Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: slime mould

81 Unicellular to Multicellular: Some Empirically Parsimoniously Plausible Hypotheses

Authors: Catherine K. Derow

Abstract:

Possibly a slime mold somehow mutated or already was mutated at progeniture and so stayed as a metazoan when it developed into the fruiting stage and so the slime mold(s) we are evolved and similar to are genetically differ from the slime molds in existence now. This may be why there are genetic links between humans and other metazoa now alive and slime molds now alive but we are now divergent branches of the evolutionary tree compared to the original slime mold, or perhaps slime mold-like organisms, that gave rise to metazoan animalia and perhaps algae and plantae as slime molds were undifferentiated enough in many ways that could allow their descendants to evolve into these three separate phylogenetic categories. Or it may be a slime mold was born or somehow progenated as multicellular, as the particular organism was mutated enough to have say divided in a a 'pseudo-embryonic' stage, and this could have happened for algae, plantae as well as animalia or all the branches may be from the same line but the missing link might be covered in 'phylogenetic sequence comparison noise'.

Keywords: metazoan evolution, unicellular bridge to metazoans, evolution, slime mold

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
80 Effects of Dimensional Sizes of Mould on the Volumetric Shrinkage Strain of Lateric Soil

Authors: John E. Sani, Moses George

Abstract:

The paper presents the result of a laboratory study carried out on lateritic soil to determine the effects of dimensional size on the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) using three mould sizes i.e. split former mould, proctor mould and California bearing ratio (CBR) mould at three energy levels; British standard light (BSL), West African standard (WAS) and British standard heavy (BSH) respectively. Compactions were done at different molding water content of -2 % to +6 % optimum moisture content (OMC). At -2% to +2% molding water content for the split former mould the volumetric shrinkage strain met the requirement of not more than 4% while at +4% and +6% only the WAS and BSH met the requirement. The proctor mould and the CBR mould on the other hand gave a lower value of volumetric shrinkage strain in all compactive effort and the values are lower than the 4% safe VSS value.

Keywords: lateritic soil, volumetric shrinkage strain, molding water content, compactive effort

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
79 Inverse Dynamics of the Mould Base of Blow Molding Machines

Authors: Vigen Arakelian

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of devices for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines. The displacement of the mould in the studied case is carried out by a linear actuator, which ensures the descent of the mould base and by extension springs, which return the letter in the initial position. The aim of this paper is to study the inverse dynamics of the device for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines and to determine its optimum parameters for higher rate of production. In the other words, it is necessary to solve the inverse dynamic problem to find the equation of motion linking applied forces with displacements. This makes it possible to determine the stiffness coefficient of the spring to turn the mold base back to the initial position for a given time. The obtained results are illustrated by a numerical example. It is shown that applying a spring with stiffness returns the mould base of the blow molding machine into the initial position in 0.1 sec.

Keywords: design, mechanisms, dynamics, blow-molding machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
78 Two Taxa of Paradiacheopsis Genera Recordings of the Myxomycetes from Turkey

Authors: Dursun Yağız, Ahmet Afyon

Abstract:

The study materials were collected from Isparta province in 2008. These materials were moved to the laboratory. The 'Most Chamber Techniques' were applied to the materials in the laboratory. Materials were examined with a stereo microscope. As a result of investigations carried out on the samples of sporophores which were developed in the laboratory, Paradiacheopsis erythropodia (Ing) Nann.-Bremek. and Paradiacheopsis longipes Hooff & Nann.-Bremek. species were identified. As a result of the literature research, it is determined that these taxa were new recordings in Turkey. The identified taxa have been added to Turkey's myxomycota. These two taxa’ microscopic features, photos, localities and substrate information were given.

Keywords: myxomycete, paradiacheopsis, Turkey, slime mould

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
77 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu

Abstract:

The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: injection mould, cooling channel, intelligent design, automatic layout, interference checking

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
76 Building Atmospheric Moisture Diagnostics: Environmental Monitoring and Data Collection

Authors: Paula Lopez-Arce, Hector Altamirano, Dimitrios Rovas, James Berry, Bryan Hindle, Steven Hodgson

Abstract:

Efficient mould remediation and accurate moisture diagnostics leading to condensation and mould growth in dwellings are largely untapped. Number of factors are contributing to the rising trend of excessive moisture in homes mainly linked with modern living, increased levels of occupation and rising fuel costs, as well as making homes more energy efficient. Environmental monitoring by means of data collection though loggers sensors and survey forms has been performed in a range of buildings from different UK regions. Air and surface temperature and relative humidity values of residential areas affected by condensation and/or mould issues were recorded. Additional measurements were taken through different trials changing type, location, and position of loggers. In some instances, IR thermal images and ventilation rates have also been acquired. Results have been interpreted together with environmental key parameters by processing and connecting data from loggers and survey questionnaires, both in buildings with and without moisture issues. Monitoring exercises carried out during Winter and Spring time show the importance of developing and following accurate protocols for guidance to obtain consistent, repeatable and comparable results and to improve the performance of environmental monitoring. A model and a protocol are being developed to build a diagnostic tool with the goal of performing a simple but precise residential atmospheric moisture diagnostics to distinguish the cause entailing condensation and mould generation, i.e., ventilation, insulation or heating systems issue. This research shows the relevance of monitoring and processing environmental data to assign moisture risk levels and determine the origin of condensation or mould when dealing with a building atmospheric moisture excess.

