Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2359

Search results for: smooth and nonsmooth functions

2359 A New Approach for Generalized First Derivative of Nonsmooth Functions Using Optimization

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazarei, Ali Asghar Behroozpoor

Abstract:

In this paper, we define an optimization problem corresponding to smooth and nonsmooth functions which its optimal solution is the first derivative of these functions in a domain. For this purpose, a linear programming problem corresponding to optimization problem is obtained. The optimal solution of this linear programming problem is the approximate generalized first derivative. In fact, we approximate generalized first derivative of nonsmooth functions as tailor series. We show the efficiency of our approach by some smooth and nonsmooth functions in some examples.

Keywords: general derivative, linear programming, optimization problem, smooth and nonsmooth functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 465
2358 Directional Implicit Functions in Nonsmooth Analysis

Authors: Murzabekova Gulden

Abstract:

Directional implicit functions for underdetermined nonsmooth systems in terms of the new tool of the Nonsmooth analysis - exhausters are considered. A method for finding an implicit function for underdetermined nonsmooth systems is proposed.

Keywords: implicit function, exhauster, nonsmooth systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
2357 Second Order Optimality Conditions in Nonsmooth Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds

Authors: Seyedehsomayeh Hosseini

Abstract:

Much attention has been paid over centuries to understanding and solving the problem of minimization of functions. Compared to linear programming and nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, nonlinear constrained optimization problems are much more difficult. Since the procedure of finding an optimizer is a search based on the local information of the constraints and the objective function, it is very important to develop techniques using geometric properties of the constraints and the objective function. In fact, differential geometry provides a powerful tool to characterize and analyze these geometric properties. Thus, there is clearly a link between the techniques of optimization on manifolds and standard constrained optimization approaches. Furthermore, there are manifolds that are not defined as constrained sets in R^n an important example is the Grassmann manifolds. Hence, to solve optimization problems on these spaces, intrinsic methods are used. In a nondifferentiable problem, the gradient information of the objective function generally cannot be used to determine the direction in which the function is decreasing. Therefore, techniques of nonsmooth analysis are needed to deal with such a problem. As a manifold, in general, does not have a linear structure, the usual techniques, which are often used in nonsmooth analysis on linear spaces, cannot be applied and new techniques need to be developed. This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for a strict local minimum of extended real-valued, nonsmooth functions defined on Riemannian manifolds.

Keywords: Riemannian manifolds, nonsmooth optimization, lower semicontinuous functions, subdifferential

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2356 Fuzzy Control and Pertinence Functions

Authors: Luiz F. J. Maia

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach to fuzzy control, with the use of new pertinence functions, applied in the case of an inverted pendulum. Appropriate definitions of pertinence functions to fuzzy sets make possible the implementation of the controller with only one control rule, resulting in a smooth control surface. The fuzzy control system can be implemented with analog devices, affording a true real-time performance.

Keywords: control surface, fuzzy control, Inverted pendulum, pertinence functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2355 Low Complexity Deblocking Algorithm

Authors: Jagroop Singh Sidhu, Buta Singh

Abstract:

A low computational deblocking filter including three frequency related modes (smooth mode, intermediate mode, and non-smooth mode for low-frequency, mid-frequency, and high frequency regions, respectively) is proposed. The suggested approach requires zero additions, zero subtractions, zero multiplications (for intermediate region), no divisions (for non-smooth region) and no comparison. The suggested method thus keeps the computation lower and thus suitable for image coding systems based on blocks. Comparison of average number of operations for smooth, non-smooth, intermediate (per pixel vector for each block) using filter suggested by Chen and the proposed method filter suggests that the proposed filter keeps the computation lower and is thus suitable for fast processing algorithms.

Keywords: blocking artifacts, computational complexity, non-smooth, intermediate, smooth

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2354 Adaptive Motion Planning for 6-DOF Robots Based on Trigonometric Functions

Authors: Jincan Li, Mingyu Gao, Zhiwei He, Yuxiang Yang, Zhongfei Yu, Yuanyuan Liu

Abstract:

Building an appropriate motion model is crucial for trajectory planning of robots and determines the operational quality directly. An adaptive acceleration and deceleration motion planning based on trigonometric functions for the end-effector of 6-DOF robots in Cartesian coordinate system is proposed in this paper. This method not only achieves the smooth translation motion and rotation motion by constructing a continuous jerk model, but also automatically adjusts the parameters of trigonometric functions according to the variable inputs and the kinematic constraints. The results of computer simulation show that this method is correct and effective to achieve the adaptive motion planning for linear trajectories.

