Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 351

Search results for: shock synchronisation

351 Reconnecting The Peripheral Wagons to the Euro Area Core Locomotive

Authors: Igor Velickovski, Aleksandar Stojkov, Ivana Rajkovic


This paper investigates drivers of shock synchronization using quarterly data for 27 European countries over the period 1999-2013 and taking into account the difference between core (‘the euro area core locomotive’) and peripheral euro area and transition countries (‘the peripheral wagons’). Results from panel error-correction models suggest that core of the euro area has not been strong magnetizer of the shock convergence of periphery and transition countries since the euro inception as a result of the offsetting effects of the various factors that affected the shock convergence process. These findings challenge the endogeneity hypothesis in the optimum currency area framework and rather support the specialisation paradigm which is concerning evidence for the future stability of the euro area.

Keywords: dynamic panel models, shock synchronisation, trade, optimum currency area

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350 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song


The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

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349 Shock Isolation Performance of a Pre-Compressed Large Deformation Shock Isolator with Quasi-Zero-Stiffness Characteristic

Authors: Ji Chen, Chunhui Zhang, Fanming Zeng, Lei Zhang, Ying Li, Wei Zhang


Based on the synthetic principle of force, a pre-compressed nonlinear isolator with quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) is developed for shock isolation of ship equipment. The proposed isolator consists of a vertical spring with positive stiffness and several lateral springs with negative stiffness. An analytical expression of vertical stiffness of the nonlinear isolator is derived and numerical simulation on the effect of the geometric design parameters is carried out. Besides, a pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system model is established. The stiffness characteristic of the system is studied and the effects of excitation amplitude and friction damping on shock isolation performance are discussed respectively. The research results show that in comparison with linear shock isolation system, the pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system could realize constant-force or approximately constant-force function and perform better anti-impact performance.

Keywords: quasi-zero-stiffness, constant-force, pre-compressed, large deformation, shock isolation, friction damping

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348 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Blast Pressure on Discrete Model in Shock Tube

Authors: Aldin Justin Sundararaj, Austin Lord Tennyson, Divya Jose, A. N. Subash


Blast waves are generated due to the explosions of high energy materials. An explosion yielding a blast wave has the potential to cause severe damage to buildings and its personnel. In order to understand the physics of effects of blast pressure on buildings, studies in the shock tube on generic configurations are carried out at various pressures on discrete models. The strength of shock wave is systematically varied by using different driver gases and diaphragm thickness. The basic material of the diaphragm is Aluminum. To simulate the effect of shock waves on discrete models a shock tube was used. Generic models selected for this study are suitably scaled cylinder, cone and cubical blocks. The experiments were carried out with 2mm diaphragm with burst pressure ranging from 28 to 31 bar. Numerical analysis was carried out over these discrete models. A 3D model of shock-tube with different discrete models inside the tube was used for CFD computation. It was found that cone has dissipated most of the shock pressure compared to cylinder and cubical block. The robustness and the accuracy of the numerical model were validation with the analytical and experimental data.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, discrete models, shock tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
347 Influences of Separation of the Boundary Layer in the Reservoir Pressure in the Shock Tube

Authors: Bruno Coelho Lima, Joao F.A. Martos, Paulo G. P. Toro, Israel S. Rego


The shock tube is a ground-facility widely used in aerospace and aeronautics science and technology for studies on gas dynamic and chemical-physical processes in gases at high-temperature, explosions and dynamic calibration of pressure sensors. A shock tube in its simplest form is comprised of two separate tubes of equal cross-section by a diaphragm. The diaphragm function is to separate the two reservoirs at different pressures. The reservoir containing high pressure is called the Driver, the low pressure reservoir is called Driven. When the diaphragm is broken by pressure difference, a normal shock wave and non-stationary (named Incident Shock Wave) will be formed in the same place of diaphragm and will get around toward the closed end of Driven. When this shock wave reaches the closer end of the Driven section will be completely reflected. Now, the shock wave will interact with the boundary layer that was created by the induced flow by incident shock wave passage. The interaction between boundary layer and shock wave force the separation of the boundary layer. The aim of this paper is to make an analysis of influences of separation of the boundary layer in the reservoir pressure in the shock tube. A comparison among CDF (Computational Fluids Dynamics), experiments test and analytical analysis were performed. For the analytical analysis, some routines in Python was created, in the numerical simulations (Computational Fluids Dynamics) was used the Ansys Fluent, and the experimental tests were used T1 shock tube located in IEAv (Institute of Advanced Studies).