Keywords: environmental monitoring, atmospheric moisture, protocols, mould

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
75 Effect of the Mould Rotational Speed on the Quality of Centrifugal Castings

Authors: M. A. El-Sayed, S. A. Aziz

Abstract:

Centrifugal casting is a standard casting technique for the manufacture of hollow, intricate and sound castings without the use of cores. The molten metal or alloy poured into the rotating mold forms a hollow casting as the centrifugal forces lift the liquid along the mold inner surface. The rotational speed of the die was suggested to greatly affect the manner in which the molten metal flows within the mould and consequently the probability of the formation of a uniform cylinder. In this work the flow of the liquid metal at various speeds and its effect during casting were studied. The results suggested that there was a critical range for the speed, within which the produced castings exhibited best uniformity and maximum mechanical properties. When a mould was rotated at speeds below or beyond the critical range defects were found in the final castings, which affected the uniformity and significantly lowered the mechanical properties.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, rotational speed, critical speed range, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
74 Research on Ultrafine Particles Classification Using Hydrocyclone with Annular Rinse Water

Authors: Tao Youjun, Zhao Younan

Abstract:

The separation effect of fine coal can be improved by the process of pre-desliming. It was significantly enhanced when the fine coal was processed using Falcon concentrator with the removal of -45um coal slime. Ultrafine classification tests using Krebs classification cyclone with annular rinse water showed that increasing feeding pressure can effectively avoid the phenomena of heavy particles passing into overflow and light particles slipping into underflow. The increase of rinse water pressure could reduce the content of fine-grained particles while increasing the classification size. The increase in feeding concentration had a negative effect on the efficiency of classification, meanwhile increased the classification size due to the enhanced hindered settling caused by high underflow concentration. As a result of optimization experiments with response indicator of classification efficiency which based on orthogonal design using Design-Expert software indicated that the optimal classification efficiency reached 91.32% with the feeding pressure of 0.03MPa, the rinse water pressure of 0.02MPa and the feeding concentration of 12.5%. Meanwhile, the classification size was 49.99 μm which had a good agreement with the predicted value.

Keywords: hydrocyclone, ultrafine classification, slime, classification efficiency, classification size

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
73 Part Performance Improvement through Design Optimisation of Cooling Channels in the Injection Moulding Process

Authors: M. A. Alhubail, A. I. Alateyah, D. Alenezi, B. Aldousiri

Abstract:

In this study conformal cooling channel (CCC) was employed to dissipate heat of, Polypropylene (PP) parts injected into the Stereolithography (SLA) insert to form tensile and flexural test specimens. The direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process was used to fabricate a mould with optimised CCC, while optimum parameters of injection moulding were obtained using Optimal-D. The obtained results show that optimisation of the cooling channel layout using a DMLS mould has significantly shortened cycle time without sacrificing the part’s mechanical properties. By applying conformal cooling channels, the cooling time phase was reduced by 20 seconds, and also defected parts were eliminated.

Keywords: optimum parameters, injection moulding, conformal cooling channels, cycle time

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
72 The Effect of Increase in Aluminium Content on Fluidity of ZA Alloys Processed by Centrifugal Casting

Authors: P. N. Jyothi, A. Shailesh Rao, M. C. Jagath, K. Channakeshavalu

Abstract:

Uses of ZA alloys as bearing material have been increased due to their superior mechanical properties, wear characteristics and tribological properties. Among ZA alloys, ZA 27 alloy has higher strength, low density with excellent bearing and wear characteristics. From the past research work, it is observed that in continuous casting as Al content increases, the fluidity also increases. In present work, ZA 8, ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys have been processed through centrifugal casting process at 600 rotational speed of the mould. Uniform full cylinder is casted with ZA 8 alloy. For ZA 12 and ZA 27 alloys where the Al content is higher, cast tubes were not complete and uniform. The reason is Al may be acting as a refiner and reduce the melt flow in the rotating mould. This is mainly due to macro-segregation of Al, which has occurred due to difference in densities of Al and Zn.

Keywords: centrifugal casting, metal flow, characterization, systems engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
71 Towards a Competitive South African Tooling Industry

Authors: Mncedisi Trinity Dewa, Andre Francois Van Der Merwe, Stephen Matope

Abstract:

Tool, Die and Mould-making (TDM) firms have been known to play a pivotal role in the growth and development of the manufacturing sectors in most economies. Their output contributes significantly to the quality, cost and delivery speed of final manufactured parts. Unfortunately, the South African Tool, Die and Mould-making manufacturers have not been competing on the local or global market in a significant way. This reality has hampered the productivity and growth of the sector thus attracting intervention. The paper explores the shortcomings South African toolmakers have to overcome to restore their competitive position globally. Results from a global benchmarking survey on the tooling sector are used to establish a roadmap of what South African toolmakers can do to become a productive, World Class force on the global market.

