Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1147

Search results for: sodium dihydrogen phosphate

1147 Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate Solutions

Authors: Emine Teke, Soner Kuşlu, Sabri Çolak, Turan Çalban


The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution kinetics of ulexite in sodium dihydrogen phosphate in a mechanical agitation system and also to declare an alternative reactant to produce the boric acid. Reaction temperature, concentration of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, stirring speed, solid-liquid ratio, and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by using linear regression and a statistical program. Dissolution curves were evaluated in order to test the shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase in the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 36.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product) layer.

Keywords: ulexite, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, leaching kinetics, boron

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1146 Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium

Authors: Dharmana Pradeep, Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, N. V. S. Venugopal


Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.

Keywords: rice husk ash, compressive strength, sodium phosphate, curing

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1145 Flame Retardancy of Organophosphorus Compound on Cellulose - an Eco Friendly Concern

Authors: M. A. Hannan, N. Matthias Neisius


Organophosphorus compound diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) was applied on cotton cellulose to impart eco-friendly flame retardant property to it. Here acetal linkage was introduced rather than conventionally used ester linkage to rescue from the undurability problem of flame retardant compound. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used to form acetal linkage between the base material and flame retardant compound. Inspiring limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 22.4 was found after exclusive washing treatment. A good outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 6.05 KJ/g was found possible during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. Low temperature dehydration with sufficient amount of char residue (14.89%) was experienced in case of treated sample. In addition, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) 343.061°C supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. With the consequence of pyrolysis effects, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples.

Keywords: acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, flame retardant, loi, low temperature pyrolysis, organophosphorus, THC, THRR

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1144 Catalytic Effect on Eco Friendly Functional Material in Flame Retardancy of Cellulose

Authors: Md. Abdul Hannan


Two organophosphorus compounds, namely diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10- phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) and diethyl (2,2-diethoxyethyl) phosphonate (DPAC) were applied on cotton cellulose to impart non-carcinogenic and durable (in alkaline washing) flame retardant property to it. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used. Synergistic acidic catalyzing effect of NaH2PO4+H3PO4 and NaH2PO4+NH4H2PO4 was also investigated. Appreciable limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 23.2% was achieved in case of the samples treated with flame retardant (FR) compound DPAC along with the combined acidic catalyzing effect. A distinguishing outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 3.27 KJ/g was revealed during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. In respect of thermal degradation, low temperature dehydration in conjugation with sufficient amount of char residue (30.5%) was obtained in case of DPAC treated sample. Consistently, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) (325°C) of DPAC treated sample supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples. Furthermore, for both of the flame retardant compounds, effect of different catalysts, considering both individual and combined, effect of solvents and overall the optimization of the process parameters were studied in detail.

Keywords: cotton cellulose, organophosphorus flame retardant, acetal linkage, THC, HRR, PHHR, char residue, LOI

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1143 Preparation and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Cement

Authors: W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj


Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is one of the most attractive bioceramics due to its moldable and shape ability to fill complicated bony cavities or small dental defect positions. In this study, CPCs were produced by using mixtures of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4O(PO4)2) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA, CaHPO4) in equimolar ratio (1/1) with aqueous solutions of acetic acid (C2H4O2) and disodium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) in combination with sodium alginate in order to improve theirs moldable characteristic. The concentrations of the aqueous solutions and sodium alginate were varied to investigate the effects of different aqueous solution and alginate on properties of the cements. The cement paste was prepared by mixing cement powder (P) with aqueous solution (L) in a P/L ratio of 1.0 g/ 0.35 ml. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyses phase formation of the cements. Setting times and compressive strength of the set CPCs were measured using the Gilmore apparatus and Universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that CPCs could be produced by using both basic (Na2HPO4.2H2O) and acidic (C2H4O2) solutions. XRD results show the precipitation of hydroxyapatite in all cement samples. No change in phase formation among cements using difference concentrations of Na2HPO4.2H2O solutions. With increasing concentration of acidic solutions, samples obtained less hydroxyapatite with a high dicalcium phosphate dehydrate leaded to a shorter setting time. Samples with sodium alginate exhibited higher crystallization of hydroxyapatite than that of without alginate as a result of shorten setting time in basic solution but a longer setting time in acidic solution. The stronger cement was attained from samples using acidic solution with sodium alginate; however it was lower than using the basic solution.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cements, TTCP, DCPA, hydroxyapatite, properties