Keywords: kinematic constraints, motion planning, trigonometric function, 6-DOF robots

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2353 A Discrete Logit Survival Model with a Smooth Baseline Hazard for Age at First Alcohol Intake among Students at Tertiary Institutions in Thohoyandou, South Africa

Authors: A. Bere, H. G. Sithuba, K. Kyei, C. Sigauke

Abstract:

We employ a discrete logit survival model to investigate the risk factors for early alcohol intake among students at two tertiary institutions in Thohoyandou, South Africa. Data were collected from a sample of 744 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Significant covariates were arrived at through a regularization algorithm implemented using the glmmLasso package. The tuning parameter was determined using a five-fold cross-validation algorithm. The baseline hazard was modelled as a smooth function of time through the use of spline functions. The results show that the hazard of initial alcohol intake peaks at the age of about 16 years and that at any given time, being of a male gender, prior use of other drugs, having drinking peers, having experienced negative life events and physical abuse are associated with a higher risk of alcohol intake debut.

Keywords: cross-validation, discrete hazard model, LASSO, smooth baseline hazard

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2352 Determination of Agricultural Characteristics of Smooth Bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) Lines under Konya Regional Conditions

Authors: Abdullah Özköse, Ahmet Tamkoç

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to determine the yield and yield components of smooth bromegrass lines under the environmental conditions of the Konya region during the growing seasons between 2011 and 2013. The experiment was performed in the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. It was found that the selected lines had a statistically significant effect on all the investigated traits, except for the main stem length and the number of nodes in the main stem. According to the two-year average calculated for various parameters checked in the smooth bromegrass lines, the main stem length ranged from 71.6 cm to 79.1 cm, the main stem diameter from 2.12 mm from 2.70 mm, the number of nodes in the main stem from 3.2 to 3.7, the internode length from 11.6 cm to 18.9 cm, flag leaf length from 9.7 cm to 12.7 cm, flag leaf width from 3.58 cm to 6.04 mm, herbage yield from 221.3 kg da–1 to 354.7 kg da–1 and hay yield from 100.4 kg da–1 to 190.1 kg da–1. The study concluded that the smooth bromegrass lines differ in terms of yield and yield components. Therefore, it is very crucial to select suitable varieties of smooth bromegrass to obtain optimum yield.

Keywords: semiarid region, smooth bromegrass, yield, yield components

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2351 The Behavior of The Zeros of Bargmann Analytic Functions for Multiple-Mode Systems

Authors: Muna Tabuni

Abstract:

The paper contains an investigation of the behavior of the Zeros of Bargmann functions for one and two-mode systems. A brief introduction to Harmonic oscillator formalism for one and two-mode is given. The Bargmann analytic representation for one and two-mode has been studied. The zeros of Bargmann analytic function for one-mode are considered. The Q Husimi functions are introduced. The Bargmann functions and the Husimi functions have the same zeros. The Bargmann functions f(z) have exactly q zeros. The evolution time of the zeros are discussed. The zeros of Bargmann analytic functions for two-mode are introduced. Various examples have been given.

Keywords: Bargmann functions, two-mode, zeros, harmonic oscillator

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
2350 Comparison of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Smoothing Methods

Authors: D. Sigirli

Abstract:

The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a commonly used statistical tool for evaluating the diagnostic performance of screening and diagnostic test with continuous or ordinal scale results which aims to predict the presence or absence probability of a condition, usually a disease. When the test results were measured as numeric values, sensitivity and specificity can be computed across all possible threshold values which discriminate the subjects as diseased and non-diseased. There are infinite numbers of possible decision thresholds along the continuum of the test results. The ROC curve presents the trade-off between sensitivity and the 1-specificity as the threshold changes. The empirical ROC curve which is a non-parametric estimator of the ROC curve is robust and it represents data accurately. However, especially for small sample sizes, it has a problem of variability and as it is a step function there can be different false positive rates for a true positive rate value and vice versa. Besides, the estimated ROC curve being in a jagged form, since the true ROC curve is a smooth curve, it underestimates the true ROC curve. Since the true ROC curve is assumed to be smooth, several smoothing methods have been explored to smooth a ROC curve. These include using kernel estimates, using log-concave densities, to fit parameters for the specified density function to the data with the maximum-likelihood fitting of univariate distributions or to create a probability distribution by fitting the specified distribution to the data nd using smooth versions of the empirical distribution functions. In the present paper, we aimed to propose a smooth ROC curve estimation based on the boundary corrected kernel function and to compare the performances of ROC curve smoothing methods for the diagnostic test results coming from different distributions in different sample sizes. We performed simulation study to compare the performances of different methods for different scenarios with 1000 repetitions. It is seen that the performance of the proposed method was typically better than that of the empirical ROC curve and only slightly worse compared to the binormal model when in fact the underlying samples were generated from the normal distribution.