Keywords: competitive performance objectives, toolmakers, world-class manufacturing, lead times

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
70 An Investigation on MgAl₂O₄ Based Mould System in Investment Casting Titanium Alloy

Authors: Chen Yuan, Nick Green, Stuart Blackburn

Abstract:

The investment casting process offers a great freedom of design combined with the economic advantage of near net shape manufacturing. It is widely used for the production of high value precision cast parts in particularly in the aerospace sector. Various combinations of materials have been used to produce the ceramic moulds, but most investment foundries use a silica based binder system in conjunction with fused silica, zircon, and alumino-silicate refractories as both filler and coarse stucco materials. However, in the context of advancing alloy technologies, silica based systems are struggling to keep pace, especially when net-shape casting titanium alloys. Study has shown that the casting of titanium based alloys presents considerable problems, including the extensive interactions between the metal and refractory, and the majority of metal-mould interaction is due to reduction of silica, present as binder and filler phases, by titanium in the molten state. Cleaner, more refractory systems are being devised to accommodate these changes. Although yttria has excellent chemical inertness to titanium alloy, it is not very practical in a production environment combining high material cost, short slurry life, and poor sintering properties. There needs to be a cost effective solution to these issues. With limited options for using pure oxides, in this work, a silica-free magnesia spinel MgAl₂O₄ was used as a primary coat filler and alumina as a binder material to produce facecoat in the investment casting mould. A comparison system was also studied with a fraction of the rare earth oxide Y₂O₃ adding into the filler to increase the inertness. The stability of the MgAl₂O₄/Al₂O₃ and MgAl₂O₄/Y₂O₃/Al₂O₃ slurries was assessed by tests, including pH, viscosity, zeta-potential and plate weight measurement, and mould properties such as friability were also measured. The interaction between the face coat and titanium alloy was studied by both a flash re-melting technique and a centrifugal investment casting method. The interaction products between metal and mould were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The depth of the oxygen hardened layer was evaluated by micro hardness measurement. Results reveal that introducing a fraction of Y₂O₃ into magnesia spinel can significantly increase the slurry life and reduce the thickness of hardened layer during centrifugal casting.

Keywords: titanium alloy, mould, MgAl₂O₄, Y₂O₃, interaction, investment casting

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
69 Examining the Effects of Production Method on Aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp Composite for Hydro Turbine Bucket Application

Authors: Williams S. Ebhota, Freddie L. Inambao

Abstract:

This study investigates the use of centrifugal casting method to fabricate functionally graded aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite for hydro turbine bucket application. The study includes the design and fabrication of a permanent mould. The mould was put into use and the buckets of A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite were cast, cut and machined into specimens. Some specimens were given T6 heat treatment and the specimens were prepared for different examinations accordingly. The SiCp particles were found to be more at inner periphery of the bucket. The maximum hardness of As-Cast A356 and A356-10%SiCp composite was recorded at the inner periphery to be 60 BRN and 95BRN, respectively. And these values were appreciated to 98BRN and 122BRN for A356 alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite, respectively. It was observed that the ultimate tensile stress and yield tensile stress prediction curves show the same trend.

Keywords: A356 alloy, A356-10%SiCp composite, centrifugal casting, Pelton bucket, turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
68 Modeling of the Friction Behavior of Carbon/Epoxy Prepreg Composite

Authors: David Aveiga, Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

Thermoforming of pre-impregnated composites (prepreg) is the most employed process to build high-performance composite structures due to their visible advantage over alternative manufacturing techniques. This method allows easy shape moulding with a simple manufacturing system and a more refined outcome. The achievement of complex geometries can be exposed to undesired defects such as wrinkles. It is known that interply and ply-mould sliding behavior governs this defect generation. This work analyses interply and ply-mould friction coefficients for UD AS4/8552 Carbon/Epoxy prepreg. Friction coefficients are determined by a pull-out test method considering actual velocity, pressure and temperature conditions employed in a thermoforming process of an aeronautical composite component. A Stribeck curve is then constructed to find a mathematical expression that relates all the friction coefficients with the test variables through the Hersey number parameter. Two expressions are proposed to model ply-ply and ply-tool friction behaviors.

Keywords: friction, prepreg composite, stribeck curve, thermoforming.