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1142 Corrosion Fatigue of Al-Mg Alloy 5052 in Sodium Chloride Solution Contains Some Inhibitors

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Eldwaib


In this study, Al-Mg alloy 5052 was used as the testing material. Corrosion fatigue life was studied for the alloy in 3.5% NaCl (pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11), and 3.5% NaCl (pH=1) with inhibitors. The compound inhibitors were composed mainly of phosphate (PO4³-), adding a certain proportion of other nontoxic inhibitors so as to select alternatives to environmentally hazardous chromate (Cr2O7²-). The inhibitors were sodium dichromate Na2Cr2O7, sodium phosphate Na3PO4, sodium molybdate Na2MoO4, and sodium citrate Na3C6H5O7. The total amount of inhibiting pigments was at different concentrations (250,500,750, and 1000 ppm) in the solutions. Corrosion fatigue behavior was studied by using plane-bending corrosion fatigue machine with stress ratio R=0.5 and under the constant frequency of 13.3 Hz. Results show that in 3.5% NaCl the highest fatigue life (number of cycles to failure Nf) is obtained at pH=5 where the oxide film on aluminum has very low solubility, and the lowest number of cycles is obtained at pH=1, where the media is too aggressive (extremely acidic). When the concentration of inhibitor increases the cycles to failure increase. The surface morphology and fracture section of the specimens had been characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy 5052, corrosion, fatigue, inhibitors

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1141 Noncritical Phase-Matched Fourth Harmonic Generation of Converging Beam by Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystal

Authors: Xiangxu Chai, Bin Feng, Ping Li, Deyan Zhu, Liquan Wang, Guanzhong Wang, Yukun Jing


In high power large-aperture laser systems, such as the inertial confinement fusion project, the Nd: glass laser (1053nm) is usually needed to be converted to ultraviolet (UV) light and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) is one of the most favorite candidates to achieve UV light. Deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal is an optimal choice for converting the Nd: glass radiation to the fourth harmonic laser by noncritical phase matching (NCPM). To reduce the damage probability of focusing lens, the DKDP crystal is suggested to be set before the focusing lens. And a converging beam enters the FHG crystal consequently. In this paper, we simulate the process of FHG in the scheme and the dependence of FHG efficiency on the lens’ F is derived. Besides, DKDP crystal with gradient deuterium is proposed to realize the NCPM FHG of the converging beam. At every position, the phase matching is achieved by adjusting the deuterium level, and the FHG efficiency increases as a result. The relation of the lens’ F with the deuterium gradient is investigated as well.

Keywords: fourth harmonic generation, laser induced damage, converging beam, DKDP crystal

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1140 Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Deposition, pH and Temperature with the Varying Coating Bath Parameters on Impact Energy by Taguchi Method

Authors: D. Kari Basavaraja, M. G. Skanda, C. Soumya, V. Ramesh


This paper discusses the effects of sodium hypophosphite concentration, pH, and temperature on deposition rate. This paper also discusses the evaluation of coating strength, surface, and subsurface by varying the bath parameters, percentage of phosphate, plating temperature, and pH of the plating solution. Taguchi technique has been used for the analysis. In the experiment, nickel chloride which is a source of nickel when mixed with sodium hypophosphite has been used as the reducing agent and the source of phosphate and sodium hydroxide has been used to vary the pH of the coating bath. The coated samples are tested for impact energy by conducting impact test. Finally, the effects of coating bath parameters on the impact energy absorbed have been plotted, and analysis has been carried out. Further, percentage contribution of coating bath parameters using Design of Experiments approach (DOE) has been analysed. Finally, it can be concluded that the bath parameters of the Ni-P coating will certainly influence on the strength of the specimen.

Keywords: bath parameters, coatings, design of experiment, fracture toughness, impact strength

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1139 Evalution of Antiurolithiatic Potentials from Cucumis sativus Fruits

Authors: H. J. Pramod, S. Pethkar


The evaluation of antiurolithiatic potentials from the extracts of Cucumis sativus fruits at different doses and cystone (standard formulation) at a dose of 750 mg/kg were measured for both preventive and curative regimen in wistar rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days, except normal rats. After the completion of the experimental period, (28th day) urinary parameters like (urine volume, routine urine analysis, levels of calcium, phosphate, oxalate, magnesium, sodium) serum biomarkers like (creatinine, BUN, uric acid, ALP, ALT, AST) kidney homogenate analysis for (levels of calcium, oxalate and phosphate) were analysed. The treated groups shows increased in the urine output significantly compared to the normal. The extract shows significantly decreased in the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium and oxalate. The both preventive and curative treatment of extracts showed decrease in the stone forming constituents in the kidneys of urolithiatic rats further the kidneys of all the groups were excised and sectioned for histopathological examination which further claims to posses antiurolithiatic activity.