Keywords: empirical estimator, kernel function, smoothing, receiver operating characteristic curve

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2349 Monte Carlo Pathwise Sensitivities for Barrier Options with Application to Coco-Bond Calibration

Authors: Thomas Gerstner, Bastian von Harrach, Daniel Roth

Abstract:

The Monte Carlo pathwise sensitivities approach is well established for smooth payoff functions. In this work, we present a new Monte Carlo algorithm that is able to calculate the pathwise sensitivities for discontinuous payoff functions. Our main tool is the one-step survival idea of Glasserman and Staum. Although this technique yields to new terms per observation, while differentiating, the algorithm is still efficient. As an application, we use the results for a two-dimensional calibration of a Coco-Bond, which we model with different types of discretely monitored barrier options.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, discretely monitored barrier options, pathwise sensitivities, Coco-Bond

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
2348 Some Inequalities Related with Starlike Log-Harmonic Mappings

Authors: Melike Aydoğan, Dürdane Öztürk

Abstract:

Let H(D) be the linear space of all analytic functions defined on the open unit disc. A log-harmonic mappings is a solution of the nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation where w(z) ∈ H(D) is second dilatation such that |w(z)| < 1 for all z ∈ D. The aim of this paper is to define some inequalities of starlike logharmonic functions of order α(0 ≤ α ≤ 1).

Keywords: starlike log-harmonic functions, univalent functions, distortion theorem

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2347 RAFU Functions in Robotics and Automation

Authors: Alicia C. Sanchez

Abstract:

This paper investigates the implementation of RAFU functions (radical functions) in robotics and automation. Specifically, the main goal is to show how these functions may be useful in lane-keeping control and the lateral control of autonomous machines, vehicles, robots or the like. From the knowledge of several points of a certain route, the RAFU functions are used to achieve the lateral control purpose and maintain the lane-keeping errors within the fixed limits. The stability that these functions provide, their ease of approaching any continuous trajectory and the control of the possible error made on the approximation may be useful in practice.

Keywords: automatic navigation control, lateral control, lane-keeping control, RAFU approximation

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2346 Subclasses of Bi-Univalent Functions Associated with Hohlov Operator

Authors: Rashidah Omar, Suzeini Abdul Halim, Aini Janteng

Abstract:

The coefficients estimate problem for Taylor-Maclaurin series is still an open problem especially for a function in the subclass of bi-univalent functions. A function f ϵ A is said to be bi-univalent in the open unit disk D if both f and f-1 are univalent in D. The symbol A denotes the class of all analytic functions f in D and it is normalized by the conditions f(0) = f’(0) – 1=0. The class of bi-univalent is denoted by  The subordination concept is used in determining second and third Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients. The upper bound for second and third coefficients is estimated for functions in the subclasses of bi-univalent functions which are subordinated to the function φ. An analytic function f is subordinate to an analytic function g if there is an analytic function w defined on D with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 satisfying f(z) = g[w(z)]. In this paper, two subclasses of bi-univalent functions associated with Hohlov operator are introduced. The bound for second and third coefficients of functions in these subclasses is determined using subordination. The findings would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

Keywords: analytic functions, bi-univalent functions, Hohlov operator, subordination

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2345 Investigation of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in an Open Channel

Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed, Hany A. Mohamed, Mohamed A. Omara, Mohamed F. Abdeen

Abstract:

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer inside smooth and rough surfaces of vertical and inclined equilateral triangular channels of different inclination angles with a uniformly heated surface are performed. The inclination angle is changed from 15º to 90º. Smooth and rough surface of average roughness (0.02 mm) are used and their effect on the heat transfer characteristics are studied. The local and average heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number are obtained for smooth and rough channels at different heat flux values, different inclination angles and different Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 6.48 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 4.78 × 106. The results show that the local Nusselt number decreases with increase of axial distance from the lower end of the triangular channel to a point near the upper end of channel, and then, it slightly increases. Higher values of local Nusselt number for rough channel along the axial distance compared with the smooth channel. The average Nusselt number of rough channel is higher than that of smooth channel by about 8.1% for inclined case at θ = 45o and 10% for vertical case. The results obtained are correlated using dimensionless groups for both rough and smooth surfaces of the inclined and vertical triangular channels.