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
67 Monitoring the Production of Large Composite Structures Using Dielectric Tool Embedded Capacitors

Authors: Galatee Levadoux, Trevor Benson, Chris Worrall

Abstract:

With the rise of public awareness on climate change comes an increasing demand for renewable sources of energy. As a result, the wind power sector is striving to manufacture longer, more efficient and reliable wind turbine blades. Currently, one of the leading causes of blade failure in service is improper cure of the resin during manufacture. The infusion process creating the main part of the composite blade structure remains a critical step that is yet to be monitored in real time. This stage consists of a viscous resin being drawn into a mould under vacuum, then undergoing a curing reaction until solidification. Successful infusion assumes the resin fills all the voids and cures completely. Given that the electrical properties of the resin change significantly during its solidification, both the filling of the mould and the curing reaction are susceptible to be followed using dieletrometry. However, industrially available dielectrics sensors are currently too small to monitor the entire surface of a wind turbine blade. The aim of the present research project is to scale up the dielectric sensor technology and develop a device able to monitor the manufacturing process of large composite structures, assessing the conformity of the blade before it even comes out of the mould. An array of flat copper wires acting as electrodes are embedded in a polymer matrix fixed in an infusion mould. A multi-frequency analysis from 1 Hz to 10 kHz is performed during the filling of the mould with an epoxy resin and the hardening of the said resin. By following the variations of the complex admittance Y*, the filling of the mould and curing process are monitored. Results are compared to numerical simulations of the sensor in order to validate a virtual cure-monitoring system. The results obtained by drawing glycerol on top of the copper sensor displayed a linear relation between the wetted length of the sensor and the complex admittance measured. Drawing epoxy resin on top of the sensor and letting it cure at room temperature for 24 hours has provided characteristic curves obtained when conventional interdigitated sensor are used to follow the same reaction. The response from the developed sensor has shown the different stages of the polymerization of the resin, validating the geometry of the prototype. The model created and analysed using COMSOL has shown that the dielectric cure process can be simulated, so long as a sufficient time and temperature dependent material properties can be determined. The model can be used to help design larger sensors suitable for use with full-sized blades. The preliminary results obtained with the sensor prototype indicate that the infusion and curing process of an epoxy resin can be followed with the chosen configuration on a scale of several decimeters. Further work is to be devoted to studying the influence of the sensor geometry and the infusion parameters on the results obtained. Ultimately, the aim is to develop a larger scale sensor able to monitor the flow and cure of large composite panels industrially.

Keywords: composite manufacture, dieletrometry, epoxy, resin infusion, wind turbine blades

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
66 Electrochemical Biosensor for the Detection of Botrytis spp. in Temperate Legume Crops

Authors: Marzia Bilkiss, Muhammad J. A. Shiddiky, Mostafa K. Masud, Prabhakaran Sambasivam, Ido Bar, Jeremy Brownlie, Rebecca Ford

Abstract:

A greater achievement in the Integrated Disease Management (IDM) to prevent the loss would result from early diagnosis and quantitation of the causal pathogen species for accurate and timely disease control. This could significantly reduce costs to the growers and reduce any flow on impacts to the environment from excessive chemical spraying. Necrotrophic fungal disease botrytis grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis fabae, significantly reduce temperate legume yield and grain quality during favourable environmental condition in Australia and worldwide. Several immunogenic and molecular probe-type protocols have been developed for their diagnosis, but these have varying levels of species-specificity, sensitivity, and consequent usefulness within the paddock. To substantially improve speed, accuracy, and sensitivity, advanced nanoparticle-based biosensor approaches have been developed. For this, two sets of primers were designed for both Botrytis cinerea and Botrytis fabae which have shown the species specificity with initial sensitivity of two genomic copies/µl in pure fungal backgrounds using multiplexed quantitative PCR. During further validation, quantitative PCR detected 100 spores on artificially infected legume leaves. Simultaneously an electro-catalytic assay was developed for both target fungal DNA using functionalised magnetic nanoparticles. This was extremely sensitive, able to detect a single spore within a raw total plant nucleic acid extract background. We believe that the translation of this technology to the field will enable quantitative assessment of pathogen load for future accurate decision support of informed botrytis grey mould management.

Keywords: biosensor, botrytis grey mould, sensitive, species specific

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
65 Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Storage Temperatures on Quality of Shelled Raw Walnuts

Authors: M. Javanmard

Abstract:

This study was aimed at analyzing the effects of packaging (MAP) and preservation conditions on the packaged fresh walnut kernel quality. The central composite plan was used for evaluating the effect of oxygen (0–10%), carbon dioxide (0-10%), and temperature (4-26 °C) on qualitative characteristics of walnut kernels. Also, the response level technique was used to find the optimal conditions for interactive effects of factors, as well as estimating the best conditions of process using least amount of testing. Measured qualitative parameters were: peroxide index, color, decreased weight, mould and yeast counting test, and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the defined model for peroxide index, color, weight loss, and sensory evaluation is significant (p < 0.001), so that increase of temperature causes the peroxide value, color variation, and weight loss to increase and it reduces the overall acceptability of walnut kernels. An increase in oxygen percentage caused the color variation level and peroxide value to increase and resulted in lower overall acceptability of the walnuts. An increase in CO2 percentage caused the peroxide value to decrease, but did not significantly affect other indices (p ≥ 0.05). Mould and yeast were not found in any samples. Optimal packaging conditions to achieve maximum quality of walnuts include: 1.46% oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide, and temperature of 4 °C.

