Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3010

Search results for: slab elements

3010 Comparison of Analytical Method and Software for Analysis of Flat Slab Subjected to Various Parametric Loadings

Authors: Hema V. Vanar, R. K. Soni, N. D. Shah

Abstract:

Slabs supported directly on columns without beams are known as Flat slabs. Flat slabs are highly versatile elements widely used in construction, providing minimum depth, fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. The main objective of this thesis is comparison of analytical method and soft ware for analysis of flat slab subjected to various parametric loadings. Study presents analysis of flat slab is performed under different types of gravity.

Keywords: fat slab, parametric load, analysis, software

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
3009 Study on Two Way Reinforced Concrete Slab Using ANSYS with Different Boundary Conditions and Loading

Authors: A. Gherbi, L. Dahmani, A. Boudjemia

Abstract:

This paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the failure pattern of rectangular slab with various edge conditions. Non-Linear static analysis is carried out using ANSYS 15 Software. Using SOLID65 solid elements, the compressive crushing of concrete is facilitated using plasticity algorithm, while the concrete cracking in tension zone is accommodated by the nonlinear material model. Smeared reinforcement is used and introduced as a percentage of steel embedded in concrete slab. The behavior of the analyzed concrete slab has been observed in terms of the crack pattern and displacement for various loading and boundary conditions. The finite element results are also compared with the experimental data. One of the other objectives of the present study is to show how similar the crack path found by ANSYS program to those observed for the yield line analysis. The smeared reinforcement method is found to be more practical especially for the layered elements like concrete slabs. The value of this method is that it does not require explicit modeling of the rebar, and thus a much coarser mesh can be defined.

Keywords: ANSYS, cracking pattern, displacements, reinforced concrete slab, smeared reinforcements

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
3008 Bending and Shear Characteristics of Hollowcore Slab with Polystyrene Forms

Authors: Kang Kun Lee

Abstract:

New I-slab system with polystyrene forms and precast concrete deck is proposed to reduce the construction period and the self-weight of the slab. This paper presents experimental works on the bending and shear of the I-slabs. Five specimens were tested. The main parameters of experiments are diameters of the holes made by polystyrene form and the thickness of slab. Structural performance of I-slab is evaluated on the basis of failure mode, load-displacement curve, and ultimate strengths. Based on the test results, it is found that the critical punching shear sections are changed as the test variables are different, hence resulting in the varied punching shear strengths. Test results indicate that the developed I-slab is very effective to increase the strength due to self-weight reduction.

Keywords: hollowcore slab, section force-deformation response, precast concrete deck

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
3007 Simulation of Nonlinear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Using Rigid Body-Spring Discrete Element Method

Authors: Felix Jr. Garde, Eric Augustus Tingatinga

Abstract:

Most analysis procedures of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs are based on elastic theory. When subjected to large forces, however, slabs deform beyond elastic range and the study of their behavior and performance require nonlinear analysis. This paper presents a numerical model to simulate nonlinear behavior of RC slabs using rigid body-spring discrete element method. The proposed slab model composed of rigid plate elements and nonlinear springs is based on the yield line theory which assumes that the nonlinear behavior of the RC slab subjected to transverse loads is contained in plastic or yield-lines. In this model, the displacement of the slab is completely described by the rigid elements and the deformation energy is concentrated in the flexural springs uniformly distributed at the potential yield lines. The spring parameters are determined from comparison of transverse displacements and stresses developed in the slab obtained using FEM and the proposed model with assumed homogeneous material. Numerical models of typical RC slabs with varying geometry, reinforcement, support conditions, and loading conditions, show reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The model was also shown to be useful in investigating dynamic behavior of slabs.