Keywords: Cucumis sativus, urolithiasis, ethylene glycol, cystone

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1138 HPLC-UV Screening of Legal (Caffeine and Yohimbine) and Illegal (Ephedrine and Sibutramine) Substances from Weight Loss Dietary Supplements for Athletes

Authors: Amelia Tero-Vescan, Camil-Eugen Vari, Laura Ciulea, Cristina Filip, Silvia Imre


A HPLC –UV method for the identification of ephedrine (EPH), sibutramine (SB), yohimbine (Y) and caffeine (CF) was developed. Separation was performed on a Kromasil 100-RP8, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 mm column equipped with a precolumn Kromasil RP 8. Mobile phase was a gradient of 80-35 % sodium dihydrogen phosphate pH=5 with NH4OH and acetonitrile over 15 minutes time of analysis. Based on the responses of 113 athletes about dietary supplements (DS) consumed for "fat burning" and weight loss which have a legal status in Romania, 28 supplements have been selected and investigated for their content in CF, Y, legal substances, and SB, EPH (prohibited substances in DS). The method allows quantitative determination of the four substances in a short analysis time and with minimum cost. The presence of SB and EPH in the analyzed DS was not detected while the content in CF and Y considering the dosage recommended by the manufacturer does not affect the health of the consumers. DS labeling (plant extracts with CF and Y content) allows manufacturers to avoid declaring correct and exact amounts per pharmaceutical form (pure CF or equivalent and Y, respectively).

Keywords: dietary supplements, sibutramine, ephedrine, yohimbine, caffeine, HPLC

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1137 Comparison of Efficacy between Low-Residue Diet and Clear-Liquid Diet in Colonoscopic Bowel Preparation at a Surgical Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sopana Wongtawee


Purpose: Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a high quality, effective and safe colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of bowel preparation based on a low-residue diet before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet, and a low-residue diet until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy using sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®), the side effects of the two protocols and the patient satisfaction with them. Method: This was an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy met the criteria.They were randomized to either a low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with either fish, chicken or eggs before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet (Group 1) or a low-residue diet consisting of the same food and drink, until 16:00 the day before colonoscopy(Group 2). All of them received 45 ml of sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®) and three glasses of water (300 ml/glass) the evening before and the morning of the procedure. The cleansing efficacy of bowel preparation was rated according to the modified Rajawithi hospital bowel preparation score scale, patient satisfaction with bowel preparation was rated using Likert scale, and side effects of the 2 protocols was assessed using a patient questionnaire. Results: The cleansing efficacy between the two groups was significantly different (p=0.02). Satisfaction with bowel preparation and side effects were not different, except for the feeling of hunger in the first group (p=0.001). Conclusion: The low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with fish, chicken or eggs until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy achieved a better bowel-cleansing efficacy than the protocol consisting of clear liquid all day and rice porridge only before 8:00 one day before colonoscopy.

Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, sodium phosphate solution, nursing management

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1136 The Determination of Sodium/Potassium Ion Ratio in Selected Edible Leafy Vegetables in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Raymond D. Uzoh, Philip K. Shallsuku, Christopher S. Vaachia


Selected edible leafy vegetables from North-eastern Nigeria were analysed for their sodium and potassium content in mg/100 g and the ratio Na+/K+ worked out. From experimental results, Venonia amydalina (bitter leaf) contained 150 mg (0.15 g) of sodium and 20500 mg (20.5 g) potassium with a ratio of 0.007, Brassica oleracea var capitata (cabbage) contained 300 mg (0.3 g) of sodium and 19000 mg (19 g) of potassium with a ration of 0.012. Others are Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) with 400 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 19500 mg (19.5 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020; Hibiscus sabdriffa (sorrel) has 200 mg (0.2 g) of sodium and 600 mg (0.6 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.300; and Amarantus caudatus (spinach) contained 450 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 23000 mg (23 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020. The presence of sodium and potassium in foods has become increasingly important as recent studies and dietary information gathered in this research has shown that sodium intake is not the sole consideration in elevated blood pressure but its considered as a ratio Na+/K+ fixed at 0.6. This ratio has been found to be a more important factor, suggesting that our diet should contain 67 % more potassium than sodium.