Keywords: shelled walnut, MAP, quality, storage temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
64 Wear Performance of SLM Fabricated 1.2709 Steel Nanocomposite Reinforced by TiC-WC for Mould and Tooling Applications

Authors: Daniel Ferreira, José M. Marques Oliveira, Filipe Oliveira

Abstract:

Wear phenomena is critical in injection moulding processes, causing failure of the components, and making the parts more expensive with an additional wasting time. When very abrasive materials are being injected inside the steel mould’s cavities, such as polymers reinforced with abrasive fibres, the consequences of the wear are more evident. Maraging steel (1.2709) is commonly employed in moulding components to resist in very aggressive injection conditions. In this work, the wear performance of the SLM produced 1.2709 maraging steel reinforced by ultrafine titanium and tungsten carbide (TiC-WC), was investigated using a pin-on-disk testing apparatus. A polypropylene reinforced with 40 wt.% fibreglass (PP40) disk, was used as the counterpart material. The wear tests were performed at 40 N constant load and 0.4 ms-1 sliding speed at room temperature and humidity conditions. The experimental results demonstrated that the wear rate in the 18Ni300-TiC-WC composite is lower than the unreinforced 18Ni300 matrix. The morphology and chemical composition of the worn surfaces was observed by 3D optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The resulting debris, caused by friction, were also analysed by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Their morphology showed distinct shapes and sizes, which indicated that the wear mechanisms, may be different in maraging steel produced by casting and SLM. The coefficient of friction (COF) was recorded during the tests, which helped to elucidate the wear mechanisms involved.

Keywords: selective laser melting, nanocomposites, injection moulding, polypropylene with fibreglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
63 The Impact of Mycotoxins on the Anaerobic Digestion Process

Authors: Harald Lindorfer, Bettina Frauz, Dietmar Ramhold

Abstract:

Next to the well-known inhibitors in anaerobic digestion like ammonia, antibiotics or disinfectants, the number of process failures connected with mould growth in the feedstock increased significantly in the last years. It was assumed that mycotoxins are the cause of the negative effects. The financial damage to plants associated with these process failures is considerable. The aim of this study was to find a way of predicting the failures and furthermore strategies for a fast process recovery. In a first step, mould-contaminated feedstocks causing process failures in full-scale digesters were sampled and analysed on mycotoxin content. A selection of these samples was applied to biological inhibition tests. In this test, crystalline cellulose is applied in addition to the feedstock sample as standard substrate. Affected digesters were also sampled and analytical process data as well as operational data of the plants were recorded. Additionally, different mycotoxin substances, Deoxynivalenol, Zearalenon, Aflatoxin B1, Mycophenolic acid and Citrinin, were applied as pure substances to lab-scale digesters, individually and in various combinations, and effects were monitored. As expected, various mycotoxins were detected in all of the mould-contaminated samples. Nevertheless, inhibition effects were observed with only one of the collected samples, after applying it to an inhibition test. With this sample, the biogas yield of the standard substrate was reduced by approx. 20%. This result corresponds with observations made on full-scale plants. However, none of the tested mycotoxins applied as pure substance caused a negative effect on biogas production in lab scale digesters, neither after application as individual substance nor in combination. The recording of the process data in full-scale plants affected by process failures in most cases showed a severe accumulation of fatty acids alongside a decrease in biogas production and methane concentration. In the analytical data of the digester samples, a typical distribution of fatty acids with exceptionally high acetic acid concentrations could be identified. This typical fatty acid pattern can be used as a rapid identification parameter pointing to the cause of the process troubles and enable a fast implication of countermeasures. The results of the study show that more attention needs to be paid to feedstock storage and feedstock conservation before their application to anaerobic digesters. This is all the more important since first studies indicate that the occurrence of mycotoxins will likely increase in Europe due to the ongoing climate change.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Feedstock conservation, Fungal mycotoxins, Inhibition, process failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
62 Amylase Activities of Mould Isolated from Spoilt Ogi and Eko: Two (2) Fermented Maize Products

Authors: Gafar Bamigbade, Adebunkola Omemu

Abstract:

“Ogi” is a fermented cereal gruel prepared from maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) or guinea corn (Sorghum bicolour). It could be boiled to give a thicker consistency wrapped in leaf allowed to cool and set to a gel known as “eko”. The objective of this study is to determine the amylase activities of mould associated with the spoilage of Ogi and eko. Moulds were isolated from spoilt Ogi and eko samples using standard microbiological procedures. The isolate was then screened for amylase production using starch agar medium. Positive isolates were used for amylase production by solid state fermentation (SFF) using rice bran as the medium. An alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activity of the crude enzyme was determined using the DNS method. The mean mold Population ranged from 1.15 X 105cfu/g for raw Ogi to 6.25 X 105cfu/g for Eko (wrapped in Leaves). Twenty-seven (27) moulds isolated from the sample include A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Rhizopus species and Penicillium species. Aspergillus flavus had the highest percentage (51.9%) of incidence while Penicillium species had the least (3.7%). Out of the 27 isolates screened, 19 were found to be amylase positive by showing a clear zone around their colony after flooding with iodine solution. Diameter of clear zone ranged from 3.00mm (Aspergillus niger, C4) to 22.00mm (Aspergillus flavus, A1). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in leaf has the highest percentage alpha-amylase activity (30.8%) and Aspergillus flavus isolated from spoilt raw ogi has the lowest activity (11.4%). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in nylon produces the highest glucoamylase activity (240U/ml) while penicillium specie isolated from spoilt cooked ogi has the lowest activity (100U/ml). This study shows that moulds associated with spoilage of ogi and eko can produce amylase.

