Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30072

Search results for: social life cycle analysis

30072 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
30071 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

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The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
30070 Energy-Led Sustainability Assessment Approach for Energy-Efficient Manufacturing

Authors: Aldona Kluczek

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In recent years, manufacturing processes have interacted with sustainability issues realized in the cost-effective ways that minimalize energy, decrease negative impacts on the environment and are safe for society. However, the attention has been on separate sustainability assessment methods considering energy and material flow, energy consumption, and emission release or process control. In this paper, the energy-led sustainability assessment approach combining the methods: energy Life Cycle Assessment to assess environmental impact, Life Cycle Cost to analyze costs, and Social Life Cycle Assessment through ‘energy LCA-based value stream map’, is used to assess the energy sustainability of the hardwood lumber manufacturing process in terms of technologies. The approach integrating environmental, economic and social issues can be visualized in the considered energy-efficient technologies on the map of an energy LCA-related (input and output) inventory data. It will enable the identification of efficient technology of a given process to be reached, through the effective analysis of energy flow. It is also indicated that interventions in the considered technology should focus on environmental, economic improvements to achieve energy sustainability. The results have indicated that the most intense energy losses are caused by a cogeneration technology. The environmental impact analysis shows that a substantial reduction by 34% can be achieved with the improvement of it. From the LCC point of view, the result seems to be cost-effective, when done at that plant where the improvement is used. By demonstrating the social dimension, every component of the energy of plant labor use in the life-cycle process of the lumber production has positive energy benefits. The energy required to install the energy-efficient technology amounts to 30.32 kJ compared to others components of the energy of plant labor and it has the highest value in terms of energy-related social indicators. The paper depicts an example of hardwood lumber production in order to prove the applicability of a sustainability assessment method.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy life cycle assessment, life cycle cost, social life cycle analysis, manufacturing process, sustainability assessment

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30069 Adaptable Buildings for More Sustainable Housing: Energy Life Cycle Analysis

Authors: Rafael Santos Fischer, Aloísio Leoni Schmid, Amanda Dalla-Bonna

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The life cycle analysis and the energy life cycle analysis are useful design support tools when sustainability becomes imperative. The final phase of buildings life cycle is probably the least known, on which less knowledge is available. In the Brazilian building industry, the lifespan of a building design rarely is treated as a definite design parameter. There is rather a common sense attitude to take any building demands as permanent, and to take for granted that buildings solutions are durable and solid. Housing, being a permanent issue in any society, presents a real challenge to the choice of a design lifespan. In Brazilian history, there was a contrast of the native solutions of collective, non-durable houses built by several nomadic tribes, and the stone and masonry buildings introduced by the sedentary Portuguese conquerors. Durable buildings are commonly associated with welfare. However, social dynamics makes traditional families of both parents and children be just one of several possible arrangements. In addition, a more liberal attitude towards family leads to an increase in the number of people living in alternative arrangements. Japan is an example of country where houses have been made intentionally ephemeral since the half of 20th century. The present article presents the development of a flexible housing design solution on the basis of the Design Science Research approach. A comparison in terms of energy life cycle shows how flexibility and dematerialization may point at a feasible future for housing policies in Brazil.

Keywords: adaptability, adaptable building, embodied energy, life cyclce analysis, social housing

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
30068 Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Buildings: A Case Study in Canada

Authors: Venkatesh Kumar, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq

Abstract:

Residential buildings consume significant amounts of energy and produce a large amount of emissions and waste. However, there is a substantial potential for energy savings in this sector which needs to be evaluated over the life cycle of residential buildings. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been employed to study the primary energy uses and associated environmental impacts of different phases (i.e., product, construction, use, end of life, and beyond building life) for residential buildings. Four different alternatives of residential buildings in Vancouver (BC, Canada) with a 50-year lifespan have been evaluated, including High Rise Apartment (HRA), Low Rise Apartment (LRA), Single family Attached House (SAH), and Single family Detached House (SDH). Life cycle performance of the buildings is evaluated for embodied energy, embodied environmental impacts, operational energy, operational environmental impacts, total life-cycle energy, and total life cycle environmental impacts. Estimation of operational energy and LCA are performed using DesignBuilder software and Athena Impact estimator software respectively. The study results revealed that over the life span of the buildings, the relationship between the energy use and the environmental impacts are identical. LRA is found to be the best alternative in terms of embodied energy use and embodied environmental impacts; while, HRA showed the best life-cycle performance in terms of minimum energy use and environmental impacts. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to study the influence of building service lifespan over 50, 75, and 100 years on the relative significance of embodied energy and total life cycle energy. The life-cycle energy requirements for SDH is found to be a significant component among the four types of residential buildings. The overall disclose that the primary operations of these buildings accounts for 90% of the total life cycle energy which far outweighs minor differences in embodied effects between the buildings.