Keywords: boundary layer separation, moving shock wave, shock tube, transient simulation

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346 Exposing Investor Sentiment In Stock Returns

Authors: Qiang Bu


This paper compares the explanatory power of sentiment level and sentiment shock. The preliminary test results show that sentiment shock plays a more significant role in explaining stocks returns, including the raw return and abnormal return. We also find that sentiment shock beta has a higher statistical significance than sentiment beta. These finding sheds new light on the relationship between investor sentiment and stock returns.

Keywords: sentiment level, sentiment shock, explanatory power, abnormal stock return, beta

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
345 Evaluation of Shock Sensitivity of Nano-Scaled 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazacyclohexane Using Small Scale Gap Test

Authors: Kang-In Lee, Woo-Jin Lee, Keun-Deuk Lee, Ju-Seung Chae


In this study, small scale gap test (SSGT) was performed to measure shock sensitivity of nano-scaled 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) samples. The shock sensitivity of energetic materials is usually evaluated by the method of large-scale gap test (LSGT) that has a higher reliability than other methods. But LSGT has the disadvantage that it takes a high cost and time by using a large amount of explosive. In this experiment, nano-scaled RDX samples were prepared by spray crystallization in two different drying methods. In addition, 30μm RDX sample produced by precipitation crystallization and 5μm RDX sample produced by fluid energy mill process were tested to compare shock sensitivity. The study of shock sensitivity measured by small-scale gap test shows that small sized RDX particles have greater insensitivity. As a result, we infer SSGT method has higher reliability compared to the literature as measurement of shock sensitivity of energetic materials.

Keywords: nano-scaled RDX, SSGT(small scale gap test), shock sensitivity, RDX

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344 Dust Ion Acoustic Shock Waves in Dissipative Superthermal Plasmas

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad


In this paper, the properties of dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma, whose constituents are inertial ions, superthermal electrons, and stationary dust particles, are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dissipation is taken into account the kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents. It is shown that the basic features of DIA shock waves are significantly modified by the effects of electron superthermality and ion kinematic viscosity.

Keywords: reductive perturbation method, dust ion acoustic shock wave, superthermal electron, dissipative plasmas

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343 Protein and Lipid Extraction from Microalgae with Ultrasound Assisted Osmotic Shock Method

Authors: Nais Pinta Adetya, H. Hadiyanto


Microalgae has a potential to be utilized as food and natural colorant. The microalgae components consists of three main parts, these are lipid, protein, and carbohydrate. Crucial step in producing lipid and protein from microalgae is extraction. Microalgae has high water level (70-90%), it causes drying process of biomass needs much more energy and also has potential to distract lipid and protein from microalgae. Extraction of lipid from wet biomass is able to take place efficiently with cell disruption of microalgae by osmotic shock method. In this study, osmotic shock method was going to be integrated with ultrasound to maximalize the extraction yield of lipid and protein from wet biomass Spirulina sp. with osmotic shock method assisted ultrasound. This study consisted of two steps, these were osmotic shock process toward wet biomass and ultrasound extraction assisted. NaCl solution was used as osmotic agent, with the variation of concentrations were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Extraction was conducted in 40°C for 20 minutes with frequency of ultrasound wave was 40kHz. The optimal yield of protein (2.7%) and (lipid 38%) were achieved at 20% osmotic agent concentration.

Keywords: extraction, lipid, osmotic shock, protein, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
342 Influence of Shock Absorber Condition on the Vertical Dynamic Load Applied on the Pavement by a Truck’s Front Suspension

Authors: Pablo Kubo, Cassio Paiva, Adelino Ferreira


The main objective of this research study is to present the results of the influence of shock absorber condition, from a truck front suspension, on the vertical dynamic load applied on the pavement. For the measurements, it has been used a durability test track located in Brazil. The shock absorber conditions were new, used and failed with a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension, the maximum allowed load for front axle according to Brazilian legislation. By applying relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation on the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the load applied on the pavement. Although, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology in order to analyze the influence on the variation of the quarter car model variants.

