Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4574

Search results for: single and double bubbles

4574 Rising of Single and Double Bubbles during Boiling and Effect of Electric Field in This Process

Authors: Masoud Gholam Ale Mohammad, Mojtaba Hafezi Birgani

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes in the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single and double bubbles, electric field, boiling, rising

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
4573 Electric Field Effect on the Rise of Single Bubbles during Boiling

Authors: N. Masoudnia, M. Fatahi

Abstract:

An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity.

Keywords: single bubbles, electric field, boiling, effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
4572 UML Model for Double-Loop Control Self-Adaptive Braking System

Authors: Heung Sun Yoon, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an activity diagram model for double-loop control self-adaptive braking system. Since activity diagram helps to improve visibility of self-adaption, we can easily find where improvement is needed on double-loop control. Double-loop control is adopted since the design conditions and actual conditions can be different. The system is reconfigured in runtime by using double-loop control. We simulated to verify and validate our model by using MATLAB. We compared single-loop control model with double-loop control model. Simulation results show that double-loop control provides more consistent brake power control than single-loop control.

Keywords: activity diagram, automotive, braking system, double-loop, self-adaptive, UML, vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4571 Forecast Financial Bubbles: Multidimensional Phenomenon

Authors: Zouari Ezzeddine, Ghraieb Ikram

Abstract:

From the results of the academic literature which evokes the limitations of previous studies, this article shows the reasons for multidimensionality Prediction of financial bubbles. A new framework for modeling study predicting financial bubbles by linking a set of variable presented on several dimensions dictating its multidimensional character. It takes into account the preferences of financial actors. A multicriteria anticipation of the appearance of bubbles in international financial markets helps to fight against a possible crisis.

Keywords: classical measures, predictions, financial bubbles, multidimensional, artificial neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
4570 A Double Acceptance Sampling Plan for Truncated Life Test Having Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution

Authors: A. D. Abdellatif, A. N. Ahmed, M. E. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to design a double acceptance sampling plan under the time truncated life test when the product lifetime follows an exponentiated transmuted Weibull distribution. Here, the motive is to meet both the consumer’s risk and producer’s risk simultaneously at the specified quality levels, while the termination time is specified. A comparison between the results of the double and single acceptance sampling plans is conducted. We demonstrate the applicability of our results to real data sets.

Keywords: double sampling plan, single sampling plan, producer’s risk, consumer’s risk, exponentiated transmuted weibull distribution, time truncated experiment, single, double, Marshal-Olkin

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
4569 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
4568 Learning Algorithms for Fuzzy Inference Systems Composed of Double- and Single-Input Rule Modules

Authors: Hirofumi Miyajima, Kazuya Kishida, Noritaka Shigei, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Most of self-tuning fuzzy systems, which are automatically constructed from learning data, are based on the steepest descent method (SDM). However, this approach often requires a large convergence time and gets stuck into a shallow local minimum. One of its solutions is to use fuzzy rule modules with a small number of inputs such as DIRMs (Double-Input Rule Modules) and SIRMs (Single-Input Rule Modules). In this paper, we consider a (generalized) DIRMs model composed of double and single-input rule modules. Further, in order to reduce the redundant modules for the (generalized) DIRMs model, pruning and generative learning algorithms for the model are suggested. In order to show the effectiveness of them, numerical simulations for function approximation, Box-Jenkins and obstacle avoidance problems are performed.

Keywords: Box-Jenkins's problem, double-input rule module, fuzzy inference model, obstacle avoidance, single-input rule module

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
4567 Discrimination of Modes of Double- and Single-Negative Grounded Slab

Authors: R. Borghol, T. Aguili

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate theoretically the waves propagation in a lossless double-negative grounded slab (DNG). This study is performed by the Transverse Resonance Method (TRM). The proper or improper nature of real and complex modes is observed. They are highly dependent on metamaterial parameters, i.e. ɛr-negative, µr-negative, or both. Numerical results provided that only the proper complex modes (i.e., leaky modes) exist in DNG slab, and only the improper complex modes exist in single-negative grounded slab.