Keywords: vegetables, sodium, potassium, blood pressure, diet, foods

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1135 A Ratiometric Inorganic Phosphate Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Rhodamine 6G-Doped Nanofibers

Authors: Hong Dinh Duong, Jong Il Rhee


In this study, a ratiometric inorganic phosphate sensor was fabricated by a double layer of the rhodamine 6G-doped nanofibers and the CdSe/ZnS QDs-captured polymer. In which, CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission wavelengths of 595nm were synthesized and ligands on their surface were exchanged with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The synthesized MPA-QDs were combined with the mixture of sol-gel of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyurethane (PU) to build a layer for sensing inorganic phosphate. Another sensing layer was of nanofibers doped R6G which were produced from poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) by electrospining. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between rhodamin 6G (R6G) and CdSe/ZnS QDs exposed at different phosphate concentrations was used for calculating a linear phosphate concentration range of 0-10mM.

Keywords: nanofiber, QDs, ratiometric phosphate sensor, rhodamine 6G, sol-gel

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1134 The Effect of Application of Biological Phosphate Fertilizer (Fertile 2) and Triple Super Phosphate Chemical Fertilizers on Some Morphological Traits of Corn (SC704)

Authors: M. Mojaddam, M. Araei, T. Saki Nejad, M. Soltani Howyzeh


In order to study the effect of different levels of triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer and biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) on some morphological traits of corn this research was carried out in Ahvaz in 2002 as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with 4 replications.) The experiment included two factors: first, biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) at three levels of 0, 100, 200 g/ha; second, triple super phosphate chemical fertilizer at three levels of 0, 60, 90 kg/ha of pure phosphorus (P2O5). The obtained results indicated that fertilizer treatments had a significant effect on some morphological traits at 1% probability level. In this regard, P2B2 treatment (100 g/ha biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) and 60 kg/ha triple super phosphate fertilizer) had the greatest plan height, stem diameter, number of leaves and ear length. It seems that in Ahvaz weather conditions, decrease of consumption of triple superphosphate chemical fertilizer to less than a half along with the consumption of biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2) is highly important in order to achieve optimal results. Therefore, it can be concluded that biological fertilizers can be used as a suitable substitute for some of the chemical fertilizers in sustainable agricultural systems.

Keywords: biological phosphate fertilizer (fertile 2), triple super phosphate, corn, morphological traits

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1133 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee


Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker, toxicity

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1132 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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1131 Using Morlet Wavelet Filter to Denoising Geoelectric ‘Disturbances’ Map of Moroccan Phosphate Deposit ‘Disturbances’

Authors: Saad Bakkali


Morocco is a major producer of phosphate, with an annual output of 19 million tons and reserves in excess of 35 billion cubic meters. This represents more than 75% of world reserves. Resistivity surveys have been successfully used in the Oulad Abdoun phosphate basin. A Schlumberger resistivity survey over an area of 50 hectares was carried out. A new field procedure based on analytic signal response of resistivity data was tested to deal with the presence of phosphate deposit disturbances. A resistivity map was expected to allow the electrical resistivity signal to be imaged in 2D. 2D wavelet is standard tool in the interpretation of geophysical potential field data. Wavelet transform is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and analyzing geophysical data singularities. Wavelet transform tools are applied to analysis of a moroccan phosphate deposit ‘disturbances’. Wavelet approach applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances” was found to be consistently useful.

Keywords: resistivity, Schlumberger, phosphate, wavelet, Morocco

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1130 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen


Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, protein, titanium

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1129 Effects of Bacteria on Levels of AFM1 in Phosphate Buffer at Different Level of Energy Source

Authors: Ali M. Elgerbi, Obied A. Alwan, Al-Taher O. Alzwei, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi


The binding of AFM1 to bacteria in phosphate buffer solution depended on many factors such as: availability of energy, incubation period, species and strain of bacteria. Increase in concentration of sugar showed higher removal of AFM1 and faster than in phosphate buffer alone. With 1.0% glucose lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria showed toxin removal ranging from 7.7 to 39.7% whereas with 10.0% glucose the percentage removal was 21.8 to 45.4% at 96 hours of incubation.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria , binding, phosphate buffer