Keywords: damage, shock absorber, vertical dynamic load, absorber

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341 Investigation of Ignition Delay for Low Molecular Hydrocarbon Fuel and Oxygen Mixture behind the Reflected Shock

Authors: K. R. Guna, Aldin Justin Sundararaj, B. C. Pillai, A. N. Subash


A systematic study has been made for ignition delay times measurement behind a reflected shock wave for the low molecular weight hydrocarbon fuel in argon simulated gas mixtures. The low molecular hydrocarbon fuel–oxygen was diluted with argon for desired concentration is taken for the study. The suitability of the shock tube for measuring the ignition delay time is demonstrated by measuring the ignition delay for the liquefied petroleum gas for equivalence ratios (ф=0.5 & 1) in the temperature range 1150-1650 K. The pressure range was fixed from 5-15 bar. The ignition delay was measured by recording the ignition-induced pressure jump and emission from CH radical simultaneously. From conducting experiments, it was found that the ignition delay time for liquefied petroleum gas reduces with increase in temperature. The shock tube was calibrated for ethane-oxygen gas mixture and the results obtained from this study is compared with the earlier reported values and found to be comparably well suited for the measurement of ignition delay times. The above work was carried out using the shock tube facility at propulsion and high enthalpy laboratory, Karunya University.

Keywords: ignition delay, LPG, reflected shock, shock wave

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
340 A Study on Shock Formation over a Transonic Aerofoil

Authors: M. Fowsia, Dominic Xavier Fernando, Vinojitha, Rahamath Juliyana


Aerofoil is a primary element to be designed during the initial phase of creating any new aircraft. It is the component that forms the cross-section of the wing. The wing is used to produce lift force that balances the weight which is acting downwards. The lift force is created due to pressure difference over the top and bottom surface which is caused due to velocity variation. At sub-sonic velocities, for a real fluid, we obtain a smooth flow of air over both the surfaces. In this era of high speed travel, commercial aircraft that can travel faster than speed of sound barrier is required. However transonic velocities cause the formation of shock waves which can cause flow separation over the top and bottom surfaces. In the transonic range, shock waves move across the top and bottom surfaces of the aerofoil, until both the shock waves merge into a single shock wave that is formed near the leading edge of theaerofoil. In this paper, a transonic aerofoil is designed and its aerodynamic properties at different velocities in the Transonic range (M = 0.8; 0.9; 1; 1.1; 1.2) are studied with the help of CFD. The Pressure and Velocity distributions over the top and bottom surfaces of aerofoil are studied and the variations of shock patterns, at different velocities, are analyzed. The analysis can be used to determine the effect of drag divergence on the lift created by the aerofoil.

Keywords: transonic aerofoil, cfd, drag divergence, shock formation, viscous flow

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339 Shock Response Analysis of Soil-Structure Systems Induced by Near-Fault Pulses

Authors: H. Masaeli, R. Ziaei, F. Khoshnoudian


Shock response analysis of the soil–structure systems induced by near–fault pulses is investigated. Vibration transmissibility of the soil–structure systems is evaluated by Shock Response Spectra (SRS). Medium–to–high rise buildings with different aspect ratios located on different soil types as well as different foundations with respect to vertical load bearing safety factors are studied. Two types of mathematical near–fault pulses, i.e. forward directivity and fling step, with different pulse periods as well as pulse amplitudes are selected as incident ground shock. Linear versus nonlinear Soil–Structure Interaction (SSI) condition are considered alternatively and the corresponding results are compared. The results show that nonlinear SSI is likely to amplify the acceleration responses when subjected to long–period incident pulses with normalized period exceeding a threshold. It is also shown that this threshold correlates with soil type, so that increased shear–wave velocity of the underlying soil makes the threshold period decrease.

Keywords: nonlinear soil–structure interaction, shock response spectrum, near–fault ground shock, rocking isolation

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338 Effect of Assumptions of Normal Shock Location on the Design of Supersonic Ejectors for Refrigeration

