Eastern Assassins and Eastern militaries by using examples from the Chinese and the Japanese. This paper propounds that special operations, or ways of warfare as a whole, has no cultural and geographical divide, but rather very similarly practiced by men from all over the world. Ideas of fighting, killing and ultimately winning a war have similar undertones – attempts to find ways to win economically and at the least time.

Keywords: special operations, strategic culture, ways of warfare, Sun Tzu, Frontinus

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4059 The Evolution of Strike and Intelligence Functions in Special Operations Forces

Authors: John Hardy

Abstract:

The expansion of special operations forces (SOF) in the twenty-first century is often discussed in terms of the size and disposition of SOF units. Research regarding the number SOF personnel, the equipment SOF units procure, and the variety of roles and mission that SOF fulfill in contemporary conflicts paints a fascinating picture of changing expectations for the use of force. A strong indicator of the changing nature of SOF in contemporary conflicts is the fusion of strike and intelligence functions in the SOF in many countries. What were once more distinct roles on the kind of battlefield generally associated with the concept of conventional warfare have become intermingled in the era of persistent conflict which SOF face. This study presents a historical analysis of the co-evolution of the intelligence and direct action functions carried out by SOF in counterterrorism, counterinsurgency, and training and mentoring missions between 2004 and 2016. The study focuses primarily on innovation in the US military and the diffusion of key concepts to US allies first, and then more broadly afterward. The findings show that there were three key phases of evolution throughout the period of study, each coinciding with a process of innovation and doctrinal adaptation. The first phase was characterized by the fusion of intelligence at the tactical and operational levels. The second phase was characterized by the industrial counterterrorism campaigns used by US SOF against irregular enemies in Iraq and Afghanistan. The third phase was characterized by increasing forward collection of actionable intelligence by SOF force elements in the course of direct action raids. The evolution of strike and intelligence functions in SOF operations between 2004 and 2016 was significantly influenced by reciprocity. Intelligence fusion led to more effective targeting, which then increased intelligence collection. Strike and intelligence functions were then enhanced by greater emphasis on intelligence exploitation during operations, which further increased the effectiveness of both strike and intelligence operations.

Keywords: counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, intelligence, irregular warfare, military operations, special operations forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
4058 Deployment of Attack Helicopters in Conventional Warfare: The Gulf War

Authors: Mehmet Karabekir

Abstract:

Attack helicopters (AHs) are usually deployed in conventional warfare to destroy armored and mechanized forces of enemy. In addition, AHs are able to perform various tasks in the deep, and close operations – intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, air assault operations, and search and rescue operations. Apache helicopters were properly employed in the Gulf Wars and contributed the success of campaign by destroying a large number of armored and mechanized vehicles of Iraq Army. The purpose of this article is to discuss the deployment of AHs in conventional warfare in the light of Gulf Wars. First, the employment of AHs in deep and close operations will be addressed regarding the doctrine. Second, the US armed forces AH-64 doctrinal and tactical usage will be argued in the 1st and 2nd Gulf Wars.

Keywords: attack helicopter, conventional warfare, gulf wars

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
4057 Security as Human Value: Issue of Human Rights in Indian Sub-Continental Operations

Authors: Pratyush Vatsala, Sanjay Ahuja

Abstract:

The national security and human rights are related terms as there is nothing like absolute security or absolute human right. If we are committed to security, human right is a problem and also a solution, and if we deliberate on human rights, security is a problem but also part of the solution. Ultimately, we have to maintain a balance between the two co-related terms. As more and more armed forces are being deployed by the government within the nation for maintaining peace and security, using force against its own citizen, the search for a judicious balance between intent and action needs to be emphasized. Notwithstanding that a nation state needs complete political independence; the search for security is a driving force behind unquestioned sovereignty. If security is a human value, it overlaps the value of freedom, order, and solidarity. Now, the question needs to be explored, to what extent human rights can be compromised in the name of security in Kashmir or Mizoram like places. The present study aims to explore the issue of maintaining a balance between the use of power and good governance as human rights, providing security as a human value. This paper has been prepared with an aim of strengthening the understanding of the complex and multifaceted relationship between human rights and security forces operating for conflict management and identifies some of the critical human rights issues raised in the context of security forces operations highlighting the relevant human rights principles and standards in which Security as human value be respected at all times and in particular in the context of security forces operations in India.

