Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1204

Search results for: souter mean diameter

1204 Modeling and Simulation of Primary Atomization and Its Effects on Internal Flow Dynamics in a High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Muteeb Ulhaq, Rizwan Latif, Sayed Adnan Qasim, Imran Shafi

Abstract:

Diesel engines are most efficient and reliable in terms of efficiency, reliability and adaptability. Most of the research and development up till now have been directed towards High-Speed Diesel Engine, for Commercial use. In these engines objective is to optimize maximum acceleration by reducing exhaust emission to meet international standards. In high torque low-speed engines the requirement is altogether different. These types of Engines are mostly used in Maritime Industry, Agriculture industry, Static Engines Compressors Engines etc. Unfortunately due to lack of research and development, these engines have low efficiency and high soot emissions and one of the most effective way to overcome these issues is by efficient combustion in an engine cylinder, the fuel spray atomization process plays a vital role in defining mixture formation, fuel consumption, combustion efficiency and soot emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the fuel spray characteristics and atomization process is of a great importance. In this research, we will examine the effects of primary breakup modeling on the spray characteristics under diesel engine conditions. KH-ACT model is applied to cater the effect of aerodynamics in an engine cylinder and also cavitations and turbulence generated inside the injector. It is a modified form of most commonly used KH model, which considers only the aerodynamically induced breakup based on the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Our model is extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations on Open FOAM, which is an open source flow solver. Spray characteristics like Spray Penetration, Liquid length, Spray cone angle and Souter mean diameter (SMD) were validated by comparing the results of Open Foam and Matlab. Including the effects of cavitation and turbulence enhances primary breakup, leading to smaller droplet sizes, decrease in liquid penetration, and increase in the radial dispersion of spray. All these properties favor early evaporation of fuel which enhances Engine efficiency.

Keywords: Kelvin–Helmholtz instability, open foam, primary breakup, souter mean diameter, turbulence

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1203 Effect of Needle Diameter on the Morphological Structure of Electrospun n-Bi2O3/Epoxy-PVA Nanofiber Mats

Authors: Bassam M. Abunahel, Nurul Zahirah Noor Azman, Munirah Jamil

Abstract:

The effect of needle diameter on the morphological structure of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy-PVA nanofibers has been investigated using three different types of needle diameters. The results were observed and investigated using two techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first technique is backscattered SEM while the second is secondary electron SEM. The results demonstrate that there is a correlation between the needle diameter and the morphology of electrospun nanofibers. As the internal needle diameter decreases, the average nanofiber diameter decreases and the fibers get thinner and smoother without agglomeration or beads formation. Moreover, with small needle diameter the nanofibrous porosity get larger compared with large needle diameter.

Keywords: needle diameter, fiber diameter, porosity, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1202 Effect of Core Puncture Diameter on Bio-Char Kiln Efficiency

Authors: W. Intagun, T. Khamdaeng, P. Prom-ngarm, N. Panyoyai

Abstract:

Biochar has been used as a soil amendment since it has high porous structure and has proper nutrients and chemical properties for plants. Product yields produced from biochar kiln are dependent on process parameters and kiln types used. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of core puncture diameter on biochar kiln efficiency, i.e., yields of biochar and produced gas. Corncobs were used as raw material to produce biochar. Briquettes from agricultural wastes were used as fuel. Each treatment was performed by changing the core puncture diameter. From the experiment, it is revealed that the yield of biochar at the core puncture diameter of 3.18 mm, 4.76 mm, and 6.35 mm was 10.62 wt. %, 24.12 wt. %, and 12.24 wt. %, of total solid yields, respectively. The yield of produced gas increased with increasing the core puncture diameter. The maximum percentage by weight of the yield of produced gas was 81.53 wt. % which was found at the core puncture diameter of 6.35 mm. The core puncture diameter was furthermore found to affect the temperature distribution inside the kiln and its thermal efficiency. In conclusion, the high efficient biochar kiln can be designed and constructed by using the proper core puncture diameter.