Keywords: double negative grounded slab, real and complex modes, single negative grounded slab, transverse resonance method

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
4566 Identification of Author and Reviewer from Single and Double Blind Paper

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Nikita. R. Sonthalia, Khushbu. A. Dodiya

Abstract:

Research leads to development of science and technology and hence to the betterment of humankind. Journals and conferences provide a platform to receive large number of research papers for publications and presentations before the expert and scientific community. In order to assure quality of such papers, they are also sent to reviewers for their comments. In order to maintain good ethical standards, the research papers are sent to reviewers in such a way that they do not know each other’s identity. This technique is called double-blind review process. It is called single-blind review process, if identity of any one party (generally authors) is disclosed to the other. This paper presents the techniques by which identity of author as well as reviewer could be made out even through double-blind review process. It is proposed that the characteristics and techniques presented here will help journals and conferences in assuring intentional or unintentional disclosure of identity revealing information by either party to the other.

Keywords: author, conference, double blind paper, journal, reviewer, single blind paper

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
4565 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation on Heat Transfer of Hot Air Bubble Injection into Water Column

Authors: Jae-Yeong Choi, Gyu-Mok Jeon, Jong-Chun Park, Yong-Jin Cho, Seok-Tae Yoon

Abstract:

When air flow is injected into water, bubbles are formed in various types inside the water pool along with the air flow rate. The bubbles are floated in equilibrium with forces such as buoyancy, surface tension and shear force. Single bubble generated at low flow rate maintains shape, but bubbles with high flow rate break up to make mixing and turbulence. In addition to this phenomenon, as the hot air bubbles are injected into the water, heat affects the interface of phases. Therefore, the main scope of the present work reveals how to proceed heat transfer between water and hot air bubbles injected into water. In the present study, a series of CFD simulation for the heat transfer of hot bubbles injected through a nozzle near the bottom in a cylindrical water column are performed using a commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+. The governing equations for incompressible and viscous flow are the continuous and the RaNS (Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes) equations and discretized by the FVM (Finite Volume Method) manner. For solving multi-phase flow, the Eulerian multiphase model is employed and the interface is defined by VOF (Volume-of-Fluid) technique. As a turbulence model, the SST k-w model considering the buoyancy effects is introduced. For spatial differencing the 3th-order MUSCL scheme is adopted and the 2nd-order implicit scheme for time integration. As the results, the dynamic behavior of the rising hot bubbles with the flow rate injected and regarding heat transfer mechanism are discussed based on the simulation results.

Keywords: heat transfer, hot bubble injection, eulerian multiphase model, flow rate, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics)

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
4564 Effect of Irradiation on Nano-Indentation Properties and Microstructure of X-750 Ni-Based Superalloy

Authors: Pooyan Changizian, Zhongwen Yao

Abstract:

The purpose of current study is to make an excellent correlation between mechanical properties and microstructures of ion irradiated X-750 Ni-based superalloy. Towards this end, two different irradiation procedures were carried out, including single Ni ion irradiation and pre-helium implantation with subsequent Ni ion irradiation. Nano-indentation technique was employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated material. The nano-hardness measurements depict highly different results for two irradiation procedures. Single ion irradiated X-750 shows softening behavior; however, pre-helium implanted specimens present significant hardening compared to the un-irradiated material. Cross-section TEM examination demonstrates that softening is attributed to the γ׳-precipitate instability (disordering/dissolution) which overcomes the hardening effect of irradiation-induced defects. In contrast, the presence of cavities or helium bubbles is probably the main cause for irradiation-induced hardening of helium implanted samples.

Keywords: Inconel X-750, nanoindentation, helium bubbles, defects

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
4563 Adaptation to Repeated Eccentric Exercise Assessed by Double to Single Twitch Ratio

Authors: Damian Janecki, Anna Jaskólska, Jarosław Marusiak, Artur Jaskólski

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess double to single twitch ratio after two bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 19 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (P<0.05). In measurements performed at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout both maximal voluntary isometric torque and electrically evoked contractions were significantly higher than in measurements performed after the fist bout (P<0.05). Although low-frequency fatigue significantly increased up to 48 hours after each bout of eccentric exercise, its values at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout were significantly lower than at respective time points after the first bout (P<0.05). Smaller changes in double to single twitch ratio at 24 and 48 hours after the second bout of eccentric exercise reflects repeated bout effect that confers protection against subsequent exercise-induced muscle damage.

Keywords: biceps brachii, electrical stimulation, lenghtening contractions, repeated bout effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
4562 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux from q=20 kw/m2 to q=102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles.