Keywords: Kashmir, Mizoram, security, value, human right

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
4056 Armed Forces Special Powers Act and Human Rights in Nagaland

Authors: Khrukulu Khusoh

Abstract:

The strategies and tactics used by governments throughout the world to counter terrorism and insurgency over the past few decades include the declaration of states of siege or martial law, enactment of anti-terrorist legislation and strengthening of judicial powers. Some of these measures taken have been more successful than the other, but some have proved counterproductive, alienating the public from the authorities and further polarizing an already fractured political environment. Such cases of alienation and polarization can be seen in the northeastern states of India. The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act which was introduced to curb insurgency in the remote jungles of the far-flung areas has remained a telling tale of agony in the north east India. Grievous trauma to humans through encounter killings, custodial deaths, unwarranted torture, exploitation of women and children in several ways have been reported in Nagaland, Manipur and other northeastern states where the Indian army has been exercising powers under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act. While terrorism and the insurgency are destructive of human rights, counter-terrorism does not necessarily restore and safeguard human rights. This special law has not proven effective particularly in dealing with terrorism and insurgency. The insurgency has persisted in the state of Nagaland even after sixty years notwithstanding the presence of a good number of special laws. There is a need to fight elements that threaten the security of a nation, but the methods chosen should be measured, otherwise the fight is lost. There has been no review on the effectiveness or failure of the act to realize its intended purpose. Nor was there any attempt on the part of the state to critically look at the violation of rights of innocent citizens by the state agencies. The Indian state keeps enacting laws, but none of these could be effectively applied as there was the absence of clarity of purpose. Therefore, every new law which has been enacted time and again to deal with security threats failed to bring any solution for the last six decades. The Indian state resorts to measures which are actually not giving anything in terms of strategic benefits but are short-term victories that might result in long-term tragedies. Therefore, right thinking citizens and human rights activists across the country feel that introduction of Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act was as much violation of human rights and its continuation is undesirable. What worried everyone is the arbitrary use, or rather misuse of power by the Indian armed forces particularly against the weaker sections of the society, including women. After having being subjected to indiscriminate abuse of that law, people of the north-east India have been demanding its revocation for a long time. The present paper attempts to critically examine the violation of human rights under Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act. It also attempts to bring out the impact of Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act on the Naga people.

Keywords: armed forces, insurgency, special laws, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
4055 Regulation of the Commercial Credits in the Foreign Exchange Operations

Authors: Marija Vicic

Abstract:

The purpose of commercial credit regulation in an unified way under Law on Foreign Exchange Operations in Republic of Serbia allows an easier state monitoring of credit operations performed by non-professionals on foreign exchange market. By broadly defining the term “commercial credits“, the state (i.e. National Bank of Serbia) is given the authority to monitor the performance of all obligations under commercial contracts in which the obligations are not performed simultaneously. In the first part of the paper, the author analyses the economic gist of commercial credits with the purpose of giving an insight into their special treatment. The author examines the term „commercial credits“ given in Law on foreign exchange operations and the difference between financial credits and irregular commercial credits (exports and imports of goods and services deemed to be commercial credits) is particularly highlighted. In the second part, the author emphasizes the specifics of commercial credit contracts, especially the effects of special requests for the parties to these contracts to notify National Bank of Serbia and specific regulations regarding maturity of obligations under these commercial credits and the assignment and compensation of the said contracts.

Keywords: commercial credit, foreign exchange operations, commercial transactions, deferred payment, advance payment, (non) resident

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
4054 Civilian and Military Responses to Domestic Security Threats: A Cross-Case Analysis of Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom

Authors: John Hardy

Abstract:

The domestic security environment in Europe has changed dramatically in recent years. Since January 2015, a significant number of domestic security threats that emerged in Europe were located in Belgium, France and the United Kingdom. While some threats were detected in the planning phase, many also resulted in terrorist attacks. Authorities in all three countries instituted special or emergency measures to provide additional security to their populations. Each country combined an additional policing presence with a specific military operation to contribute to a comprehensive security response to domestic threats. This study presents a cross-case analysis of three countries’ civilian and military responses to domestic security threats in Europe. Each case study features a unique approach to combining civilian and military capabilities in similar domestic security operations during the same time period and threat environment. The research design focuses on five variables relevant to the relationship between civilian and military roles in each security response. These are the distinction between policing and military roles, the legal framework for the domestic deployment of military forces, prior experience in civil-military coordination, the institutional framework for threat assessments, and the level of public support for the domestic use of military forces. These variables examine the influence of domestic social, political, and legal factors on the design of combined civil-military operations in response to domestic security threats. Each case study focuses on a specific operation: Operation Vigilant Guard in Belgium, Operation Sentinel in France, and Operation Temperer in the United Kingdom. The results demonstrate that the level of distinction between policing and military roles and the existence of a clear and robust legal framework for the domestic use force by military personnel significantly influence the design and implementation of civilian and military roles in domestic security operations. The findings of this study indicate that Belgium, France and the United Kingdom experienced different design and implementation challenges for their domestic security operations. Belgium and France initially had less-developed legal frameworks for deploying the military in domestic security operations than the United Kingdom. This was offset by public support for enacting emergency measures and the strength of existing civil-military coordination mechanisms. The United Kingdom had a well-developed legal framework for integrating civilian and military capabilities in domestic security operations. However, its experiences in Ireland also made the government more sensitive to public perceptions regarding the domestic deployment of military forces.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, democracy, homeland security, intelligence, militarization, policing

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
4053 Examination of the Reinforcement Forces Generated in Pseudo-Static and Dynamic Status in Retaining Walls

Authors: K. Passbakhsh

Abstract:

Determination of reinforcement forces is one of the most important and main discussions in designing retaining walls. By determining these forces we refrain from conservative planning. By numerically modeling the reinforced soil retaining walls under dynamic loading reinforcement forces can be calculated. In this study we try to approach the gained forces by pseudo-static method according to FHWA code and gained forces from numerical modeling by finite element method, by selecting seismic horizontal coefficient for different wall height. PLAXIS software was used for numerical analysis. Then the effect of reinforcement stiffness and soil type on reinforcement forces is examined.

Keywords: reinforced soil, PLAXIS, reinforcement forces, retaining walls

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
4052 The Evolution of the Israel Defence Forces’ Information Operations: A Case Study of the Israel Defence Forces' Activities in the Information Domain 2006–2014

Authors: Teemu Saressalo

Abstract:

This article examines the evolution of the Israel Defence Forces’ information operation activities during an eight-year timespan from the 2006 war with Hezbollah to more recent operations such as Pillar of Defence and Protective Edge. To this end, the case study will show a change in the Israel Defence Forces’ activities in the information domain. In the 2006 war with Hezbollah in Lebanon, Israel inflicted enormous damage on the Lebanese infrastructure, leaving more than 1,200 people dead and 4,400 injured. Casualties among Hezbollah, Israel’s main adversary, were estimated to range from 250 to 700 fighters. Damage to the Lebanese infrastructure was estimated at over USD 2.5bn, with almost 2,000 houses and buildings damaged and destroyed. Even this amount of destruction did not force Hezbollah to yield and while both sides were claiming victory in the war, Israel paid a heavier price in political backlashes and loss of reputation, mainly due to failures in the media and the way in which the war was portrayed and perceived in Israel and abroad. Much of this can be credited to Hezbollah’s efficient use of the media, and Israel’s failure to do so. Israel managed the next conflict it was engaged in completely differently – it had learnt its lessons and built up new ways to counter its adversary’s propaganda and media operations. In Operation Cast Lead at the turn of 2009, Hamas, Israel’s adversary and Gaza’s dominating faction, was not able to utilize the media in the same way that Hezbollah had. By creating a virtual and physical barrier around the Gaza Strip, Israel almost totally denied its adversary access to the worldwide media, and by restricting the movement of journalists in the area, Israel could let its voice be heard above all. The operation Cast Lead began with a deception operation, which caught Hamas totally off guard. The 21-day campaign left the Gaza Strip devastated, but did not cause as much protest in Israel during the operation as the 2006 war did, mainly due to almost total Israeli dominance in the information dimension. The most important outcome from the Israeli perspective was the fact that Operation Cast Lead was assessed to be a success and the operation enjoyed domestic support along with support from many western nations, which had condemned Israeli actions in the 2006 war. Later conflicts have shown the same tendency towards virtually total dominance in the information domain, which has had an impact on target audiences across the world. Thus, it is clear that well-planned and conducted information operations are able to shape public opinion and influence decision-makers, although Israel might have been outpaced by its rivals.

