Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2775

Search results for: solidified floating organic drop microextraction

2775 A New Seperation / Precocentration and Determination Procedure Based on Solidified Floating Organic Drop Microextraction (SFODME) of Lead by Using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Seyda Donmez, Oya Aydin Urucu, Ece Kok Yetimoglu


Solidified floating organic drop microextraction was used for a preconcentration method of trace amount of lead. The analyte was complexed with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol and 1-undecanol, acetonitrile was added as an extraction and dispersive solvent respectively. The influences of some analytical parameters pH, volumes of extraction and disperser solvent, concentration of chelating agent, and concentration of salt were optimized. Under the optimum conditions the detection limits of Pb (II) was determined. The procedure was validated for the analysis of NCS DC 73347a hair standard reference material with satisfactory result. The developed procedure was successfully applied to food and water samples for detection of Pb (II) ions.

Keywords: analytical methods, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, heavy metals, solidified floating organic drop microextraction

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2774 Evolution of Floating Photovoltaic System Technology and Future Prospect

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Han-Sang Jeong


Floating photovoltaic system is a technology that combines photovoltaic power generation with floating structure. However, since floating technology has not been utilized in photovoltaic generation, there are no standardized criteria. It is separately developed and used by different installation bodies. This paper aims to discuss the change of floating photovoltaic system technology based on examples of floating photovoltaic systems installed in Korea.

Keywords: floating photovoltaic system, floating PV installation, ocean floating photovoltaic system, tracking type floating photovoltaic system

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2773 CsPbBr₃@MOF-5-Based Single Drop Microextraction for in-situ Fluorescence Colorimetric Detection of Dechlorination Reaction

Authors: Yanxue Shang, Jingbin Zeng


Chlorobenzene homologues (CBHs) are a category of environmental pollutants that can not be ignored. They can stay in the environment for a long period and are potentially carcinogenic. The traditional degradation method of CBHs is dechlorination followed by sample preparation and analysis. This is not only time-consuming and laborious, but the detection and analysis processes are used in conjunction with large-scale instruments. Therefore, this can not achieve rapid and low-cost detection. Compared with traditional sensing methods, colorimetric sensing is simpler and more convenient. In recent years, chromaticity sensors based on fluorescence have attracted more and more attention. Compared with sensing methods based on changes in fluorescence intensity, changes in color gradients are easier to recognize by the naked eye. Accordingly, this work proposes to use single drop microextraction (SDME) technology to solve the above problems. After the dechlorination reaction was completed, the organic droplet extracts Cl⁻ and realizes fluorescence colorimetric sensing at the same time. This method was integrated sample processing and visual in-situ detection, simplifying the detection process. As a fluorescence colorimetric sensor material, CsPbBr₃ was encapsulated in MOF-5 to construct CsPbBr₃@MOF-5 fluorescence colorimetric composite. Then the fluorescence colorimetric sensor was constructed by dispersing the composite in SDME organic droplets. When the Br⁻ in CsPbBr₃ exchanges with Cl⁻ produced by the dechlorination reactions, it is converted into CsPbCl₃. The fluorescence color of the single droplet of SDME will change from green to blue emission, thereby realizing visual observation. Therein, SDME can enhance the concentration and enrichment of Cl⁻ and instead of sample pretreatment. The fluorescence color change of CsPbBr₃@MOF-5 can replace the detection process of large-scale instruments to achieve real-time rapid detection. Due to the absorption ability of MOF-5, it can not only improve the stability of CsPbBr₃, but induce the adsorption of Cl⁻. Simultaneously, accelerate the exchange of Br- and Cl⁻ in CsPbBr₃ and the detection process of Cl⁻. The absorption process was verified by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This method exhibits exceptional linearity for Cl⁻ in the range of 10⁻² - 10⁻⁶ M (10000 μM - 1 μM) with a limit of detection of 10⁻⁷ M. Whereafter, the dechlorination reactions of different kinds of CBHs were also carried out with this method, and all had satisfactory detection ability. Also verified the accuracy by gas chromatography (GC), and it was found that the SDME we developed in this work had high credibility. In summary, the in-situ visualization method of dechlorination reaction detection was a combination of sample processing and fluorescence colorimetric sensing. Thus, the strategy researched herein represents a promising method for the visual detection of dechlorination reactions and can be extended for applications in environments, chemical industries, and foods.