Keywords: natural heat transfer convection, constant heat flux, open channels, heat transfer

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2344 Geometric Properties of Some q-Bessel Functions

Authors: İbrahim Aktaş, Árpád Baricz

Abstract:

In this paper, the radii of star likeness of the Jackson and Hahn-Exton q-Bessel functions are considered, and for each of them three different normalizations is applied. By applying Euler-Rayleigh inequalities for the first positive zeros of these functions tight lower, and upper bounds for the radii of starlikeness of these functions are obtained. The Laguerre-Pólya class of real entire functions plays an important role in this study. In particular, we obtain some new bounds for the first positive zero of the derivative of the classical Bessel function of the first kind.

Keywords: bessel function, lommel function, radius of starlikeness and convexity, Struve function

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2343 Solving Optimal Control of Semilinear Elliptic Variational Inequalities Obstacle Problems using Smoothing Functions

Authors: El Hassene Osmani, Mounir Haddou, Naceurdine Bensalem

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate optimal control problems governed by semilinear elliptic variational inequalities involving constraints on the state, and more precisely, the obstacle problem. We present a relaxed formulation for the problem using smoothing functions. Since we adopt a numerical point of view, we first relax the feasible domain of the problem, then using both mathematical programming methods and penalization methods, we get optimality conditions with smooth Lagrange multipliers. Some numerical experiments using IPOPT algorithm (Interior Point Optimizer) are presented to verify the efficiency of our approach.

Keywords: complementarity problem, IPOPT, Lagrange multipliers, mathematical programming, optimal control, smoothing methods, variationally inequalities

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2342 Approximation of Analytic Functions of Several Variables by Linear K-Positive Operators in the Closed Domain

Authors: Tulin Coskun

Abstract:

We investigate the approximation of analytic functions of several variables in polydisc by the sequences of linear k-positive operators in Gadjiev sence. The approximation of analytic functions of complex variable by linear k-positive operators was tackled, and k-positive operators and formulated theorems of Korovkin's type for these operators in the space of analytic functions on the unit disc were introduced in the past. Recently, very general results on convergence of the sequences of linear k-positive operators on a simply connected bounded domain within the space of analytic functions were proved. In this presentation, we extend some of these results to the approximation of analytic functions of several complex variables by sequences of linear k-positive operators.

Keywords: analytic functions, approximation of analytic functions, Linear k-positive operators, Korovkin type theorems

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
2341 Effects of Roughness on Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel

Authors: S. M. Rifat, André L. Marchildon, Mark F. Tachie

Abstract:

Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of roughness on the reattachment and redevelopment regions over a 12 mm forward facing step (FFS) in an open channel flow. The experiments were performed over an upstream smooth wall and a smooth FFS, an upstream wall coated with sandpaper 36 grit and a smooth FFS and an upstream rough wall produced from sandpaper 36 grit and a FFS coated with sandpaper 36 grit. To investigate only the wall roughness effects, Reynolds number, Froude number, aspect ratio and blockage ratio were kept constant. Upstream profiles showed reduced streamwise mean velocities close to the rough wall compared to the smooth wall, but the turbulence level was increased by upstream wall roughness. The reattachment length for the smooth-smooth wall experiment was 1.78h; however, when it is replaced with rough-smooth wall the reattachment length decreased to 1.53h. It was observed that the upstream roughness increased the physical size of contours of maximum turbulence level; however, the downstream roughness decreased both the size and magnitude of contours in the vicinity of the leading edge of the step. Quadrant analysis was performed to investigate the dominant Reynolds shear stress contribution in the recirculation region. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles after the reattachment showed slower recovery compared to the streamwise mean velocity, however all the profiles fairly collapse on their corresponding upstream profiles at x/h = 60. It was concluded that to obtain a complete collapse several more streamwise distances would be required.