Authors: Payam Haghparast, Mikhail V. Sorin, Hakim Nesreddine


The complex oblique shock phenomenon can be simply assumed as a normal shock at the constant area section to simulate a sharp pressure increase and velocity decrease in 1-D thermodynamic models. The assumed normal shock location is one of the greatest sources of error in ejector thermodynamic models. Most researchers consider an arbitrary location without justifying it. Our study compares the effect of normal shock place on ejector dimensions in 1-D models. To this aim, two different ejector experimental test benches, a constant area-mixing ejector (CAM) and a constant pressure-mixing (CPM) are considered, with different known geometries, operating conditions and working fluids (R245fa, R141b). In the first step, in order to evaluate the real value of the efficiencies in the different ejector parts and critical back pressure, a CFD model was built and validated by experimental data for two types of ejectors. These reference data are then used as input to the 1D model to calculate the lengths and the diameters of the ejectors. Afterwards, the design output geometry calculated by the 1D model is compared directly with the corresponding experimental geometry. It was found that there is a good agreement between the ejector dimensions obtained by the 1D model, for both CAM and CPM, with experimental ejector data. Furthermore, it is shown that normal shock place affects only the constant area length as it is proven that the inlet normal shock assumption results in more accurate length. Taking into account previous 1D models, the results suggest the use of the assumed normal shock location at the inlet of the constant area duct to design the supersonic ejectors.

Keywords: 1D model, constant area-mixing, constant pressure-mixing, normal shock location, ejector dimensions

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337 Microjetting from a Grooved Metal Surface under Decaying Shocks

Authors: Jian-Li Shao


Using Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations, we simulated the microjet from the metal surface under decaying shock loading. The microjetting processes under release melting conditions are presented in detail, and some properties on the microjet mass and velocity are revealed. The phased increase of microjet mass with shock pressure is found. For all cases, the ratio of the maximal jetting velocity to the surface velocity approximately keeps a constant for liquid state. In addition, the temperature of the microjet can be always above the melting point. When introducing slow decaying profiles, the microjet mass begins to increase with the decay rate, which is dominated by the deformation of the bubble during pull-back. When the decay rate becomes fast enough, the microspall occurs as expected, meanwhile, the microjet appears to reduce because of the shock energy reduction.

Keywords: microjetting, shock, metal, molecular dynamics

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336 Mathematical Analysis of Variation in Inlet Shock Wave Angle on Specific Impulse of Scramjet Engine

Authors: Shrikant Ghadage


Study of shock waves generated in the Scramjet engine is typically restricted to pressure, temperature, density, entropy and Mach number variation across the shock wave. The present work discusses the impact of inlet shock wave angles on the specific impulse of the Scramjet engine. A mathematical analysis has done for the isentropic hypersonic flow of air flowing through a Scramjet with hydrogen fuel at an altitude of 30 km. Analysis has been done in order to get optimum shock wave angle to achieve maximum impulse. Since external drag has excluded from the analysis, the losses due to friction are not considered for the present analysis. When Mach number of the airflow at the entry of the nozzle reaches unity, then that flow is choked. This condition puts limitations on increasing the inlet shock wave angle. As inlet shock wave angle increases, speed of the flow entering into the nozzle decreases, which results in an increase in the specific impulse of the engine. When the speed of the flow at the entry of the nozzle reduces below sonic speed, then there is no further increase in the specific impulse of the engine. Here the Conclusion is the thrust and specific impulse of a scramjet engine, which increases gradually with an increase in inlet shock wave angle up to the condition when airflow speed reaches sonic velocity at the exit of the combustor. In addition to that, variation in drag force at the inlet of the scramjet and variation in hypersonic flow conditions at every stage of the scramjet also studied in order to understand variation on flow characteristics with respect to flow deflection angle. Essentially, it helps in designing inlet profile for the Scramjet engine to achieve optimum specific impulse.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, scramjet, shock waves, specific impulse, mathematical analysis

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335 Shock and Particle Velocity Determination from Microwave Interrogation

Authors: Benoit Rougier, Alexandre Lefrancois, Herve Aubert


Microwave interrogation in the range 10-100 GHz is identified as an advanced technique to investigate simultaneously shock and particle velocity measurements. However, it requires the understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation in a multi-layered moving media. The existing models limit their approach to wave guides or evaluate the velocities with a fitting method, restricting therefore the domain of validity and the precision of the results. Moreover, few data of permittivity on high explosives at these frequencies under dynamic compression have been reported. In this paper, shock and particle velocities are computed concurrently for steady and unsteady shocks for various inert and reactive materials, via a propagation model based on Doppler shifts and signal amplitude. Refractive index of the material under compression is also calculated. From experimental data processing, it is demonstrated that Hugoniot curve can be evaluated. The comparison with published results proves the accuracy of the proposed method. This microwave interrogation technique seems promising for shock and detonation waves studies.

