Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8503

Search results for: social norm-based intervention

8503 The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Intervention in Alleviating Social Avoidance for Blind Students

Authors: Mohamed M. Elsherbiny

Abstract:

Social Avoidance is one of the most important problems that face a good number of disabled students. It results from the negative attitudes of non-disabled students, teachers and others. Some of the past research has shown that non-disabled individuals hold negative attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The present study aims to alleviate Social Avoidance by applying the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention. 24 Blind students aged 19–24 (university students) were randomly chosen we compared an experimental group (consisted of 12 students) who went through the intervention program, with a control group (12 students also) who did not go through such intervention. We used the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) to assess social anxiety and distress behavior. The author used many techniques of cognitive behavioral intervention such as modeling, cognitive restructuring, extension, contingency contracts, self-monitoring, assertiveness training, role play, encouragement and others. Statistically, T-test was employed to test the research hypothesis. Result showed that there is a significance difference between the experimental group and the control group after the intervention and also at the follow up stages of the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale. Also for the experimental group, there is a significance difference before the intervention and the follow up stages for the scale. Results showed that, there is a decrease in social avoidance. Accordingly, cognitive behavioral intervention program was successful in decreasing social avoidance for blind students.

Keywords: social avoidance, cognitive behavioral intervention, blind disability, disability

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8502 A Social Care Intervention for Improving the Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana

Authors: Tina Abrefa-Gyan

Abstract:

Background: In Ghana and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is a public health threat and also causes medical crises for many who are infected with the virus. Objective: This study tested a social care intervention developed to help improve the quality of life of those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Method: Adult respondents (N = 248) were assigned to receive the intervention or usual care for six weeks. Results: Results of the study revealed significant differences between the treatment and control groups in their reports of quality of life. Respondents reported better quality of life upon receiving the intervention. Implication: This study sheds light on the positive relationship between the intervention and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Conclusion: The intervention is innovative and novel in the setting. It will, therefore, help to reduce the risks such as depression, low cognitive functioning, and low physical functioning associated with low quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana in specific, and in sub-Saharan Africa in general.

Keywords: social care intervention, HIV/AIDS, Ghana, quality of life

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8501 Peer-Mediated Intervention for Social Communication Difficulties in Adolescents with Autism: Literature Review and Research Recommendations

Authors: Christine L. Cole

Abstract:

Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often experience social-communication difficulties that negatively impact their social interactions with typical peers. However, unlike other age and disability groups, there is little intervention research to inform best practice for these students. One evidence-based strategy for younger students with ASD is peer-mediated intervention (PMI). PMI may be particularly promising for use with adolescents, as peers are readily available and natural experts for encouraging authentic high school conversations. This paper provides a review of previous research that evaluated the use of PMI to improve the social-communication skills of students with ASD. Specific intervention features associated with positive student outcomes are identified and recommendations for future research are provided. Adolescents with ASD are targeted due to the critical importance of social conversation at the high school level.

Keywords: autism, peer-mediation, social communication, adolescents

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8500 Introduction of a Multimodal Intervention for People with Autism: 'ReAttach'

Authors: P. Weerkamp Bartholomeus

Abstract:

Autism treatment evaluation is crucial for monitoring the development of an intervention at an early stage. ‘ReAttach’ is a new intervention based on the principles of attachment and social cognitive training. Practical research suggests promising results on a variety of developmental areas. Five years after the first ReAttach sessions these findings can be extended with qualitative research by means of follow-up interviews. The potential impact of this treatment on daily life functioning and well-being of autistic persons becomes clear.

Keywords: autism, innovation, treatment, social cognitive training

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8499 Actor Training in Social Work Education: A Pilot Study of Theatre Workshops to Enhance Clinical Empathy

Authors: Amanda Coleman, Estefanía Gonzalez

Abstract:

Empathy is considered an essential skill for engaging with social work clients. Drawing from developments in medical education, researchers will conduct and evaluate a three-part pilot theatre workshop with master level social work students (n ≈ 30) to evaluate the workshop's ability to enhance empathy among participants. Outcomes will be measured using semi-structured post-intervention interviews with a subset of participants (n ≈ 10) as well post-intervention written reflections and pre-and-post intervention quantitative evaluation of empathy using King and Holosko’s 2011 Empathy Scale for Social Workers. The content of the workshop will differ from traditional role plays, which are common in social work education, in that it will draw from role theory and research on creative empathy to emphasize role reversal with clients. Workshops will be held February and March of 2017 with preliminary findings available by April.