Keywords: heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
4561 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles

Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski

Abstract:

In waste water treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the waste water. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in waste water treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.

Keywords: jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
4560 Structural Behaviour of Concrete Energy Piles in Thermal Loadings

Authors: E. H. N. Gashti, M. Malaska, K. Kujala

Abstract:

The thermo-mechanical behaviour of concrete energy pile foundations with different single and double U-tube shapes incorporated was analysed using the Comsol Multi-physics package. For the analysis, a 3D numerical model in real scale of the concrete pile and surrounding soil was simulated regarding actual operation of ground heat exchangers (GHE) and the surrounding ambient temperature. Based on initial ground temperature profile measured in situ, tube inlet temperature was considered to range from 6°C to 0°C (during the contraction process) over a 30-day period. Extra thermal stresses and deformations were calculated during the simulations and differences arising from the use of two different systems (single-tube and double-tube) were analysed. The results revealed no significant difference for extra thermal stresses at the centre of the pile in either system. However, displacements over the pile length were found to be up to 1.5-fold higher in the double-tube system than the single-tube system.

Keywords: concrete energy piles, stresses, displacements, thermo-mechanical behaviour, soil-structure interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
4559 Performance Analysis of SAC-OCDMA System using Different Detectors

Authors: Somaya A. Abd El Mottaleb, Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed, Moustafa H. Aly

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the performance of spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access using different detectors at different transmission distances using single photodiode detection technique. Modified double weight codes are used as signature codes. Simulation results show that the system using avalanche photo detector can move distance longer than that using positive intrinsic negative photo detector.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, modified double weight, multiple access technique, single photodiode.

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
4558 Preference for Housing Services and Rational House Price Bubbles

Authors: Stefanie Jeanette Huber

Abstract:

This paper explores the relevance and implications of preferences for housing services on house price fluctuations through the lens of an overlapping generation’s model. The model implies that an economy whose agents have lower preferences for housing services is characterized with lower expenditure shares on housing services and will tend to experience more frequent and more volatile housing bubbles. These model predictions are tested empirically in the companion paper Housing Booms and Busts - Convergences and Divergences across OECD countries. Between 1970 - 2013, countries who spend less on housing services as a share of total income experienced significantly more housing cycles and the associated housing boom-bust cycles were more violent. Finally, the model is used to study the impact of rental subsidies and help-to-buy schemes on rational housing bubbles. Rental subsidies are found to contribute to the control of housing bubbles, whereas help-to- buy scheme makes the economy more bubble-prone.

Keywords: housing bubbles, housing booms and busts, preference for housing services, expenditure shares for housing services, rental and purchase subsidies

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
4557 Design and Realization of Double-Delay Line Canceller (DDLC) Using Fpga

Authors: A. E. El-Henawey, A. A. El-Kouny, M. M. Abd –El-Halim

Abstract:

Moving target indication (MTI) which is an anti-clutter technique that limits the display of clutter echoes. It uses the radar received information primarily to display moving targets only. The purpose of MTI is to discriminate moving targets from a background of clutter or slowly-moving chaff particles as shown in this paper. Processing system in these radars is so massive and complex; since it is supposed to perform a great amount of processing in very short time, in most radar applications the response of a single canceler is not acceptable since it does not have a wide notch in the stop-band. A double-delay canceler is an MTI delay-line canceler employing the two-delay-line configuration to improve the performance by widening the clutter-rejection notches, as compared with single-delay cancelers. This canceler is also called a double canceler, dual-delay canceler, or three-pulse canceler. In this paper, a double delay line canceler is chosen for study due to its simplicity in both concept and implementation. Discussing the implementation of a simple digital moving target indicator (DMTI) using FPGA which has distinct advantages compared to other application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the purposes of this work. The FPGA provides flexibility and stability which are important factors in the radar application.