Keywords: electromagnetic propagation, experimental setup, Hugoniot measurement, shock propagation

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334 A Review of Challenges of Electroconvulsive Therapy in Depressed People

Authors: Prosper Kudzanai Mushauri


Shock therapy has been used in persons living with depression and deeply depressed persons. It has been used in children also. Shock therapy has been also among its pros believed to improve the quality of life and an effective treatment of depression. The review of the literature on ECT papers have highlighted that benefits to users of ECT are elusive, and iatrogenic harm often occurs showing that the approach will always fall far in comporting to psychological ethics. On the contrary, ECT is known as shock therapy which is the administration of electric shock within the brain; it has been challenged on ethical grounds if it’s proper ethically. From this ethical aperture, it has emerged that relapse rates are approximately higher than 50%, it results in diencephalon disturbances and has also side effects related to cognitive function among other negative effects. It is from these reviewed studies that that ECT should not be viewed as an effective treatment of depression as it does not comport to the mores of psychological ethics.

Keywords: anterograde amnesia, depression, electroconvulsive therapy, ethics, retrograde amnesia

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333 Effects of Using Clinical Practice Guidelines for Caring for Patients with Severe Sepsis or Septic Shock on Clinical Outcomes Based on the Sepsis Bundle Protocol at the ICU of Songkhla Hospital Thailand

Authors: Pornthip Seangsanga


Sepsis or septic shock needs urgent care because it is a cause of the high mortality rate if patients do not receive timely treatment. Songkhla Hospital does not have a clear system or clinical practice guidelines for treatment of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, which contributes to the said problem.To compare clinical outcomes based on the protocol after using the clinical guidelines between the Emergency Room, Intensive Care Unit, and the Ward. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on the population and 50 subjects who were diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock from December 2013 to May 2014. The data were collected using a nursing care and referring record form for patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at Songkhla Hospital. The record form had been tested for its validity by three experts, and the IOC was 1.The mortality rate in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who were moved from the ER to the ICU was significantly lower than that of those patients moved from the Ward to the ICU within 48 hours. This was because patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who were moved from the ER to the ICU received more fluid within the first six hours according to the protocol which helped patients to have adequate tissue perfusion within the first six hours, and that helped improve blood flow to the kidneys, and the patients’ urine was found to be with a higher quantity of 0.5 cc/kg/hr, than those patients who were moved from the Ward to the ICU. This study shows that patients with severe sepsis or septic shock need to be treated immediately. Using the clinical practice guidelines along with timely diagnosis and treatment based on the sepsis bundle in giving sufficient and suitable amount of fluid to help improve blood circulation and blood pressure can clearly prevent or reduce severity of complications.

Keywords: clinical practice guidelines, caring, septic shock, sepsis bundle protocol

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332 Laser Shock Peening of Additively Manufactured Nickel-Based Superalloys

Authors: Michael Munther, Keivan Davami


One significant roadblock for additively manufactured (AM) parts is the buildup of residual tensile stresses during the fabrication process. These residual stresses are formed due to the intense localized thermal gradients and high cooling rates that cause non-uniform material expansion/contraction and mismatched strain profiles during powder-bed fusion techniques, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The residual stresses adversely affect the fatigue life of the AM parts. Moreover, if the residual stresses become higher than the material’s yield strength, they will lead to acute geometric distortion. These are limiting the applications and acceptance of AM components for safety-critical applications. Herein, we discuss laser shock peening method as an advanced technique for the manipulation of the residual stresses in AM parts. An X-ray diffraction technique is used for the measurements of the residual stresses before and after the laser shock peening process. Also, the hardness of the structures is measured using a nanoindentation technique. Maps of nanohardness and modulus are obtained from the nanoindentation, and a correlation is made between the residual stresses and the mechanical properties. The results indicate that laser shock peening is able to induce compressive residual stresses in the structure that mitigate the tensile residual stresses and increase the hardness of AM IN718, a superalloy, almost 20%. No significant changes were observed in the modulus after laser shock peening. The results strongly suggest that laser shock peening can be used as an advanced post-processing technique to optimize the service lives of critical components for various applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Inconel 718, laser shock peening, residual stresses