Keywords: building simulation, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, life cycle energy analysis, residential buildings

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30067 A Study on the Accelerated Life Cycle Test Method of the Motor for Home Appliances by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the accelerated life cycle test method of the motor for home appliances that demand high reliability. Life Cycle of parts in home appliances also should be 10 years because life cycle of the home appliances such as washing machine, refrigerator, TV is at least 10 years. In case of washing machine, the life cycle test method of motor is advanced for 3000 cycle test (1cycle = 2hours). However, 3000 cycle test incurs loss for the time and cost. Objectives of this study are to reduce the life cycle test time and the number of test samples, which could be realized by using acceleration factor for the test time and reduction factor for the number of sample.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, motor reliability test, motor for washing machine, BLDC motor

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30066 Simulation Aided Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Framework for Manufacturing Design and Management

Authors: Mijoh A. Gbededo, Kapila Liyanage, Ilias Oraifige

Abstract:

Decision making for sustainable manufacturing design and management requires critical considerations due to the complexity and partly conflicting issues of economic, social and environmental factors. Although there are tools capable of assessing the combination of one or two of the sustainability factors, the frameworks have not adequately integrated all the three factors. Case study and review of existing simulation applications also shows the approach lacks integration of the sustainability factors. In this paper we discussed the development of a simulation based framework for support of a holistic assessment of sustainable manufacturing design and management. To achieve this, a strategic approach is introduced to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the existing decision supporting tools. Investigation reveals that Discrete Event Simulation (DES) can serve as a rock base for other Life Cycle Analysis frameworks. Simio-DES application optimizes systems for both economic and competitive advantage, Granta CES EduPack and SimaPro collate data for Material Flow Analysis and environmental Life Cycle Assessment, while social and stakeholders’ analysis is supported by Analytical Hierarchy Process, a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method. Such a common and integrated framework creates a platform for companies to build a computer simulation model of a real system and assess the impact of alternative solutions before implementing a chosen solution.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, life cycle sustainability analysis, manufacturing, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
30065 Corporate Life Cycle and Corporate Social Responsibility Performance: Empirical Evidence from Pharmaceutical Industry in China

Authors: Jing (Claire) LI

Abstract:

The topic of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is significant for pharmaceutical companies in China at this current stage. This is because, as a rapid growth industry in China in recent years, the pharmaceutical industry in China has been undergone continuous and terrible incidents relating to CSR. However, there is limited research and practice of CSR in Chinese pharmaceutical companies. Also, there is an urgent call for more research in an international context to understand the implications of corporate life cycle on CSR performance. To respond to the research need and research call, this study examines the relationship between corporate life cycle and CSR performance of Chinese listed companies in pharmaceutical industry. This research studies Chinese listed companies in pharmaceutical industry for the period of 2010-2017, where the data is available in database. Following the literature, this study divides CSR performance with regards to CSR dimensions, including shareholders, creditors, employees, customers, suppliers, the government, and the society. This study uses CSR scores of HEXUN database and financial measures of these CSR dimensions to measure the CSR performance. This study performed regression analysis to examine the relationship between corporate life cycle stages and CSR performance with regards to CSR dimensions for pharmaceutical listed companies in China. Using cash flow pattern as proxy of corporate life cycle to classify corporate life cycle stages, this study found that most (least) pharmaceutical companies in China are in maturity (decline) stage. This study found that CSR performance for most dimensions are highest (lowest) in maturity (decline) stage as well. Among these CSR dimensions, performing responsibilities for shareholder is the most important among all CSR responsibilities for pharmaceutical companies. This study is the first to provide important empirical evidence from Chinese pharmaceutical industry on the association between life cycle and CSR performance, supporting that corporate life cycle is a key factor in CSR performance. The study expands corporate life cycle and CSR literatures and has both empirical and theoretical contributions to the literature. From perspective of empirical contributions, the findings contribute to the argument that whether there is a relationship between CSR performance and various corporate life cycle stages in the literature. This study also provides empirical evidence that companies in different corporate life cycles have difference in CSR performance. From perspective of theoretical contributions, this study relates CSR and stakeholders to corporate life cycle stages and complements the corporate life cycle and CSR literature. This study has important implications for managers and policy makers. First, the results will be helpful for managers to have an understanding in the essence of CSR, and their company’s current and future CSR focus over corporate life cycle. This study provides a reference for their actions and may help them make more wise resources allocation decisions of CSR investment. Second, policy makers (in the government, stock exchanges, and securities commission) may consider corporate life cycle as an important factor in formulating future regulations for companies. Future research can explore the "process-based" differences in CSR performance and more industries.