Keywords: education, empathy, social work, theatre

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8498 Foreign Language Reading Comprehenmsion and the Linguistic Intervention Program

Authors: Silvia Hvozdíková, Eva Stranovská

Abstract:

The purpose of the article is to discuss the results of the research conducted during the period of two semesters paying attention to selected factors of foreign language reading comprehension through the means of Linguistic Intervention Program. The Linguistic Intervention Program was designed for the purpose of the current research. It refers to such method of foreign language teaching which emphasized active social learning, creative drama strategies, self-directed learning. The research sample consisted of 360 respondents, foreign language learners ranging from 13 – 17 years of age. Specifically designed questionnaire and a standardized foreign language reading comprehension tests were applied to serve the purpose. The outcomes of the research recorded significant results towards significant relationship between selected elements of the Linguistic Intervention Program and the academic achievements in the factors of reading comprehension.

Keywords: foreign language learning, linguistic intervention program, reading comprehension, social learning

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8497 The Intervention Effect of Gratitude Skills Training on the Reduction of Loneliness

Authors: T. Sakai, A. Aikawa

Abstract:

This study defined 'gratitude skills training' as a social skills training which would become a new intervention method about gratitude intervention. The purpose of this study was to confirm the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness. The participants in this study were university students (n = 36). A waiting list control design was used, in which the participants were assigned either to a training group (n = 18) or a waiting list control group (n = 18); the latter group took the same training after the first group had been trained. The two-week gratitude skills training comprised of three sessions (50 minutes per each of sessions). In the three sessions, the guidebook and the homework developed in this study were used. Results showed that gratitude skills training improved the participants’ gratitude skills. The results also indicated the intervention effect of gratitude skills training on the reduction of loneliness during the follow-up after three weeks. This study suggests that gratitude skills training can reduce loneliness. The gratitude skills training has a possibility of becoming a new treatment to reduce loneliness.

Keywords: gratitude skills, loneliness, social skills training, well-being

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8496 Young Social Beings: An Investigation into the Social Interactions and Relationships of a Year Five Class

Authors: A. Sewell

Abstract:

The paper reports a research project which investigated the social interactions of nine to ten-year-olds in a mainstream primary school. The project implemented an adaption of a whole class, behavioural intervention known as 'The Good Behaviour Game (TGBG)'. TGBG is an evidence-based intervention traditionally used to reduce low-level disruptive behaviours in a classroom setting. TGBG was adapted to encourage pupil’s engagement in pro-social behaviour during lessons. A mixed methods research design was employed to evaluate intervention effects and pupil’s perceptions of their social interactions and relationships with others. Single-case research design was used to evaluate behaviour change, and Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) repertory grids were used to explore pupil’s perceptions. The findings demonstrated that TGBG could be successfully adapted to positively influence pupil’s engagement in pro-social behaviours. The findings from the PCP repertory grid interviews revealed the complexities of how children construct their social interactions and relationships with others, and how an understanding of these could be used to design better social skills interventions. It is concluded that TGBG is a cost-effective, simple to implement intervention for promoting positive social interactions and relationships at the whole class level. The paper presents the aims, design, findings, and conclusions of the study in further detail and relates limitations and potential future extensions of the research. The outcomes have direct application and relevance for practitioners interested in children’s social development and how to promote positive outcomes in this critical aspect of childhood.

Keywords: social skills, social development, social competency, the good behaviour game

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8495 The Joint Attention Training as Early Occupational Therapy Intervention in Children with Autism

Authors: Sumeyye Belhan, Sema Gul Turk, Esma Ozkan, Mahmut Yaran

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of joint attention training on communication skills and visual perception skills in autistic children. Eight children between 4 and six years of age participated in the study. Sociodemographic information form, Social Communication Questionnaire, Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 4 (MVPT-4) were applied to the participants before intervention and after the intervention. Joint attention training was given three times a week for six weeks in total 18 sessions. Four of the children with autism who participate in the study (50%) were male, four (50%) were female and the mean age was 5,25±0,70. The Social Communication Scale score for children with autism was 13.62 ± 3.73 before the joint attention training and 11.37 ± 4.10 after the training. It was observed that social communication skills improved, but this improvement was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Pre-education autistic children's Autism Behavioral Control score was 55,37 ± 9,94, whereas it was 40,12 ± 15,57 after training. There was a statistically significant improvement in sensory, relationship building, body and object use, language skills, social and self-care skills of autistic children in the autistic behavior checklist subscale after joint attention training (p < 0.05). MVPT 4 score before intervention in children with autism was 14.62 ± 6.65; and 19,50 ± 5,18 after the intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in visual perceptual skills without a motor in children with autism after the intervention (p < 0.05). This abstract is the pilot study of the joint attention training involving planned long-term (12 weeks) and more autistic children. A greater number of autistic children for longer period suggest that joint attention training will also lead to statistically significant improvements in social communication skills. It is thought that the joint attention training that is applied for a longer period in early childhood occupational therapy in children with autism will be beneficial for social communication, self-care skills and visual perception skills of autistic children.