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331 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush


This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics

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330 Study of Unsteady Behaviour of Dynamic Shock Systems in Supersonic Engine Intakes

Authors: Siddharth Ahuja, T. M. Muruganandam


An analytical investigation is performed to study the unsteady response of a one-dimensional, non-linear dynamic shock system to external downstream pressure perturbations in a supersonic flow in a varying area duct. For a given pressure ratio across a wind tunnel, the normal shock's location can be computed as per one-dimensional steady gas dynamics. Similarly, for some other pressure ratio, the location of the normal shock will change accordingly, again computed using one-dimensional gas dynamics. This investigation focuses on the small-time interval between the first steady shock location and the new steady shock location (corresponding to different pressure ratios). In essence, this study aims to shed light on the motion of the shock from one steady location to another steady location. Further, this study aims to create the foundation of the Unsteady Gas Dynamics field enabling further insight in future research work. According to the new pressure ratio, a pressure pulse, generated at the exit of the tunnel which travels and perturbs the shock from its original position, setting it into motion. During such activity, other numerous physical phenomena also happen at the same time. However, three broad phenomena have been focused on, in this study - Traversal of a Wave, Fluid Element Interactions and Wave Interactions. The above mentioned three phenomena create, alter and kill numerous waves for different conditions. The waves which are created by the above-mentioned phenomena eventually interact with the shock and set it into motion. Numerous such interactions with the shock will slowly make it settle into its final position owing to the new pressure ratio across the duct, as estimated by one-dimensional gas dynamics. This analysis will be extremely helpful in the prediction of inlet 'unstart' of the flow in a supersonic engine intake and its prominence with the incoming flow Mach number, incoming flow pressure and the external perturbation pressure is also studied to help design more efficient supersonic intakes for engines like ramjets and scramjets.

Keywords: analytical investigation, compression and expansion waves, fluid element interactions, shock trajectory, supersonic flow, unsteady gas dynamics, varying area duct, wave interactions

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329 Aerodynamic Heating Analysis of Hypersonic Flow over Blunt-Nosed Bodies Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Aakash Chhunchha, Assma Begum


The qualitative aspects of hypersonic flow over a range of blunt bodies have been extensively analyzed in the past. It is well known that the curvature of a body’s geometry in the sonic region predominantly dictates the bow shock shape and its standoff distance from the body, while the surface pressure distribution depends on both the sonic region and on the local body shape. The present study is an extension to analyze the hypersonic flow characteristics over several blunt-nosed bodies using modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools to determine the shock shape and its effect on the heat flux around the body. 4 blunt-nosed models with cylindrical afterbodies were analyzed for a flow at a Mach number of 10 corresponding to the standard atmospheric conditions at an altitude of 50 km. The nose radii of curvature of the models range from a hemispherical nose to a flat nose. Appropriate numerical models and the supplementary convergence techniques that were implemented for the CFD analysis are thoroughly described. The flow contours are presented highlighting the key characteristics of shock wave shape, shock standoff distance and the sonic point shift on the shock. The variation of heat flux, due to different shock detachments for various models is comprehensively discussed. It is observed that the more the bluntness of the nose radii, the farther the shock stands from the body; and consequently, the less the surface heating at the nose. The results obtained from the CFD analyses are compared with approximated theoretical engineering correlations. Overall, a satisfactory agreement is observed between the two.

Keywords: aero-thermodynamics, blunt-nosed bodies, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), hypersonic flow

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328 Insights of Interaction Studies between HSP-60, HSP-70 Proteins and HSF-1 in Bubalus bubalis

Authors: Ravinder Singh, C Rajesh, Saroj Badhan, Shailendra Mishra, Ranjit Singh Kataria


Heat shock protein 60 and 70 are crucial chaperones that guide appropriate folding of denatured proteins under heat stress conditions. HSP60 and HSP70 provide assistance in correct folding of a multitude of denatured proteins. The heat shock factors are the family of some transcription factors which controls the regulation of gene expression of proteins involved in folding of damaged or improper folded proteins during stress conditions. Under normal condition heat shock proteins bind with HSF-1 and act as its repressor as well as aids in maintaining the HSF-1’s nonactive and monomeric confirmation. The experimental protein structure for all these proteins in Bubalus bubalis is not known till date. Therefore computational approach was explored to identify three-dimensional structure analysis of all these proteins. In this study, an extensive in silico analysis has been performed including sequence comparison among species to comparative modeling of Bubalus bubalis HSP60, HSP70 and HSF-1 protein. The stereochemical properties of proteins were assessed by utilizing several scrutiny bioinformatics tools to ensure model accuracy. Further docking approach was used to study interactions between Heat shock proteins and HSF-1.