Keywords: Hamas, Hezbollah, information operations, Israel Defence Forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
4051 Ultra High Performance Concrete Using Special Aggregates for Irregular Structures (the New Concrete Technology)

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh

Abstract:

Concrete the basic material using in construction across the global these days. The purpose of this special concrete is to provide extra strength and stability for irregular structure where the center of gravity is disturbed. In this paper an effort has been made to use different type of material aggregates has been discussed. We named As "STAR Aggregates" which has qualities to resist Shear, tension and compression forces. We have been divided into coarse aggregates and fine aggregates according to their sizes. Star Aggregates has interlocking behavior and cutting edge technology. Star aggregates had been draft and deign in Auto CAD and then analysis in ANSYS software. by using special aggregates we deign concrete grade of M40 for mega structures and irregular structure. This special concrete with STAR aggregates use in construction for irregular structure like Bridges, Skyscrapers or in deigned buildings.

Keywords: star aggregates, high performance concrete, material aggregates, interlocking

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
4050 The Impacts of Technology on Operations Costs: The Mediating Role of Operation Flexibility

Authors: Fazli Idris, Jihad Mohammad

Abstract:

The study aims to determine the impact of technology and service operations flexibility, which is divided into external flexibility and internal robustness, on operations costs. A mediation model is proposed that links technology to operations costs via operation flexibility. Drawing on a sample of 475 of operations managers of various service sectors in Malaysia and South Africa, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to test the relationship using Smart-PLS procedures. It was found that a significant relationship was established between technologies to operations costs via both operations flexibility dimensions. Theoretical and managerial implications are offered to explain the results.

Keywords: Operations flexibility, technology, costs, mediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 520
4049 Mechanical Characterization and CNC Rotary Ultrasonic Grinding of Crystal Glass

Authors: Ricardo Torcato, Helder Morais

Abstract:

The manufacture of crystal glass parts is based on obtaining the rough geometry by blowing and/or injection, generally followed by a set of manual finishing operations using cutting and grinding tools. The forming techniques used do not allow the obtainment, with repeatability, of parts with complex shapes and the finishing operations use intensive specialized labor resulting in high cycle times and production costs. This work aims to explore the digital manufacture of crystal glass parts by investigating new subtractive techniques for the automated, flexible finishing of these parts. Finishing operations are essential to respond to customer demands in terms of crystal feel and shine. It is intended to investigate the applicability of different computerized finishing technologies, namely milling and grinding in a CNC machining center with or without ultrasonic assistance, to crystal processing. Research in the field of grinding hard and brittle materials, despite not being extensive, has increased in recent years, and scientific knowledge about the machinability of crystal glass is still very limited. However, it can be said that the unique properties of glass, such as high hardness and very low toughness, make any glass machining technology a very challenging process. This work will measure the performance improvement brought about by the use of ultrasound compared to conventional crystal grinding. This presentation is focused on the mechanical characterization and analysis of the cutting forces in CNC machining of superior crystal glass (Pb ≥ 30%). For the mechanical characterization, the Vickers hardness test provides an estimate of the material hardness (Hv) and the fracture toughness based on cracks that appear in the indentation. Mechanical impulse excitation test estimates the Young’s Modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio of the material. For the cutting forces, it a dynamometer was used to measure the forces in the face grinding process. The tests were made based on the Taguchi method to correlate the input parameters (feed rate, tool rotation speed and depth of cut) with the output parameters (surface roughness and cutting forces) to optimize the process (better roughness using the cutting forces that do not compromise the material structure and the tool life) using ANOVA. This study was conducted for conventional grinding and for the ultrasonic grinding process with the same cutting tools. It was possible to determine the optimum cutting parameters for minimum cutting forces and for minimum surface roughness in both grinding processes. Ultrasonic-assisted grinding provides a better surface roughness than conventional grinding.

Keywords: CNC machining, crystal glass, cutting forces, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
4048 Global Migration and Endangered Majorities in Europe

Authors: Liav Orgad

Abstract:

This article challenges one of the most fundamental propositions in the democratic theory that the majority culture is protected merely by the forces of democracy and thus needs no special legal protection. By describing changes in the patterns of migration to Europe, in the face of the European society, and in the world as a whole, the Article demonstrates that the majority culture is no longer automatically protected by the forces of democracy. It claims that the changing reality is not adequately addressed by political theory and human rights law and advances the promotion of a new concept—'cultural majority rights'.