Keywords: forward facing step, open channel, separated and reattached turbulent flows, wall roughness

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2340 Effects of Upstream Wall Roughness on Separated Turbulent Flow over a Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel

Authors: S. M. Rifat, André L. Marchildon, Mark F. Tachie

Abstract:

The effect of upstream surface roughness over a smooth forward facing step in an open channel was investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique. Three different upstream surface topographies consisting of hydraulically smooth wall, sandpaper 36 grit and sand grains were examined. Besides the wall roughness conditions, all other upstream flow characteristics were kept constant. It was also observed that upstream roughness decreased the approach velocity by 2% and 10% but increased the turbulence intensity by 14% and 35% at the wall-normal distance corresponding to the top plane of the step compared to smooth upstream. The results showed that roughness decreased the reattachment lengths by 14% and 30% compared to smooth upstream. Although the magnitudes of maximum positive and negative Reynolds shear stress in separated and reattached region were 0.02Ue for all the cases, the physical size of both the maximum and minimum contour levels were decreased by increasing upstream roughness.

Keywords: forward facing step, open channel, separated and reattached turbulent flows, wall roughness

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2339 Unconventional Calculus Spreadsheet Functions

Authors: Chahid K. Ghaddar

Abstract:

The spreadsheet engine is exploited via a non-conventional mechanism to enable novel worksheet solver functions for computational calculus. The solver functions bypass inherent restrictions on built-in math and user defined functions by taking variable formulas as a new type of argument while retaining purity and recursion properties. The enabling mechanism permits integration of numerical algorithms into worksheet functions for solving virtually any computational problem that can be modelled by formulas and variables. Several examples are presented for computing integrals, derivatives, and systems of deferential-algebraic equations. Incorporation of the worksheet solver functions with the ubiquitous spreadsheet extend the utility of the latter as a powerful tool for computational mathematics.

Keywords: calculus, differential algebraic equations, solvers, spreadsheet

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2338 Investigating Convective Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of R-1234ze and R-134a Refrigerants in a Microfin and Smooth Tube

Authors: Kaggwa Abdul, Chi-Chuan Wang

Abstract:

This research is based on R-1234ze that is considered to substitute R-134a due to its low global warming potential in a microfin tube with outer diameter 9.52 mm, number of fins 70, and fin height 0.17 mm. In comparison, a smooth tube with similar geometries was used to study pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients related to the two fluids. The microfin tube was brazed inside a stainless steel tube and heated electrically. T-type thermocouples used to measure the temperature distribution during the phase change process. The experimental saturation temperatures and refrigerant mass velocities varied from 10 – 20°C and 50 – 300 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, and heat flux ranged from 5 – 11kW/m2. The results showed that heat transfer performance of R-134a in both microfin and smooth tube was better than R-1234ze especially at mass velocities above G = 50 kg/m2s. However, at low mass velocities below G = 100 kg/m2s R-1234ze yield better heat transfer coefficients than R-134a. The pressure gradient of R-1234ze was markedly higher than that of R-134a at all mass flow rates.

Keywords: R-1234ze and R-134a, horizontal flow boiling, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients, micro-fin and smooth tubes

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2337 Numerical Solution for Integro-Differential Equations by Using Quartic B-Spline Wavelet and Operational Matrices

Authors: Khosrow Maleknejad, Yaser Rostami

Abstract:

In this paper, semi-orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and wavelets and their dual functions are presented to approximate the solutions of integro-differential equations.The B-spline scaling functions and wavelets, their properties and the operational matrices of derivative for this function are presented to reduce the solution of integro-differential equations to the solution of algebraic equations. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their dual, then we will show that by using them we have better approximation results for the solution of integro-differential equations in comparison with less degrees of scaling functions.

Keywords: ıntegro-differential equations, quartic B-spline wavelet, operational matrices, dual functions

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2336 High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions J₀(x) and Its Zeros

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares

Abstract:

The Bessel function J₀(x) is very important in Electrodynamics and Physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which have high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous used of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. Here us in Pade method, rational functions are used, but now there combined with elementary functions us fractional powers hyperbolic or trigonometric functions, and others. The reason of this is that now power series of the exact function are used, but together with the asymptotic expansion, which usually includes fractional powers trigonometric functions and other type of elementary functions. The approximation must be a bridge between both expansions, and this can not be accomplished using only with rational functions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ∼ 4.9. In this case also the maximum relative error for the zeros is less than 0.003 which is for the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behaviour happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.