Keywords: RC slab, nonlinear behavior, yield line theory, rigid body-spring discrete element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
3006 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: double negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3005 Viability of Slab Sliding System for Single Story Structure

Authors: C. Iihoshi, G. A. MacRae, G. W. Rodgers, J. G. Chase

Abstract:

Slab Sliding System (SSS) with Coulomb friction interface between slab and supporting frame is a passive structural vibration control technology. The system can significantly reduce the slab acceleration and accompanied lateral force of the frame. At the same time it is expected to cause the slab displacement magnification by sliding movement. To obtain the general comprehensive seismic response of a single story structure, inelastic response spectra were computed for a large ensemble of ground motions and a practical range of structural periods and friction coefficient values. It was shown that long period structures have no trade-off relation between force reduction and displacement magnification with respect to elastic response, unlike short period structures. For structures with the majority of mass in the slab, the displacement magnification value can be predicted according to simple inelastic displacement relation for in elastically responding SDOF structures because the system behaves elastically to a SDOF structure.

Keywords: earthquake, isolation, slab, sliding

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
3004 Fatigue Evaluation of Link Slab for Continuous Girder-Type Precast Modular Bridges

Authors: Jae-Joon Song, Sang-Yoon Lee, Bong-Chul Joo

Abstract:

The girder-type precast modular bridge has been developed as a simply supported bridge. The girder-type precast modular bridge could be applied to the multi-span bridges through the continuity method. The continuity of the girder-type precast modular bridge is achieved by using the link slab which is easy to construction and appropriate to the rapid construction. In this study, the link slab with transition zone was used for the continuity of the precast modular bridges, and the construction detail of link slab was modified. In addition, the modified iterative design method of link slab was proposed in this study. To verify the proposed design method, the fatigue test using the mock-up specimen was conducted with cycle loading condition up to two million cycles.

Keywords: precast, modular bridge, link slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
3003 Effect the Use of Steel Fibers (Dramix) on Reinforced Concrete Slab

Authors: Faisal Ananda, Junaidi Al-Husein, Oni Febriani, Juli Ardita, N. Indra, Syaari Al-Husein, A. Bukri

Abstract:

Currently, concrete technology continues to grow and continue to innovate one of them using fibers. Fiber concrete has advantages over non-fiber concrete, among others, strong against the effect of shrinkage, ability to reduce crack, fire resistance, etc. In this study, concrete mix design using the procedures listed on SNI 03-2834-2000. The sample used is a cylinder with a height of 30 cm and a width of 15cm in diameter, which is used for compression and tensile testing, while the slab is 400cm x 100cm x 15cm. The fiber used is steel fiber (dramix), with the addition of 2/3 of the thickness of the slabs. The charging is done using a two-point loading. From the result of the research, it is found that the loading of non-fiber slab (0%) of the initial crack is the maximum crack that has passed the maximum crack allowed with a crack width of 1.3 mm with a loading of 1160 kg. The initial crack with the largest load is found on the 1% fiber mixed slab, with the initial crack also being a maximum crack of 0.5mm which also has exceeded the required maximum crack. In the 4% slab the initial crack of 0.1 mm is a minimal initial crack with a load greater than the load of a non-fiber (0%) slab by load1200 kg. While the maximum load on the maximum crack according to the applicable maximum crack conditions, on the 5% fiber mixed slab with a crack width of 0.32mm by loading 1250 kg.

Keywords: crack, dramix, fiber, load, slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
3002 Performance of Bridge Approach Slabs in Bridge Construction: A Case Study

Authors: Aurora Cerri, Niko Pullojani

Abstract:

Long-term differential settlement between the bridge structure and the bridge embankment typically results in an abrupt grade change, causing driver discomfort, impairing driver safety, and exerting a potentially excessive impact traffic loading on the abutment. This paper has analysed a case of study showing the effect of an approaching slab realized in a bridge constructed at Tirane-Elbasan Motorway. The layer thickness under the slab is modeled as homogenous, the slab is a reinforced concrete structure and over that the asphaltic layers take place. Analysis indicates that reinforced concrete approaching slab distributes the stresses quite uniformly into the road fill layers and settlements varies in a range less than 2.50 cm in the total slab length of 6.00 m with a maximum slope of 1/240. Results taken from analytical analysis are compared with topographic measurements done on field and they carry great similarities.