Keywords: Bubalus bubalis, comparative modelling, docking, heat shock protein

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327 Preliminary Conceptions of 3D Prototyping Model to Experimental Investigation in Hypersonic Shock Tunnels

Authors: Thiago Victor Cordeiro Marcos, Joao Felipe de Araujo Martos, Ronaldo de Lima Cardoso, David Romanelli Pinto, Paulo Gilberto de Paula Toro, Israel da Silveira Rego, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira


Currently, the use of 3D rapid prototyping, also known as 3D printing, has been investigated by some universities around the world as an innovative technique, fast, flexible and cheap for a direct plastic models manufacturing that are lighter and with complex geometries to be tested for hypersonic shock tunnel. Initially, the purpose is integrated prototyped parts with metal models that actually are manufactured through of the conventional machining and hereafter replace them with completely prototyped models. The mechanical design models to be tested in hypersonic shock tunnel are based on conventional manufacturing processes, therefore are limited forms and standard geometries. The use of 3D rapid prototyping offers a range of options that enables geometries innovation and ways to be used for the design new models. The conception and project of a prototyped model for hypersonic shock tunnel should be rethought and adapted when comparing the conventional manufacturing processes, in order to fully exploit the creativity and flexibility that are allowed by the 3D prototyping process. The objective of this paper is to compare the conception and project of a 3D rapid prototyping model and a conventional machining model, while showing the advantages and disadvantages of each process and the benefits that 3D prototyping can bring to the manufacture of models to be tested in hypersonic shock tunnel.

Keywords: 3D printing, 3D prototyping, experimental research, hypersonic shock tunnel

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326 Desktop High-Speed Aerodynamics by Shallow Water Analogy in a Tin Box for Engineering Students

Authors: Etsuo Morishita


In this paper, we show shallow water in a tin box as an analogous simulation tool for high-speed aerodynamics education and research. It is customary that we use a water tank to create shallow water flow. While a flow in a water tank is not necessarily uniform and is sometimes wavy, we can visualize a clear supercritical flow even when we move a body manually in stationary water in a simple shallow tin box. We can visualize a blunt shock wave around a moving circular cylinder together with a shock pattern around a diamond airfoil. Another interesting analogous experiment is a hydrodynamic shock tube with water and tea. We observe the contact surface clearly due to color difference of the two liquids those are invisible in the real gas dynamics experiment. We first revisit the similarities between high-speed aerodynamics and shallow water hydraulics. Several educational and research experiments are then introduced for engineering students. Shallow water experiments in a tin box simulate properly the high-speed flows.

Keywords: aerodynamics compressible flow, gas dynamics, hydraulics, shock wave

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325 Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics and Performance of 14-X B Inlet with Blunted Cowl-Lip

Authors: Sergio N. P. Laitón, Paulo G. P. Toro, João F. Martos


A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the flow characteristics and performance of the 14-X B inlet with blunted cowl-lip. The Brazilian aerospace hypersonic vehicle 14-X B is a technology demonstrator of a hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system, based on supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet). It is designed for Earth's atmospheric flight at Mach number of 6 and an altitude of 30 km. Currently, it is under development in the aerothermodynamics and hypersonic Professor Henry T. Nagamatsu laboratory at Advanced Studies Institute (IEAv). Numerical simulations were conducted at nominal freestream Mach number and altitude for two cowl-lip blunting radius and several angles of attack close to horizontal flight. The results show that the shock interference behavior on the blunted cowl-lip change with the angle of attack and blunted radius. The type VI or V together with III shock interferences are more likely to occur simultaneously at small negative angles of attack. When the inlet operates in positive angles of attack higher to 1, no shock interference occurs, only the bow shock conditions. The results indicate a high air pressure at beginning of the combustor and higher pressure recovery with 2 mm radius and positives angles of attack.

