Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3794

Search results for: single bubbles

3794 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single bubbles, electric field, boiling, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3793 Forecast Financial Bubbles: Multidimensional Phenomenon

Authors: Zouari Ezzeddine, Ghraieb Ikram

Abstract:

From the results of the academic literature which evokes the limitations of previous studies, this article shows the reasons for multidimensionality Prediction of financial bubbles. A new framework for modeling study predicting financial bubbles by linking a set of variable presented on several dimensions dictating its multidimensional character. It takes into account the preferences of financial actors. A multicriteria anticipation of the appearance of bubbles in international financial markets helps to fight against a possible crisis.

Keywords: classical measures, predictions, financial bubbles, multidimensional, artificial neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
3792 Rising of Single and Double Bubbles during Boiling and Effect of Electric Field in This Process

Authors: Masoud Gholam Ale Mohammad, Mojtaba Hafezi Birgani

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes in the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single and double bubbles, electric field, boiling, rising

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
3791 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
3790 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation on Heat Transfer of Hot Air Bubble Injection into Water Column

Authors: Jae-Yeong Choi, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Jong-Chun Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Seok-Tae Yoon

Abstract:

When air flow is injected into water, bubbles are formed in various types inside the water pool along with the air flow rate. The bubbles are floated in equilibrium with forces such as buoyancy, surface tension and shear force. Single bubble generated at low flow rate maintains shape, but bubbles with high flow rate break up to make mixing and turbulence. In addition to this phenomenon, as the hot air bubbles are injected into the water, heat affects the interface of phases. Therefore, the main scope of the present work reveals how to proceed heat transfer between water and hot air bubbles injected into water. In the present study, a series of CFD simulation for the heat transfer of hot bubbles injected through a nozzle near the bottom in a cylindrical water column are performed using a commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+. The governing equations for incompressible and viscous flow are the continuous and the RaNS (Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes) equations and discretized by the FVM (Finite Volume Method) manner. For solving multi-phase flow, the Eulerian multiphase model is employed and the interface is defined by VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) technique. As a turbulence model, the SST k-w model considering the buoyancy effects is introduced. For spatial differencing the 3th-order MUSCL scheme is adopted and the 2nd-order implicit scheme for time integration. As the results, the dynamic behavior of the rising hot bubbles with the flow rate injected and regarding heat transfer mechanism are discussed based on the simulation results.

Keywords: heat transfer, hot bubble injection, eulerian multiphase model, flow rate, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
3789 Effect of Irradiation on Nano-Indentation Properties and Microstructure of X-750 Ni-Based Superalloy

Authors: Pooyan Changizian, Zhongwen Yao

Abstract:

The purpose of current study is to make an excellent correlation between mechanical properties and microstructures of ion irradiated X-750 Ni-based superalloy. Towards this end, two different irradiation procedures were carried out, including single Ni ion irradiation and pre-helium implantation with subsequent Ni ion irradiation. Nano-indentation technique was employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated material. The nano-hardness measurements depict highly different results for two irradiation procedures. Single ion irradiated X-750 shows softening behavior; however, pre-helium implanted specimens present significant hardening compared to the un-irradiated material. Cross-section TEM examination demonstrates that softening is attributed to the γ׳-precipitate instability (disordering/dissolution) which overcomes the hardening effect of irradiation-induced defects. In contrast, the presence of cavities or helium bubbles is probably the main cause for irradiation-induced hardening of helium implanted samples.

Keywords: Inconel X-750, nanoindentation, helium bubbles, defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
3788 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux from q=20 kw/m2 to q=102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles.