Keywords: FPGA, MTI, double delay line canceler, Doppler Shift

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
4556 Formation of Microcapsules in Microchannel through Droplet Merging

Authors: Md. Danish Eqbal, Venkat Gundabala

Abstract:

Microparticles and microcapsules are basically used as a carrier for cells, tissues, drugs, and chemicals. Due to its biocompatibility, non-toxicity and biodegradability, alginate based microparticles have numerous applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, organ repair and transplantation, etc. The production of uniform monodispersed microparticles was a challenge for the past few decades. However, emergence of microfluidics has provided controlled methods for the generation of the uniform monodispersed microparticles. In this work, we present a successful method for the generation of both microparticles and microcapsules (single and double core) using merging approach of two droplets, completely inside the microfluidic device. We have fabricated hybrid glass- PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device which has coflow geometry as well as the T junction channel. Coflow is used to generate the single as well as double oil-alginate emulsion in oil and T junction helps to form the calcium chloride droplets in oil. The basic idea is to match the frequency of the alginate droplets and calcium chloride droplets perfectly for controlled generation. Using the merging of droplets technique, we have successfully generated the microparticles and the microcapsules having single core as well as double and multiple cores. The cores in the microcapsules are very stable, well separated from each other and very intact as seen through cross-sectional confocal images. The size and the number of the cores along with the thickness of the shell can be easily controlled by controlling the flowrate of the liquids.

Keywords: double-core, droplets, microcapsules, microparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
4555 Persistence of Ready Mix (Chlorpyriphos 50% + Cypermethrin 5%), Cypermethrin and Chlorpyriphos in Soil under Okra Fruits

Authors: Samriti Wadhwa, Beena Kumari

Abstract:

Background and Significance: Residue levels of ready mix (chlorpyriphos 50% and cypermethrin 5%), cypermethrin and chlorpyriphos individually in sandy loam soil under okra fruits (Variety, Varsha Uphar) were determined; a field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Department of Entomology of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar, Haryana, India. Persistence behavior of cypermethrin and chlorpyriphos was studied following application of a pre-mix formulation of insecticides viz. Action-505EC, chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) and cypermethrin (Cyperkill 10 EC) at the recommended dose and double the recommended dose along with control at fruiting stage. Pesticide application also leads to decline in soil acarine fauna which is instrumental in the breakdown of the litter because of which minerals are released into the soil. So, by this study, one can evaluate the safety of pesticides for the soil health. Methodology: Action-505EC (chlorpyriphos 50% and cypermethrin 5%) at 275 g a .i. ha⁻¹ (single dose) and 550 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (double dose), chlorpyriphos (Radar 20 EC) at 200 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (single dose) and 400 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (double dose) and cypermethrin (Cyperkill 10 EC) at 50 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (single dose) and 100 g a. i. ha⁻¹ (double dose) were applied at the fruiting stage on okra crop. Samples of soils from okra field were collected periodically at 0 (1h after spray), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 days and at harvest after application as well of control soil sample. After air drying, adsorbing through Florisil and activated charcoal and eluting with hexane: acetone (9:1) then residues in soils were estimated by a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary column and electron capture detector. Results: No persistence of cypermethrin in ready-mix in soil under okra fruits at single and double dose was observed. In case of chlorpyriphos in ready-mix, average initial deposits on 0 (1 h after treatment) day was 0.015 mg kg⁻¹ and 0.036 mg kg⁻¹ which persisted up to 5 days and up to 7 days for single and double dose, respectively. After that residues reached below a detectable level of 0.010 mg kg⁻¹. Experimental studies on cypermethrin individually revealed that average initial deposits on 0 (1 h after treatment) were 0.008 mg kg⁻¹ and 0.012 mg kg⁻¹ which persisted up to 3 days and 5 days for single and double dose, respectively after that residues reached to below detectable level. The initial deposits of chlorpyriphos individually in soil were found to be 0.055 mg kg⁻¹ and 0.113 mg kg⁻¹ which persisted up to 7 days and 10 days at a lower dose and higher dose, respectively after that residues reached to below determination level. Conclusion: In soil under okra crop, only individual cypermethrin in both the doses persisted whereas no persistence of cypermethrin in ready-mix was observed. Persistence of chlorpyriphos individually is more as compared to chlorpyriphos in ready-mix in both the doses. Overall, the persistence of chlorpyriphos in soil under okra crop is more than cypermethrin.