Keywords: China, corporate life cycle, corporate social responsibility, pharmaceutical industry

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30064 Life Cycle-Based Analysis of Meat Production: Ecosystem Impacts

Authors: Michelle Zeyuan Ma, Hermann Heilmeier

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Recently, meat production ecosystem impacts initiated many hot discussions and researchers, and it is a difficult implementation to reduce such impacts due to the demand of meat products. It calls for better management and control of ecosystem impacts from every aspects of meat production. This article analyzes the ecosystem impacts of meat production based on meat products life cycle. The analysis shows that considerable ecosystem impacts are caused by different meat production steps: initial establishment phase, animal raising, slaughterhouse processing, meat consumption, and wastes management. Based on this analysis, the impacts are summarized as: leading factor for biodiversity loss; water waste, land use waste and land degradation; greenhouse gases emissions; pollution to air, water, and soil; related major diseases. The article also provides a discussion on a solution-sustainable food system, which could help in reducing ecosystem impacts. The analysis method is based on the life cycle level, it provides a concept of the whole meat industry ecosystem impacts, and the analysis result could be useful to manage or control meat production ecosystem impacts from investor, producer and consumer sides.

Keywords: eutrophication, life cycle based analysis, sustainable food, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
30063 Impact of Design Choices on the Life Cycle Energy of Modern Buildings

Authors: Mahsa Karimpour, Martin Belusko, Ke Xing, Frank Bruno

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Traditionally the embodied energy of design choices which reduce operational energy were assumed to have a negligible impact on the life cycle energy of buildings. However with new buildings having considerably lower operational energy, the significance of embodied energy increases. A life cycle assessment of a population of house designs was conducted in a mild and mixed climate zone. It was determined not only that embodied energy dominates life cycle energy, but that the impact on embodied of design choices was of equal significance to the impact on operational energy.

Keywords: building life cycle energy, embodied energy, energy design measures, low energy buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 666
30062 New Environmental Culture in Algeria: Eco Design

Authors: S. Tireche, A. Tairi abdelaziz

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Environmental damage has increased steadily in recent decades: Depletion of natural resources, destruction of the ozone layer, greenhouse effect, degradation of the quality of life, land use etc. New terms have emerged as: "Prevention rather than cure" or "polluter pays" falls within the principles of common sense, their practical implementation still remains fragmented. Among the avenues to be explored, one of the most promising is certainly one that focuses on product design. Indeed, where better than during the design phase, can reduce the source of future impacts on the environment? What choices or those of design, they influence more on the environmental characteristics of products? The most currently recognized at the international level is the analysis of the life cycle (LCA) and Life Cycle Assessment, subject to International Standardization (ISO 14040-14043). LCA provides scientific and objective assessment of potential impacts of the product or service, considering its entire life cycle. This approach makes it possible to minimize impacts to the source in pollution prevention. It is widely preferable to curative approach, currently majority in the industrial crops, led mostly by a report of pollution. The "product" is to reduce the environmental impacts of a given product, taking into account all or part of its life cycle. Currently, there are emerging tools, known as eco-design. They are intended to establish an environmental profile of the product to improve its environmental performance. They require a quantity sufficient information on the product for each phase of its life cycle: raw material extraction, manufacturing, distribution, usage, end of life (recycling or incineration or deposit) and all stages of transport. The assessment results indicate the sensitive points of the product studied, points on which the developer must act.