Keywords: heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3787 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

In waste water treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the waste water. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in waste water treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
3786 Preference for Housing Services and Rational House Price Bubbles

Authors: Stefanie Jeanette Huber

Abstract:

This paper explores the relevance and implications of preferences for housing services on house price fluctuations through the lens of an overlapping generation’s model. The model implies that an economy whose agents have lower preferences for housing services is characterized with lower expenditure shares on housing services and will tend to experience more frequent and more volatile housing bubbles. These model predictions are tested empirically in the companion paper Housing Booms and Busts - Convergences and Divergences across OECD countries. Between 1970 - 2013, countries who spend less on housing services as a share of total income experienced significantly more housing cycles and the associated housing boom-bust cycles were more violent. Finally, the model is used to study the impact of rental subsidies and help-to-buy schemes on rational housing bubbles. Rental subsidies are found to contribute to the control of housing bubbles, whereas help-to- buy scheme makes the economy more bubble-prone.

Keywords: housing bubbles, housing booms and busts, preference for housing services, expenditure shares for housing services, rental and purchase subsidies

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
3785 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: gas lift instability, bubbles forming, bubbles collapsing, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3784 Application of Neural Networks to Predict Changing the Diameters of Bubbles in Pool Boiling Distilled Water

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri

Abstract:

In this research, the capability of neural networks in modeling and learning complicated and nonlinear relations has been used to develop a model for the prediction of changes in the diameter of bubbles in pool boiling distilled water. The input parameters used in the development of this network include element temperature, heat flux, and retention time of bubbles. The test data obtained from the experiment of the pool boiling of distilled water, and the measurement of the bubbles form on the cylindrical element. The model was developed based on training algorithm, which is typologically of back-propagation type. Considering the correlation coefficient obtained from this model is 0.9633. This shows that this model can be trusted for the simulation and modeling of the size of bubble and thermal transfer of boiling.

Keywords: bubble diameter, heat flux, neural network, training algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3783 Analysis of the Homogeneous Turbulence Structure in Uniformly Sheared Bubbly Flow Using First and Second Order Turbulence Closures

Authors: Hela Ayeb Mrabtini, Ghazi Bellakhal, Jamel Chahed

Abstract:

The presence of the dispersed phase in gas-liquid bubbly flow considerably alters the liquid turbulence. The bubbles induce turbulent fluctuations that enhance the global liquid turbulence level and alter the mechanisms of turbulence. RANS modeling of uniformly sheared flows on an isolated sphere centered in a control volume is performed using first and second order turbulence closures. The sphere is placed in the production-dissipation equilibrium zone where the liquid velocity is set equal to the relative velocity of the bubbles. The void fraction is determined by the ratio between the sphere volume and the control volume. The analysis of the turbulence statistics on the control volume provides numerical results that are interpreted with regard to the effect of the bubbles wakes on the turbulence structure in uniformly sheared bubbly flow. We assumed for this purpose that at low void fraction where there is no hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles, the single-phase flow simulation on an isolated sphere is representative on statistical average of a sphere network. The numerical simulations were firstly validated against the experimental data of bubbly homogeneous turbulence with constant shear and then extended to produce numerical results for a wide range of shear rates from 0 to 10 s^-1. These results are compared with our turbulence closure proposed for gas-liquid bubbly flows. In this closure, the turbulent stress tensor in the liquid is split into a turbulent dissipative part produced by the gradient of the mean velocity which also contains the turbulence generated in the bubble wakes and a pseudo-turbulent non-dissipative part induced by the bubbles displacements. Each part is determined by a specific transport equation. The simulations of uniformly sheared flows on an isolated sphere reproduce the mechanisms related to the turbulent part, and the numerical results are in perfect accordance with the modeling of the transport equation of the turbulent part. The reduction of second order turbulence closure provides a description of the modification of turbulence structure by the bubbles presence using a dimensionless number expressed in terms of two-time scales characterizing the turbulence induced by the shear and that induced by bubbles displacements. The numerical simulations carried out in the framework of a comprehensive analysis reproduce particularly the attenuation of the turbulent friction showed in the experimental results of bubbly homogeneous turbulence subjected to a constant shear.