Keywords: analytic approximations, asymptotic approximations, Bessel functions, quasirational approximations

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2335 A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Zambian Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge of Functions

Authors: Priestly Malambo, Sonja Van Putten, Hanlie Botha, Gerrit Stols

Abstract:

The relevance of what is content is taught in tertiary teacher training has long been in question. This study attempts to understand how advanced mathematics courses equip student teachers to teach functions at secondary school level. This paper reports on an investigation that was conducted in an African university, where preservice teachers were purposefully selected for participation in individual semi-structured interviews after completing a test on functions as taught at secondary school. They were asked to justify their reasoning in the test and to explain functions in a way that might bring about understanding of the topic in someone who did not know how functions work. These were final year preservice mathematics teachers who had studied advanced mathematics courses for three years. More than 50% of the students were not able to explain concepts or to justify their reasoning about secondary school functions in a coherent way. The results of this study suggest that the study of advanced mathematics does not automatically enable students to teach secondary school functions, and that, although these students were able to do advanced mathematics, they were unable to explain the working of functions in a way that would allow them to teach this topic successfully.

Keywords: secondary school, mathematical reasoning, student-teachers, functions

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2334 Bernstein Type Polynomials for Solving Differential Equations and Their Applications

Authors: Yilmaz Simsek

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Bernstein-type basis functions with their generating functions. We give various properties of these polynomials with the aid of their generating functions. These polynomials and generating functions have many valuable applications in mathematics, in probability, in statistics and also in mathematical physics. By using the Bernstein-Galerkin and the Bernstein-Petrov-Galerkin methods, we give some applications of the Bernstein-type polynomials for solving high even-order differential equations with their numerical computations. We also give Bezier-type curves related to the Bernstein-type basis functions. We investigate fundamental properties of these curves. These curves have many applications in mathematics, in computer geometric design and other related areas. Moreover, we simulate these polynomials with their plots for some selected numerical values.

Keywords: generating functions, Bernstein basis functions, Bernstein polynomials, Bezier curves, differential equations

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2333 An Interpolation Tool for Data Transfer in Two-Dimensional Ice Accretion Problems

Authors: Marta Cordero-Gracia, Mariola Gomez, Olivier Blesbois, Marina Carrion

Abstract:

One of the difficulties in icing simulations is for extended periods of exposure, when very large ice shapes are created. As well as being large, they can have complex shapes, such as a double horn. For icing simulations, these configurations are currently computed in several steps. The icing step is stopped when the ice shapes become too large, at which point a new mesh has to be created to allow for further CFD and ice growth simulations to be performed. This can be very costly, and is a limiting factor in the simulations that can be performed. A way to avoid the costly human intervention in the re-meshing step of multistep icing computation is to use mesh deformation instead of re-meshing. The aim of the present work is to apply an interpolation method based on Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to transfer deformations from surface mesh to volume mesh. This deformation tool has been developed specifically for icing problems. It is able to deal with localized, sharp and large deformations, unlike the tools traditionally used for more smooth wing deformations. This tool will be presented along with validation on typical two-dimensional icing shapes.

Keywords: ice accretion, interpolation, mesh deformation, radial basis functions

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2332 Hypergeometric Solutions to Linear Nonhomogeneous Fractional Equations with Spherical Bessel Functions of the First Kind

Authors: Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass

Abstract:

The use of fractional derivatives to different problems in Engineering and Physics has been increasing in the last decade. For this reason, we have here considered partial derivatives when the integral is a spherical Bessel function of the first kind in both regular and modified ones simple initial conditions have been also considered. In this way, the solution has been found as a combination of hypergeometric functions. The case of a general rational value for α of the fractional derivative α has been solved in a general way for alpha between zero and two. The modified spherical Bessel functions of the first kind have been also considered and how to go from the regular case to the modified one will be also shown.

Keywords: caputo fractional derivatives, hypergeometric functions, linear differential equations, spherical Bessel functions

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2331 Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow

Authors: M. Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

An experimental study with four different types of bed conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness conditions which were generated using sand grains with a median diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, the correlation between the streamwise and the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness. Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence structure.

Keywords: open channel flow, smooth and rough bed, Reynolds number, turbulence

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2330 Exact Formulas of the End-To-End Green’s Functions in Non-hermitian Systems

Authors: Haoshu Li, Shaolong Wan

Abstract:

The recent focus has been on directional signal amplification of a signal input at one end of a one-dimensional chain and measured at the other end. The amplification rate is given by the end-to-end Green’s functions of the system. In this work, we derive the exact formulas for the end-to-end Green's functions of non-Hermitian single-band systems. While in the bulk region, it is found that the Green's functions are displaced from the prior established integral formula by O(e⁻ᵇᴸ). The results confirm the correspondence between the signal amplification and the non-Hermitian skin effect.

Keywords: non-Hermitian, Green's function, non-Hermitian skin effect, signal amplification

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