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1128 Heavy Metals of Natural Phosphate Ore and the Way They Affect the Various Mineralurgic Modes of Treatment

Authors: Bezzi Nacer


The study focused on the qualitative and quantitative study of Trace elements contained in the natural phosphate ore of Djebel Onk layer and their behaviour to the various mineralurgic modes of treatment. The main objective is to locate the importance of these contents according to granulometry and their association with the existing mineralogical species and to define how the most appropriate treatment. The raw ore is in first submitted to a prior mechanical treatment consisting of homogenization operations, of grinding and of sifting, in order to separate it into three particle-size classes: fine <100 µm (F); medium 100-500 µm (I) and coarse > 500 µm (G), and then treated by calcination, washing and floatation. The identification of the different mineralogical phases, the chemical composition and the thermal behaviour of these samples were realized by various techniques: MEB, DRX, ATG-ATD, etc. The study of Trace elements, carried out by ICP-MS, identified thirty items, consisting mainly of rare earths and of transition metals. A close relation between trace elements and various minerals phases (apatite, dolomite and silicates), through operations of substitution. These elements are distributed between several mineralogical phases, in particular apatite (strontium, uranium, chrome, barium, cadmium) and silicates (strontium, sodium, nickel, zinc and copper).

Keywords: valorization of natural phosphate ore, heavy metals, qualitative and quantitative analysis, various mineralurgic

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1127 The Hydrolysis of Phosphate Esters Can Be Enhanced by Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding

Authors: Mohamed S. Sasi


The research project aim is to study the hydrolysis of 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol with hydroxylamine in water. 8-diethylphosphate-1-naphthalenol, 1 was successfully synthesized and its rate of reaction with hydroxylamine was studied at 60°C. Pseudo first order behavior was observed. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 at 60°C (7.43 x 10-3 M-1s-1) was found to be 178 fold and 7 fold slower than diethyl 8-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 3 at 60°C (1.32 M-1s-1) and diethyl 8-amino-1-naphthyl phosphate, 2 at 90 °C (5.5 x 10-2 M-1s-1) respectively. The rate of P-O cleavage of 1 with hydroxylamine was found to be faster than that of 4-chlorophenyl-1-cyclopropylphosphate triester, 5 where the reaction was too slow to observe at 60°C.

Keywords: phosphate esters, intramolecular hydrogen bonding

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1126 The Effects and Interactions of Synthesis Parameters on Properties of Mg Substituted Hydroxyapatite

Authors: S. Sharma, U. Batra, S. Kapoor, A. Dua


In this study, the effects and interactions of reaction time and capping agent assistance during sol-gel synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowder (MgHA) on hydroxyapatite (HA) to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratio, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite size was examined experimentally as well as through statistical analysis. MgHA nanopowders were synthesized by sol-gel technique at room temperature using aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as starting materials. The reaction time for sol-gel synthesis was varied between 15 to 60 minutes. Two process routes were followed with and without addition of triethanolamine (TEA) in the solutions. The elemental compositions of as-synthesized powders were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The functional groups present in the as-synthesized MgHA nanopowders were established through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The amounts of phases present, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite sizes of MgHA nanopowders were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The HA content in biphasic mixture of HA and β-TCP and Ca/P ratio in as-synthesized MgHA nanopowders increased effectively with reaction time of sols (p < 0.0001, two way Anova), however, these were independent of TEA addition (p > 0.15, two way Anova). The MgHA nanopowders synthesized with TEA assistance exhibited 14 nm lower crystallite size (p < 0.018, 2 sample t-test) compared to the powder synthesized without TEA assistance.

Keywords: capping agent, hydroxyapatite, regression analysis, sol-gel, 2- sample t-test, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

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1125 Phosphate Bonded Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Fibre Composites