Keywords: gas-liquid bubbly flows, homogeneous turbulence, turbulence closure, uniform shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
3782 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation of Transient Flow in a Rectangular Bubble Column Using a Coupled Discrete Phase Model (DPM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model

Authors: Sonia Besbes, Mahmoud El Hajem, Habib Ben Aissia, Jean Yves Champagne, Jacques Jay

Abstract:

In this work, we present a computational study for the characterization of the flow in a rectangular bubble column. To simulate the dynamic characteristics of the flow, a three-dimensional transient numerical simulations based on a coupled discrete phase model (DPM) and Volume of Fluid (VOF) model are performed. Modeling of bubble column reactor is often carried out under the assumption of a flat liquid surface with a degassing boundary condition. However, the dynamic behavior of the top surface surmounting the liquid phase will to some extent influence the meandering oscillations of the bubble plume. Therefore it is important to capture the surface behavior, and the assumption of a flat surface may not be applicable. So, the modeling approach needs to account for a dynamic liquid surface induced by the rising bubble plume. The volume of fluid (VOF) model was applied for the liquid and top gas which both interacts with bubbles implemented with a discrete phase model. This model treats the bubbles as Lagrangian particles and the liquid and the top gas as Eulerian phases with a sharp interface. Two-way coupling between Eulerian phases and Lagrangian bubbles are accounted for in a single set continuous phase momentum equation for the mixture of the two Eulerian phases. The effect of gas flow rate on the dynamic and time-averaged flow properties was studied. The time averaged liquid velocity field predicted from simulations and from our previous PIV measurements shows that the liquid is entrained up flow in the wake of the bubbles and down flow near the walls. The simulated and measured vertical velocity profiles exhibit a reasonable agreement looking at the minimum velocity values near the walls and the maximum values at the column center.

Keywords: bubble column, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), coupled DPM and VOF model, hydrodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
3781 Investigation about Mechanical Equipment Needed to Break the Molecular Bonds of Heavy Oil by Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation

Authors: Mahdi Asghari

Abstract:

The cavitation phenomenon is the formation and production of micro-bubbles and eventually the bursting of the micro-bubbles inside the liquid fluid, which results in localized high pressure and temperature, causing physical and chemical fluid changes. This pressure and temperature are predicted to be 2000 atmospheres and 5000 °C, respectively. As a result of small bubbles bursting from this process, temperature and pressure increase momentarily and locally, so that the intensity and magnitude of these temperatures and pressures provide the energy needed to break the molecular bonds of heavy compounds such as fuel oil. In this paper, we study the theory of cavitation and the methods of cavitation production by acoustic and hydrodynamic methods and the necessary mechanical equipment and reactors for industrial application of the hydrodynamic cavitation method to break down the molecular bonds of the fuel oil and convert it into useful and economical products.

Keywords: Cavitation, Hydrodynamic Cavitation, Cavitation Reactor, Fuel Oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
3780 Energy Reclamation in Micro Cavitating Flow

Authors: Morteza Ghorbani, Reza Ghorbani

Abstract:

Cavitation phenomenon has attracted much attention in the mechanical and biomedical technologies. Despite the simplicity and mostly low cost of the devices generating cavitation bubbles, the physics behind the generation and collapse of these bubbles particularly in micro/nano scale has still not well understood. In the chemical industry, micro/nano bubble generation is expected to be applicable to the development of porous materials such as microcellular plastic foams. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the presence of micro/nano bubbles on a surface reduced the adsorption of proteins. Thus, the micro/nano bubbles could act as antifouling agents. Micro and nano bubbles were also employed in water purification, froth floatation, even in sonofusion, which was not completely validated. Small bubbles could also be generated using micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation. In this study, compared to the studies available in the literature, we are proposing a novel approach in micro scale utilizing the energy produced during the interaction of the spray affected by the hydrodynamic cavitating flow and a thin aluminum plate. With a decrease in the size, cavitation effects become significant. It is clearly shown that with the aid of hydrodynamic cavitation generated inside the micro/mini-channels in addition to the optimization of the distance between the tip of the microchannel configuration and the solid surface, surface temperatures can be increased up to 50C under the conditions of this study. The temperature rise on the surfaces near the collapsing small bubbles was exploited for energy harvesting in small scale, in such a way that miniature, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly energy-harvesting devices can be developed. Such devices will not require any external power and moving parts in contrast to common energy-harvesting devices, such as those involving piezoelectric materials and micro engine. Energy harvesting from thermal energy has been widely exploited to achieve energy savings and clean technologies. We are proposing a cost effective and environmentally friendly solution for the growing individual energy needs thanks to the energy application of cavitating flows. The necessary power for consumer devices, such as cell phones and laptops, can be provided using this approach. Thus, this approach has the potential for solving personal energy needs in an inexpensive and environmentally friendly manner and can trigger a shift of paradigm in energy harvesting.