Keywords: glucoamylase, alpha amylase, ogi, eko

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
61 Collaborative Planning and Forecasting

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

Collaborative planning and forecasting are the innovative and systematic approaches towards productive integration and assimilation of data synergized into information. The changing and variable market dynamics have persuaded global business chains to incorporate collaborative planning and forecasting as an imperative tool. Thus, it is essential for the supply chains to constantly improvise, update its nature, and mould as per changing global environment.

Keywords: information transfer, forecasting, optimization, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
60 Investigation of Linezolid, 127I-Linezolid and 131I-Linezolid Effects on Slime Layer of Staphylococcus with Nuclear Methods

Authors: Hasan Demiroğlu, Uğur Avcıbaşı, Serhan Sakarya, Perihan Ünak

Abstract:

Implanted devices are progressively practiced in innovative medicine to relieve pain or improve a compromised function. Implant-associated infections represent an emerging complication, caused by organisms which adhere to the implant surface and grow embedded in a protective extracellular polymeric matrix, known as a biofilm. In addition, the microorganisms within biofilms enter a stationary growth phase and become phenotypically resistant to most antimicrobials, frequently causing treatment failure. In such cases, surgical removal of the implant is often required, causing high morbidity and substantial healthcare costs. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen causing implant-associated infections. Successful treatment of these infections includes early surgical intervention and antimicrobial treatment with bactericidal drugs that also act on the surface-adhering microorganisms. Linezolid is a promising anti-microbial with ant-staphylococcal activity, used for the treatment of MRSA infections. Linezolid is a synthetic antimicrobial and member of oxazolidinoni group, with a bacteriostatic or bactericidal dose-dependent antimicrobial mechanism against gram-positive bacteria. Intensive use of antibiotics, have emerged multi-resistant organisms over the years and major problems have begun to be experienced in the treatment of infections occurred with them. While new drugs have been developed worldwide, on the other hand infections formed with microorganisms which gained resistance against these drugs were reported and the scale of the problem increases gradually. Scientific studies about the production of bacterial biofilm increased in recent years. For this purpose, we investigated the activity of Lin, Lin radiolabeled with 131I (131I-Lin) and cold iodinated Lin (127I-Lin) against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus DSM 4910 in biofilm. In the first stage, radio and cold labeling studies were performed. Quality-control studies of Lin and iodo (radio and cold) Lin derivatives were carried out by using TLC (Thin Layer Radiochromatography) and HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography). In this context, it was found that the binding yield was obtained to be about 86±2 % for 131I-Lin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin for Staphylococcus aureus DSM 4910 strain were found to be 1µg/mL. In time-kill studies of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin were producing ≥ 3 log10 decreases in viable counts (cfu/ml) within 6 h at 2 and 4 fold of MIC respectively. No viable bacteria were observed within the 24 h of the experiments. Biofilm eradication of S. aureus started with 64 µg/mL of Lin, 127I-Lin and 131I-Lin, and OD630 was 0.507±0.0.092, 0.589±0.058 and 0.266±0.047, respectively. The media control of biofilm producing Staphylococcus was 1.675±0,01 (OD630). 131I and 127I did not have any effects on biofilms. Lin and 127I-Lin were found less effectively than 131I-Lin at killing cells in biofilm and biofilm eradication. Our results demonstrate that the 131I-Lin have potent anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus compare to Lin, 127I-Lin and media control. This is suggested that, 131I may have harmful effect on biofilm structure.

Keywords: iodine-131, linezolid, radiolabeling, slime layer, Staphylococcus

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
59 Isolation and Characterization of Indigenous Rhizosphere Bacteria Producing Gibberellin Acid from Local Soybeans in Three Different Areas of South Sulawesi

Authors: Asmiaty Sahur, Ambo Ala, Baharuddin Patanjengi, Elkawakib Syam'un

Abstract:

This study aimed to isolate and characterize the indigenous Rhizosphere bacteria producing Gibberellin Acid as plant growth isolated from local soybean of three different areas in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Several soil samples of soybean plants were collected from the Rhizosphere of local soybeans in three different areas of South Sulawesi such as Soppeng, Bone and Takalar. There were 56 isolates of bacteria were isolated and grouped into gram-positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria .There are 35 isolates produce a thick slime or slimy when cultured on media Natrium Broth and the remaining of those produced spores. The results showed that of potential bacterial isolated produced Gibberellin Acid in high concentration. The best isolate of Rhizosphere bacteria for the production of Gibberellin Acid is with concentration 2%. There are 4 isolates that had higher concentration are AKB 19 (4.67 mg/ml) followed by RKS 17 (3.80 mg/ml), RKS 25 (3.70 mg / ml) and RKS 24 (3.29 mg/ml) respectively.