Keywords: chlorpyriphos, cypermethrin, okra, ready mix, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
4554 Nano-Sensors: Search for New Features

Authors: I. Filikhin, B. Vlahovic

Abstract:

We focus on a novel type of detection based on electron tunneling properties of double nanoscale structures in semiconductor materials. Semiconductor heterostructures as quantum wells (QWs), quantum dots (QDs), and quantum rings (QRs) may have energy level structure of several hundred of electron confinement states. The single electron spectra of the double quantum objects (DQW, DQD, and DQR) were studied in our previous works with relation to the electron localization and tunneling between the objects. The wave function of electron may be localized in one of the QDs or be delocalized when it is spread over the whole system. The localizing-delocalizing tunneling occurs when an electron transition between both states is possible. The tunneling properties of spectra differ strongly for “regular” and “chaotic” systems. We have shown that a small violation of the geometry drastically affects localization of electron. In particular, such violations lead to the elimination of the delocalized states of the system. The same symmetry violation effect happens if electrical or magnetic fields are applied. These phenomena could be used to propose a new type of detection based on the high sensitivity of charge transport between double nanostructures and small violations of the shapes. It may have significant technological implications.

Keywords: double quantum dots, single electron levels, tunneling, electron localizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
4553 The Effect of Development of Two-Phase Flow Regimes on the Stability of Gas Lift Systems

Authors: Khalid. M. O. Elmabrok, M. L. Burby, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

Flow instability during gas lift operation is caused by three major phenomena – the density wave oscillation, the casing heading pressure and the flow perturbation within the two-phase flow region. This paper focuses on the causes and the effect of flow instability during gas lift operation and suggests ways to control it in order to maximise productivity during gas lift operations. A laboratory-scale two-phase flow system to study the effects of flow perturbation was designed and built. The apparatus is comprised of a 2 m long by 66 mm ID transparent PVC pipe with air injection point situated at 0.1 m above the base of the pipe. This is the point where stabilised bubbles were visibly clear after injection. Air is injected into the water filled transparent pipe at different flow rates and pressures. The behavior of the different sizes of the bubbles generated within the two-phase region was captured using a digital camera and the images were analysed using the advanced image processing package. It was observed that the average maximum bubbles sizes increased with the increase in the length of the vertical pipe column from 29.72 to 47 mm. The increase in air injection pressure from 0.5 to 3 bars increased the bubble sizes from 29.72 mm to 44.17 mm and then decreasing when the pressure reaches 4 bars. It was observed that at higher bubble velocity of 6.7 m/s, larger diameter bubbles coalesce and burst due to high agitation and collision with each other. This collapse of the bubbles causes pressure drop and reverse flow within two phase flow and is the main cause of the flow instability phenomena.

Keywords: gas lift instability, bubbles forming, bubbles collapsing, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
4552 Application of Neural Networks to Predict Changing the Diameters of Bubbles in Pool Boiling Distilled Water

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri

Abstract:

In this research, the capability of neural networks in modeling and learning complicated and nonlinear relations has been used to develop a model for the prediction of changes in the diameter of bubbles in pool boiling distilled water. The input parameters used in the development of this network include element temperature, heat flux, and retention time of bubbles. The test data obtained from the experiment of the pool boiling of distilled water, and the measurement of the bubbles form on the cylindrical element. The model was developed based on training algorithm, which is typologically of back-propagation type. Considering the correlation coefficient obtained from this model is 0.9633. This shows that this model can be trusted for the simulation and modeling of the size of bubble and thermal transfer of boiling.

Keywords: bubble diameter, heat flux, neural network, training algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
4551 Study on Multi-Point Stretch Forming Process for Double Curved Surface

Authors: Jiwoo Park, Junseok Yoon, Jeong Kim, Beomsoo Kang

Abstract:

Multi-Point Stretch Forming (MPSF) process is suitable for flexible manufacturing, and it has several advantages including that it could be applied to various forming such as sheet metal forming, single curved surface forming and double curved one. In this study, a systematic numerical simulation was carried out for atypical double curved surface forming using the multiple die stretch forming process. In this simulation, urethane pads were defined based on hyper-elastic material model as a cushion for the smooth forming surface. The deformation behaviour on elastic recovery was also investigated to consider the exact result after the last forming process, and then the experiment was also carried out to confirm the formability of this forming process. By comparing the simulation and experiment results, the suitability of the multiple die stretch forming process for the atypical double curved surface was verified. Consequently, it is confirmed that the multi-point stretch forming process has the capability and feasibility of being used to manufacture the double curved surfaces of sheet metal.