Keywords: chlorobenzene homologues, colorimetric sensor, metal halide perovskite, metal-organic frameworks, single drop microextraction

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2772 Electromagnetically-Vibrated Solid-Phase Microextraction for Organic Compounds

Authors: Soo Hyung Park, Seong Beom Kim, Wontae Lee, Jin Chul Joo, Jungmin Lee, Jongsoo Choi


A newly-developed electromagnetically vibrated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device for extracting nonpolar organic compounds from aqueous matrices was evaluated in terms of sorption equilibrium time, precision, and detection level relative to three other more conventional extraction techniques involving SPME, viz., static, magnetic stirring, and fiber insertion/retraction. Electromagnetic vibration at 300~420 cycles/s was found to be the most efficient extraction technique in terms of reducing sorption equilibrium time and enhancing both precision and linearity. The increased efficiency for electromagnetic vibration was attributed to a greater reduction in the thickness of the stagnant-water layer that facilitated more rapid mass transport from the aqueous matrix to the SPME fiber. Electromagnetic vibration less than 500 cycles/s also did not detrimentally impact the sustainability of the extracting performance of the SPME fiber. Therefore, electromagnetically vibrated SPME may be a more powerful tool for rapid sampling and solvent-free sample preparation relative to other more conventional extraction techniques used with SPME.

Keywords: electromagnetic vibration, organic compounds, precision, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), sorption equilibrium time

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2771 Preconcentration and Determination of Cyproheptadine in Biological Samples by Hollow Fiber Liquid Phase Microextraction Coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Sh. Najari Moghadam, M. Qomi, F. Raofie, J. Khadiv


In this study, a liquid phase microextraction by hollow fiber (HF-LPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detector was applied to preconcentrate and determine trace levels of Cyproheptadine in human urine and plasma samples. Cyproheptadine was extracted from 10 mL alkaline aqueous solution (pH: 9.81) into an organic solvent (n-octnol) which was immobilized in the wall pores of a hollow fiber. Then, it was back-extracted into an acidified aqueous solution (pH: 2.59) located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. This method is simple, efficient and cost-effective. It is based on pH gradient and differences between two aqueous phases. In order to optimize the HF-LPME, some affecting parameters including the pH of donor and acceptor phases, the type of organic solvent, ionic strength, stirring rate, extraction time and temperature were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions enrichment factor, limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD(%), n=3) were up to 112, 15 μg.L−1 and 2.7, respectively.

Keywords: biological samples, cyproheptadine, hollow fiber, liquid phase microextraction

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2770 Analysis of the Volatile Organic Compounds of Tillandsia Flowers by HS-SPME/GC-MS

Authors: Alexandre Gonzalez, Zohra Benfodda, David Bénimélis, Jean-Xavier Fontaine, Roland Molinié, Patrick Meffre


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers play an important role in plant ecology. However, the Tillandsia genus has been scarcely studied according to the VOCs emitted by flowers. Tillandsia are epiphytic flowering plants belonging to the Bromeliaceae family. The VOCs composition of twelve unscented and two faint-scented Tillandsia species was studied. The headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry method was used to explore the chemical diversity of the VOCs. This study allowed the identification of 65 VOCs among the fourteen species, and between six to twenty-five compounds were identified in each of the species.