Keywords: European migration, European demography, democratic theory, majority rights, integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
4047 Exergy Losses Relation with Driving Forces in Heat Transfer Process

Authors: S. Ali Ashrafizadeh, M. Amidpour, N. Hedayat

Abstract:

Driving forces along with transfer coefficient affect on heat transfer rate, on the other hand, with regard to the relation of these forces with irriversibilities they are effective on exergy losses. Therefore, the driving forces can be used as a relation between heat transfer rate, transfer coefficients and exergy losses. In this paper, first, the relation of the exergetic efficiency and resistant forces is obtained, next the relation between exergy efficiency, relative driving force, heat transfer rate and heat resistances is considered. In all cases, results are argued graphically. Finally, a case study inspected by obtained results.

Keywords: heat transfer, exergy losses, exergetic efficiency, driving forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
4046 Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of the Effects of Mechanical Forces in Cerebral Aneurysms

Authors: Hashem Al Argha

Abstract:

Cerebral Aneurysms are the ballooning and defect that occurs in the arteries of the brain. This ballooning might enlarge in size due to mechanical forces and could lead to rupture and death. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used in the recent years in creating a link between engineering sciences and medical sciences. In this paper, the effects of mechanical forces on cerebral aneurysms will be studied. Results of this study show that mechanical forces could lead to rupture of the aneurysm and could lead to death. High mechanical forces including stresses up to 1.7 MPa could pop aneurysms and lead to a brain hemorrhage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical, aneurysm, mechanical forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4045 The Construction of Women’s Leadership in the Swedish Armed Forces in the Context of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda

Authors: Sofia Sutera

Abstract:

Despite the introduction of the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Agenda in 2000, thanks to the UNSCR 1325 and subsequent resolutions, and the clear stance of the UN towards the support of increased participation of women in peace and security processes, women’s leadership in this context remains very low. Considering specifically the framework of peacekeeping operations, the aim of this paper is to analyze the way women’s leadership is constructed in the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF). In the context of the WPS Agenda, Sweden has been chosen as a case study because of the relevance of its singular feminist policies (the statement in 2014 from Wallström, previous and current Minister for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister, that Sweden is pursuing a feminist foreign policy is a clear example). Moreover, the SAF adopted in 2016 the Handbok Gender. This policy addresses explicitly the gender perspective embraced by the Swedish military institution, a sui-generis organization even in the Scandinavian reality. Indeed, the SAF has assumed a clear commitment to represent its institution as gender aware and gender equal. The theoretical perspective utilized in this research, which focuses specifically on women, is feminism and particularly a feminist constructivist approach, with an institutional focus on the military institution, has been chosen. Taking into account the specificity of the feminist research, the above-mentioned gender policy has been examined by means of a critical discourse analysis (CDA) whose main aim is to investigate the social structures of discourse and the power relationships inherent to it. Thus, CDA appears to be quite relevant in order to understand the construction of women’s leadership in the Handbok Gender. Nevertheless, even in a country which officially identifies as feminist and which is characterized by a peculiar military institution, the conclusions of this analysis revealed that women’s leadership in peacekeeping operations remains very low.

Keywords: feminism, peacekeeping operations, swedish armed forces, UNSCR 1325, women's leadership, WPS agenda

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
4044 Comparative Study of the Distribution of Seismic Loads of Buildings with Asymmetries Plan

Authors: Ahmed Hamza Yache

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to estimate the distribution of shear forces in building structures with asymmetries in the plan submitted to seismic forces can cause, in this case, simultaneous deformations of translation and torsion. To this end, the distribution of shear forces is obtained by seismic forces calculated from the equivalent static method of the Algerian earthquake code RPA 99 (2003 version) and spectral modal analysis for an irregular building plan without kinks. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods used to highlight the difference in terms of distributions of shear forces in such structures.