Keywords: multi-point stretch forming, double curved surface, numerical simulation, manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
4550 Study on the Seismic Response of Slope under Pulse-Like Ground Motion

Authors: Peter Antwi Buah, Yingbin Zhang, Jianxian He, Chenlin Xiang, Delali Atsu Y. Bakah

Abstract:

Near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses are considered to cause significant damage to structures or slopes compared to ordinary ground motions without velocity pulses. The double pulsed pulse-like ground motion is as well known to be stronger than the single pulse. This study has numerically justified this perspective by studying the dynamic response of a homogeneous rock slope subjected to four pulse-like and two non-pulse-like ground motions using the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions (FLAC3D) software. Two of the pulse-like ground motions just have a single pulse. The results show that near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses can cause a higher dynamic response than regular ground motions. The amplification of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) in horizontal direction increases with the increase of the slope elevation. The seismic response of the slope under double pulse ground motion is stronger than that of the single pulse ground motion. The PGV amplification factor under the effect of the non-pulse-like records is also smaller than those under the pulse-like records. The velocity pulse strengthens the earthquake damage to the slope, which results in producing a more strong dynamic response.

Keywords: velocity pulses, dynamic response, PGV magnification effect, elevation effect, double pulse

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
4549 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu

Abstract:

Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
4548 Structural, Magnetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Iridium Double Perovskites with Ir⁵⁺

Authors: Mihai I. Sturza, Laura T. Corredor, Kaustuv Manna, Gizem A. Cansever, Tushar Dey, Andrey Maljuk, Olga Kataeva, Sabine Wurmehl, Anja Wolter, Bernd Buchner

Abstract:

Recently, the iridate double perovskite Sr₂YIrO₆ has attracted considerable attention due to the report of unexpected magnetism in this Ir⁵⁺ material, in which according to the Jeff model, a non-magnetic ground state is expected. Structural, magnetic and thermodynamic investigations of Sr₂YIrO₆ and Ba2YIrO6 single crystals, with emphasis on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat will be presented. The single crystals were grown by using SrCl₂ and BaCl₂ as flux. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements performed on several crystals from different preparation batches showed a high quality of the crystals, proven by the good internal consistency of the data collected using the full-sphere mode and an extremely low R factor. In agreement with the expected non-magnetic ground state of Ir⁵⁺ (5d4) in these iridates, no magnetic transition is observed down to 430 mK. Moreover, our results suggest that the low-temperature anomaly observed in the specific heat is not related to the onset of long-range magnetic order. Instead, it is identified as a Schottky anomaly caused by paramagnetic impurities present in the sample, of the order of

Keywords: double perovskites, iridates, self-flux grown synthesis, spin-orbit coupling

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4547 Removal of VOCs from Gas Streams with Double Perovskite-Type Catalyst

Authors: Kuan Lun Pan, Moo Been Chang

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of major air contaminants, and they can react with nitrogen oxides (NOx) in atmosphere to form ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) with solar irradiation, leading to environmental hazards. In addition, some VOCs are toxic at low concentration levels and cause adverse effects on human health. How to effectively reduce VOCs emission has become an important issue. Thermal catalysis is regarded as an effective way for VOCs removal because it provides oxidation route to successfully convert VOCs into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O(g)). Single perovskite-type catalysts are promising for VOC removal, and they are of good potential to replace noble metals due to good activity and high thermal stability. Single perovskites can be generally described as ABO3 or A2BO4, where A-site is often a rare earth element or an alkaline. Typically, the B-site is transition metal cation (Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, or Mn). Catalytic properties of perovskites mainly rely on nature, oxidation states and arrangement of B-site cation. Interestingly, single perovskites could be further synthesized to form double perovskite-type catalysts which can simply be represented by A2B’B”O6. Likewise, A-site stands for an alkaline metal or rare earth element, and the B′ and B′′ are transition metals. Double perovskites possess unique surface properties. In structure, three-dimensional of B-site with ordered arrangement of B’O6 and B”O6 is presented alternately, and they corner-share octahedral along three directions of the crystal lattice, while cations of A-site position between the void of octahedral. It has attracted considerable attention due to specific arrangement of alternating B-site structure. Therefore, double perovskites may have more variations than single perovskites, and this greater variation may promote catalytic performance. It is expected that activity of double perovskites is higher than that of single perovskites toward VOC removal. In this study, double perovskite-type catalyst (La2CoMnO6) is prepared and evaluated for VOC removal. Also, single perovskites including LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 are tested for the comparison purpose. Toluene (C7H8) is one of the important VOCs which are commonly applied in chemical processes. In addition to its wide application, C7H8 has high toxicity at a low concentration. Therefore, C7H8 is selected as the target compound in this study. Experimental results indicate that double perovskite (La2CoMnO6) has better activity if compared with single perovskites. Especially, C7H8 can be completely oxidized to CO2 at 300oC as La2CoMnO6 is applied. Characterization of catalysts indicates that double perovskite has unique surface properties and is of higher amounts of lattice oxygen, leading to higher activity. For durability test, La2CoMnO6 maintains high C7H8 removal efficiency of 100% at 300oC and 30,000 h-1, and it also shows good resistance to CO2 (5%) and H2O(g) (5%) of gas streams tested. For various VOCs including isopropyl alcohol (C3H8O), ethanal (C2H4O), and ethylene (C2H4) tested, as high as 100% efficiency could be achieved with double perovskite-type catalyst operated at 300℃, indicating that double perovskites are promising catalysts for VOCs removal, and possible mechanisms will be elucidated in this paper.