Keywords: anila stove, bio-char, soil conditioning materials, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
1201 A Study of Common Carotid Artery Behavior from B-Mode Ultrasound Image for Different Gender and BMI Categories

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Khaliza Musa

Abstract:

The increment thickness of intima-media thickness (IMT) which involves the changes of diameter of the carotid artery is one of the early symptoms of the atherosclerosis lesion. The manual measurement of arterial diameter is time consuming and lack of reproducibility. Thus, this study reports the automatic approach to find the arterial diameter behavior for different gender, and body mass index (BMI) categories, focus on tracked region. BMI category is divided into underweight, normal, and overweight categories. Canny edge detection is employed to the B-mode image to extract the important information to be deal as the carotid wall boundary. The result shows the significant difference of arterial diameter between male and female groups which is 2.5% difference. In addition, the significant result of differences of arterial diameter for BMI category is the decreasing of arterial diameter proportional to the BMI.

Keywords: B-mode Ultrasound Image, carotid artery diameter, canny edge detection, body mass index

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
1200 The Effect of the Flow Pipe Diameter on the Rheological Behavior of a Polymeric Solution (CMC)

Authors: H. Abchiche, M. Mellal

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to study the parameters that influence the rheological behavior of a complex fluid (sodium Carboxyméthylcellulose solution), on a capillary rheometer. An installation has been made to be able to vary the diameter of trial conducts. The obtained results allowed us to deduce that: the diameter of trial conducts have a remarkable effect on the rheological responds.

Keywords: bingham’s fluid, CMC, cylindrical conduit, rheological behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1199 Investigation of Flow Characteristics on Upstream and Downstream of Orifice Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: War War Min Swe, Aung Myat Thu, Khin Cho Thet, Zaw Moe Htet, Thuzar Mon

Abstract:

The main parameter of the orifice hole diameter was designed according to the range of throttle diameter ratio which gave the required discharge coefficient. The discharge coefficient is determined by difference diameter ratios. The value of discharge coefficient is 0.958 occurred at throttle diameter ratio 0.5. The throttle hole diameter is 80 mm. The flow analysis is done numerically using ANSYS 17.0, computational fluid dynamics. The flow velocity was analyzed in the upstream and downstream of the orifice meter. The downstream velocity of non-standard orifice meter is 2.5% greater than that of standard orifice meter. The differential pressure is 515.379 Pa in standard orifice.

Keywords: CFD-CFX, discharge coefficients, flow characteristics, inclined

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
1198 The Simulation of Superfine Animal Fibre Fractionation: The Strength Variation of Fibre

Authors: Sepehr Moradi

Abstract:

This study investigates the contribution of individual Australian Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres strength behaviour to the breaking force variation (CVBF) and minimum fibre diameter (CVₘFD) induced by actual single fibre lengths and the combination of length and diameter groups. Mid-side samples were selected for the ASFW (n = 919) and IMC (n = 691) since it is assumed to represent the average of the whole fleece. The average (LₘFD) varied for ASFW and IMC by 36.6 % and 33.3 % from shortest to longest actual single fibre length and -21.2 % and -21.7 % between longest-coarsest and shortest-finest groups, respectively. The tensile properties of single animal fibres were characterised using Single Fibre Analyser (SIFAN 4). After normalising for diversity in fibre diameter at the position of breakage, the parameters, which explain the strength behaviour within actual fibre lengths and combination of length-diameter groups, were the Intrinsic Fibre Strength (IFS) (MPa), Min IFS (MPa), Max IFS (MPa) and Breaking force (BF) (cN). The average strength of single fibres varied extensively within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups. IFS ranged for ASFW and IMC from 419 to 355 MPa (-15.2 % range) and 353 to 319 (-9.6 % range) and BF from 2.2 to 3.6 (63.6 % range) and 3.2 to 5.3 cN (65.6 % range) from shortest to longest groups, respectively. Single fibre properties showed no differences within actual length groups and within a combination of length-diameter groups, or was there a strong interaction between the strength of single fibre (P > 0.05) within remaining and removing length-diameter groups. Longer-coarser fibre fractionation had a significant effect on BF and IFS and all of the length groups showed a considerable variance in single fibre strength that is accounted for by diversity in the diameter variation along the fibre. There are many concepts for the improvement of the stress-strain properties of animal fibres as a means of raising a single fibre strength by simultaneous changes in fibre length and diameter. Fibre fractionation over a given length directly for single fibre strength or using the variation traits of fibre diameter is an important process used to increase the strength of the single fibre.