Keywords: eco design, impact, life cycle analysis (LCA), sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
30061 Constructing a Bayesian Network for Solar Energy in Egypt Using Life Cycle Analysis and Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Rawaa H. El-Bidweihy, Hisham M. Abdelsalam, Ihab A. El-Khodary

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In an era where machines run and shape our world, the need for a stable, non-ending source of energy emerges. In this study, the focus was on the solar energy in Egypt as a renewable source, the most important factors that could affect the solar energy’s market share throughout its life cycle production were analyzed and filtered, the relationships between them were derived before structuring a Bayesian network. Also, forecasted models were built for multiple factors to predict the states in Egypt by 2035, based on historical data and patterns, to be used as the nodes’ states in the network. 37 factors were found to might have an impact on the use of solar energy and then were deducted to 12 factors that were chosen to be the most effective to the solar energy’s life cycle in Egypt, based on surveying experts and data analysis, some of the factors were found to be recurring in multiple stages. The presented Bayesian network could be used later for scenario and decision analysis of using solar energy in Egypt, as a stable renewable source for generating any type of energy needed.

Keywords: ARIMA, auto correlation, Bayesian network, forecasting models, life cycle, partial correlation, renewable energy, SARIMA, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
30060 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Hyungoo Kang, Hyungjun Shin

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In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time.

Keywords: slit dampers, friction dampers, seismic retrofit, life cycle cost, FEMA P-58, PACT

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
30059 Research on the Strategy of Whole-Life-Cycle Campus Design from the Perspective of Sustainable Concept: A Case Study on Hangzhou Senior High School in Zhejiang

Authors: Fan Yang

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With the development of social economy and the popularization of quality education, the Chinese government invests more and more funding in education. Campus constructions are experiencing a great development phase. Under the trend of sustainable development, modern green campus design needs to meet new requirements of contemporary, informational and diversified education means and adapt to future education development. Educators, designers and other participants of campus design are facing new challenges. By studying and analyzing the universal unsatisfied current situations and sustainable development requirements of Chinese campuses, this paper summarizes the strategies and intentions of the whole-life-cycle campus design. In addition, a Chinese high school in Zhejiang province is added to illustrate the design cycle in an actual case. It is aimed to make all participants of campus design, especially the designers, to realize the importance of whole-life-cycle campus design and cooperate better. Sustainable campus design is expected to come true in deed instead of becoming a slogan in this way.

Keywords: campus design, green school, sustainable development, whole-life-cycle design

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30058 Characteristics and Feature Analysis of PCF Labeling among Construction Materials

Authors: Sung-mo Seo, Chang-u Chae

Abstract:

The Product Carbon Footprint Labeling has been run for more than four years by the Ministry of Environment and there are number of products labeled by KEITI, as for declaring products with their carbon emission during life cycle stages. There are several categories for certifying products by the characteristics of usage. Building products which are applied to a building as combined components. In this paper, current status of PCF labeling has been compared with LCI DB for data composition. By this comparative analysis, we suggest carbon labeling development.

Keywords: carbon labeling, LCI DB, building materials, life cycle assessment

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30057 Analysing the Applicability of a Participatory Approach to Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: Case Study of a Housing Estate Regeneration in London

Authors: Sahar Navabakhsh, Rokia Raslan, Yair Schwartz

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Decision-making on regeneration of housing estates, whether to refurbish or re-build, has been mostly triggered by economic factors. To enable sustainable growth, it is vital that environmental and social impacts of different scenarios are also taken into account. The methodology used to include all the three sustainable development pillars is called Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), which comprises of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the assessment of environmental impacts of buildings. Current practice of LCA is regularly conducted post design stage and by sustainability experts. Not only is undertaking an LCA at this stage less effective, but issues such as the limited scope for the definition and assessment of environmental impacts, the implication of changes in the system boundary and the alteration of each of the variable metrics, employment of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods and use of various inventory data for Life Cycle Inventory Analysis can result in considerably contrasting results. Given the niche nature and scarce specialist domain of LCA of buildings, the majority of the stakeholders do not contribute to the generation or interpretation of the impact assessment, and the results can be generated and interpreted subjectively due to the mentioned uncertainties. For an effective and democratic assessment of environmental impacts, different stakeholders, and in particular the community and design team should collaborate in the process of data collection, assessment and analysis. This paper examines and evaluates a participatory approach to LCSA through the analysis of a case study of a housing estate in South West London. The study has been conducted throughout tier-based collaborative methods to collect and share data through surveys and co-design workshops with the community members and the design team as the main stakeholders. The assessment of lifecycle impacts is conducted throughout the process and has influenced the decision-making on the design of the Community Plan. The evaluation concludes better assessment transparency and outcome, alongside other socio-economic benefits of identifying and engaging the most contributive stakeholders in the process of conducting LCSA.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, participatory LCA, life cycle sustainability assessment, participatory processes, decision-making, housing estate regeneration