Keywords: volatile organic compounds, Toluene (C7H8), double perovskite-type catalyst, catalysis

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4546 Analysis of the Homogeneous Turbulence Structure in Uniformly Sheared Bubbly Flow Using First and Second Order Turbulence Closures

Authors: Hela Ayeb Mrabtini, Ghazi Bellakhal, Jamel Chahed

Abstract:

The presence of the dispersed phase in gas-liquid bubbly flow considerably alters the liquid turbulence. The bubbles induce turbulent fluctuations that enhance the global liquid turbulence level and alter the mechanisms of turbulence. RANS modeling of uniformly sheared flows on an isolated sphere centered in a control volume is performed using first and second order turbulence closures. The sphere is placed in the production-dissipation equilibrium zone where the liquid velocity is set equal to the relative velocity of the bubbles. The void fraction is determined by the ratio between the sphere volume and the control volume. The analysis of the turbulence statistics on the control volume provides numerical results that are interpreted with regard to the effect of the bubbles wakes on the turbulence structure in uniformly sheared bubbly flow. We assumed for this purpose that at low void fraction where there is no hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles, the single-phase flow simulation on an isolated sphere is representative on statistical average of a sphere network. The numerical simulations were firstly validated against the experimental data of bubbly homogeneous turbulence with constant shear and then extended to produce numerical results for a wide range of shear rates from 0 to 10 s^-1. These results are compared with our turbulence closure proposed for gas-liquid bubbly flows. In this closure, the turbulent stress tensor in the liquid is split into a turbulent dissipative part produced by the gradient of the mean velocity which also contains the turbulence generated in the bubble wakes and a pseudo-turbulent non-dissipative part induced by the bubbles displacements. Each part is determined by a specific transport equation. The simulations of uniformly sheared flows on an isolated sphere reproduce the mechanisms related to the turbulent part, and the numerical results are in perfect accordance with the modeling of the transport equation of the turbulent part. The reduction of second order turbulence closure provides a description of the modification of turbulence structure by the bubbles presence using a dimensionless number expressed in terms of two-time scales characterizing the turbulence induced by the shear and that induced by bubbles displacements. The numerical simulations carried out in the framework of a comprehensive analysis reproduce particularly the attenuation of the turbulent friction showed in the experimental results of bubbly homogeneous turbulence subjected to a constant shear.

Keywords: gas-liquid bubbly flows, homogeneous turbulence, turbulence closure, uniform shear

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4545 Effect on Bandwidth of Using Double Substrates Based Metamaterial Planar Antenna

Authors: Smrity Dwivedi

Abstract:

The present paper has revealed the effect of double substrates over a bandwidth performance for planar antennas. The used material has its own importance to get minimum return loss and improved directivity. The author has taken double substrates to enhance the efficiency in terms of gain of antenna. Metamaterial based antenna has its own specific structure which increased the performance of antenna. Improved return loss is -20 dB, and the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is 1.2, which is better than single substrate having return loss of -15 dB and VSWR of 1.4. Complete results are obtained using commercial software CST microwave studio.

Keywords: CST microwave studio, metamaterial, return loss, VSWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 168