Keywords: autism, joint attention, social communication, visual perception

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8494 Improving the Social Interactions of Students with Conduct Disorder in Dil Betigil Primary School

Authors: Dawit Thomas Lambamo

Abstract:

Conduct disorder has become a major health and social problem; it is the most common psychiatric problem diagnosed among students which affect the academic and social interaction of students. This intervention was conducted in Dil Betigil primary school. After identifying six students with conduct disorder in Dil Betigil primary school, the intervention was conducted using a true experimental research design specifically pretest and posttest control group design. Data from teachers and parents of the students with conduct disorder were collected using adapted conduct disorder scale and semi-structured interview. The independent sample t-test of Pretest results of both experimental and control group indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups. Intervention is carried out to enhance their social interaction and to decrees aggressive, a serious violation of rules and theft behavior of students in collaboration with teachers and parents. After six intervention weeks the post-test result showed that there was statistically significant difference in aggression and serious violation between the experimental and control groups, but there was no statistically significant mean difference regarding deceitful or theft between the experimental and control group.

Keywords: conduct, disorder, social interaction, interaction

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8493 Analyzing the Use of Augmented and Virtual Reality to Teach Social Skills to Students with Autism

Authors: Maggie Mosher, Adam Carreon, Sean Smith

Abstract:

A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the evidence base on the use of augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), mixed reality (MR), and extended reality (XR) to present social skill instruction to school-age students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the systematic review focus was on a. the participants and intervention agents using AR, VR, MR, and XR for social skill acquisition b. the social skills taught through these mediums and c. the social validity measures (i.e., goals, procedures, and outcomes) reported in these studies. Forty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Researchers in six studies taught social skills to students through AR, in 27 studies through non-immersive VR, and in 10 studies through immersive VR. No studies used MR or XR. The primary targeted social skills were relationship skills, emotion recognition, social awareness, cooperation, and executive functioning. An intervention to improve many social skills was implemented by 73% of researchers, 17% taught a single skill, and 10% did not clearly state the targeted skill. The intervention was considered effective in 26 of the 41 studies (63%), not effective in four studies (10%), and 11 studies (27%) reported mixed results. No researchers reported information for all 17 social validity indicators. The social validity indicators reported by researchers ranged from two to 14. Social validity measures on the feelings toward and use of the technology were provided in 22 studies (54%). Findings indicated both AR and VR are promising platforms for providing social skill instruction to students with ASD. Studies utilizing this technology show a number of social validity indicators. However, the limited information provided on the various interventions, participant characteristics, and validity measures, offers insufficient evidence of the impact of these technologies in teaching social skills to students with ASD. Future research should develop a protocol for training treatment agents to assess the role of different variables (i.e., whether agents are customizing content, monitoring student learning, using intervention specific vocabulary in their day to day instruction). Sustainability may be increased by providing training in the technology to both treatment agents and participants. Providing scripts of instruction occurring within the intervention would provide the needed information to determine the primary method of teaching within the intervention. These variables play a role in maintenance and generalization of the social skills. Understanding the type of feedback provided would help researchers determine if students were able to feel rewarded for progressing through the scenarios or if students require rewarding aspects within the intervention (i.e., badges, trophies). AR has the potential to generalize instruction and VR has the potential for providing a practice environment for performance deficits. Combining these two technologies into a mixed reality intervention may provide a more cohesive and effective intervention.

Keywords: autism, augmented reality, social and emotional learning, social skills, virtual reality

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8492 Exploring Research Trends and Topics in Intervention on Metabolic Syndrome Using Network Analysis

Authors: Lee Soo-Kyoung, Kim Young-Su

Abstract:

This study established a network related to metabolic syndrome intervention by conducting a social network analysis of titles, keywords, and abstracts, and it identified emerging topics of research. It visualized an interconnection between critical keywords and investigated their frequency of appearance to construe the trends in metabolic syndrome intervention measures used in studies conducted over 38 years (1979–2017). It examined a collection of keywords from 8,285 studies using text rank analyzer, NetMiner 4.0. The analysis revealed 5 groups of newly emerging keywords in the research. By examining the relationship between keywords with reference to their betweenness centrality, the following clusters were identified. Thus if new researchers refer to existing trends to establish the subject of their study and the direction of the development of future research on metabolic syndrome intervention can be predicted.