Keywords: approach slab, bridge, road pavement, differential settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
3001 Behavior of the RC Slab Subjected to Impact Loading According to the DIF

Authors: Yong Jae Yu, Jae-Yeol Cho

Abstract:

In the design of structural concrete for impact loading, design or model codes often employ a dynamic increase factor (DIF) to impose dynamic effect on static response. Dynamic increase factors that are obtained from laboratory material test results and that are commonly given as a function of strain rate only are quite different from each other depending on the design concept of design codes like ACI 349M-06, fib Model Code 2010 and ACI 370R-14. Because the dynamic increase factors currently adopted in the codes are too simple and limited to consider a variety of strength of materials, their application in practical design is questionable. In this study, the dynamic increase factors used in the three codes were validated through the finite element analysis of reinforced concrete slab elements which were tested and reported by other researcher. The test was intended to simulate a wall element of the containment building in nuclear power plants that is assumed to be subject to impact scenario that the Pentagon experienced on September 11, 2001. The finite element analysis was performed using the ABAQAUS 6.10 and the plasticity models were employed for the concrete, reinforcement. The dynamic increase factors given in the three codes were applied to the stress-strain curves of the materials. To estimate the dynamic increase factors, strain rate was adopted as a parameter. Comparison of the test and analysis was done with regard to perforation depth, maximum deflection, and surface crack area of the slab. Consequently, it was found that DIF has so great an effect on the behavior of the reinforced concrete structures that selection of DIF should be very careful. The result implies that DIF should be provided in design codes in more delicate format considering various influence factors.

Keywords: impact, strain rate, DIF, slab elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
3000 Evaluation of Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Slab Punching Shear Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Zhi Zhang, Liling Cao, Seyedbabak Momenzadeh, Lisa Davey

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) flat slab-column systems are commonly used in residential or office buildings, as the flat slab provides efficient clearance resulting in more stories at a given height than regular reinforced concrete beam-slab system. Punching shear of slab-column joints is a critical component of two-way reinforced concrete flat slab design. The unbalanced moment at the joint is transferred via slab moment and shear forces. ACI 318 provides an equation to evaluate the punching shear under the design load. It is important to note that the design code considers gravity and environmental load when considering the design load combinations, while it does not consider the effect from differential foundation settlement, which may be a governing load condition for the slab design. This paper describes how prestressed reinforced concrete slab punching shear is evaluated based on ACI 318 provisions and finite element analysis. A prestressed reinforced concrete slab under differential settlements is studied using the finite element modeling methodology. The punching shear check equation is explained. The methodology to extract data for punching shear check from the finite element model is described and correlated with the corresponding code provisions. The study indicates that the finite element analysis results should be carefully reviewed and processed in order to perform accurate punching shear evaluation. Conclusions are made based on the case studies to help engineers understand the punching shear behavior in prestressed and non-prestressed reinforced concrete slabs.

Keywords: differential settlement, finite element model, prestressed reinforced concrete slab, punching shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2999 On the Thermal Behavior of the Slab in a Reheating Furnace with Radiation

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace has been developed by considering the nongray thermal radiation with given furnace environments. The furnace is modeled as radiating nongray medium with carbon dioxide and water with five-zoned gas temperature and the furnace wall is considered as a constant temperature lower than furnace gas one. The slabs are moving with constant velocity depending on the residence time through the non-firing, charging, preheating, heating, and final soaking zones. Radiative heat flux obtained by considering the radiative heat exchange inside the furnace as well as convective one from the surrounding hot gases are introduced as boundary condition of the transient heat conduction within the slab. After validating thermal radiation model adopted in this work, thermal fields in both model and real reheating furnace are investigated in terms of radiative heat flux in the furnace and temperature inside the slab. The results show that the slab in the furnace can be more heated with higher slab emissivity and residence time.

Keywords: reheating furnace, steel slab, radiative heat transfer, WSGGM, emissivity, residence time

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
2998 Ductility of Slab-Interior Column Connections Transferring Shear and Moment

Authors: Omar M. Ben-Sasi

Abstract:

Ductility of slab-column connections of flat slab structures is a desirable property that should be considered when designing such connections which are susceptible to punching failure around their columns. Tests to failure on six half-scale specimens were conducted for slab-interior column connections transferring shear force and unbalanced moment. The influences on connection ductility of four parameters; namely, the moment to shear force ratio, the ratio of column side length to slab effective depth, the aspect ratio of the column cross section, and the presence of four square openings located next to column corners were investigated. The study revealed marked effects of these parameters on connection ductility. Increasing the first and second parameters, were found to be in favor of increasing connection ductility, while the third and fourth parameters were found to have negative effects on the connection ductility. These findings should, hopefully, help in designing interior connections of flat slab structures.