Keywords: tillandsia, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), scentless flowers, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), PCA analysis, heatmap

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2769 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura


As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: condensation, radioactive liquid waste, solidification, STRAD project

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2768 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere


The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

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2767 Experimental Study on Floating Breakwater Anchored by Piles

Authors: Yessi Nirwana Kurniadi, Nira Yunita Permata


Coastline is vulnerable to coastal erosion which damage infrastructure and buildings. Floating breakwaters are applied in order to minimize material cost but still can reduce wave height. In this paper, we investigated floating breakwater anchored by piles based on experimental study in the laboratory with model scale 1:8. Two type of floating model were tested with several combination wave height, wave period and surface water elevation to determined transmission coefficient. This experimental study proved that floating breakwater with piles can prevent wave height up to 27 cm. The physical model shows that ratio of depth to wave length is less than 0.6 and ratio of model width to wave length is less than 0.3. It is confirmed that if those ratio are less than those value, the transmission coefficient is 0.5. The result also showed that the first type model of floating breakwater can reduce wave height by 60.4 % while the second one can reduce up to 55.56 %.

Keywords: floating breakwater, experimental study, pile, transimission coefficient

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2766 Optimization of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) Technique Coupled with GC MS for Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Trogoderma Variabile

Authors: Thamer Alshuwaili, Yonglin Ren, Bob Du, Manjree Agarwal


The warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is a major pest of packaged and processed stored products. Warehouse beetle is the common name which was given by Okumura (1972). This pest has been reported to infest 119 different commodities, and it is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Also, it is difficult to control because of the insect's ability to stay without food for long times, and it can survive for years under dry conditions and low-moisture food, and it has also developed resistance to many insecticides. The young larvae of these insects can cause damage to seeds, but older larvae prefer to feed on whole grains. The percentage of damage caused by these insects range between 30-70% in the storage. T. variabile is the species most responsible for causing significant damage in grain stores worldwide. Trogoderma spp. is a huge problem for cereal grains, and there are many countries, such as the USA, Australia, China, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania who have specific quarantine regulations against possible importation. Also, grain stocks can be almost completely destroyed because of the massive populations the insect may develop. However, the purpose of the current research was to optimize conditions to collect volatile organic compound from Trogoderma variabile at different life stages by using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (FID). Using SPME technique to extract volatile from insects is an efficient, straightforward and nondestructive method. Result of the study shows that 15 insects were optimal number for larvae and adults. Selection of the number of insects depend on the height of the peak area and the number of peaks. Sixteen hours were optimized as the best extraction time for larvae and 8 hours was the optimal number of adults.

Keywords: Trogoderma variabile, warehouse beetle , GC-MS, Solid phase microextraction

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2765 Mechanical Properties and Microstructures of the Directional Solidified Zn-Al-Cu Alloy

Authors: Mehmet Izzettin Yilmazer, Emin Cadirli


Zn-7wt.%Al-2.96wt.%Cu eutectic alloy was directionally solidified upwards with different temperature gradients (from 6.70 K/mm to 10.67 K/mm) at a constant growth rate (16.4 Km/s) and also different growth rate (from 8.3 micron/s to 166 micron/s) at a constant temperature gradient (10.67 K/mm) using a Bridgman–type growth apparatus.The values of eutectic spacing were measured from longitudinal and transverse sections of the samples. The dependency of microstructures on the G and V were determined with linear regression analysis and experimental equations were found as λl=8.953xVexp-0.49, λt=5.942xVexp-0.42 and λl=0.008xGexp-1.23, λt=0.024xGexp-0.93. The measurements of microhardness of directionally solidified samples were obtained by using a microhardness test device. The dependence of microhardness HV on temperature gradient and growth rate were analyzed. The dependency of microhardness on the G and V were also determined with linear regression analysis as HVl=110.66xVexp0.02, HVt=111.94xVexp0.02 and HVl=69.66xGexp0.17, HVt=68.86xGexp0.18. The experimental results show that the microhardness of the directionally solidified Zn-Al-Cu alloy increases with increasing the growth rate. The results obtained in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results.