Keywords: structure, irregular, code, seismic, method, force, period

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
4043 Global Modeling of Drill String Dragging and Buckling in 3D Curvilinear Bore-Holes

Authors: Valery Gulyayev, Sergey Glazunov, Elena Andrusenko, Nataliya Shlyun

Abstract:

Enhancement of technology and techniques for drilling deep directed oil and gas bore-wells are of essential industrial significance because these wells make it possible to increase their productivity and output. Generally, they are used for drilling in hard and shale formations, that is why their drivage processes are followed by the emergency and failure effects. As is corroborated by practice, the principal drilling drawback occurring in drivage of long curvilinear bore-wells is conditioned by the need to obviate essential force hindrances caused by simultaneous action of the gravity, contact and friction forces. Primarily, these forces depend on the type of the technological regime, drill string stiffness, bore-hole tortuosity and its length. They can lead to the Eulerian buckling of the drill string and its sticking. To predict and exclude these states, special mathematic models and methods of computer simulation should play a dominant role. At the same time, one might note that these mechanical phenomena are very complex and only simplified approaches (‘soft string drag and torque models’) are used for their analysis. Taking into consideration that now the cost of directed wells increases essentially with complication of their geometry and enlargement of their lengths, it can be concluded that the price of mistakes of the drill string behavior simulation through the use of simplified approaches can be very high and so the problem of correct software elaboration is very urgent. This paper deals with the problem of simulating the regimes of drilling deep curvilinear bore-wells with prescribed imperfect geometrical trajectories of their axial lines. On the basis of the theory of curvilinear flexible elastic rods, methods of differential geometry, and numerical analysis methods, the 3D ‘stiff-string drag and torque model’ of the drill string bending and the appropriate software are elaborated for the simulation of the tripping in and out regimes and drilling operations. It is shown by the computer calculations that the contact and friction forces can be calculated and regulated, providing predesigned trouble-free modes of operation. The elaborated mathematic models and software can be used for the emergency situations prognostication and their exclusion at the stages of the drilling process design and realization.

Keywords: curvilinear drilling, drill string tripping in and out, contact forces, resistance forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
4042 Inclusive Education in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges

Authors: Laraba Bala Mohammed

Abstract:

Education is a very vital tool in enhancement of the general development of individuals in the society who would participate effectively in national development processes, including people with special need, educating children with special needs is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium, this is because professionals in the field of special education are operating in an exciting and rapidly changing phenomenon. Inclusive education in Nigeria is not a new development in the teaching and learning process, but the most important aspect is the utilization and effective integration of people with special needs in the society. This paper focuses on the need of parents, government, professionals in the field of special education and stakeholders to work together for the full implementation of inclusive education in Nigeria.

Keywords: inclusive education, national policy, education, special needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
4041 Propagation of the Effects of Certain Types of Military Psychological Operations in a Networked Population

Authors: Colette Faucher

Abstract:

In modern asymmetric conflicts, the Armed Forces generally have to intervene in countries where the internal peace is in danger. They must make the local population an ally in order to be able to deploy the necessary military actions with its support. For this purpose, psychological operations (PSYOPs) are used to shape people’s behaviors and emotions by the modification of their attitudes in acting on their perceptions. PSYOPs aim at elaborating and spreading a message that must be read, listened to and/or looked at, then understood by the info-targets in order to get from them the desired behavior. A message can generate in the info-targets, reasoned thoughts, spontaneous emotions or reflex behaviors, this effect partly depending on the means of conveyance used to spread this message. In this paper, we focus on psychological operations that generate emotions. We present a method based on the Intergroup Emotion Theory, that determines, from the characteristics of the conveyed message and of the people from the population directly reached by the means of conveyance (direct info-targets), the emotion likely to be triggered in them and we simulate the propagation of the effects of such a message on indirect info-targets that are connected to them through the social networks that structure the population.

Keywords: military psychological operations, social identity, social network, emotion propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
4040 Indonesia's War on Terror and the Consequences on Indonesian Political System

Authors: Salieg L. Munestri

Abstract:

War on Terror became a principal war after the 9/11 attacks on U.S. homeland. Instead of helping to build up worldwide efforts to condemn terror and suicide bombings, the U.S.-led war on terror has given opportunities for the vast spread of terror. In much of Muslim world recently, the Bush’s Doctrine pushing all nations to choose sides in a war that is not truly a war has resulted worse effects. In the world’s most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, more terror occurred since then. Instead of reinforcing the well-trained anti-terror military forces, Indonesian government established US-funded Special Detachment 88 to guarantee the accomplishment of war on terror in Indonesia and significantly to bring impact on regional security atmosphere. Indonesia is a potential power in Asia but it lacked off sophisticated military equipments. Consequently, Indonesia agrees to become a U.S. mutual partner in combating terrorism managed by Defense Security Cooperation Agency. The formation of elite anti-terror forces and U.S. partnerships perform Indonesia’s commitment to take a position beside the U.S. in coping with terrorism issue. However, this undeniably brings consequences on Indonesian political athmosphere, which encourages the writer to dig deep the consequences on the domestic environment of Indonesian political system. The establishment of the elite forces has aroused fluctuations within government, chiefly Indonesian House, concerning the establishment urgency, the large amount of funding, and the unpleasant performances, particularly the treatment toward suspected terrorists. Hence, evaluation process upon the Detachment 88 is highly demanding.