Keywords: ductility, flat slab, failure, shear force, moment, unbalanced moment, punching failure, connection, interior-column connection

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2997 Experimental Study on the Floor Vibration Evaluation of Concrete Slab for Existing Buildings

Authors: Yong-Taeg Lee, Jun-Ho Na, Seung-Hun Kim, Seong-Uk Hong

Abstract:

Damages from noise and vibration are increasing every year, most of which are noises between floors in deteriorated building caused by floor impact sound. In this study, the concrete slab measured vibration impact sound for evaluation floor vibration of deteriorated buildings that fails to satisfy with the minimum thickness. In this experimental study, the vibration scale by impact sound was calibrated and compared with ISO and AIJ standard for vibration. The results show that vibration in slab with thickness used in existing building reach human perception levels.

Keywords: vibration, frequency, accelerometer, concrete slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
2996 Estimation of Slab Depth, Column Size and Rebar Location of Concrete Specimen Using Impact Echo Method

Authors: Y. T. Lee, J. H. Na, S. H. Kim, S. U. Hong

Abstract:

In this study, an experimental research for estimation of slab depth, column size and location of rebar of concrete specimen is conducted using the Impact Echo Method (IE) based on stress wave among non-destructive test methods. Estimation of slab depth had total length of 1800×300 and 6 different depths including 150 mm, 180 mm, 210 mm, 240 mm, 270 mm and 300 mm. The concrete column specimen was manufactured by differentiating the size into 300×300×300 mm, 400×400×400 mm and 500×500×500 mm. In case of the specimen for estimation of rebar, rebar of ∅22 mm was used in a specimen of 300×370×200 and arranged at 130 mm and 150 mm from the top to the rebar top. As a result of error rate of slab depth was overall mean of 3.1%. Error rate of column size was overall mean of 1.7%. Mean error rate of rebar location was 1.72% for top, 1.19% for bottom and 1.5% for overall mean showing relative accuracy.

Keywords: impact echo method, estimation, slab depth, column size, rebar location, concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
2995 Reinforced Concrete Slab under Static and Dynamic Loading

Authors: Aaron Aboshio, Jianqiao Ye

Abstract:

In this study, static and dynamic responses of a typical reinforced concrete flat slab, designed to British Standard (BS 8110, 1997) and under self and live loadings for dance halls are reported. Linear perturbation analysis using finite element method was employed for modal, impulse loading and frequency response analyses of the slab under the aforementioned loading condition. Results from the static and dynamic analyses, comprising of the slab fundamental frequencies and mode shapes, dynamic amplification factor, maximum deflection, stress distributions among other valuable outcomes are presented and discussed. These were gauged with the limiting provisions in the design code with a view to optimise the structure and ensure both adequate strength and economical section for large clear span slabs. This is necessary owing to the continued increase in cost of erecting building structures and the squeeze on public finance globally.

Keywords: economical design, finite element method, modal dynamics, reinforced concrete, slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2994 Behavior of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek

Abstract:

The paper deals with current issues in the research of advanced methods to increase the reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with the additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer. The study evaluates deflection of a selected group of timber beams with concrete slab and additional CFRP reinforcement using different calculating methods and observes differences in results from different calculating methods. An elastic calculation method and evaluation with FEM analysis software were used.

