Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2837

Search results for: rural schools.

2837 Leading Gifted Education in Saudi Rural Schools: Case Studies of Differently Performing Schools

Authors: Abdullah Almalky, Colin Evers

Abstract:

Gifted individuals in rural areas may lack access and opportunities compared with urban students. This case study research provides research-based evidence to identify the professional needs of principals running rural schools with gifted education (GE) programs. The data were obtained from diverse cases (high-performing [HP] and low-performing [LP] schools) by conducting interviews with principals and teachers, conducting focus groups with gifted students, and analyzing policy documents. The findings reveal a lack of knowledge among principals in relation to GE. However, HP schools were more concerned with the needs of gifted students compared with LP schools. In addition, principals of HP schools were mostly instructional leaders, whereas LP schools were mostly led by building managers. Therefore, the study recommends a revision of GE policy in Saudi Arabia and urges ministries of education and universities to consider including GE in principals’ and teachers’ preparation programs to better serve gifted students in schools.

Keywords: gifted, Saudi Arabia, leadership, policy, rural education, case study, interview

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2836 The Maldistribution of Doctors and the Responsibility of Medical Education: A Literature Review

Authors: Catherine Bernard

Abstract:

The maldistribution of clinicians within countries is well documented. It is a common theme throughout the world that rural areas often struggle to recruit and retain health workers resulting in inadequate healthcare for many. This paper will concentrate on the responsibilities that medical schools may have in addressing this shortage of rural health workers. Recommendations are made with regards to targeted rural student admissions, rurally-based medical schools, rural clinical rotations and a curriculum orientated towards rural health issues. The evidence gathered suggests that individual factors are positive in encouraging health workers to practice in rural locations. However, there is strength in numbers, and combining all the recommendations will likely result in a synergistic effect, thereby increasing numbers of rural health workers and achieving accessible healthcare for those living in rural populations.

Keywords: medical education, medical education design, public health, rural health

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2835 Rural Education in Saudi Arabia School Leaders’ and Teachers’ Experiences and Perceptions

Authors: Emad Matar Alotaibi

Abstract:

In line with other Arabic countries, Saudi Arabia is currently undergoing large scale school reform in response to key factors brought about by globalization. While there is a growing body of research exploring these systemic changes in urban environments, there is very little published research regarding rural schools. In fact, rural schools are still under-examined globally comparing to their urban and suburban counterparts over a range of reform dimensions. In Saudi Arabia, there are around 1128 rural areas that contain about 3200 schools. Several challenges face rural schools, especially in relation to recruitment, retention, and professional development opportunities for teachers and school leaders. However, there is very little in depth research which explores these issues “on the ground”. The aim of this research is fill this knowledge gap and explore teachers’ and leaders’ perceptions and experiences of working in rural schools in KSA. In Saudi Arabia, there is a growing body of research into school leadership. However, there is very little published research specifically exploring rural schools. By using an in-depth case study approach and adopting an analytical framework based on the interlinking concepts of leadership practices, culture, and CPD, this study offers and significant and original contribution to knowledge in this area. This study also will adopt a qualitative multiple case studies, which is going to employ semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and documentary analysis.

Keywords: leadership practice, school culture, continuing professional development, rural school

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2834 Coping Strategies Used by Special Education Teachers in Rural Schools

Authors: Susan P. Gregory

Abstract:

The United States has a critical shortage of special education teachers and rural states face more challenges in finding teachers to fill these positions. The state of Montana is one of the larger rural states in the United States and has had a critical need for special education teachers for over 30 years. It is the 4th largest state in the United States with respect to size but the 44th in the nation with respect to population size. Montana’s state department of education supports rural schools that have difficulty in finding a special education teacher. School districts are allowed to fill vacant special education positions with licensed teachers that have no background in teaching students with special needs. These teachers are given three years to complete a university program leading to an endorsement in special education. The teachershave a range of teaching experience from veteran teachers to those who arein their first teaching position. The common factor they share is that they are all teaching in an area for which they have had no previous experience, that is special education. They also share the experience of teaching in rural schools where they may be the only special education teacher in their school. The literature tells us that teachers are stressed and that the demands of special education can exacerbate that stress. As institutions of higher education prepare preservice teachers to enter the profession, knowledge of the challenges these preservice teachers will face and how they overcome those challenges, are an important part of the preparing them for the reality of schools today. This study will report interviews conducted with a group oflicensed teachers who were new to special education. These teachers were hired within the past three years for special education positions in rural schools in the state of Montana. Individual phone interviews will be conducted, and the teachers will be asked to identify not just the challenges they face but the strategies they use to overcome them. The interviews will be transcribed and common themes emerging from those interviews will identified. The strategies that these teachers use to manage the challenges and stressors of being first year special education teachers in rural schools will be reported. The conclusion will present strategies identified by the teachers in this study and examine them in the context of the research literature. These strategies will provide information for facultywho are preparing preservice teachers to take positions in rural schools.