Keywords: cavitation, energy, harvesting, micro scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
3779 Investigation of a Single Feedstock Particle during Pyrolysis in Fluidized Bed Reactors via X-Ray Imaging Technique

Authors: Stefano Iannello, Massimiliano Materazzi

Abstract:

Fluidized bed reactor technologies are one of the most valuable pathways for thermochemical conversions of biogenic fuels due to their good operating flexibility. Nevertheless, there are still issues related to the mixing and separation of heterogeneous phases during operation with highly volatile feedstocks, including biomass and waste. At high temperatures, the volatile content of the feedstock is released in the form of the so-called endogenous bubbles, which generally exert a “lift” effect on the particle itself by dragging it up to the bed surface. Such phenomenon leads to high release of volatile matter into the freeboard and limited mass and heat transfer with particles of the bed inventory. The aim of this work is to get a better understanding of the behaviour of a single reacting particle in a hot fluidized bed reactor during the devolatilization stage. The analysis has been undertaken at different fluidization regimes and temperatures to closely mirror the operating conditions of waste-to-energy processes. Beechwood and polypropylene particles were used to resemble the biomass and plastic fractions present in waste materials, respectively. The non-invasive X-ray technique was coupled to particle tracking algorithms to characterize the motion of a single feedstock particle during the devolatilization with high resolution. A high-energy X-ray beam passes through the vessel where absorption occurs, depending on the distribution and amount of solids and fluids along the beam path. A high-speed video camera is synchronised to the beam and provides frame-by-frame imaging of the flow patterns of fluids and solids within the fluidized bed up to 72 fps (frames per second). A comprehensive mathematical model has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. Beech wood and polypropylene particles have shown a very different dynamic behaviour during the pyrolysis stage. When the feedstock is fed from the bottom, the plastic material tends to spend more time within the bed than the biomass. This behaviour can be attributed to the presence of the endogenous bubbles, which drag effect is more pronounced during the devolatilization of biomass, resulting in a lower residence time of the particle within the bed. At the typical operating temperatures of thermochemical conversions, the synthetic polymer softens and melts, and the bed particles attach on its outer surface, generating a wet plastic-sand agglomerate. Consequently, this additional layer of sand may hinder the rapid evolution of volatiles in the form of endogenous bubbles, and therefore the establishment of a poor drag effect acting on the feedstock itself. Information about the mixing and segregation of solid feedstock is of prime importance for the design and development of more efficient industrial-scale operations.

Keywords: fluidized bed, pyrolysis, waste feedstock, X-ray

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
3778 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
3777 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe

Abstract:

It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: electroflotation, fine bubbles, pyrite, ultrafine particles

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3776 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: R. Ahmadi, A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi

Abstract:

The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: froth flotation, copper, water treatment, optimization, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
3775 Numerical Investigation of Flow Boiling within Micro-Channels in the Slug-Plug Flow Regime