Keywords: rhizosphere, bacteria, gibberellin acid, soybeans

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
58 Process Optimization and Microbial Quality of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu, a Non-Alcoholic Maize Based Beverage

Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi

Abstract:

Provitamin A-biofortified maize has been developed to alleviate Vitamin A deficiency; a major public health problem in developing countries. Amahewu, a non-alcoholic fermented maize based beverage is produced using white maize, which is deficient in Vitamin A. In this study, the suitable processing conditions for the production of amahewu using provitamin A-biofortified maize and the microbial quality of the processed products were evaluated. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was produced with reference to traditional processing method. Processing variables were Inoculum types (Malted provitamin A maize, Wheat bran, and lactobacillus mixed starter culture with either malted provitamin A or wheat bran) and concentration (0.5 %, 1 % and 2 %). A total of four provitamin A-biofortified amahewu products after fermentation were subjected to different storage conditions: 4ᴼC, 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. pH and TTA were monitored throughout the storage period. Sample of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu were plated and observed every day for 5 days to assess the presence of Aerobic and Anaerobic spore formers, E.coli, Lactobacillus and Mould. The addition of starter culture substantially reduced the fermentation time (6 hour, pH 3.3) compared to those with no addition of starter culture (24 hour pH 3.5). It was observed that Lactobacillus were present from day 0 for all the storage temperatures. The presence of aerobic spore former and mould were observed on day 3. E.coli and Anaerobic spore formers were not present throughout the storage period. These microbial growth were minimal at 4ᴼC while 25ᴼC had higher counts of growth with 37ᴼC having the highest colony count. Throughout the storage period, pH of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was stable. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu stored under refrigerated condition (4ᴼC) had better storability compared to 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. The production and microbial quality of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu might be important in combating Vitamin A Deficiency.

Keywords: biofortification, fermentation, maize, vitamin A deficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
57 A Study on Conventional and Improved Tillage Practices for Sowing Paddy in Wheat Harvested Field

Authors: R. N. Pateriya, T. K. Bhattacharya

Abstract:

In India, rice-wheat cropping system occupies the major area and contributes about 40% of the country’s total food grain production. It is necessary that production of rice and wheat must keep pace with growing population. However, various factors such as degradation in natural resources, shift in cropping pattern, energy constraints etc. are causing reduction in the productivity of these crops. Seedbed for rice after wheat is difficult to prepare due to presence of straw and stubbles, and require excessive tillage operations to bring optimum tilth. In addition, delayed sowing and transplanting of rice is mainly due to poor crop residue management, multiplicity of tillage operations and non-availability of the power source. With increasing concern for fuel conservation and energy management, farmers might wish to estimate the best cultivation system for more productivity. The widest spread method of tilling land is ploughing with mould board plough. However, with the mould board plough upper layer of soil is neither always loosened at the desired extent nor proper mixing of different layers are achieved. Therefore, additional operations carried out to improve tilth. The farmers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for minimum tillage by minimizing the use of machines. Soil management can be achieved by using the combined active-passive tillage machines. A study was therefore, undertaken in wheat-harvested field to study the impact of conventional and modified tillage practices on paddy crop cultivation. Tillage treatments with tractor as a power source were selected during the experiment. The selected level of tillage treatments of tractor machinery management were (T1:- Direct Sowing of Rice), (T2:- 2 to 3 harrowing and no Puddling with manual transplanting), (T3:- 2 to 3 harrowing and Puddling with paddy harrow with manual transplanting), (T4:- 2 to 3 harrowing and Puddling with Rotavator with manual transplanting). The maximum output was obtained with treatment T1 (7.85 t/ha)) followed by T4 (6.4 t/ha), T3 (6.25 t/ha) and T2 (6.0 t/ha)) respectively.

Keywords: crop residues, cropping system, minimum tillage, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
56 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.

Keywords: nano, epoxy, composite, fillers, clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
55 Influence of Micro Fillers Content on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites

Authors: H. Unal, A. Mimaroglu, I. Ozsoy

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical properties of micro filled epoxy composites were investigated. The matrix material is epoxy. Micro fillers are Al2O3 and TiO2 added in 10-30 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Tensile, three point bending and hardness tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break, flexural strength, flexural modulus and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites is highly influenced by micro filler content.