Keywords: blunted cowl-lip, hypersonic inlet, inlet unstart, shock interference

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324 Early Vasopressor and De-resuscitation in Steven Johnson Syndrome with Septic Shock: A Case Report

Authors: Darma Putra Sitepu, Dewi Larasati, Yohanes Wolter Hendrik George


Sepsis is a life-threatening medical emergency frequently observed in intensive care unit (ICU). Surviving Sepsis Campaign in 2018 has recommended the administration of early vasopressor in the first hour of sepsis or septic shock but has not yet included de-resuscitation protocol. De-resuscitation in acute management of septic shock is where patient received active removal of accumulated fluid. It has been proposed by some studies and ongoing clinical trials. Here we present a case with early vasopressor and de-resuscitation. Male, 27 years old presenting to the emergency room with shortness of breath, altered mental status, and widespread blisters on his body and lips started a few hours prior, after receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug through intravenous injection. Patient was hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic at admission, diagnosed with Steven Johnson Syndrome with Septic Shock. Patient received fluid resuscitation, early vasopressor, and diuresis agent aimed to actively remove fluid after the initial phase of resuscitation. Patient was admitted to ICU and progressively recovering. At day-10, patient was stabilized and was transferred to general ward. Early vasopressor and de-resuscitation are beneficial for the patient.

Keywords: sepsis, shock, de-resuscitation, vasopressor, fluid, case report

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323 Controlled Shock Response Spectrum Test on Spacecraft Subsystem Using Electrodynamic Shaker

Authors: M. Madheswaran, A. R. Prashant, S. Ramakrishna, V. Ramesh Naidu, P. Govindan, P. Aravindakshan


Shock Response spectrum (SRS) tests are one of the tests that are conducted on some critical systems of spacecraft as part of environmental testing. The SRS tests are conducted to simulate the pyro shocks that occur during launch phases as well as during deployment of spacecraft appendages. Some of the methods to carryout SRS tests are pyro technique method, impact hammer method, drop shock method and using electro dynamic shakers. The pyro technique, impact hammer and drop shock methods are open loop tests, whereas SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker is a controlled closed loop test. SRS testing using electrodynamic shaker offers various advantages such as simple test set up, better controllability and repeatability. However, it is important to devise a a proper test methodology so that safety of the electro dynamic shaker and that of test specimen are not compromised. This paper discusses the challenges that are involved in conducting SRS tests, shaker validation and the necessary precautions to be considered. Approach involved in choosing various test parameters like synthesis waveform, spectrum convergence level, etc., are discussed. A case study of SRS test conducted on an optical payload of Indian Geo stationary spacecraft is presented.

Keywords: maxi-max spectrum, SRS (shock response spectrum), SDOf (single degree of freedom), wavelet synthesis

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322 Performance and Damage Detection of Composite Structural Insulated Panels Subjected to Shock Wave Loading

Authors: Anupoju Rajeev, Joanne Mathew, Amit Shelke


In the current study, a new type of Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) is developed and investigated its performance against shock loading which can replace the conventional wooden structural materials. The CSIPs is made of Fibre Cement Board (FCB)/aluminum as the facesheet and the expanded polystyrene foam as the core material. As tornadoes are very often in the western countries, it is suggestable to monitor the health of the CSIPs during its lifetime. So, the composite structure is installed with three smart sensors located randomly at definite locations. Each smart sensor is fabricated with an embedded half stainless phononic crystal sensor attached to both ends of the nylon shaft that can resist the shock and impact on facesheet as well as polystyrene foam core and safeguards the system. In addition to the granular crystal sensors, the accelerometers are used in the horizontal spanning and vertical spanning with a definite offset distance. To estimate the health and damage of the CSIP panel using granular crystal sensor, shock wave loading experiments are conducted. During the experiments, the time of flight response from the granular sensors is measured. The main objective of conducting shock wave loading experiments on the CSIP panels is to study the effect and the sustaining capacity of the CSIP panels in the extreme hazardous situations like tornados and hurricanes which are very common in western countries. The effects have been replicated using a shock tube, an instrument that can be used to create the same wind and pressure intensity of tornado for the experimental study. Numerous experiments have been conducted to investigate the flexural strength of the CSIP. Furthermore, the study includes the damage detection using three smart sensors embedded in the CSIPs during the shock wave loading.

Keywords: composite structural insulated panels, damage detection, flexural strength, sandwich structures, shock wave loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 77