Authors: Anastasios Georgoulas, Manolia Andredaki, Marco Marengo

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of slug-plug flows under saturated flow boiling conditions within circular micro-channels. Numerical simulations are carried out, using an enhanced version of the open-source CFD-based solver ‘interFoam’ of OpenFOAM CFD Toolbox. The proposed user-defined solver is based in the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for interface advection, and the mentioned enhancements include the implementation of a smoothing process for spurious current reduction, the coupling with heat transfer and phase change as well as the incorporation of conjugate heat transfer to account for transient solid conduction. In all of the considered cases in the present paper, a single phase simulation is initially conducted until a quasi-steady state is reached with respect to the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer development. Then, a predefined and constant frequency of successive vapour bubbles is patched upstream at a certain distance from the channel inlet. The proposed numerical simulation set-up can capture the main hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of slug-plug flow regimes within circular micro-channels. In more detail, the present investigation is focused on exploring the interaction between subsequent vapour slugs with respect to their generation frequency, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the liquid film between the generated vapour slugs and the channel wall as well as of the liquid plug between two subsequent vapour slugs. The proposed investigation is carried out for the 3 different working fluids and three different values of applied heat flux in the heated part of the considered microchannel. The post-processing and analysis of the results indicate that the dynamics of the evolving bubbles in each case are influenced by both the upstream and downstream bubbles in the generated sequence. In each case a slip velocity between the vapour bubbles and the liquid slugs is evident. In most cases interfacial waves appear close to the bubble tail that significantly reduce the liquid film thickness. Finally, in accordance with previous investigations vortices that are identified in the liquid slugs between two subsequent vapour bubbles can significantly enhance the convection heat transfer between the liquid regions and the heated channel walls. The overall results of the present investigation can be used to enhance the present understanding by providing better insight of the complex, underpinned heat transfer mechanisms in saturated boiling within micro-channels in the slug-plug flow regime.

Keywords: slug-plug flow regime, micro-channels, VOF method, OpenFOAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3774 Heat Transfer from a Cylinder in Cross-Flow of Single and Multiphase Flows

Authors: F. A. Hamad, S. He

Abstract:

In this paper, the average heat transfer characteristics for a cross flow cylinder of 16 mm diameter in a vertical pipe has been studied for single-phase flow (water/oil) and multicomponent (non-boiling) flow (water-air, water-oil, oil-air and water-oil-air). The cylinder is uniformly heated by electrical heater placed at the centre of the element. The results show that the values of average heat transfer coefficients for water are around four times the values for oil flow. Introducing air as a second phase with water has very little effect on heat transfer rate, while the heat transfer increased by 70% in case of oil. For water–oil flow, the heat transfer coefficient values are reflecting the percentage of water up to 50%, but increasing the water more than 50% leads to a sharp increase in the heat transfer coefficients to become close to the values of pure water. The enhancement of heat transfer by mixing two phases may be attributed to the changes in flow structure near to cylinder surface which lead to thinner boundary layer and higher turbulence. For three-phase flow, the heat transfer coefficients for all cases fall within the limit of single-phase flow of water and oil and are very close to pure water values. The net effect of the turbulence augmentation due to the introduction of air and the attenuation due to the introduction of oil leads to a thinner boundary layer of oil over the cylinder surface covered by a mixture of water and air bubbles.

Keywords: circular cylinder, cross flow, hear transfer, multicomponent multiphase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3773 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Analysis of Air Bubble Rising in a Column of Liquid

Authors: Baha-Aldeen S. Algmati, Ahmed R. Ballil

Abstract:

Multiphase flows occur widely in many engineering and industrial processes as well as in the environment we live in. In particular, bubbly flows are considered to be crucial phenomena in fluid flow applications and can be studied and analyzed experimentally, analytically, and computationally. In the present paper, the dynamic motion of an air bubble rising within a column of liquid is numerically simulated using an open-source CFD modeling tool 'OpenFOAM'. An interface tracking numerical algorithm called MULES algorithm, which is built-in OpenFOAM, is chosen to solve an appropriate mathematical model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) numerical method. The bubbles initially have a spherical shape and starting from rest in the stagnant column of liquid. The algorithm is initially verified against numerical results and is also validated against available experimental data. The comparison revealed that this algorithm provides results that are in a very good agreement with the 2D numerical data of other CFD codes. Also, the results of the bubble shape and terminal velocity obtained from the 3D numerical simulation showed a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The simulated rising bubbles yield a very small percentage of error in the bubble terminal velocity compared with the experimental data. The obtained results prove the capability of OpenFOAM as a powerful tool to predict the behavior of rising characteristics of the spherical bubbles in the stagnant column of liquid. This will pave the way for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of the rise of bubbles in liquids.