Keywords: composites, epoxy, fillers, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
54 Different Processing Methods to Obtain a Carbon Composite Element for Cycling

Authors: Maria Fonseca, Ana Branco, Joao Graca, Rui Mendes, Pedro Mimoso

Abstract:

The present work is focused on the production of a carbon composite element for cycling through different techniques, namely, blow-molding and high-pressure resin transfer injection (HP-RTM). The main objective of this work is to compare both processes to produce carbon composite elements for the cycling industry. It is well known that the carbon composite components for cycling are produced mainly through blow-molding; however, this technique depends strongly on manual labour, resulting in a time-consuming production process. Comparatively, HP-RTM offers a more automated process which should lead to higher production rates. Nevertheless, a comparison of the elements produced through both techniques must be done, in order to assess if the final products comply with the required standards of the industry. The main difference between said techniques lies in the used material. Blow-moulding uses carbon prepreg (carbon fibres pre-impregnated with a resin system), and the material is laid up by hand, piece by piece, on a mould or on a hard male. After that, the material is cured at a high temperature. On the other hand, in the HP-RTM technique, dry carbon fibres are placed on a mould, and then resin is injected at high pressure. After some research regarding the best material systems (prepregs and braids) and suppliers, an element was designed (similar to a handlebar) to be constructed. The next step was to perform FEM simulations in order to determine what the best layup of the composite material was. The simulations were done for the prepreg material, and the obtained layup was transposed to the braids. The selected material was a prepreg with T700 carbon fibre (24K) and an epoxy resin system, for the blow-molding technique. For HP-RTM, carbon fibre elastic UD tubes and ± 45º braids were used, with both 3K and 6K filaments per tow, and the resin system was an epoxy as well. After the simulations for the prepreg material, the optimized layup was: [45°, -45°,45°, -45°,0°,0°]. For HP-RTM, the transposed layup was [ ± 45° (6k); 0° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); partial ± 45° (6k); ± 45° (3k); ± 45° (3k)]. The mechanical tests showed that both elements can withstand the maximum load (in this case, 1000 N); however, the one produced through blow-molding can support higher loads (≈1300N against 1100N from HP-RTM). In what concerns to the fibre volume fraction (FVF), the HP-RTM element has a slightly higher value ( > 61% compared to 59% of the blow-molding technique). The optical microscopy has shown that both elements have a low void content. In conclusion, the elements produced using HP-RTM can compare to the ones produced through blow-molding, both in mechanical testing and in the visual aspect. Nevertheless, there is still space for improvement in the HP-RTM elements since the layup of the braids, and UD tubes could be optimized.

Keywords: HP-RTM, carbon composites, cycling, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
53 Evaluation of Invasive Tree Species for Production of Phosphate Bonded Composites

Authors: Stephen Osakue Amiandamhen, Schwaller Andreas, Martina Meincken, Luvuyo Tyhoda

Abstract:

Invasive alien tree species are currently being cleared in South Africa as a result of the forest and water imbalances. These species grow wildly constituting about 40% of total forest area. They compete with the ecosystem for natural resources and are considered as ecosystem engineers by rapidly changing disturbance regimes. As such, they are harvested for commercial uses but much of it is wasted because of their form and structure. The waste is being sold to local communities as fuel wood. These species can be considered as potential feedstock for the production of phosphate bonded composites. The presence of bark in wood-based composites leads to undesirable properties, and debarking as an option can be cost implicative. This study investigates the potentials of these invasive species processed without debarking on some fundamental properties of wood-based panels. Some invasive alien tree species were collected from EC Biomass, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. They include Acacia mearnsii (Black wattle), A. longifolia (Long-leaved wattle), A. cyclops (Red-eyed wattle), A. saligna (Golden-wreath wattle) and Eucalyptus globulus (Blue gum). The logs were chipped as received. The chips were hammer-milled and screened through a 1 mm sieve. The wood particles were conditioned and the quantity of bark in the wood was determined. The binding matrix was prepared using a reactive magnesia, phosphoric acid and class S fly ash. The materials were mixed and poured into a metallic mould. The composite within the mould was compressed at room temperature at a pressure of 200 KPa. After initial setting which took about 5 minutes, the composite board was demoulded and air-cured for 72 h. The cured product was thereafter conditioned at 20°C and 70% relative humidity for 48 h. Test of physical and strength properties were conducted on the composite boards. The effect of binder formulation and fly ash content on the properties of the boards was studied using fitted response surface technology, according to a central composite experimental design (CCD) at a fixed wood loading of 75% (w/w) of total inorganic contents. The results showed that phosphate/magnesia ratio of 3:1 and fly ash content of 10% was required to obtain a product of good properties and sufficient strength for intended applications. The proposed products can be used for ceilings, partitioning and insulating wall panels.

Keywords: invasive alien tree species, phosphate bonded composites, physical properties, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
52 Pedestrian Safe Bumper Design from Commingled Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Reinforced Sandwich Composites

Authors: L. Onal

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to optimize manufacturing process for thermoplastic sandwich composite structures for the pedestrian safety of automobiles subjected to collision condition. In particular, cost-effective manufacturing techniques for sandwich structures with commingled GF/PP skins and low-density foam cores are being investigated. The performance of these structures under bending load is being studied. Samples are manufactured using compression moulding technique. The relationship of this performance to processing parameters such as mould temperature, moulding time, moulding pressure and sequence of the layers during moulding is being investigated. The results of bending tests are discussed in the light of the moulding conditions and conclusions are given regarding optimum set of processing conditions using the compression moulding route

Keywords: twintex, flexural properties, automobile composites, sandwich structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 357