Keywords: directional solidification, eutectic alloys, microstructure, microhardness

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2764 Floating Quantifiers in Hijazi Arabic

Authors: Tagreed Alzahrani


The syntax of quantifiers has received much attention by linguists, philosophers and logicians within different frameworks and in various languages. However, the syntax of Arabic quantifiers has received limited attention in the literature, especially in relation to floating quantifiers. There have been a few discussions of floating quantifiers in Modern Standard Arabic (henceforth, MSA), although the analysis and the properties of their counterparts in other Saudi dialects are rare. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to provide a clear description of floating quantifiers (FQs) in Hijazi dialect (henceforth, HA) by utilising the following approaches: the adverbial approach, and the derivational (stranding) analysis. For a long time, Linguists have tried to explain the floating quantifiers’ phenomenon, as exemplified in the following sentences: 1. All the friends have watched the movie. 2. The friends have all watched the movie. The adverbial approach assumes that the floating quantifier is a type of adverb, because it occupies the adverbial position next to the verb. Thus, the subject in the first example is all the friends and the subject in the second example is the friends with all becoming an adverb, as it is located in an adverbial position. However, in stranding analysis, it is argued that the floating quantifier becomes stranded when its complement has moved to a higher position in the sentence [SPEC, TP]. Therefore, both sentences have the same subject all the friends, although in second example the friends has moved to a higher position and has stranded the quantifier all. The paper will investigate the floating quantifiers in HA using both approaches. The analysis will show that neither view is entirely successful in providing a unified account for FQs in HA.

Keywords: floating quantifier, adverbial analysis, stranding approach, universal quantifier

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2763 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Gajera Lalit, Shah Pranav, Shah Shailesh


Venlafaxine hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life of 5 ± 2 hr, and absorption window in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The conventional tablets need to be administered two to three times a day and possess an oral bioavailability of 45%. The purpose of this study was to formulate gastroretentive effervescent floating tablets of Venlafaxine HCl. Different grades of HPMC namely K15M, K4M, K100M and E15LV were employed as swelling polymers whereas sodium bicarbonate was employed as gas generating agent. The direct compression method was employed for the formulation of tablets. The tablets were evaluated in terms of hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, water uptake, in-vitro floating behavior and in-vitro drug release study. All the formulations exhibited very short floating lag time of < 1 min and total floating time of 12 hr. Formulation L3 containing 25 mg and 75 mg of HPMC E15 LV and HPMC K15M respectively exhibited complete drug release within 12 hrs.

Keywords: venlafaxine HCl, hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose, floating gastro retentive tablets, in-vitro drug release, non-fickian diffusion

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2762 Prediction of Heavy-Weight Impact Noise and Vibration of Floating Floor Using Modified Impact Spectrum

Authors: Ju-Hyung Kim, Dae-Ho Mun, Hong-Gun Park


When an impact is applied to a floating floor, noise and vibration response of high-frequency range is reduced effectively, while amplifies the response at low-frequency range. This means floating floor can make worse noise condition when heavy-weight impact is applied. The amplified response is the result of interaction between finishing layer (mortar plate) and concrete slab. Because an impact force is not directly delivered to concrete slab, the impact force waveform or spectrum can be changed. In this paper, the changed impact spectrum was derived from several floating floor vibration tests. Based on the measured data, numerical modeling can describe the floating floor response, especially at low-frequency range. As a result, heavy-weight impact noise can be predicted using modified impact spectrum.

Keywords: floating floor, heavy-weight impact, prediction, vibration

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2761 Chemical Reaction Method for Growing Uniform Photomechanical Organic Crystlas

Authors: Rabih O. Al-Kaysi, Lingyan Zhu, Muhannah K. Al-Muhannah, Christopher J. Bardeen


(E)-3-(Anthracen-9-yl)acrylic acid (9-AYAA) 1 exhibits a strong photomechanical response in bulk crystals but is challenging to grow in microcrystalline form. High quality microcrystals of this molecule could not be grown using techniques like sublimation, reprecipitation, and the floating drop method. If the tertbutyl ester of 9-AYAA is used as a starting material, however, high quality, size-uniform microwires could be grown via acid catalyzed hydrolysis. 9-AYAA microwires with uniform length and thickness were produced after a suspension of (E)-tert-butyl 3-(anthracen-9-yl)acrylate ester 2 microparticles was tumble-mixed in a mixture of phosphoric acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate at 35 °C. The dependence of the results on temperature, surfactant and precursor concentration, and mixing mode was investigated. This chemical reaction-growth method was extended to grow microplates of 9-anthraldehyde 3 using the corresponding acylal 4 as the starting material. Under 475 nm irradiation, the 9-AYAA microwires undergo a photoinduced coiling–uncoiling transition, while the 9-anthraldehyde microplates undergo a folding–unfolding transition.