Keywords: anti-terror forces, Indonesia, political system, war on terror

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
4039 Applied Mathematical Approach on “Baut” Special High Performance Metal Aggregate by Formulation and Equations

Authors: J. R. Bhalla, Gautam, Gurcharan Singh, Sanjeev Naval

Abstract:

Mathematics is everywhere behind the every things on the earth as well as in the universe. Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric designs. Now a day’s we can made and apply an equation on a complex geometry through applied mathematics. Here we work and focus on to create a formula which apply in the field of civil engineering in new concrete technology. In this paper our target is to make a formula which is applied on “BAUT” Metal Aggregate. In this paper our approach is to make formulation and equation on special “BAUT” Metal Aggregate by Applied Mathematical Study Case 1. BASIC PHYSICAL FORMULATION 2. ADVANCE EQUATION which shows the mechanical performance of special metal aggregates for concrete technology. In case 1. Basic physical formulation shows the surface area and volume manually and in case 2. Advance equation shows the mechanical performance has been discussed, the metal aggregates which had outstandingly qualities to resist shear, tension and compression forces. In this paper coarse metal aggregates is 20 mm which used for making high performance concrete (H.P.C).

Keywords: applied mathematical study case, special metal aggregates, concrete technology, basic physical formulation, advance equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
4038 Influence of Inertial Forces of Large Bearings Utilized in Wind Energy Assemblies

Authors: S. Barabas, F. Sarbu, B. Barabas, A. Fota

Abstract:

Main objective of this paper is to establish a link between inertial forces of the bearings used in construction of wind power plant and its behavior. Using bearings with lower inertial forces has the immediate effect of decreasing inertia rotor system, with significant results in increased energy efficiency, due to decreased friction forces between rollers and raceways. The FEM analysis shows the appearance of uniform contact stress at the ends of the rollers, demonstrated the necessity of production of low mass bearings. Favorable results are expected in the economic field, by reducing material consumption and by increasing the durability of bearings. Using low mass bearings with hollow rollers instead of solid rollers has an impact on working temperature, on vibrations and noise which decrease. Implementation of types of hollow rollers of cylindrical tubular type, instead of expensive rollers with logarithmic profile, will bring significant inertial forces decrease with large benefits in behavior of wind power plant.

Keywords: inertial forces, Von Mises stress, hollow rollers, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
4037 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Digital Game-Based Learning on Educational Outcomes of Students with Special Needs in an Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Shafaq Rubab

Abstract:

The inclusion of special needs students in a classroom is prevailing gradually in developing countries. Digital game-based learning is one the most effective instructional methodology for special needs students. Digital game-based learning facilitates special needs students who actually face challenges and obstacles in their learning processes. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of digital game-based learning on the educational progress of special needs students in developing countries. The quasi-experimental research was conducted by using purposively selected sample size of eight special needs students. Results of both experimental and control group showed that performance of the experimental group students was better than the control group students and there was a significant difference between both groups’ results. This research strongly recommended that digital game-based learning can help special needs students in an inclusive classroom. It also revealed that special needs students can learn efficiently by using pedagogically sound learning games and game-based learning helps a lot for the self-paced fast-track learning system.

Keywords: inclusive education, special needs, digital game-based learning, fast-track learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
4036 On the Effects of the Frequency and Amplitude of Sinusoidal External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). Periodic forces can be considered as a combinations of sinusoids. In this work, we present the effects of sinusoidal external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of these sinusoidal external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.

Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
4035 Distance Training Packages on Providing for Learner with Special Needs

Authors: Jareeluk Ratanaphan

Abstract:

The purposed of this research were; 1.To survey the teacher’s needs on knowledge about special education management for special needs learner 2.To development of distance training packages on providing for learner with special needs. 3. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s achievement. 4. To study the effects of using the packages on trainee’s opinion on the distance training packages. The design of the experiment was research and development. The research sample for survey were 86 teachers, and 22 teachers for study the effects of using the packages on achievement and opinion. The research instrument comprised: 1) training packages on special education management for special needs learner 2) achievement test 3) questionnaire. Mean, percentage, standard deviation, t-test and content analysis were used for data analysis. The findings of the research were as follows: 1. The teacher’s needs on knowledge about teaching for learner with learning disability, mental retardation, autism, physical and health impairment and research in special education. 2. The package composed of special education management for special needs student document and manual of distance training packages. The efficiency of packages was established at 79.50/81.35. 3. The results of using the packages were the posttest average scores of trainee’s achievement were higher than pretest. 4. The trainee’s opinion on the package was at the highest level.

Keywords: distance training, training package, teacher, learner with special needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
4034 On the Effects of External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman

Abstract:

Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). In this work, we present the effects of the external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of the external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.

Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
4033 A Stokes Optimal Control Model of Determining Cellular Interaction Forces during Gastrulation

Authors: Yuanhao Gao, Ping Lin, Kees Weijer

Abstract:

An optimal control system model is proposed for the cell flow in the process of chick embryo gastrulation in this paper. The target is to determine the cellular interaction forces which are hard to measure. This paper will take an approach to investigate the forces with the idea of the inverse problem. By choosing the forces as the control variable and regarding the cell flow as Stokes fluid, an objective functional will be established to match the numerical result of cell velocity with the experimental data. So that the forces could be determined by minimizing the objective functional. The Lagrange multiplier method is utilized to derive the state and adjoint equations consisting the optimal control system, which specifies the first-order necessary conditions. Finite element method is used to discretize and approximate equations. A conjugate gradient algorithm is given for solving the minimum solution of the system and determine the forces.

Keywords: optimal control model, Stokes equation, conjugate gradient method, finite element method, chick embryo gastrulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4032 Intelligence Failures and Infiltration: The Case of the Ethiopian Army 1977-1991

Authors: Fantahun Ibrahim

Abstract:

The Ethiopian army was one of the largest and most heavily armed ground forces in Africa between 1974 and 1991. It scored a decisive victory over Somalia’s armed forces in March 1978. It, however, failed to withstand the combined onslaught of the northern insurgents from Tigray and Eritrea and finally collapsed in 1991. At the heart of the problem was the army’s huge intelligence failure. The northern insurgents, on the other hand, had a cutting edge in intelligence gathering. Among other things they infiltrated the army high command and managed to get top secrets about the army. Commanders who had fallen into the hands of the insurgents in several battles were told to send letters to their colleagues in the command structure and persuade them to work secretly for the insurgents. Some commanders did work for the insurgents and played a great role in the undoing of military operations. Insurgent commanders were able to warn their fighters about air strikes before jet fighters took off from airfields in the northern theatre. It was not uncommon for leaders of insurgents to get the full details of military operations days before their implementation. Such intelligence failures led to major military disasters like the fall of Afabet (March, 1988), Enda Sellase (February, 1989), Massawa and Debre Tabor (February, 1990), Karra Mishig, Meragna and Alem Ketema (June, 1990). This paper, therefore, seeks to investigate the army’s intelligence failures using untapped archival documents kept at the Ministry of National Defence in Addis Ababa and interviewing key former commanders of the army and ex-leaders of the insurgents.

Keywords: Ethiopian army, intelligence, infiltration, insurgents

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
4031 The Impact of Stress and Coping Style on Educational Involvement among Fathers to Children with Special Needs in Inclusive Education

Authors: Aviva Lvan, Lipaz Shamoa-Nir

Abstract:

Recently, has increased the research interest in modern fatherhood especially, the increasing involvement of fathers in the family. However, there is a little research evidence on fathers to children with special needs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of stress and coping style on involvement in school among fathers to children with special needs in inclusive education. We compared the fathers to children with special needs (N=72) with fathers to non-special needs children (N = 75), and found that higher stress levels, greater educational involvement and greater use of social support coping style, were found among fathers of children with special needs. In addition, mission coping style and emotional coping style predict involvement in the school and emotional coping style predicts high levels of stress. The above findings contribute to the investigation of changes in the perception of the role of fathers and their involvement in their children's lives especially, among fathers to children with special needs. From the applied aspect, the findings may increase the understanding of the role of fathers and their unique contribution to the social, emotional, and academic development of their children.

Keywords: coping style, educational involvement, special needs, stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 319