Keywords: CFD simulations, multiphase flows, OpenFOAM, rise of bubble, volume of fluid method, VOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
3772 Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Rough Set and Its Application

Authors: K. M. Alsager, N. O. Alshehri

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the notion of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set, by combining single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set. The combination of single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set and rough set is a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, granularity and incompleteness of knowledge in information systems. We presented both definition and some basic properties of the proposed model. Finally, we gave a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach by a numerical example.

Keywords: single valued neutrosophic fuzzy set, single valued neutrosophic fuzzy hesitant set, rough set, single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy rough set

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
3771 Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble

Authors: R. O’Reilly Meehan, D. B. Murray

Abstract:

In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.

Keywords: bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structures

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3770 Integrated Design of Froth Flotation Process in Sludge Oil Recovery Using Cavitation Nanobubbles for Increase the Efficiency and High Viscose Compatibility

Authors: Yolla Miranda, Marini Altyra, Karina Kalmapuspita Imas

Abstract:

Oily sludge wastes always fill in upstream and downstream petroleum industry process. Sludge still contains oil that can use for energy storage. Recycling sludge is a method to handling it for reduce the toxicity and very probable to get the remaining oil around 20% from its volume. Froth flotation, a common method based on chemical unit for separate fine solid particles from an aqueous suspension. The basic composition of froth flotation is the capture of oil droplets or small solids by air bubbles in an aqueous slurry, followed by their levitation and collection in a froth layer. This method has been known as no intensive energy requirement and easy to apply. But the low efficiency and unable treat the high viscosity become the biggest problem in froth flotation unit. This study give the design to manage the high viscosity of sludge first and then entering the froth flotation including cavitation tube on it to change the bubbles into nano particles. The recovery in flotation starts with the collision and adhesion of hydrophobic particles to the air bubbles followed by transportation of the hydrophobic particle-bubble aggregate from the collection zone to the froth zone, drainage and enrichment of the froth, and finally by its overflow removal from the cell top. The effective particle separation by froth flotation relies on the efficient capture of hydrophobic particles by air bubbles in three steps. The important step is collision. Decreasing the bubble particles will increasing the collision effect. It cause the process more efficient. The pre-treatment, froth flotation, and cavitation tube integrated each other. The design shows the integrated unit and its process.

Keywords: sludge oil recovery, froth flotation, cavitation tube, nanobubbles, high viscosity

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3769 Effects of an Added Foaming Agent on Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Soil

Authors: Moez Selmi, Mariem Kacem, Mehrez Jamei, Philippe Dubujet

Abstract:

Earth pressure balance (EPB) tunnel boring machines are designed for digging in different types of soil, especially clay soils. This operation requires the treatment of soil by lubricants to facilitate the procedure of excavation. A possible use of this soil is limited by the effect of treatment on the hydro-mechanical properties of the soil. This work aims to study the effect of a foaming agent on the hydro-mechanical properties of clay soil. The injection of the foam agent in the soil leads to create a soil matrix in which they are incorporated gas bubbles. The state of the foam in the soil is scalable thanks to the degradation of the gas bubbles in the soil.