Authors: Stephen O. Amiandamhen, Martina Meinken, Luvuyo Tyhoda


The properties of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) in phosphate bonded composites were investigated in this research. Hemp hurds were collected from the Hemporium institute for research, South Africa. The hurds were air-dried and shredded using a hammer mill. The shives were screened into different particle sizes and were treated separately with 5% solution of acetic anhydride and sodium hydroxide. The binding matrix was prepared using a reactive magnesia, phosphoric acid, class S fly ash and unslaked lime. The treated and untreated hemp fibers were mixed thoroughly in different ratios with the inorganic matrix. Boric acid and excess water were used to retard and control the rate of the reaction and the setting of the binder. The Hemp composite was formed in a rectangular mold and compressed at room temperature at a pressure of 100KPa. After de-molding the composites, they were cured in a conditioning room for 96 h. Physical and mechanical tests were conducted to evaluate the properties of the composites. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the best conditions to optimize the performance of the composites. Thereafter, these combinations were applied in the production of the composites, and the properties were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to carry out the advance examination of the behavior of the composites while X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to analyze the reaction pathway in the composites. The results revealed that all properties of phosphate bonded Hemp composites exceeded the LD-1 grade classification of particle boards. The proposed product can be used for ceiling, partitioning, wall claddings and underlayment.

Keywords: CCD, fly ash, magnesia, phosphate bonded hemp composites, phosphoric acid, unslaked lime

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1124 Tricalcium Phosphate-Chitosan Composites for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: G. Voicu, C. D. Ghitulica, A. Cucuruz, C. Busuioc


In the field of tissue engineering, the compositional and microstructural features of the employed materials play an important role, with implications on the mechanical and biological behaviour of the medical devices. In this context, the development of calcium phosphate-natural biopolymer composites represents a choice of many scientific groups. Thus, tricalcium phosphate powders were synthesized by a wet method, namely co-precipitation, starting from high purity reagents. Moreover, the substitution of calcium with magnesium have been approached, in the 5-10 wt.% range. Afterwards, the phosphate powders were integrated into two types of composites with chitosan, different from morphological point of view. First, 3D porous scaffolds were obtained by a freeze-drying procedure. Second, uniform compact films were achieved by film casting. The influence of chitosan molecular weight (low, medium and high), as well as phosphate powder to polymer ratio (1:1 and 1:2) on the morphological properties, were analysed in detail. In conclusion, the reported biocomposites, prepared by a straightforward route are suitable for bone substitution or repairing applications.

Keywords: bone reconstruction, chitosan, composite scaffolds, tricalcium phosphate

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1123 High Phosphate-Containing Foods and Beverages: Perceptions of the Future Healthcare Providers on Their Harmful Effect in Excessive Consumption

Authors: ATM Emdadul Haque


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient which is regularly consumed with food and exists in the body as phosphate. Phosphate is an important component of cellular structures and needed for bone mineralization. Excessive accumulation of phosphate is an important driving factor of mortality in chronic renal failure patients; of relevance, these patients are usually provided health care by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. Hence, this study was planned to determine the level of awareness of the future healthcare providers about the phosphate-containing foods and beverages and to access their knowledge on the harmful effects of excess phosphate consumption. A questionnaire was developed and distributed among the year-1 medical, nursing and pharmacy students. 432 medical, nursing and pharmacy students responded with age ranging from 18-24 years. About 70% of the respondents were female with a majority (90.7%) from Malay ethnicity. Among the respondents, 29.9% were medical, 35.4% were the pharmacy and 34.7% were nursing students. 79.2% students knew that phosphate was an important component of the body, but only 61.8% knew that consuming too much phosphate could be harmful to the body. Despite 97% of the students knew that carbonated soda contained high sugar, surprisingly 77% of them did not know the presence of high phosphate in the same soda drinks; in the similar line of observation, 67% did not know the presence of it in the fast food. However, it was encouraging that 94% of the students wanted to know more about the effects of phosphate consumption, 74.3% were willing to give up drinking soda and eating fast food, and 52% considered taking green coconut water instead of soda drinks. It is, therefore, central to take an educational initiative to increase the awareness of the future healthcare providers about phosphate-containing food and its harmful effects in excessive consumptions.

Keywords: high phosphate containing foods and beverages, excessive consumption, future health care providers, phosphorus

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1122 Iranian Processed Cheese under Effect of Emulsifier Salts and Cooking Time in Process

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati bbelvirdi, M. Shakerian, H. Mirzaei


Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is commonly used as an Emulsifying Salt (ES) in process cheese, although rarely as the sole ES. It appears that no published studies exist on the effect of SHMP concentration on the properties of process cheese when pH is kept constant; pH is well known to affect process cheese functionality. The detailed interactions between the added phosphate, Casein (CN), and indigenous Ca phosphate are poorly understood. We studied the effect of the concentration of SHMP (0.25-2.75%) and holding time (0-20 min) on the textural and Rheological properties of pasteurized process Cheddar cheese using a central composite rotatable design. All cheeses were adjusted to pH 5.6. The meltability of process cheese (as indicated by the decrease in loss tangent parameter from small amplitude oscillatory rheology, degree of flow, and melt area from the Schreiber test) decreased with an increase in the concentration of SHMP. Holding time also led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness of process cheese increased as the concentration of SHMP increased. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is attributable to residual colloidal Ca phosphate, was shifted to lower pH values with increasing concentration of SHMP. The insoluble Ca and total and insoluble P contents increased as concentration of SHMP increased. The proportion of insoluble P as a percentage of total (indigenous and added) P decreased with an increase in ES concentration because of some of the (added) SHMP formed soluble salts. The results of this study suggest that SHMP chelated the residual colloidal Ca phosphate content and dispersed CN; the newly formed Ca-phosphate complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix, probably by cross-linking CN. Increasing the concentration of SHMP helped to improve fat emulsification and CN dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Iranian processed cheese, emulsifying salt, rheology, texture

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1121 Sintered Phosphate Cement for HLW Encapsulation

Authors: S. M. M. Nelwamondo, W. C. M. H. Meyer, H. Krieg


The presence of volatile radionuclides in high level waste (HLW) in the nuclear industry limits the use of high temperature encapsulation technologies (glass and ceramic). Chemically bonded phosphate cement (CBPC) matrixes can be used for encapsulation of low level waste. This waste form is however not suitable for high level waste due to the radiolysis of water in these matrixes. In this research, the sintering behavior of the magnesium potassium phosphate cement waste forms was investigated. The addition of sintering aids resulted in the sintering of these phosphate cement matrixes into dense monoliths containing no water. Experimental evidence will be presented that this waste form can now be considered as a waste form for volatile radionuclides and high level waste as radiation studies indicated no chemical phase transition or physical degradation of this waste form.

Keywords: chemically bonded phosphate cements, HLW encapsulation, thermal stability, radiation stability

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1120 Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Christian Chinweuba Onoyima, Edith Bolanle Agbaji, Victor Olatunji Ajibola


Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite, biomedical, FTIR, XRD, SEM

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1119 Efficacy of Sea Water with Reduced Rate Herbicide to Control Weeds in Tropical Turf

Authors: Md. Kamal Uddin, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Md. Parvez Anwar


Seawater with reduced herbicide could be considered as a low cost environment friendly alternative method for weed control in turfgrass. Different concentration of sea water in combination with trifloxysulfuron-sodium and quinclorac were used to determine weed control level in turfgrass field. The weed species S. diander, C. aromaticus, and C. rotundus except E. atrovirens were fully controlled when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with ¾ sea water, ½ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium with sea water, ¾ recommended quinclorac with sea water and ¾ recommended quinclorac with ¾ sea water. Eragrostis atrovirens showed maximum 48% injury when treated with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium and sea water. Among the tested turf grasses, P. vaginatum showed only 8% injury to sea water in combination with ¾ recommended quinclorac, indicating greater salt tolerance. Zoysia japonica also showed no more than 14% injury when treated with sea water in combination with ¾ recommended trifloxysulfuron–sodium or quinclorac.

Keywords: sea water, trifloxysulfuron–sodium, quinclorac, turf

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1118 Effects of Preparation Caused by Ischemic-Reperfusion along with Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Submaximal Dynamic Force Production

Authors: Sara Nasiri Semnani, Alireza Ramzani


Background and Aims: Sodium bicarbonate is a supplementation that used to reduce fatigue and increase power output in short-term training. On the other hand, the Ischemic Reperfusion Preconditioning (IRPC) is an appropriate stimulus to increase the submaximal contractile response. Materials and methods: 9 female student-athletes in double-blind randomized crossover design were three mode, sodium bicarbonate + IRPC, sodium bicarbonate and placebo+ IRPC. Participants moved forward single arm dumbbell hand with a weight of 2 kg can be carried out most frequently. Results: The results showed that plasma lactate concentration and records of sodium bicarbonate + IRPC and sodium bicarbonate conditions were significantly different compared to placebo + IRPC (Respectively p=0.001, p=0/02). Conclusion: According to the research findings, bicarbonate supplementation in IRPC training condition increased force and delay fatigue in submaximal dynamic contraction.

Keywords: ischemic reperfusion, preconditioning, sodium bicarbonate, submaximal dynamic force

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