Keywords: timber-concrete composite, strengthening, fibre-reinforced polymer, theoretical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2993 Seismic Assessment of Flat Slab and Conventional Slab System for Irregular Building Equipped with Shear Wall

Authors: Muhammad Aji Fajari, Ririt Aprilin Sumarsono

Abstract:

Particular instability of structural building under lateral load (e.g earthquake) will rise due to irregularity in vertical and horizontal direction as stated in SNI 03-1762-2012. The conventional slab has been considered for its less contribution in increasing the stability of the structure, except special slab system such as flat slab turned into account. In this paper, the analysis of flat slab system at Sequis Tower located in South Jakarta will be assessed its performance under earthquake. It consists of 6 floors of the basement where the flat slab system is applied. The flat slab system will be the main focus in this paper to be compared for its performance with conventional slab system under earthquake. Regarding the floor plan of Sequis Tower basement, re-entrant corner signed for this building is 43.21% which exceeded the allowable re-entrant corner is 15% as stated in ASCE 7-05 Based on that, the horizontal irregularity will be another concern for analysis, otherwise vertical irregularity does not exist for this building. Flat slab system is a system where the slabs use drop panel with shear head as their support instead of using beams. Major advantages of flat slab application are decreasing dead load of structure, removing beams so that the clear height can be maximized, and providing lateral resistance due to lateral load. Whilst, deflection at middle strip and punching shear are problems to be detail considered. Torsion usually appears when the structural member under flexure such as beam or column dimension is improper in ratio. Considering flat slab as alternative slab system will keep the collapse due to torsion down. Common seismic load resisting system applied in the building is a shear wall. Installation of shear wall will keep the structural system stronger and stiffer affecting in reduced displacement under earthquake. Eccentricity of shear wall location of this building resolved the instability due to horizontal irregularity so that the earthquake load can be absorbed. Performing linear dynamic analysis such as response spectrum and time history analysis due to earthquake load is suitable as the irregularity arise so that the performance of structure can be significantly observed. Utilization of response spectrum data for South Jakarta which PGA 0.389g is basic for the earthquake load idealization to be involved in several load combinations stated on SNI 03-1726-2012. The analysis will result in some basic seismic parameters such as period, displacement, and base shear of the system; besides the internal forces of the critical member will be presented. Predicted period of a structure under earthquake load is 0.45 second, but as different slab system applied in the analysis then the period will show a different value. Flat slab system will probably result in better performance for the displacement parameter compare to conventional slab system due to higher contribution of stiffness to the whole system of the building. In line with displacement, the deflection of the slab will result smaller for flat slab than a conventional slab. Henceforth, shear wall will be effective to strengthen the conventional slab system than flat slab system.

Keywords: conventional slab, flat slab, horizontal irregularity, response spectrum, shear wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
2992 Comparative Safety Performance Evaluation of Profiled Deck Composite Slab from the Use of Slope-Intercept and Partial Shear Methods

Authors: Izian Abd. Karim, Kachalla Mohammed, Nora Farah Abd Aznieta Aziz, Law Teik Hua

Abstract:

The economic use and ease of construction of profiled deck composite slab is marred with the complex and un-economic strength verification required for the serviceability and general safety considerations. Beside these, albeit factors such as shear span length, deck geometries and mechanical frictions greatly influence the longitudinal shear strength, that determines the ultimate strength of profiled deck composite slab, and number of methods available for its determination; partial shear and slope-intercept are the two methods according to Euro-code 4 provision. However, the complexity associated with shear behavior of profiled deck composite slab, the use of these methods in determining the load carrying capacities of such slab yields different and conflicting values. This couple with the time and cost constraint associated with the strength verification is a source of concern that draws more attentions nowadays, the issue is critical. Treating some of these known shear strength influencing factors as random variables, the load carrying capacity violation of profiled deck composite slab from the use of the two-methods defined according to Euro-code 4 are determined using reliability approach, and comparatively studied. The study reveals safety values from the use of m-k method shows good standing compared with that from the partial shear method.

Keywords: composite slab, first order reliability method, longitudinal shear, partial shear connection, slope-intercept

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2991 Calculating Quantity of Steel Bar Placed in Mesh Form in a Circular Slab or Dome

Authors: Karam Chand Gupta

Abstract:

When steel reinforcement is placed in mesh form in circular concrete slab at base or domes at top in case of over head service reservoir or any other structure, it is difficult to estimate/measure the total quantity of steel that would be needed or placed. For the purpose of calculating the total length of the steel bars, at present, the practice is – the length of each bar is measured and then added up. This is tiresome and time consuming process. I have derived a mathematics formula with the help of which we can calculate in one line the quantity of total steel that will be needed. This will not only make it easy and time saving but also avoids any error in making entries and calculations.