Keywords: EPB, clay soils, foam agent, hydro-mechanical properties, degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3768 Analysis of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in a 3x3 Rod Bundle

Authors: Pei-Syuan Ruan, Ya-Chi Yu, Shao-Wen Chen, Jin-Der Lee, Jong-Rong Wang, Chunkuan Shih

Abstract:

This study investigated the void fraction characteristics under low superficial gas velocity (Jg) and low superficial fluid velocity (Jf) conditions in a 3x3 rod bundle geometry. Three arrangements of conductivity probes were set to measure the void fraction at various cross-sectional regions, including rod-gap, sub-channel and rod-wall regions. The experimental tests were performed under the flow conditions of Jg = 0-0.236 m/s and Jf = 0-0.142 m/s, and the time-averaged void fractions were recorded at each flow condition. It was observed that while the superficial gas velocity increases, the small bubbles started to cluster together and become big bubbles. As the superficial fluid velocity increases, the local void fractions of the three test regions will get closer and the bubble distribution will be more uniform across the cross section.

Keywords: conductivity probes, rod bundles, two-phase flow, void fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
3767 Experimental and CFD Simulation of the Jet Pump for Air Bubbles Formation

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

A jet pump is a type of pump that accelerates the flow of a secondary fluid (driven fluid) by introducing a motive fluid with high velocity into a converging-diverging nozzle. Jet pumps are also known as adductors or ejectors depending on the motivator phase. The ejector's motivator is of a gaseous nature, usually steam or air, while the educator's motivator is a liquid, usually water. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in wastewater treatment processes. In this work, we will discuss about the characteristics of the jet pump and the computational simulation of this device. To find the optimal angle and depth for the air pipe, so as to achieve the maximal air volumetric flow rate, an experimental apparatus was constructed to ascertain the best geometrical configuration for this new type of jet pump. By using 3D printing technology, a series of jet pumps was printed and tested whilst aspiring to maximize air flow rate dependent on angle and depth of the air pipe insertion. The experimental results show a major difference of up to 300% in performance between the different pumps (ratio of air flow rate to supplied power) where the optimal geometric model has an insertion angle of 600 and air pipe insertion depth ending at the center of the mixing chamber. The differences between the pumps were further explained by using CFD for better understanding the reasons that affect the airflow rate. The validity of the computational simulation and the corresponding assumptions have been proved experimentally. The present research showed high degree of congruence with the results of the laboratory tests. This study demonstrates the potential of using of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: air bubbles, CFD simulation, jet pump, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
3766 A Wall Law for Two-Phase Turbulent Boundary Layers

Authors: Dhahri Maher, Aouinet Hana

Abstract:

The presence of bubbles in the boundary layer introduces corrections into the log law, which must be taken into account. In this work, a logarithmic wall law was presented for bubbly two phase flows. The wall law presented in this work was based on the postulation of additional turbulent viscosity associated with bubble wakes in the boundary layer. The presented wall law contained empirical constant accounting both for shear induced turbulence interaction and for non-linearity of bubble. This constant was deduced from experimental data. The wall friction prediction achieved with the wall law was compared to the experimental data, in the case of a turbulent boundary layer developing on a vertical flat plate in the presence of millimetric bubbles. A very good agreement between experimental and numerical wall friction prediction was verified. The agreement was especially noticeable for the low void fraction when bubble induced turbulence plays a significant role.

Keywords: bubbly flows, log law, boundary layer, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3765 Bubbling in Gas Solids Fluidization at a Strouhal Number Tuned for Low Energy Dissipation

Authors: Chenxi Zhang, Weizhong Qian, Fei Wei

Abstract:

Gas solids multiphase flow is common in many engineering and environmental applications. Turbulence and multiphase flows are two of the most challenging topics in fluid mechanics, and when combined they pose a formidable challenge, even in the dilute dispersed regime. Dimensionless numbers are important in mechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. In the fluid mechanics literature, the Strouhal number is usually associated with the dimensionless shedding frequency of a von Karman wake; here we introduce this dimensionless number to investigate bubbling in gas solids fluidization. St=fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). The bubble behavior in a large two-dimensional bubbling fluidized bed (500mm×30mm×6000mm) is investigated. Our result indicates that propulsive efficiency is high and energy dissipation is low over a narrow range of St and usually within the interval 0.2Keywords: bubbles, Strouhal number, two-phase flow, energy dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 165