Keywords: intervention, metabolic syndrome, network analysis, research, the trend

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8491 Effect of Early Therapeutic Intervention for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Quasi Experimental Design

Authors: Sultana Razia

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of early therapeutic intervention on children with an autism spectrum disorder. Participants were 140 children with autism spectrum disorder from Autism Corner in a selected rehabilitation center of Bangladesh. This study included children who are at aged of 18-month to 36-month and who were taking occupational therapy and speech and language therapy from the autism center. They were primarily screened using M-CHAT; however, children with other physical disabilities or medical conditions were excluded. 3-months interventions of 6 sessions per week are a minimum of 45-minutes long per session, one to one interaction followed by parent-led structured home-based therapy were provided. The results indicated that early intensive therapeutic intervention improves understanding, social skills and sensory skills. It can be concluded that therapeutic early intervention has a positive effect on diminishing symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Keywords: autism, m-chat, reciprocal social behavior, CRP

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8490 An Examination of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Adults with Hearing Loss

Authors: Christine Maleesha Withanachchi, Eithne Heffernan, Derek Hoare

Abstract:

Background: Social isolation (SI} is a major consequence of hearing loss (HL}. Isolation can lead to serious health problems (e.g., dementia and depression). Hearing Aids (HA) is the primary intervention for HL. However, these are less effective in social situations. Interventions are needed for SI in adults with hearing loss (AHL). Objectives: Investigated the relationship between HL and SI. Explored the views of AHL and hearing healthcare professionals (HHP) towards interventions for isolation. Methods: Individual and group semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were conducted at the Nottingham Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). Six AHL and seven HHP were recruited via maximum variation sampling. The interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Social impacts of HL: Most participants described that HL hurt them. This was in the form of social withdrawal, strain on relationships, and identity loss. Downstream effects of HL: Most audiologists acknowledged that isolation from HL could lead to depression. HL can also lead to exhaustion and unemployment. Impact of stigma: There are negative connotations around HL and HA (e.g. old age) and there is difficulty talking about isolation. The complexity of SI: There can be difficulty separating SI due to HL from SI due to other contributing factors (e.g. comorbidities). Potential intervention for isolation: Participants were unfamiliar with interventions for isolation and few, if any, were targeted for AHL specifically. Most participants thought an intervention should be patient-centered and run by an AHL in the community. Opinions differed regarding whether it should hear specific or generic. Implementation of intervention: Challenges to the implementation of an intervention for SI exist due to the sensitivity of the subject. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that SI is a major consequence of HL and uncovered novel findings related to its interventions. Uptake of interventions offered to AHL to reduce loneliness and social isolation is expected to be better if led by AHL in the community as opposed to HHP led interventions in the hospital or clinic settings.

Keywords: adults with hearing loss, hearing aids, interventions, social isolation

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8489 Wellbeing Warriors: A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effect of Martial Arts Training on Mental Health Outcomes

Authors: Brian Moore, Stuart Woodcock, Dean Dudley

Abstract:

Mental health problems have significant social and economic consequences; however, many individuals do not seek traditional assistance for mental health difficulties. Martial arts training may provide an inexpensive alternative to traditional psychological therapy. While limited research has suggested martial arts training may be an efficacious intervention, the validity and reliability of this are questionable given the small number of relevant studies and other methodological problems. The study examined the effects of 10-week martial arts-based psycho-social intervention which was evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. The intervention was delivered to 283 secondary school students, aged between 12-14 years, who were recruited from government and catholic secondary schools in New South Wales, Australia. The intervention was delivered in a group format onsite at participating schools and had an intervention dose of 10 x 50-60 minute sessions, once per week for 10 weeks. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-week follow-up. Results found a consistent pattern for strength based wellbeing outcomes. All primary and secondary measures relating to resilience and self-efficacy improved for the intervention group and declined for the control group. As these findings were derived from a robust design and rigorous evaluation, they provide valid and reliable evidence that martial arts-based psycho-social interventions can be considered as an efficacious method of improving strength and wellbeing outcomes.

Keywords: martial arts, mental health, resilience, self-efficacy

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8488 The Effect of Diet Intervention for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Bok Yae Chung, Eun Hee Oh

Abstract:

Breast cancer patients require more nutritional interventions than others. However, a few studies have attempted to assess the overall nutritional status, to reduce body weight and BMI by improving diet, and to improve the prognosis of cancer for breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet intervention in the breast cancer patients through meta-analysis. For the study purpose, 16 studies were selected by using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and CINAHL. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, and the effect size on outcome variables in breast cancer was calculated. The effect size for outcome variables of diet intervention was a large effect size. For heterogeneity, moderator analysis was performed using intervention type and intervention duration. All moderators did not significant difference. Diet intervention has significant positive effects on outcome variables in breast cancer. As a result, it is suggested that the timing of the intervention should be no more than six months, but a strategy for sustaining long-term intervention effects should be added if nutritional intervention is to be administered for breast cancer patients in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, diet, mete-analysis, intervention

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8487 Enhancing the Safety Climate and Reducing Violence against Staff in Closed Hospital Wards

Authors: Valerie Isaak

Abstract:

This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention program aimed at enhancing a unit-level safety climate as a way to minimize the risk of employees being injured by patient violence. The intervention program conducted in maximum security units in one of the psychiatric hospitals in Israel included a three day workshop. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention. We also collected data regarding incidents involving patient violence. Six months after the intervention a significant improvement in employees’ perceptions regarding management’s commitment to safety were found as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication concerning safety issues. Our research shows that an intervention program aimed at enhancing a safety climate is associated with a decrease in the number of aggressive incidents. We conclude that such an intervention program is likely to return the sense of safety and reduce the scope of violence.