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30056 Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine

Authors: B. Engel, Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni

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Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.

Keywords: failure analysis, fatigue life, FEM analysis, shaft, stress analysis

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30055 A Sustainability Benchmarking Framework Based on the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: The Case of the Italian Ceramic District

Authors: A. M. Ferrari, L. Volpi, M. Pini, C. Siligardi, F. E. Garcia Muina, D. Settembre Blundo

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A long tradition in the ceramic manufacturing since the 18th century, primarily due to the availability of raw materials and an efficient transport system, let to the birth and development of the Italian ceramic tiles district that nowadays represents a reference point for this sector even at global level. This economic growth has been coupled to attention towards environmental sustainability issues throughout various initiatives undertaken over the years at the level of the production sector, such as certification activities and sustainability policies. In this way, starting from an evaluation of the sustainability in all its aspects, the present work aims to develop a benchmarking helping both producers and consumers. In the present study, throughout the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) framework, the sustainability has been assessed in all its dimensions: environmental with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), economic with the Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and social with the Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA). The annual district production of stoneware tiles during the 2016 reference year has been taken as reference flow for all the three assessments, and the system boundaries cover the entire life cycle of the tiles, except for the LCC for which only the production costs have been considered at the moment. In addition, a preliminary method for the evaluation of local and indoor emissions has been introduced in order to assess the impact due to atmospheric emissions on both people living in the area surrounding the factories and workers. The Life Cycle Assessment results, obtained from IMPACT 2002+ modified assessment method, highlight that the manufacturing process is responsible for the main impact, especially because of atmospheric emissions at a local scale, followed by the distribution to end users, the installation and the ordinary maintenance of the tiles. With regard to the economic evaluation, both the internal and external costs have been considered. For the LCC, primary data from the analysis of the financial statements of Italian ceramic companies show that the higher cost items refer to expenses for goods and services and costs of human resources. The analysis of externalities with the EPS 2015dx method attributes the main damages to the distribution and installation of the tiles. The social dimension has been investigated with a preliminary approach by using the Social Hotspots Database, and the results indicate that the most affected damage categories are health and safety and labor rights and decent work. This study shows the potential of the LCSA framework applied to an industrial sector; in particular, it can be a useful tool for building a comprehensive benchmark for the sustainability of the ceramic industry, and it can help companies to actively integrate sustainability principles into their business models.

Keywords: benchmarking, Italian ceramic industry, life cycle sustainability assessment, porcelain stoneware tiles

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30054 Measuring Ecological Footprint: Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Binita Shah, Seema Unnikrishnan

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In the recent time, an increasing interest in the analysis and efforts to reduce the environmental impacts generated by man-made activities has been seen widely being discussed and implemented by the society. The industrial processes are expressing their concern and showing keen interest in redesigning and amending the operation process leading to better environmental performance by upgrading technologies and adjusting the financial inputs. There are various tools available for the assessment of process and production of goods on the environment. Most methods look at a particular impact on the ecosystem. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely accepted and scientifically founded methodologies to assess the overall environmental impacts of products and processes. This paper looks at the tools used in India for environmental impact assessment.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, ecological footprint, measuring sustainability, India

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30053 Analysis of Human Toxicity Potential of Major Building Material Production Stage Using Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Rakhyun Kim, Sungho Tae