Keywords: photomechanical, surfactant, organic crystals, uniform

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2760 The Effects of Microstructure of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Fe Alloys on Micro Hardness, Tensile Strength, and Electrical Resistivity

Authors: Sevda Engin, Ugur Buyuk, Necmettin Marasli


Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention because of microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity influenced by eutectic structures. In this research, we examined processing of Al–Si–Fe (Al–11.7wt.%Si–1wt.%Fe) eutectic by directional solidification. The alloy was prepared by vacuum furnace and directionally solidified in Bridgman-type equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 8.25 m/s to 164.80 m/s. The Al–Si–Fe system showed an eutectic transformation, which resulted in the matrix Al, Si and Al5SiFe plate phases. The eutectic spacing between (λ_Si-λ_Si, λ_(Al_5 SiFe)-λ_(Al_5 SiFe)) was measured. Additionally, the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity of the alloy were determined using directionally solidified samples. The effects of growth rates on microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity for directionally solidified Al–Si–Fe eutectic alloy were investigated, and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained. It was found that the microhardness, tensile strength, and electrical resistivity were affected by both eutectic spacing and the solidification parameter.

Keywords: directional solidification, aluminum alloy, microstructure, electrical properties, tensile test, hardness test

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2759 Measurements of Physical Properties of Directionally Solidified Al-Si-Cu Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-2wt.%Cu ternary alloy of near eutectic composition was directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in a wide range of growth rates (V=8.25-165.41 µm/s). The microstructures (λ), microhardness (HV), tensile stress (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependence of microstructures, microhardness and electrical resistivity on growth rate (V) was also determined by statistical analysis. According to these results, it has been found that for increasing values of V, the values of HV, σ and ρ increase. Variations of electrical resistivity for casting Al-Si-Cu alloy were also measured at the temperature in range 300-500 K. The enthalpy (ΔH) and the specific heat (Cp) for the Al-Si-Cu alloy were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from solid to liquid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the similar experimental results in the literature.

Keywords: Al-Si-Cu alloy, microstructures, micro-hardness, tensile stress electrical resistivity, enthalpy

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2758 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz


The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

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2757 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee


Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

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2756 Architectural Approaches to a Sustainable Community with Floating Housing Units Adapting to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thu Trang


Climate change and sea level rise is one of the greatest challenges facing human beings in the 21st century. Because of sea level rise, several low-lying coastal areas around the globe are at risk of being completely submerged, disappearing under water. Particularly in Viet Nam, the rise in sea level is predicted to result in more frequent and even permanently inundated coastal plains. As a result, land reserving fund of coastal cities is going to be narrowed in near future, while construction ground is becoming increasingly limited due to a rapid growth in population. Faced with this reality, the solutions are being discussed not only in tradition view such as accommodation is raised or moved to higher areas, or “living with the water”, but also forwards to “living on the water”. Therefore, the concept of a sustainable floating community with floating houses based on the precious value of long term historical tradition of water dwellings in Viet Nam would be a sustainable solution for adaptation of climate change and sea level rise in the coastal areas. The sustainable floating community is comprised of sustainability in four components: architecture, environment, socio-economic and living quality. This research paper is focused on sustainability in architectural component of floating community. Through detailed architectural analysis of current floating houses and floating communities in Viet Nam, this research not only accumulates precious values of traditional architecture that need to be preserved and developed in the proposed concept, but also illustrates its weaknesses that need to address for optimal design of the future sustainable floating communities. Based on these studies the research would provide guidelines with appropriate architectural solutions for the concept of sustainable floating community with floating housing units that are adapted to climate change and sea level rise in Viet Nam.