Keywords: single animal fibre fractionation, actual length groups, strength variation, length-diameter groups, diameter variation along fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1197 Development of 420 mm Diameter Silicon Crystal Growth Using Continuous Czochralski Process

Authors: Ilsun Pang, Kwanghun Kim, Sungsun Baik

Abstract:

Large diameter Si wafer is used as semiconductor substrate. Large diameter Si crystal ingot should be needed in order to increase wafer size. To make convection of large silicon melt stable, magnetic field is normally applied, but magnetic field is expensive and it is not proper to stabilize the large Si melt. To solve the problem, we propose a continuous Czochralski process which can be applied to small melt without magnetic field. We used granule poly, which has size distribution of 1~3 mm and is easily supplied in double crucible during silicon ingot growth. As the result, we produced 420 mm diameter ingot. In this paper, we describe an experimental study on crystal growth of large diameter silicon by Continuous Czochralski process.

Keywords: Czochralski, ingot, silicon crystal, wafer

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
1196 Effect of Shrinkage on Heat and Mass Transfer Parameters of Solar Dried Potato Samples of Variable Diameter

Authors: Kshanaprava Dhalsamant, Punyadarshini P. Tripathy, Shanker L. Shrivastava

Abstract:

Potato is chosen as the food product for carrying out the natural convection mixed-mode solar drying experiments since they are easily available and globally consumed. The convective heat and mass transfer coefficients along with effective diffusivity were calculated considering both shrinkage and without shrinkage for the potato cylinders of different geometry (8, 10 and 13 mm diameters and a constant length of 50 mm). The convective heat transfer coefficient (hc) without considering shrinkage effect were 24.28, 18.69, 15.89 W/m2˚C and hc considering shrinkage effect were 37.81, 29.21, 25.72 W/m2˚C for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Similarly, the effective diffusivity (Deff) without considering shrinkage effect were 3.20×10-9, 4.82×10-9, 2.48×10-8 m2/s and Deff considering shrinkage effect were 1.68×10-9, 2.56×10-9, 1.34×10-8 m2/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively and the mass transfer coefficient (hm) without considering the shrinkage effect were 5.16×10-7, 2.93×10-7, 2.59×10-7 m/s and hm considering shrinkage effect were 3.71×10-7, 2.04×10-7, 1.80×10-7 m/s for 8, 10 and 13 mm diameter samples respectively. Increased values of hc were obtained by considering shrinkage effect in all diameter samples because shrinkage results in decreasing diameter with time achieving in enhanced rate of water loss. The average values of Deff determined without considering the shrinkage effect were found to be almost double that with shrinkage effect. The reduction in hm values is due to the fact that with increasing sample diameter, the exposed surface area per unit mass decreases, resulting in a slower moisture removal. It is worth noting that considering shrinkage effect led to overestimation of hc values in the range of 55.72-61.86% and neglecting the shrinkage effect in the mass transfer analysis, the values of Deff and hm are overestimated in the range of 85.02-90.27% and 39.11-45.11%, respectively, for the range of sample diameter investigated in the present study.

Keywords: shrinkage, convective heat transfer coefficient, effectivive diffusivity, convective mass transfer coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
1195 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 °C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 °C temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5-4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000-24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.