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Global environmental issues such as abnormal weathers due to global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem distortions have been escalating due to rapid increase of population growth, and expansion of industrial and economic development. Accordingly, initiatives have been implemented by many countries to protect the environment through indirect regulation methods such as Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), in addition to direct regulations such as various emission standards. Following this trend, life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques that provide quantitative environmental information, such as Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), for buildings are being developed in the construction industry. However, at present, the studies on the environmental database of building materials are not sufficient to provide this support adequately. The purpose of this study is to analysis human toxicity potential of major building material production stage using life cycle assessment. For this purpose, the theoretical consideration of the life cycle assessment and environmental impact category was performed and the direction of the study was set up. That is, the major material in the global warming potential view was drawn against the building and life cycle inventory database was selected. The classification was performed about 17 kinds of substance and impact index, such as human toxicity potential, that it specifies in CML2001. The environmental impact of analysis human toxicity potential for the building material production stage was calculated through the characterization. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of building material in the same category was analyze based on the characterization impact which was calculated in this study. In this study, establishment of environmental impact coefficients of major building material by complying with ISO 14040. Through this, it is believed to effectively support the decisions of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of buildings and provide a basis for voluntary participation of architects in environment consideration activities.

Keywords: human toxicity potential, major building material, life cycle assessment, production stage

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30052 Study of Sustainability Indicators in a Milk Production Process

Authors: E. Lacasa, J. L. Santolaya, I. Millán

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The progress toward sustainability implies maintaining and preferably improving both, human and ecosystem well-being, according to a triple bottom line that includes the environmental, economic and social dimensions. The life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method applicable to all production sectors that aims to quantify the environmental pressures and the benefits related to goods and services, as well as the trade-offs and the scope for improving areas of the production process. While using LCA to measure the environmental dimension of sustainability is widespread, similar approaches for the economic and the social dimensions still have limited application worldwide and there is a need for consistent and robust methods and indicators. This paper focuses on the milk production process and presents the analysis of the flows exchanged by an industrial installation through accounting all the energy and material inputs and the associated emissions and waste outputs at this stage of its life cycle. The functional unit is one litre of milk produced. Different metrics and indicators are used to assess the three dimensions of sustainability. Metrics considered useful to assess the production activities are the total water and energy consumptions and the milk production volume of each cow. The global warming, the value added and the working hours are indicators used to measure each sustainability dimension. The study is performed with two types of feeding of the cows, which includes a change in percentages of components as well. Nutritional composition of the milk obtained is almost kept. It is observed that environmental and social improvements involve high economic costs.

Keywords: milk production, sustainability, indicators, life cycle assessment

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30051 Quantifying Product Impacts on Biodiversity: The Product Biodiversity Footprint

Authors: Leveque Benjamin, Rabaud Suzanne, Anest Hugo, Catalan Caroline, Neveux Guillaume

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Human products consumption is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss. However, few pertinent ecological indicators regarding product life cycle impact on species and ecosystems have been built. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies are well under way to conceive standardized methods to assess this impact, by taking already partially into account three of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment pressures (land use, pollutions, climate change). Coupling LCA and ecological data and methods is an emerging challenge to develop a product biodiversity footprint. This approach was tested on three case studies from food processing, textile, and cosmetic industries. It allowed first to improve the environmental relevance of the Potential Disappeared Fraction of species, end-point indicator typically used in life cycle analysis methods, and second to introduce new indicators on overexploitation and invasive species. This type of footprint is a major step in helping companies to identify their impacts on biodiversity and to propose potential improvements.

Keywords: biodiversity, companies, footprint, life cycle assessment, products

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30050 Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Selected Modular Timber Construction and Assembly Typologies

Authors: Benjamin Goldsmith, Felix Heisel

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The building industry must reduce its emissions in order to meet 2030 neutrality targets, and modular and/or offsite construction is seen as an alternative to conventional construction methods which could help achieve this goal. Modular construction has previously been shown to be less wasteful and has a lower global warming potential (GWP). While many studies have been conducted investigating the life cycle impacts of modular and conventional construction, few studies have compared different types of modular assembly and construction in order to determine which offer the greatest environmental benefits over their whole life cycle. This study seeks to investigate three different modular construction types -infill frame, core, and podium- in order to determine environmental impacts such as GWP as well as circularity indicators. The study will focus on the emissions of the production, construction, and end-of-life phases. The circularity of the various approaches will be taken into consideration in order to acknowledge the potential benefits of the ability to reuse and/or reclaim materials, products, and assemblies. The study will conduct hypothetical case studies for the three different modular construction types, and in doing so, control the parameters of location, climate, program, and client. By looking in-depth at the GWP of the beginning and end phases of various simulated modular buildings, it will be possible to make suggestions on which type of construction has the lowest global warming potential.