Keywords: violence, intervention, safety climate, performance, public sector

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8486 The Mission Slimpossible Program: Dietary and Physical Activity Intervention to Combat Obesity among University Students in UITM Puncak Alam

Authors: Kartini Ilias, Nabilah Md Ahir, Nor Zafirah Ab Rahman, Safiah Md Yusof, Nuri Naqieyah Radzuan, Siti Sabariah Buhari

Abstract:

This study aim to develop and assess the effectiveness of an intervention in improving eating habits and physical activity level of university students of UiTM Puncak Alam. The intervention consists of weekly dietary counselling by registered dietitian and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for three times per week for the duration of 8 weeks. A total of 25 students from the intervention group and 25 students from control group who had BMI equal to or greater than 25kg/m² participated in the study. The results showed a significant reduction in body weight (3.0 kg), body fat percentage (7.9 %), waist circumference (7.3 cm) and BMI (2.9 kg/m²) between pre and post intervention. Besides, there was a significant increase in the level of physical activity among subjects in intervention group. In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on eating habit, physical activity level and improves weight status of the students. It is expected that the intervention could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating obesity intervention.

Keywords: obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

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8485 Gender Difference in Social Interaction Skills of Autism Using Token Economy and Video Modelling Strategies

Authors: Olusola Akintunde Adediran

Abstract:

This study examined differential effect of Gender difference in social interaction skill of pupils with autism using token economy and video modeling as intervention strategies. A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi-experimental research design was adopted in the study. 17 participants (11 males and 6 females) were selected purposively from 5 centres in Ibadan and randomized into three groups (token economy, video modeling and control groups). Two instruments were used in the study; Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS) for 299.00 Autistic Disorder (r = 0.82) and Children’s Self-report Social Skill Scale (CS4) (r= 0.93). A descriptive statistics was used to analyse the participants social interaction data based on intervention and gender, while inferential statistics of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and scheffe post-hoc measure was used to anlayse three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results obtained indicated that there was a significant main effect of treatment on social interaction of participants, but there was no significant of main effect of gender on the social interaction of participants, hence, (F(2,14) = .741; p > .05, eta = .050). Lastly, there was no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender of the participants, hence (F(2,10) = 2.177; p > .05, eta 2 = 202). The study has contributed to the frontiers of knowledge by establishing that social interaction of autism is attainable when token economy and video modelling are used as treatment intervention, hence, they should be adopted by the teachers, curriculum planners and other stakeholders.

Keywords: social interaction, token economy, video modelling, autism, gender

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8484 Indicators for Success of Obesity Reduction Programs in Adolescents; Body Composition and Body Mass Index: Evaluating a School-Based Health Promotion Project in Iran after 12 Weeks of Intervention

Authors: Saeid Doaei

Abstract:

Background: Obesity in adolescence is a primary risk factor for obesity in adulthood. The objective of this study was the assessment of the effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12 to 16 years old boy adolescents. Methods: 96 adolescent boys of two schools of District 5 of Tehran have participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned as intervention school (n=53) and control school (n=43). The height and weight of students were measured with a calibrated tape line and digital scale respectively and their BMI were calculated. The amounts of body fat percent (BF) and body muscle (BM) percent were determined by Bio Impedance Analyzer (BIA) considering the age, gender and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The intervention was implemented in the intervention school, according to the Ottawa charter principles. Results: 12 weeks of intervention decreased body fat percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81 % in the intervention group and increased by .39 % in the control group, P < .01). However, weight, BMI and BM did not change significantly. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that the implementation of comprehensive intervention in obese adolescents may improve the body composition, although these changes may not be reflected in BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.

Keywords: obesity, childhood, BMI, nutrition

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8483 Investigating the Role of Social Media in Supporting Parents and Teachers of Students with Down Syndrome: Focus on Early Intervention Services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Awatif Habeeb Al-Shamare

Abstract:

The number of social media users amongst special education teachers and parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS) is increasing annually. This is also the case in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). However, according to the best of the author’s knowledge, there are no qualitative studies which testify to the true nature of the interaction between teachers and parents when using social media, nor the role of social media in supporting and assisting parents and teachers with regards to the children’s educational needs in KSA. Therefore, this ongoing study aims to identify the role of social media in supporting parents and teachers of DS students, with a special emphasis on early intervention services in KSA. By bridging the knowledge gap on social media and special education in KSA and presenting socially relevant and applied information on the topic, this research provides a theoretical and practical base for the establishment of appropriate and effective programmes between the ministries of Information and Special Education in particular. A qualitative approach was selected because it was the most suitable approach for exploring the participants’ experiences, which could not be determined through scientific tests. Interviewing, chosen as the research instrument, allowed the researcher to obtain a detailed understanding of the topic linked to the study objectives. Initially, a pilot study was conducted at the Daycare Center in May 2016. Its aim was to examine and refine the methodology and assess whether the questions were understood with the potential for re-drafting them, if necessary. The main study consists of five teachers and five mothers with experience of using social media and with links to the Daycare Center. Thematic Analysis has been chosen for analysing the findings because it is a flexible method that allows themes to emerge from the data. Results of the current study are still in the initial stages, but the preliminary findings are as follows: (1) social media is an important tool in encouraging parents and teachers to access the necessary information and knowledge about, and experience in, early intervention services; (2) it acts as a support network for the parents; (3) it helps raise awareness about DS and the need for early intervention; (4) it can be used to put pressure on the government for an expansion in early intervention services, and finally (5) its use can be problematic in that parents and teachers face some difficulties and challenges when using the different platforms. It can be concluded that social media plays a significant role in the lives of teachers and parents with special needs children in KSA.

Keywords: down syndrome, early intervention services, social media, support parents and teachers

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8482 Bridging the Gap and Widening the Divide

Authors: Lerato Dixon, Thorsten Chmura

Abstract:

This paper explores whether ethnic identity in Zimbabwe leads to discriminatory behaviour and the degree to which a norm-based intervention can shift this discriminatory behaviour. Social Identity Theory suggests that group identity can lead to favouritism towards the in-group and discriminatory behaviour towards the out-group. Agents yield higher utility from maintaining positive self-esteem by confirming with group behaviour. This paper focuses on the two majority ethnic groups in Zimbabwe – the Ndebele and Shona. Racial identities are synonymous with the language spoken. Zimbabwe’s history highlights how identity formation took place. As following independence, political parties became recognised as either Ndebele or Shona-speaking. It is against this backdrop that this study investigates the degree to which norm-based nudge can alter behaviour. This paper uses experimental methods to analyse discriminatory behaviour between two naturally occurring ethnic groups in Zimbabwe. In addition, we investigate if social norm-based interventions can shift discriminatory behaviour to understand if the divide between these two identity groups can be further divided or healed. Participants are randomly assigned into three groups to receive information regarding a social norm. We compare the effect of a proscriptive social norm-based intervention, stating what shouldn't be done and prescriptive social norms as interventions, stating what should be done. Specifically, participants are either shown the socially appropriate (Heal) norm, the socially inappropriateness (Divide) norm regarding interethnic marriages or no norm-based intervention. Following the random assignment into intervention groups, participants take part in the Trust Game. We conjecture that discrimination will shift in accordance with the prevailing social norm. Instead, we find evidence of interethnic discriminatory behaviour. We also find that trust increases when interacting with Ndebele, Shona and Zimbabwean participants following the Heal intervention. However, if the participant is Shona, the Heal intervention decreases trust toward in-groups and Zimbabwean co-players. On the other hand, if the participant is Shona, the Divide treatment significantly increases trust toward Ndebele participants. In summary, we find evidence that norm-based interventions significantly change behaviour. However, the prescriptive norm-based intervention (Heal) decreases trust toward the in-group, out-group and national identity group if the participant is Shona – therefore having an adverse effect. In contrast, the proscriptive Divide treatment increases trust if the participant is Shona towards Ndebele co-players. We conclude that norm-based interventions have a ‘rebound’ effect by altering behaviour in the opposite direction.

Keywords: discrimination, social identity, social norm-based intervention, zimbabwe

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8481 A Randomized Control Trial Intervention to Combat Childhood Obesity in Negeri Sembilan: The Hebat! Program

Authors: Siti Sabariah Buhari, Ruzita Abdul Talib, Poh Bee Koon

Abstract:

This study aims to develop and evaluate an intervention to improve eating habits, active lifestyle and weight status of overweight and obese children in Negeri Sembilan. The H.E.B.A.T! Program involved children, parents, and school and focused on behaviour and environment modification to achieve its goal. The intervention consists of H.E.B.A.T! Camp, parent’s workshop and school-based activities. A total of 21 children from intervention school and 22 children from control school who had BMI for age Z-score ≥ +1SD participated in the study. Mean age of subjects was 10.8 ± 0.3 years old. Four phases were included in the development of the intervention. Evaluation of intervention was conducted through process, impact and outcome evaluation. Process evaluation found that intervention program was implemented successfully with minimal modification and without having any technical problems. Impact and outcome evaluation was assessed based on dietary intake, average step counts, BMI for age z-score, body fat percentage and waist circumference at pre-intervention (T0), post-intervention 1 (T1) and post-intervention 2 (T2). There was significant reduction in energy (14.8%) and fat (21.9%) intakes (at p < 0.05) at post-intervention 1 (T1) in intervention group. By controlling for sex as covariate, there was significant intervention effect for average step counts, BMI for age z-score and waist circumference (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the intervention made an impact on positive behavioural intentions and improves weight status of the children. It is expected that the HEBAT! Program could be adopted and implemented by the government and private sector as well as policy-makers in formulating childhood obesity intervention.