Keywords: hot-surface, jet impingement, quenching, stagnation point

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
1194 Effect of Bored Pile Diameter in Sand on Friction Resistance

Authors: Ashraf Mohammed M. Eid, Hossam El Badry

Abstract:

The bored pile friction resistance may be affected by many factors such as the method of construction, pile length and diameter, the soil properties, as well as the depth below ground level. These factors can be represented analytically to study the influence of diameter on the unit skin friction. In this research, the Egyptian Code of soil mechanics is used to assess the skin friction capacity for either the ordinary pile diameter as well as for the large pile diameter. The later is presented in the code and through the work of some researchers based on the results of investigations adopted for a sufficient number of field tests. The comparative results of these researchers with respect to the Egyptian Code are used to check the adequacy of both methods. Based on the results of this study, the traditional static formula adopted for piles of diameter less than 60 cm may be continually used for larger piles by correlating the analyzed formulae. Accordingly, the corresponding modified angle of internal friction is concluded demonstrating a reduction of shear strength due to soil disturbance along the pile shaft. Based on this research the difference between driven piles and bored piles constructed in same soil can be assessed and a better understanding can be evaluated for the effect of different factors on pile skin friction capacity.

Keywords: large piles, static formula, friction piles, sandy soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1193 Application of Genetic Programming for Evolution of Glass-Forming Ability Parameter

Authors: Manwendra Kumar Tripathi, Subhas Ganguly

Abstract:

A few glass forming ability expressions in terms of characteristic temperatures have been proposed in the literature. Attempts have been made to correlate the expression with the critical diameter of the bulk metallic glass composition. However, with the advent of new alloys, many exceptions have been noted and reported. In the present approach, a genetic programming based code which generates an expression in terms of input variables, i.e., three characteristic temperatures viz. glass transition temperature (Tg), onset crystallization temperature (Tx) and offset temperature of melting (Tl) with maximum correlation with a critical diameter (Dmax). The expression evolved shows improved correlation with the critical diameter. In addition, the expression can be explained on the basis of time-temperature transformation curve.

Keywords: glass forming ability, genetic programming, bulk metallic glass, critical diameter

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1192 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan

Abstract:

The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262. Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made, then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine. Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165 mm and the expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread was acceptable.

Keywords: pipe taper thread, three-wire probe, measure and calibration, the universal length measuring machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
1191 Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Noise of Radiator Cooling Fan with Different Diameter in Hemi-Anechoic Chamber

Authors: Malinda Sabrina, F. Andree Yohanes, Khoerul Anwar

Abstract:

There are many sources that cause noise in a car, one of them is noise from radiator cooling fan. This part is used to control engine temperature by ensuring adequate airflow through radiator. Radiator cooling fan noise is a very important matter especially for vehicle manufacturers. This can affect brand image of the car and their customer satisfaction. Therefore, some experiments to measure noise level of the fan are required. Sound pressure level measurements for two axial fans with different diameter have been investigated in a hemi-anechoic chamber based on standard JIS-B8346, focusing on aerodynamic noise. Both fans have the same profile and shape with diameter respectively 43 cm and 49 cm. The measurement was performed in hemi-anechoic chamber in order to obtain a background noise at measuring point as low as possible. Noise characterizations of these radiator cooling fans were measured in five different rotating speed and the results were compared. The measurement result shows that the sound pressure level increases with increasing rotational speed of the fan. In comparison with a smaller diameter, it is shown that fan with larger diameter produces higher noise level at the same rotational speed.

Keywords: aerodynamics noise, hemi-anechoic chamber, radiator cooling fan, sound pressure level

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1190 Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber

Authors: A. Ghafouri, N. Pourmahmoud, I. Mirzaee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated numerically. The physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in the different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.