Keywords: dome, mesh, slab, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
2990 Modelling of Composite Steel and Concrete Beam with the Lightweight Concrete Slab

Authors: Veronika Přivřelová

Abstract:

Well-designed composite steel and concrete structures highlight the good material properties and lower the deficiencies of steel and concrete, in particular they make use of high tensile strength of steel and high stiffness of concrete. The most common composite steel and concrete structure is a simply supported beam, which concrete slab transferring the slab load to a beam is connected to the steel cross-section. The aim of this paper is to find the most adequate numerical model of a simply supported composite beam with the cross-sectional and material parameters based on the results of a processed parametric study and numerical analysis. The paper also evaluates the suitability of using compact concrete with the lightweight aggregates for composite steel and concrete beams. The most adequate numerical model will be used in the resent future to compare the results of laboratory tests.

Keywords: composite beams, high-performance concrete, high-strength steel, lightweight concrete slab, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
2989 Shear Modulus Degradation of a Liquefiable Sand Deposit by Shaking Table Tests

Authors: Henry Munoz, Muhammad Mohsan, Takashi Kiyota

Abstract:

Strength and deformability characteristics of a liquefiable sand deposit including the development of earthquake-induced shear stress and shear strain as well as soil softening via the progressive degradation of shear modulus were studied via shaking table experiments. To do so, a model of a liquefiable sand deposit was constructed and densely instrumented where accelerations, pressures, and displacements at different locations were continuously monitored. Furthermore, the confinement effects on the strength and deformation characteristics of the liquefiable sand deposit due to an external surcharge by placing a heavy concrete slab (i.e. the model of an actual structural rigid pavement) on the ground surface were examined. The results indicate that as the number of seismic-loading cycles increases, the sand deposit softens progressively as large shear strains take place in different sand elements. Liquefaction state is reached after the combined effects of the progressive degradation of the initial shear modulus associated with the continuous decrease in the mean principal stress, and the buildup of the excess of pore pressure takes place in the sand deposit. Finally, the confinement effects given by a concrete slab placed on the surface of the sand deposit resulted in a favorable increasing in the initial shear modulus, an increase in the mean principal stress and a decrease in the softening rate (i.e. the decreasing rate in shear modulus) of the sand, thus making the onset of liquefaction to take place at a later stage. This is, only after the sand deposit having a concrete slab experienced a higher number of seismic loading cycles liquefaction took place, in contrast to an ordinary sand deposit having no concrete slab.

Keywords: liquefaction, shear modulus degradation, shaking table, earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2988 Finite Element Modeling of the Effects of Loss of Rigid Pavements Slab Support Due to Built-In Curling

Authors: Ali Ashtiani, Cesar Carrasco

Abstract:

Accurate determination of thermo-mechanical responses of jointed concrete pavement slabs is essential to implement an effective mechanistic design. Temperature-induced curling of concrete slabs can produce premature top-down cracking in rigid pavements. Curling of concrete slabs can result from daily temperature variation through the slab thickness. The slab curling can also result from temperature gradients due hot weather construction, drying shrinkage and creep that are permanently built into the slabs. The existence of permanent curling implies that concrete slabs are not flat at zero temperature gradient. In this case, slabs may not be in full contact with the underlying base layer when subjecting to traffic. Built-in curling can be a major factor producing loss of slab support. The magnitude of stresses induced in slabs is influenced by the stiffness of the underlying foundation layers and the contact condition along the slab-foundation interface. An approach for finite element modeling of the effect of loss of slab support due to built-in curling is presented in this paper. A series of parametric studies is carried out for a pavement system loaded with a combination of traffic and thermal loads, considering different built-in curling and different foundation rigidities. The results explain the effect of loss of support in the magnitude of stresses produced in concrete slabs. The results of parametric study can also be used to evaluate whether the governing equations that are used to idealize the behavior of jointed concrete pavements and the effect of loss of support have been accurately selected and implemented in the finite element model.