Keywords: childhood obesity, diet, obesity intervention, physical activity

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8480 Short and Long Term Effects of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Behaviors

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Over the last fifty years, maternal sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families have been a priority for researchers. For this reason, attachment-based interventions have been implemented and been shown to be effective in enhancing child development. Most of the time, child outcomes are measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child development shortly after the intervention ended and one-year post-intervention. Methods: Over the seventy-two mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, forty-two were included in this study: 24 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 18 dyads who did not. Intervention and none intervention dyads were matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, the reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex, and family status. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured 3 and 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children were respectively 45 and 54 months old. Findings: Independent-sample t-tests were conducted to compare scores between the two groups and the two data collection times. In general, on differences observed between the two groups three months after the intervention ended, just a few of them were still present nine months later. Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggests that the effects of attachment-based intervention observed three months following the intervention are not lasting for most of them. Those results inform us of the importance of considering the possibility to offer more attachment-based intervention sessions for those highly vulnerable families.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child behaviors, child protective services, highly vulnerable families

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8479 Sonic Therapeutic Intervention for Preventing Financial Fraud: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Vasudev Das

Abstract:

In a global survey of more than 5,000 participants in 99 territories, PwC found a loss of $42 billion through fraud in the last 24 months. The specific problem is that private and public organizational leaders often do not understand the importance of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The study aimed to explore sonic therapeutic intervention practitioners' lived experiences regarding the value of sonic therapeutic intervention in preventing financial fraud. The data collection methods were semi-structured interviews of purposeful samples and documentary reviews, which were analyzed thematically. Four themes emerged from the analysis of interview transcription data: Sonic therapeutic intervention enabled self-control, pro-spiritual values, consequentiality mindset, and post-conventional consciousness. The itemized four themes helped non-engagement in financial fraud. Implications for positive social change include enhanced financial fraud management, more significant financial leadership, and result-oriented decision-taking in the financial market. Also, the study results can improve the increased de-escalation of anxiety/stress associated with defrauding.

Keywords: consciousness, consequentiality, rehabilitation, reintegration

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8478 Promoting Personhood and Citizenship Amongst Individuals with Learning Disabilities: An Occupational Therapy Approach

Authors: Rebecca Haythorne

Abstract:

Background: Agendas continuously emphasise the need to increase work based training and opportunities for individuals with learning disabilities. However research and statistics suggest that there is still significant stigma and stereotypes as to what they can contribute, or gain from being part of the working environment. Method: To tackles some of these prejudices an Occupational Therapy based intervention was developed for learning disability service users working at a social enterprise farm. The intervention aimed to increase positive public perception around individual capabilities and encourage individuals with learning disabilities to take ownership and be proud of their individual personhood and citizenship. This was achieved by using components of the Model of Human Occupation to tailor the intervention to individual values, skills and working contributions. The final project involved making creative wall art for public viewing, focusing on 'who works there and what they do'. This was accompanied by a visitor information guide, allowing individuals to tell visitors about themselves, the work they do and why it is meaningful to them. Outcomes: The intervention has helped to increased metal well-being and confidence of learning disability service users “people will know I work here now” and “I now have something to show my family about the work I do at the farm”. The intervention has also increased positive public perception and community awareness “you can really see the effort that’s gone into doing this” and “it’s a really visual experience to see people you don’t expect to see doing this type of work”. Resources left behind have further supported individuals to take ownership in creating more wall art to be sold at the farm shop. Conclusion: the intervention developed has helped to improve mental well-being of both service users and staff and improve community awareness. Due to this, the farm has decided to roll out the intervention to other areas of the social enterprise and is considering having more Occupational Therapy involvement in the future.