Keywords: nanofluid, nanoparticle diameter, heat transfer enhancement, square enclosure, Nusselt number

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1189 The Purification of Waste Printing Developer with the Fixed Bed Adsorption Column

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effectiveness of newly designed clayey pellets (fired clay pellets diameter sizes of 5 and 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets with the diameter size of 15 mm) as the beds in the column adsorption process. The adsorption experiments in the batch mode were performed before the column experiment with the purpose to determine the order of adsorbent package in the column which was to be designed in the investigation. The column experiment was performed by using a known mass of the clayey beds and the volume of the waste printing developer, which was purified. The column was filled in the following order: fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 5 mm, fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets of the diameter size of 15 mm. The selected order of the adsorbents showed a high removal efficiency for zinc (97.8%) and copper (81.5%) ions. These efficiencies were better than those in the case of the already existing mode adsorption. The obtained experimental data present a good basis for the selection of an appropriate column fill, but further testing is necessary in order to obtain more accurate results.

Keywords: clay materials, fix bed adsorption column, metal ions, printing developer

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1188 Numerical Simulation of Axially Loaded to Failure Large Diameter Bored Pile

Authors: M. Ezzat, Y. Zaghloul, T. Sorour, A. Hefny, M. Eid

Abstract:

Ultimate capacity of large diameter bored piles is usually determined from pile loading tests as recommended by several international codes and foundation design standards. However, loading of this type of piles till achieving apparent failure is practically seldom. In this paper, numerical analyses are carried out to simulate load test of a large diameter bored pile performed at the location of Alzey highway bridge project (Germany). Test results of pile load settlement relationship till failure as well as results of the base and shaft resistances are available. Apparent failure was indicated in this test by the significant increase of the induced settlement during the last load increment applied on the pile head. Measurements of this pile load test are used to assess the quality of the numerical models investigated. Three different material soil models are implemented in the analyses: Mohr coulomb (MC), Soft soil (SS), and Modified Mohr coulomb (MMC). Very good agreement is obtained between the field measured settlement and the calculated settlement using the MMC model. Results of analysis showed also that the MMC constitutive model is superior to MC, and SS models in predicting the ultimate base and shaft resistances of the large diameter bored pile. After calibrating the numerical model, behavior of large diameter bored piles under axial loads is discussed and the formation of the plastic zone around the pile is explored. Results obtained showed that the plastic zone below the base of the pile at failure extended laterally to about four times the pile diameter and vertically to about three times the pile diameter.

Keywords: ultimate capacity, large diameter bored piles, plastic zone, failure, pile load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
1187 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane

Abstract:

Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: elastic properties, nanowires, semiconductors, theoretical model, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
1186 Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Atomization Characteristics

Authors: Arya Pirooz

Abstract:

Air and fuel must be mixed correctly so that there is perfect combustion, which calls for fuel atomization by injection. In this study, the effects of different parameters such as number of orifices, length and diameter of orifices, diameter of nozzle sac and the angle of needle seat in injectors were investigated with the use of rate of injection and sac pressure. The unit pump of the OM-457 diesel engine was modelled on Avl-Hydsim. The results illustrate that the sac pressure decreased by 46% when the number of holes were doubled, although the rate of injection had an immense change. Also, the sac pressure increased up to 60% when the diameter of orifices decreased by 40% in spite of the semi-constant injection rate.

Keywords: injection, OM-457 engine, nozzle geometry, atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
1185 Optic Nerve Sheath Measurement in Children with Head Trauma

Authors: Sabiha Sahin, Kursad Bora Carman, Coskun Yarar

Abstract:

Introduction: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a noninvasive and easy to use imaging technique to predict intracranial pressure in children and adults. The aim was to measure the diameter of the optic nerve sheath in pediatric head trauma. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 children with healthy and 40 patients with head trauma. Transorbital sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter was performed. Conclusion: The mean diameters of the optic nerve sheath of right and left eyes were 0.408 ± 0.064 mm and 0.417 ± 0.065 mm, respectively, in the trauma group. These results were higher in patients than in control group. There was a negative correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and Glasgow Coma Scales in patients with head trauma (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between optic nerve sheath diameters and positive CT findings, systolic blood pressure in patients with head trauma. The clinical status of the patients at admission, blood pH and lactate level were related to the optic nerve sheath diameter. Conclusion: Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is not an invasive technique and can be easily used to predict increased intracranial pressure and to prevent secondary brain injury.