Keywords: built-in curling, finite element modeling, loss of slab support, rigid pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2987 Simulation Study of the Microwave Heating of the Hematite and Coal Mixture

Authors: Prasenjit Singha, Sunil Yadav, Soumya Ranjan Mohantry, Ajay Kumar Shukla

Abstract:

Temperature distribution in the hematite ore mixed with 7.5% coal was predicted by solving a 1-D heat conduction equation using an implicit finite difference approach. In this work, it was considered a square slab of 20 cm x 20 cm, which assumed the coal to be uniformly mixed with hematite ore. It was solved the equations with the use of MATLAB 2018a software. Heat transfer effects in this 1D dimensional slab convective and the radiative boundary conditions are also considered. Temperature distribution obtained inside hematite slab by considering microwave heating time, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, carbon percentage, sample dimensions, and many other factors such as penetration depth, permittivity, and permeability of coal and hematite ore mixtures. The resulting temperature profile can be used as a guiding tool for optimizing the microwave-assisted carbothermal reduction process of hematite slab was extended to other dimensions as well, viz., 1 cm x 1 cm, 5 cm x 5 cm, 10 cm x 10 cm, 20 cm x 20 cm. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: hematite ore, coal, microwave processing, heat transfer, implicit method, temperature distribution

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2986 Effective Slab Width for Beam-End Flexural Strength of Composite Frames with Circular-Section Columns

Authors: Jizhi Zhao, Qiliang Zhou, Muxuan Tao

Abstract:

The calculation of the ultimate loading capacity of composite frame beams is an important step in the design of composite frame structural systems. Currently, the plastic limit theory is mainly used for this calculation in the codes adopted by many countries; however, the effective slab width recommended in most codes is based on the elastic theory, which does not accurately reflect the complex stress mechanism at the beam-column joints in the ultimate loading state. Therefore, the authors’ research group put forward the Compression-on-Column-Face mechanism and Tension-on-Transverse-Beam mechanism to explain the mechanism in the ultimate loading state. Formulae are derived for calculating the effective slab width in composite frames with rectangular/square-section columns under ultimate lateral loading. Moreover, this paper discusses the calculation method of the effective slab width for the beam-end flexural strength of composite frames with circular-section columns. The proposed design formula is suitable for exterior and interior joints. Finally, this paper compares the proposed formulae with available formulae in other literature, current design codes, and experimental results, providing the most accurate results to predict the effective slab width and ultimate loading capacity.

Keywords: composite frame structure, effective slab width, circular-section column, design formulae, ultimate loading capacity

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2985 Buildings Founded on Thermal Insulation Layer Subjected to Earthquake Load

Authors: David Koren, Vojko Kilar

Abstract:

The modern energy-efficient houses are often founded on a thermal insulation (TI) layer placed under the building’s RC foundation slab. The purpose of the paper is to identify the potential problems of the buildings founded on TI layer from the seismic point of view. The two main goals of the study were to assess the seismic behavior of such buildings, and to search for the critical structural parameters affecting the response of the superstructure as well as of the extruded polystyrene (XPS) layer. As a test building a multi-storeyed RC frame structure with and without the XPS layer under the foundation slab has been investigated utilizing nonlinear dynamic (time-history) and static (pushover) analyses. The structural response has been investigated with reference to the following performance parameters: i) Building’s lateral roof displacements, ii) Edge compressive and shear strains of the XPS, iii) Horizontal accelerations of the superstructure, iv) Plastic hinge patterns of the superstructure, v) Part of the foundation in compression, and vi) Deformations of the underlying soil and vertical displacements of the foundation slab (i.e. identifying the potential uplift). The results have shown that in the case of higher and stiff structures lying on firm soil the use of XPS under the foundation slab might induce amplified structural peak responses compared to the building models without XPS under the foundation slab. The analysis has revealed that the superstructure as well as the XPS response is substantially affected by the stiffness of the foundation slab.