Keywords: guidelines, sustainable floating community, floating houses, Vietnam

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2755 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne


The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: pesticide, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods, steady state, analytical model

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2754 Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Al-2Mn-5Fe Ternary Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Emin Çadirli, Izzettin Yilmazer, Uğur Büyük, Hasan Kaya


Al-2Mn-5Fe eutectic alloy (wt.%) was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upward at a constant temperature gradient in four different of growth rates by using a Bridgman method. The values of eutectic spacing were measured from longitudinal and transverse sections of the samples. The dependence of eutectic spacing on the growth rate was determined by using linear regression analysis. The microhardness and tensile strength of the studied alloy also were measured from directionally solidified samples. The dependency of the microhardness and tensile strength for directionally solidified Al-2Mn-5Fe eutectic alloy on the growth rate were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: eutectic alloy, microhardness, microstructure, tensile strength

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2753 Separation of Water/Organic Mixtures Using Micro- and Nanostructured Membranes of Special Type of Wettability

Authors: F. R. Sultanov Ch. Daulbayev, B. Bakbolat, Z. A. Mansurov, A. A. Zhurintaeva, R. I. Gadilshina, A. B. Dugali


Both hydrophilic-oleophobic and hydrophobic-oleophilic membranes were obtained by coating of the substrate of membranes, presented by stainless steel meshes with various dimensions of their openings, with a composition that forms the special type of their surface wettability via spray-coating method. The surface morphology of resulting membranes was studied using SEM, the type of their wettability was identified by measuring the contact angle between the surface of membrane and a drop of studied liquid (water or organic liquid) and efficiency of continuous separation of water and organic liquid was studied on self-assembled setup.

Keywords: membrane, stainless steel mesh, oleophobicity, hydrophobicity, separation, water, organic liquids

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2752 Identification of Potential Large Scale Floating Solar Sites in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Nur Iffika Ruslan, Ahmad Rosly Abbas, Munirah [email protected], Nurfaziera Rahim


Increased concerns and awareness of environmental hazards by fossil fuels burning for energy have become the major factor driving the transition toward green energy. It is expected that an additional of 2,000 MW of renewable energy is to be recorded from the renewable sources by 2025 following the implementation of Large Scale Solar projects in Peninsular Malaysia, including Large Scale Floating Solar projects. Floating Solar has better advantages over its landed counterparts such as the requirement for land acquisition is relatively insignificant. As part of the site selection process established by TNB Research Sdn. Bhd., a set of mandatory and rejection criteria has been developed in order to identify only sites that are feasible for the future development of Large Scale Floating Solar power plant. There are a total of 85 lakes and reservoirs identified within Peninsular Malaysia. Only lakes and reservoirs with a minimum surface area of 120 acres will be considered as potential sites for the development of Large Scale Floating Solar power plant. The result indicates a total of 10 potential Large Scale Floating Solar sites identified which are located in Selangor, Johor, Perak, Pulau Pinang, Perlis and Pahang. This paper will elaborate on the various mandatory and rejection criteria, as well as on the various site selection process required to identify potential (suitable) Large Scale Floating Solar sites in Peninsular Malaysia.

Keywords: Large Scale Floating Solar, Peninsular Malaysia, Potential Sites, Renewable Energy

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2751 Coalescence Cascade of Vertically-aligned Water Drops on a Super-hydrophobic Surface in Silicone Oil