Keywords: head trauma, intracranial pressure, optic nerve, sonography

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
1184 The Influence of Clayey Pellet Size on Adsorption Efficiency of Metal Ions Removal from Waste Printing Developer

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Oros B. Ivana, Kecić S. Vesna

Abstract:

The adsorption efficiency of fired clayey pellets of 5 and 8 mm diameter size for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions removal from a waste printing developer was studied. In order to investigate the influence of contact time, adsorbent mass and pellet size on the adsorption efficiency the batch mode was carried out. Faster uptake of copper ions was obtained with the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size within 30 minutes. The pellets of 8 mm diameter size showed the higher equilibrium time (60 to 75 minutes) for copper and zinc ions. The results pointed out that adsorption efficiency increases with the increase of adsorbent mass. The maximal efficiency is different for Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions due to the pellet size. Therefore, the fired clay pellets of 5 mm diameter size present an effective adsorbent for Cu(II) ions removal (adsorption efficiency is 63.6%), whereas the fired clay pellets of 8 mm diameter size are the best alternative for Zn(II) ions removal (adsorption efficiency is 92.8%) from a waste printing developer.

Keywords: adsorption efficiency, clayey pellet, metal ions, waste printing developer

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1183 Antibacterial Potentials of the Leaf Extracts of Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata) on Wound Isolates

Authors: M. E. Abalaka, O. A. Falusi, M. Galadima, D. Damisa

Abstract:

The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed) was evaluated against four wound isolates: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae at the concentrations of 200mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. S. aureus and E. coli showed high susceptibility to the various extracts than the other test isolates. The aqueous extract showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 16 ± 3.00 at concentration of 200mg/ml and as low as 8 ± 0.00 at concentration of 25mg/ml; E. coli showed susceptibility with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 18 ± 2.00 and 10 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to the aqueous extract. Methanol extract showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a mean diameter of zone of inhibition at 28 ± 4.00 and 12 ± 2.30 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively; while E. coli was susceptible with mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 18 ± 2.00 and as low as 12 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed considerable susceptibility with mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 13 ± 1.00 and 12 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. The ethanol extract showed activity against S. aureus with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 15 ± 2.00 and 9 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively: E. coli showed susceptibility with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 20 ± 4.00 and 13 ± 2.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 25mg/ml respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed considerable susceptibility with a mean diameter zone of inhibition of 13 ± 1.00 and 9 ± 0.00 at a concentration of 200mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively. The results above indicate the efficacy and potency of the crude extracts of Chromolaena odorata leaf on the tested wound isolates.

Keywords: antibacterial, Chromolaena odorata, leaf extracts, test isolates

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
1182 Preparation of Melt Electrospun Polylactic Acid Nanofibers with Optimum Conditions

Authors: Amir Doustgani

Abstract:

Melt electrospinning is a safe and simple technique for the production of micro and nanofibers which can be an alternative to conventional solvent electrospinning. The effects of various melt-electrospinning parameters, including molecular weight, electric field strength, flow rate and temperature on the morphology and fiber diameter of polylactic acid were studied. It was shown that molecular weight was the predominant factor in determining the obtainable fiber diameter of the collected fibers. An orthogonal design was used to examine process parameters. Results showed that molecular weight is the most effective parameter on the average fiber diameter of melt electrospun PLA nanofibers and the flow rate has the less important impact. Mean fiber diameter increased by increasing MW and flow rate, but decreased by increasing electric field strength and temperature. MFD of optimized fibers was below 100 nm and the result of software was in good agreement with the experimental condition.

Keywords: fiber formation, processing, spinning, melt blowing

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
1181 Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco

Abstract:

The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.