Keywords: extruded polystyrene (XPS), foundation on thermal insulation, energy-efficient buildings, nonlinear seismic analysis, seismic response, soil–structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2984 Sensitivity Analysis of Principal Stresses in Concrete Slab of Rigid Pavement Made From Recycled Materials

Authors: Aleš Florian, Lenka Ševelová

Abstract:

Complex sensitivity analysis of stresses in a concrete slab of the real type of rigid pavement made from recycled materials is performed. The computational model of the pavement is designed as a spatial (3D) model, is based on a nonlinear variant of the finite element method that respects the structural nonlinearity, enables to model different arrangements of joints, and the entire model can be loaded by the thermal load. Interaction of adjacent slabs in joints and contact of the slab and the subsequent layer are modeled with the help of special contact elements. Four concrete slabs separated by transverse and longitudinal joints and the additional structural layers and soil to the depth of about 3m are modeled. The thickness of individual layers, physical and mechanical properties of materials, characteristics of joints, and the temperature of the upper and lower surface of slabs are supposed to be random variables. The modern simulation technique Updated Latin Hypercube Sampling with 20 simulations is used. For sensitivity analysis the sensitivity coefficient based on the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is utilized. As a result, the estimates of influence of random variability of individual input variables on the random variability of principal stresses s1 and s3 in 53 points on the upper and lower surface of the concrete slabs are obtained.

Keywords: concrete, FEM, pavement, sensitivity, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2983 Sensitivity Analysis of Prestressed Post-Tensioned I-Girder and Deck System

Authors: Tahsin A. H. Nishat, Raquib Ahsan

Abstract:

Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of the optimization procedure can become a significant factor while designing any structural system. The objectives of the study are to analyze the sensitivity of deck slab thickness parameter obtained from both the conventional and optimum design methodology of pre-stressed post-tensioned I-girder and deck system and to compare the relative significance of slab thickness. For analysis on conventional method, the values of 14 design parameters obtained by the conventional iterative method of design of a real-life I-girder bridge project have been considered. On the other side for analysis on optimization method, cost optimization of this system has been done using global optimization methodology 'Evolutionary Operation (EVOP)'. The problem, by which optimum values of 14 design parameters have been obtained, contains 14 explicit constraints and 46 implicit constraints. For both types of design parameters, sensitivity analysis has been conducted on deck slab thickness parameter which can become too sensitive for the obtained optimum solution. Deviations of slab thickness on both the upper and lower side of its optimum value have been considered reflecting its realistic possible ranges of variations during construction. In this procedure, the remaining parameters have been kept unchanged. For small deviations from the optimum value, compliance with the explicit and implicit constraints has been examined. Variations in the cost have also been estimated. It is obtained that without violating any constraint deck slab thickness obtained by the conventional method can be increased up to 25 mm whereas slab thickness obtained by cost optimization can be increased only up to 0.3 mm. The obtained result suggests that slab thickness becomes less sensitive in case of conventional method of design. Therefore, for realistic design purpose sensitivity should be conducted for any of the design procedure of girder and deck system.

Keywords: sensitivity analysis, optimum design, evolutionary operations, PC I-girder, deck system

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
2982 Some Trends in Analysis of Two-Way Solid Slabs

Authors: Reem I. Al-Ya' Goub, Nasim Shatarat

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of analytical and comparative study among software programs' outputs in analysis of some two way solid slabs; flat plate, flat slab with beams and flat slab with drop panels problems that already been analyzed using Classical Equivalent Frame Method (CEFM) by several reinforced concrete book authors. The primary objective of this research is to determine the moment results using various software programs. Then, a summary of the results and differences percentages were obtained to show how analysis procedure effects the outputs of calculations that vary from software program to another when comparing them with the results of CEFM. Moment values were obtained using either the Equivalent Frame Method (EFM) or Finite Element Method (FEM) that's used among many software programs. The results of the analyses demonstrate that software programs vary markedly in terms of the information they provide to the structural designer regarding values of the model insertion, stiffness, effective moment of inertia used and specially the moment values.

Keywords: two-way solid slabs, flat plate, flat slab with beams, flat slab with drop panels, analysis, modeling, EFM, CEFM, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
2981 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

Procedia PDF Downloads 78