Authors: M. Brik, S. Harmand, I. Zaaroura


This report, an experimental investigation, concerns the sessile daughter drop remaining during the coalescence of water drops in a liquid-liquid (LL) system. The two drops are initially vertically aligned where the sessile drop is deposited on a chemically treated super-hydrophobic surface of a cube fill of silicone oil. In order to analyze the coalescence dynamics, a series of experiments have been performed using a generation droplets system (KRUSS) that measures contact angles as well coupled with a high-speed camera (Keyence VW-9000E) to record the process at a frame rate of 15000s-1. It’s depicted that in such configuration, the head drop volume has a primordial impact on the dynamics of the coalescence process, especially at the last stage. It’s found that for a sessile drop deposited on a super-hydrophobic surface, where the contact angle is about θ ≈ 145°, the coalescence process is remarked to be complete without any recoiling of the coalesced drop or a generation of a sessile daughter drop at the super-hydrophobic surface when the head drop volume is small enough (Vₐᵦ< Vₛ up to Vₐᵦ = 3Vₛ). On the other side, the coalescence process starts to be followed by jumping off the resulted drop as well as a remaining of a small sessile daughter drop on the bottom surface of the cube from a head drop volume Vₐᵦ of about 4 times than that of the sessile drop Vₛ.

Keywords: drops coalescence, dispersed multiphase flow, drops dynamics, liquid-liquid system

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2750 Housing Harmony: Social Integration in Singapore Public Housing

Authors: Yingjie Feng, Lei Xu, Zhenyu Cao


In the process of urbanization, public housing is often a powerful means to deal with large floating population. In the developed countries like the U.S, France, Singapore, and Japan, the experience on how to make use of public housing to realize social integration in aspects of race, class, religion, income is gained through years of practice. Take the example of Singapore, the article first introduces the ethnic composition background and public housing development in Singapore, and then gives a detailed explanation and analysis on social integration in public housing from the views of Ethnic quotas policy, community organization construction and design of public space. Finally, combined with the Chinese situation, the article points out that the solution for social integration in China is the organic mix of different income groups in public housing.

Keywords: floating population, public housing, Singapore, social integration, urbanization

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2749 Development and Comparative Analysis of a New C-H Split and Recombine Micromixer

Authors: Vladimir Viktorov, Readul Mahmud, Carmen Visconte


In the present study, a new passive micromixer based on SAR principle, combining the operation concepts of known Chain and H mixers, called C-H micromixer, is developed and studied. The efficiency and the pressure drop of the C-H mixer along with two known SAR passive mixers named Chain and Tear-drop were investigated numerically at Reynolds numbers up to 100, taking into account species transport. At the same time experimental tests of the Chain and Tear-drop mixers were carried out at low Reynolds number, in the 0.1≤Re≤4.2 range. Numerical and experimental results coincide considerably, which validate the numerical simulation approach. Results show that mixing efficiency of the Tear-drop mixer is good except at the middle range of Reynolds number but pressure drop is too high; conversely the Chain mixer has moderate pressure drop but relatively low mixing efficiency at low and middle Re numbers. Whereas, the C-H mixer gives excellent mixing efficiency at all range of Re numbers. In addition, the C-H mixer shows respectively about 3 and 2 times lower pressure drop than the Tear-drop mixer and the Chain mixer.

Keywords: CFD, micromixing, passive micromixer, SAR

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2748 GPU Based Real-Time Floating Object Detection System

Authors: Jie Yang, Jian-Min Meng


A GPU-based floating object detection scheme is presented in this paper which is designed for floating mine detection tasks. This system uses contrast and motion information to eliminate as many false positives as possible while avoiding false negatives. The GPU computation platform is deployed to allow detecting objects in real-time. From the experimental results, it is shown that with certain configuration, the GPU-based scheme can speed up the computation up to one thousand times compared to the CPU-based scheme.

Keywords: object detection, GPU, motion estimation, parallel processing

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2747 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit


Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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2746 Simulation Analysis of Optical Add Drop Multiplexer in a Ring Network

Authors: Surinder Singh, Meenakshi


In this paper MZI-FBG based optical add drop multiplexer is designed and its performance is analyzed in the ring network. In the ring network nodes are composed of optical add drop multiplexer, transmitter and receiver. OADM is used to add or drop any frequency at intermediate nodes without affecting other channels. In this paper the performance of the ring network is carried out by varying various kinds of fiber with or without amplifiers.

Keywords: OADM, ring network, MZI-FBG, transmitter

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