Keywords: brake tester, ministry of transport facilities, wheel diameter, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1180 Random Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Superfine Animal Fibres

Authors: Sepehr Moradi

Abstract:

The physical and mechanical property parameters, inter-relation of key dimensional and distribution profile of raw Australia Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres have been studied. The relationship between the properties of these fibres is assessed using fit transformation functions obtained through correlation coefficient analysis. ASFW and IMC fibre properties are found to be both positively skewed and asymmetric in nature. Whilst fibre diameter varies along its length and both ends have a tapering shape. The basic physical features, namely linear density, true local diameter, true length and breaking load are positively correlated while their tenacity is negatively correlated. The tenacity and true length follow a second order polynomial while the true local diameter is linearly correlated. Assessment of the diameter and length is sufficient to estimate the evaluation of quality for commercial grade ASFW and IMC fibres.

Keywords: Australia Superfine Merino Wool fibre, Inner Mongolia Cashmere fibre, distribution profile, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1179 Effect of Different Parameters of Converging-Diverging Vortex Finders on Cyclone Separator Performance

Authors: V. Kumar, K. Jha

Abstract:

The present study is done to explore design modifications of the vortex finder, as it has a significant effect on the cyclone separator performance. It is evident that modifications of the vortex finder improve the performance of the cyclone separator significantly. The study conducted strives to improve the overall performance of cyclone separators by utilizing a converging-diverging (CD) vortex finder instead of the traditional uniform diameter vortex finders. The velocity and pressure fields inside a Stairmand cyclone separator with body diameter 0.29m and vortex finder diameter 0.1305m are calculated. The commercial software, Ansys Fluent v14.0 is used to simulate the flow field in a uniform diameter cyclone and six cyclones modified with CD vortex finders. Reynolds stress model is used to simulate the effects of turbulence on the fluid and particulate phases, discrete phase model is used to calculate the particle trajectories. The performance of the modified vortex finders is compared with the traditional vortex finder. The effects of the lengths of the converging and diverging sections, the throat diameter and the end diameters of the convergent divergent section are also studied to achieve enhanced performance. The pressure and velocity fields inside the vortex finder are presented by means of contour plots and velocity vectors and changes in the flow pattern due to variation of the geometrical variables are also analysed. Results indicate that a convergent-divergent vortex finder is capable of decreasing the pressure drop than that achieved through a uniform diameter vortex finder. It is also observed that the end diameters of the CD vortex finder, the throat diameter and the length of the diverging part of the vortex finder have a significant impact on the cyclone separator performance. Increase in the lower diameter of the vortex finder by 66% results in 11.5% decrease in the dimensionless pressure drop (Euler number) with 5.8% decrease in separation efficiency. Whereas 50% decrease in the throat diameter gives 5.9% increase in the Euler number with 10.2% increase in the separation efficiency and increasing the length of the diverging part gives 10.28% increase in the Euler number with 5.74% increase in the separation efficiency. Increasing the upper diameter of the CD vortex finder is seen to produce an adverse effect on the performance as it increases the pressure drop significantly and decreases the separation efficiency. Increase in length of the converging is not seen to affect the performance significantly. From the present study, it is concluded that convergent-divergent vortex finders can be used in place of uniform diameter vortex finders to achieve a better cyclone separator performance.

Keywords: convergent-divergent vortex finder, cyclone separator, discrete phase modeling, Reynolds stress model

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1178 Effect of Punch Diameter on Optimal Loading Profiles in Hydromechanical Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Mehmet Halkaci, Ekrem Öztürk, Mevlüt Türköz, H. Selçuk Halkacı

Abstract:

Hydromechanical deep drawing (HMD) process is an advanced manufacturing process used to form deep parts with only one forming step. In this process, sheet metal blank can be drawn deeper by means of fluid pressure acting on sheet surface in the opposite direction of punch movement. High limiting drawing ratio, good surface quality, less springback characteristic and high dimensional accuracy are some of the advantages of this process. The performance of the HMD process is affected by various process parameters such as fluid pressure, blank holder force, punch-die radius, pre-bulging pressure and height, punch diameter, friction between sheet-die and sheet-punch. The fluid pressure and bank older force are the main loading parameters and affect the formability of HMD process significantly. The punch diameter also influences the limiting drawing ratio (the ratio of initial sheet diameter to punch diameter) of the sheet metal blank. In this research, optimal loading (fluid pressure and blank holder force) profiles were determined for AA 5754-O sheet material through fuzzy control algorithm developed in previous study using LS-DYNA finite element analysis (FEA) software. In the preceding study, the fuzzy control algorithm was developed utilizing geometrical criteria such as thinning and wrinkling. In order to obtain the final desired part with the developed algorithm in terms of the punch diameter requested, the effect of punch diameter, which is the one of the process parameters, on loading profiles was investigated separately using blank thickness of 1 mm. Thus, the practicality of the previously developed fuzzy control algorithm with different punch diameters was clarified. Also, thickness distributions of the sheet metal blank along a curvilinear distance were compared for the FEA in which different punch diameters were used. Consequently, it was found that the use of different punch diameters did not affect the optimal loading profiles too much.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis (FEA), fuzzy control, hydromechanical deep drawing, optimal loading profiles, punch diameter

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1177 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat

Abstract:

In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

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1176 Evaluation of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Dry Weight, Flower Diameter, and Number of Flower in Plant Variabilities under Effect of Compost and Nitrogen Different Levels in Four Harvest

Authors: Amin Rezazadeh, Parisa Farahpour, Arezoo Rezazadeh, Morteza Sam Deliri

Abstract:

In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and compost different levels on qualitative and quantitative performance of Calendula officinalis L. herb, an experiment was carried out in the research field of Chalous Azad University in 2011-2012. The experiment was done in factorial form as a randomized complete block design, in three replicates. Treatments consisted of nitrogen and compost. Considered nitrogen levels consisted of N0=0, N1=50, N2=100 kg/ha and compost levels were including C0=0, C1=6, C2=12 ton/ha. Investigated characteristics consisted of flower dry weight, number of flowers in plant, flower diameter. The results showed, nitrogen and compost treatments had statistically significant influence (p ≤ 0.01) on studied characteristics. Flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant characteristics has been studied in four harvest; as, the performance of these characteristics had increasing procedure from the first harvest up to the forth harvest; and, in the fourth harvest, it has reached to its` maximum level. As, up to the forth harvest, the maximum flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant obtained by C1× N2 (C1=6 ton/ha compost and N2=100 kg/ha nitrogen) treatment.

Keywords: calendula, compost, nitrogen, flavonoid

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1175 Experimental Analysis of the Plate-on-Tube Evaporator on a Domestic Refrigerator’s Performance

Authors: Mert Tosun, Tuğba Tosun

Abstract:

The evaporator is the utmost important component in the refrigeration system, since it enables the refrigerant to draw heat from the desired environment, i.e. the refrigerated space. Studies are being conducted on this component which generally affects the performance of the system, where energy efficient products are important. This study was designed to enhance the effectiveness of the evaporator in the refrigeration cycle of a domestic refrigerator by adjusting the capillary tube length, refrigerant amount, and the evaporator pipe diameter to reduce energy consumption. The experiments were conducted under identical thermal and ambient conditions. Experiment data were analysed using the Design of Experiment (DOE) technique which is a six-sigma method to determine effects of parameters. As a result, it has been determined that the most important parameters affecting the evaporator performance among the selected parameters are found to be the refrigerant amount and pipe diameter. It has been determined that the minimum energy consumption is 6-mm pipe diameter and 16-g refrigerant. It has also been noted that the overall consumption of the experiment sample decreased by 16.6% with respect to the reference system, which has 7-mm pipe diameter and 18-g refrigerant.

Keywords: heat exchanger, refrigerator, design of experiment, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 37