Keywords: modular construction, offsite construction, life cycle analysis, global warming potential, environmental impact, circular economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
30049 Life Cycle Assessment as a Decision Making for Window Performance Comparison in Green Building Design

Authors: Ghada Elshafei, Abdelazim Negm

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Life cycle assessment is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; and interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. In this paper, the life cycle assessment of aluminum and beech wood as two commonly used materials in Egypt for window frames are heading, highlighting their benefits and weaknesses. Window frames of the two materials have been assessed on the basis of their production, energy consumption and environmental impacts. It has been found that the climate change of the windows made of aluminum and beech wood window, for a reference window (1.2m × 1.2m), are 81.7 mPt and - 52.5 mPt impacts respectively. Among the most important results are: fossil fuel consumption, potential contributions to the green building effect and quantities of solid waste tend to be minor for wood products compared to aluminum products; incineration of wood products can cause higher impacts of acidification and eutrophication than aluminum, whereas thermal energy can be recovered.

Keywords: aluminum window, beech wood window, green building, life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis, SimaPro software, window frame

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30048 Exergetic and Life Cycle Assessment Analyses of Integrated Biowaste Gasification-Combustion System: A Study Case

Authors: Anabel Fernandez, Leandro Rodriguez-Ortiz, Rosa RodríGuez

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Due to the negative impact of fossil fuels, renewable energies are promising sources to limit global temperature rise and damage to the environment. Also, the development of technology is focused on obtaining energetic products from renewable sources. In this study, a thermodynamic model including Exergy balance and a subsequent Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were carried out for four subsystems of the integrated gasification-combustion of pinewood. Results of exergy analysis and LCA showed the process feasibility in terms of exergy efficiency and global energy efficiency of the life cycle (GEELC). Moreover, the energy return on investment (EROI) index was calculated. The global exergy efficiency resulted in 67 %. For pretreatment, reaction, cleaning, and electric generation subsystems, the results were 85, 59, 87, and 29 %, respectively. Results of LCA indicated that the emissions from the electric generation caused the most damage to the atmosphere, water, and soil. GEELC resulted in 31.09 % for the global process. This result suggested the environmental feasibility of an integrated gasification-combustion system. EROI resulted in 3.15, which determinates the sustainability of the process.

Keywords: exergy analysis, life cycle assessment (LCA), renewability, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
30047 Review of Life-Cycle Analysis Applications on Sustainable Building and Construction Sector as Decision Support Tools

Authors: Liying Li, Han Guo

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Considering the environmental issues generated by the building sector for its energy consumption, solid waste generation, water use, land use, and global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this review pointed out to LCA as a decision-support tool to substantially improve the sustainability in the building and construction industry. The comprehensiveness and simplicity of LCA make it one of the most promising decision support tools for the sustainable design and construction of future buildings. This paper contains a comprehensive review of existing studies related to LCAs with a focus on their advantages and limitations when applied in the building sector. The aim of this paper is to enhance the understanding of a building life-cycle analysis, thus promoting its application for effective, sustainable building design and construction in the future. Comparisons and discussions are carried out between four categories of LCA methods: building material and component combinations (BMCC) vs. the whole process of construction (WPC) LCA,attributional vs. consequential LCA, process-based LCA vs. input-output (I-O) LCA, traditional vs. hybrid LCA. Classical case studies are presented, which illustrate the effectiveness of LCA as a tool to support the decisions of practitioners in the design and construction of sustainable buildings. (i) BMCC and WPC categories of LCA researches tend to overlap with each other, as majority WPC LCAs are actually developed based on a bottom-up approach BMCC LCAs use. (ii) When considering the influence of social and economic factors outside the proposed system by research, a consequential LCA could provide a more reliable result than an attributional LCA. (iii) I-O LCA is complementary to process-based LCA in order to address the social and economic problems generated by building projects. (iv) Hybrid LCA provides a more superior dynamic perspective than a traditional LCA that is criticized for its static view of the changing processes within the building’s life cycle. LCAs are still being developed to overcome their limitations and data shortage (especially data on the developing world), and the unification of LCA methods and data can make the results of building LCA more comparable and consistent across different studies or even countries.