Keywords: citizenship, intervention, occupational therapy, personhood

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8477 Nutriscience Project: A Web-Based Intervention to Improve Nutritional Literacy among Families and Educators of Pre-School Children

Authors: R. Barros, J. Azevedo, P. Padrão, M. Gregório, I. Pádua, C. Almeida, C. Rodrigues, P. Fontes, A. Coelho

Abstract:

Recent evidence shows a positive association between nutritional literacy and healthy eating. Traditional nutrition education strategies for childhood obesity prevention have shown weak effect. The Nutriscience project aims to create and evaluate an innovative and multidisciplinary strategy for promoting effective and accessible nutritional information to children, their families, and educators. Nutriscience is a one-year prospective follow-up evaluation study including pre-school children (3-5 y), who attend national schools’ network (29). The project is structured around a web-based intervention, using an on-line interactive platform, and focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and reducing sugar and salt intake. The platform acts as a social network where educational materials, games, and nutritional challenges are proposed in a gamification approach that promotes family and community social ties. A nutrition Massive Online Open Course is developed for educators, and a national healthy culinary contest will be promoted on TV channel. A parental self-reported questionnaire assessing sociodemographic and nutritional literacy (knowledge, attitudes, skills) is administered (baseline and end of the intervention). We expect that results on nutritional literacy from the presented strategy intervention will give us important information about the best practices for health intervention with kindergarten families. This intervention program using a digital interactive platform could be an educational tool easily adapted and disseminated for childhood obesity prevention.

Keywords: childhood obesity, educational tool, nutritional literacy, web-based intervention

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8476 Study on the Characteristics of Victims and Victimizers of Intimate Partner Violence in Spain and Its Impact on Criminal Intervention

Authors: María José Benitez Jimenez

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This research is based on the hypothesis that, despite being found that the problem of violence against the female partner occurs in all social classes, the criminal intervention falls, above all, on victims and aggressors with sociodemographic characteristics of the most excluded social groups. The methodology used in this study has been a collection of information through Spanish official statistics from 2004 to 2016: population, police, judicial and penitentiary data from Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and statistics National Institute. The data provided show that women victims and aggressors who come into contact with criminal intervention bodies for filing a complaint or having been reported, respectively, show a very high percentage, usually well above 50%, only primary studies or even that. Their employment situation is also precarious, in a percentage that could also be around 70%. The percentage distribution of these two variables is clearly above that which occurs in the whole of the Spanish population, in a particularly marked way as regards the employment situation. Immigrants triple, as victims or as aggressors of gender violence, the percentages of the Spanish population in terms of their contact with the organs of criminal intervention. Also the rate of foreign inmates in prisons for violence against the female couple doubles that of Spanish inmates.

Keywords: inmigrants, intimate partner violence, Spain, sociodemographic characteristics

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8475 Family Homicide: A Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities in California

Authors: Bohsiu Wu

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This study compares the differences in social dynamics between rural and urban areas in California to explain homicides involving family members. It is hypothesized that rural homicides are better explained by social isolation and lack of intervention resources, whereas urban homicides are attributed to social disadvantage factors. Several critical social dynamics including social isolation, social disadvantages, acculturation, and intervention resources were entered in a hierarchical linear model (HLM) to examine whether county-level factors affect how each specific dynamic performs at the ZIP code level, a proxy measure for communities. Homicide data are from the Supplementary Homicide Report for all 58 counties in California from 1997 to 1999. Predictors at both the county and ZIP code levels are derived from the 2000 US census. Preliminary results from a HLM analysis show that social isolation is a significant but moderate predictor to explain rural family homicide and various social disadvantage factors are significant factors accounting for urban family homicide. Acculturation has little impact. Rurality and urbanity appear to interact with various social dynamics in explaining family homicide. The implications for prevention at both the county and community level as well as directions for future study on the differences between rural and urban locales are explored in the paper.

Keywords: communities, family, HLM, homicide, rural, urban

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8474 Suicide Intervention Experiences and Practices of School Counselors: Basis for Development of Practice Guidelines

Authors: Joel C. Navarez

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The current study investigated the Filipino school counselor’s knowledge, attitudes, and competencies in suicide intervention as well as their experiences and practices in suicide intervention. The study also aimed to develop and standardize suicide intervention guidelines. The study has two (2) phases. Phase 1 utilized the descriptive and generic qualitative inquiry methods of research. Purposive and convenience sampling was applied, and participants were college counselors from the National Capital Region (NCR), Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Results revealed that counselors do not have high level of knowledge on suicidal behaviors, have some negative attitudes toward suicidal behavior, and need to acquire better intervention skills. The findings also showed that the trainings received by counselors are not enough to advance their suicide intervention skills, which would help enhance positive attitudes towards suicide risk assessment and management. Some common experiences of the counselors in suicide intervention were focused on the areas of accountability, stigmatizing attitudes of parents, and confidentiality issues. Phase 2 of the study was the development of suicide intervention practice guidelines using the Delphi process. The tentative guideline was based on the content analysis of interventions taken from literature and from the actual intervention practices of counselors, as seen from the findings of the qualitative study of Phase 1. After three (3) Delphi rounds and the consensus from sixteen (16) mental health experts, 145 recommended actions can be implemented by school counselors in suicide.

Keywords: counselor competencies, counselor development, suicide, suicide intervention

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