Keywords: decision support tool, life-cycle analysis, LCA tools and data, sustainable building design

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30046 Holistic Simulation-Based Impact Analysis Framework for Sustainable Manufacturing

Authors: Mijoh A. Gbededo, Kapila Liyanage, Sabuj Mallik

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The emerging approaches to sustainable manufacturing are considered to be solution-oriented with the aim of addressing the environmental, economic and social issues holistically. However, the analysis of the interdependencies amongst the three sustainability dimensions has not been fully captured in the literature. In a recent review of approaches to sustainable manufacturing, two categories of techniques are identified: 1) Sustainable Product Development (SPD), and 2) Sustainability Performance Assessment (SPA) techniques. The challenges of the approaches are not only related to the arguments and misconceptions of the relationships between the techniques and sustainable development but also to the inability to capture and integrate the three sustainability dimensions. This requires a clear definition of some of the approaches and a road-map to the development of a holistic approach that supports sustainability decision-making. In this context, eco-innovation, social impact assessment, and life cycle sustainability analysis play an important role. This paper deployed an integrative approach that enabled amalgamation of sustainable manufacturing approaches and the theories of reciprocity and motivation into a holistic simulation-based impact analysis framework. The findings in this research have the potential to guide sustainability analysts to capture the aspects of the three sustainability dimensions into an analytical model. Additionally, the research findings presented can aid the construction of a holistic simulation model of a sustainable manufacturing and support effective decision-making.

Keywords: life cycle sustainability analysis, sustainable manufacturing, sustainability performance assessment, sustainable product development

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
30045 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures Retrofitted with Damped Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Mohamed Nour Eldin, Jinkoo Kim

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In this study, the seismic performance and life cycle cost (LCC) are evaluated of the structure retrofitted with the damped cable system (DCS). The DCS is a seismic retrofit system composed of a high-strength steel cable and pressurized viscous dampers. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in SAP2000, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the DCS and viscous dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the residual displacements of the structure equipped with the DCS are smaller than those of the structure with retrofitted with only conventional viscous dampers, due to the enhanced stiffness/strength and self-centering capability of the damped cable system. The fragility analysis shows that the structure retrofitted with the DCS has the least probability of reaching the specific limit states compared to the bare structure and the structure with viscous damper. It is also observed that the initial cost of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers and that the LCC of the structure equipped with the DCS is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers.

Keywords: damped cable system, fragility curve, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit, self-centering

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30044 Associations between Game Users and Life Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Esteem, Self- Efficacy and Social Capital

Authors: Hye Rim Lee, Eui Jun Jeong, Ji Hye Yoo

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This study makes an integrated investigation on how life satisfaction is associated with the Korean game users' psychological variables (self-esteem, game and life self- efficacy), social variables (bonding and bridging social capital), and demographic variables (age, gender). The data used for the empirical analysis came from a representative sample survey conducted in South Korea. Results show that self-esteem and game efficacy were an important antecedent to the degree of users’ life satisfaction. Both bonding social capital and bridging social capital enhance the level of the users’ life satisfaction. The importance of perspectives as well as their implications for the game users and further associated research, are explored.

Keywords: life satisfaction, self-esteem, game efficacy, life-efficacy, social capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
30043 Contribution in Fatigue Life Prediction of Composite Material

Authors: Mostefa Bendouba, Djebli Abdelkader, Abdelkrim Aid, Mohamed Benguediab

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The damage evolution mechanism is one of the important focuses of fatigue behaviour investigation of composite materials and also is the foundation to predict fatigue life of composite structures for engineering application. This paper is dedicated to a damage investigation under two block loading cycle fatigue conditions submitted to composite material. The loading sequence effect and the influence of the cycle ratio of the first stage on the cumulative fatigue life were studied herein. Two loading sequences, i.e., high-to-low and low-to-high cases are considered in this paper. The proposed damage indicator is connected cycle by cycle to the S-N curve and the experimental results are in agreement with model expectations. Some experimental researches are used to validate this proposition.

Keywords: fatigue, damage acumulation, composite, evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 403