Keywords: coping strategies, rural, special education, teachers

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2833 The Status Quo, Consensus and Debates on Urbanization in Chinese Education: A General Overview of Research from the 1990s

Authors: Jingqian Xiao

Abstract:

The rapid wave of urbanization triggered by China’s economic growth over the past few decades has inevitably impacted the country’s educational landscape. Educational spaces in China shifted during the 1990s when, due to the government’s tax reforms, large numbers of rural schools were abolished or merged with urban schools, resulting in an “urbanization” of school content and values. While urbanized education is now the status quo, there is as yet no literature review, to our best knowledge, that comprehensively summarizes academic work on this phenomenon. Besides, most research on Chinese educational urbanization relies on basic policy deductions, and there is room for improvement in both the quality and quantity of empirical research on this topic. This paper, therefore, reviews relevant literature on educational urbanization in China from three interrelated factors that shape educational inequality between urban and rural China, namely the urbanization in educational space, school content, and educational values. Results find that the main discussion on Chinese educational urbanization often addresses how Chinese rural education can be improved by reforming the urbanization model to revitalize rural society. While the complete urbanization of Chinese education does not seem feasible, the rapidly changing nature of China’s development patterns and political landscape means the course of Chinese education may shift at any time. When the government does decide to fulfill its intentions to improve the countryside, many formerly dilapidated rural schools may be revived, but for the moment, both rural and urban education in China suffers from governmental neglect. In addition, the breakout of COVID-19, which led to a sudden spread of online education that reopened the gap between the educational conditions and the cultural capital of families in rural and urban areas, has also posed new challenges for China’s attempts to resolve conflicting interests between urban and rural schools and promote educational equality.

Keywords: Chinese education, educational inequality, rural and urban education, urbanization in education

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2832 Scaling Up Psychosocial Wellbeing of Orphans and Vulnerable Learners in Rural Schools in Lesotho: An Ethnopsychology Approach

Authors: Fumane Portia Khanare

Abstract:

This paper explores strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of orphans and vulnerable learners (OVLs) in rural schools in Lesotho that seem essential for their success, in anticipation of, and in the context of global education. Various strategies to improve psychosocial wellbeing are considered necessary in that they are inclusive and buffer other forms of conditions beyond traditional and Eurocentric forms in orientation. Furthermore, they bring about the local experiences and particularly of the learners and schools in rural areas – all of which constitute ethnopsychology. COVID-19 pandemic has enthused the demands for collaboration and responsive support for learners within rural and many deprived contexts in Lesotho. However, the increase of OVLs in the education sector has also sparked the debate of how many rural schools with a lack of resources, inadequate teacher training, declining unemployment and the detriment of COVID-19 throughout Lesotho affected the psychosocial wellbeing of these learners. In some cases, the pandemic has created opportunities to explore existing, forgotten or ignored resources dated back to the pre-colonial era in Lesotho, and emphasizing to have an optimistic outlook on life as a result of collaboration and appreciating local knowledge. In order to scale up the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs, there is a need to explore various strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing, in which all learners can succeed during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, thereby promoting the agency of young people from the rural areas towards building supportive learning environments. The paper draws on qualitative participatory arts-based study data generated by 30 learners in two rural secondary schools in Lesotho. Thematic analysis was employed to provide an in-depth understanding of learners' psychosocial needs and strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing. The paper is guided by ethnopsychology – a strength-based perspective, which posits that in the most difficult situations, individuals including, young people have strengths, can collaborate and find solutions that respond to their challenges. This was done by examining how various facets of their environments such as peers, teachers, schools’ environment, family and community played out in creating supportive strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs which buffer the successful completion of their secondary school education. It is recommended that ethnopsychology should recognise and be used under the realm of positive wellbeing in rural schools in Lesotho.

Keywords: arts-based research, ethnopsychology, Lesotho, orphans and vulnerable learners, psychosocial wellbeing, rural schools.

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2831 Scaling Up Psychosocial Wellbeing of Orphans and Vulnerable Learners in Rural Schools in Lesotho: An Ethnopsychology Approach

Authors: Fumane Portia Khanare

Abstract:

This paper explores strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of orphans and vulnerable learners (OVLs) in rural schools in Lesotho that seem essential for their success, in anticipation of, and in the context of global education. Various strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing are considered necessary in that they are inclusive and buffer other forms of conditions beyond traditional and Eurocentric forms in orientation. Furthermore, they bring about the local experiences and particularly of the learners and schools in rural areas – all of which constitute ethnopsychology. COVID-19 pandemic has enthused the demands for collaboration and responsive support for learners within rural and many deprived contexts in Lesotho. However, the increase of OVLs in the education sector has also sparked the debate of how much rural schools with lack of resources, inadequate teacher training, declining unemployment and the detriment of COVID-19 throughout Lesotho affected the psychosocial wellbeing of these learners. In some cases, the pandemic has created opportunities to explore existing, forgotten or ignored resources dated back to pre-colonial era in Lesotho, and emphasizing to have an optimistic outlook on life as a result of collaboration and appreciating local knowledge. In order to scale up the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs there is a need to explore various strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing, in which all learners can succeed during COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, thereby promoting agency of young people from the rural areas towards building supportive learning environments. The paper draws on a qualitative participatory arts-based study data generated by 30 learners in two rural secondary schools in Lesotho. Thematic analysis was employed to provide an in-depth understanding of learners' psychosocial needs and strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing. The paper is guided by ethnopsychology – a strength-based perspective, which posit that in the most difficult situations, individual including, young people have strengths, can collaborate and find solutions that respond to their challenges. This was done by examining how various facets of their environments such as peers, teachers, schools’ environment, family and community played out in creating supportive strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs which buffer their successful completion of their secondary school education. It is recommended that ethnopsychology should recognised and be used under the realm of positive wellbeing in rural schools in Lesotho.

Keywords: arts-based research, ethnopsychology, orphans and vulnerable learners, Lesotho, psychosocial wellbeing, rural schools

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2830 An Experiment with Science Popularization in Rural Schools of Sehore District in Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Peeyush Verma, Anil Kumar, Anju Rawlley, Chanchal Mehra

Abstract:

India's school-going population is largely served by an educational system that is, in most rural parts, stuck with methods that emphasize rote learning, endless examinations, and monotonous classroom activities. Rural government schools are generally seen as having poor infrastructure, poor support system and low motivation for teaching as well as learning. It was experienced during the survey of this project that there is lesser motivation of rural boys and girls to attend their schools and still less likely chances to study science, tabooed as “difficult”. An experiment was conducted with the help of Rural Knowledge Network Project through Department of Science and Technology, Govt of India in five remote villages of Sehore District in Madhya Pradesh (India) during 2012-2015. These schools are located about 50-70 Km away from Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh and can distinctively qualify as average rural schools. Three tier methodology was adapted to unfold the experiment. In first tier randomly selected boys and girls from these schools were taken to a daylong visit to the Regional Science Centre located in Bhopal. In second tier, randomly selected half of those who visited earlier were again taken to the Science Centre to make models of Science. And in third tier, all the boys and girls studying science were exposed to video lectures and study material through web. The results have shown an interesting face towards learning science among youths in rural schools through peer learning or incremental learning. The students who had little or no interest in learning science became good learners and queries started pouring in from the neighbourhood village as well as a few parents requested to take their wards in the project to learn science. The paper presented is a case study of the experiment conducted in five rural schools of Sehore District. It reflects upon the methodology of developing awareness and interest among students and finally engaging them in popularising science through peer-to-peer learning using incremental learning elements. The students, who had a poor perception about science initially, had changed their attitude towards learning science during the project period. The results of this case, however, cannot be generalised unless replicated in the same setting elsewhere.

Keywords: popularisation of science, science temper, incremental learning, peer-to-peer learning

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2829 Whole School Environmental Mapping Framework in Preventing Childhood Obesity in Selangor

Authors: M. A. M. Hayati Adilin, D. Ajau, A. S. Siti Khuzaimah, K. Mastura, R. Nik Muhammad Syafiq, M. N. Noor Fatin Nadiah

Abstract:

The school environment is one of many factors related to the increment of overweight and obesity among children. There is an evidence to suggest that the school environmental factor has an independent effect towards health-related behaviour of children and school culture. It may have a significant impact towards the emergence of childhood obesity through their influence on eating pattern and physical activity level. The objective of this study is to identify the school environmental factors (i.e. physical, economic, political and socio-cultural) towards healthy eating and physical activity of urban and rural primary school children in preventing childhood obesity. This can be identified by examining the compliance of rural and urban school environment with whole-school environmental mapping framework. The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 60 schools were randomly selected (30 urban and 30 rural) in Selangor, Western Peninsular Malaysia in 2013 and 60 teachers (responsible for student affairs and the school curriculum) have been interviewed face to face by using a whole school mapping questionnaire followed by observation of the school environment . This study has demonstrated that schools in both areas (rural and urban) comply mostly with the physical environmental mapping (83.3%), followed by socio-cultural environmental mapping, 65%. Meanwhile, the political environmental mappings in both urban and rural schools show a low compliance percentage, which is 56.7%. For economic environmental mapping, only 10% of both schools are complied. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated that schools in both areas do not fully comply with the whole school environmental mapping framework, especially economic and political. However, holistic approach is needed and many improvements can be proposed to promote healthy eating and physical activities among school children. Government, families and schools as well as communities and the media should be included together with any strategies for preventing childhood obesity.

Keywords: childhood obesity, healthy eating, physical activity, school environment

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2828 Differences in Nutritional Awareness Among Urban Semi Urban and Rural Girls of South India

Authors: N. R. Ramkumar

Abstract:

The foremost aim of physical education has been to inculcate a healthy mind in a healthy body. The aim of this study was to find out the differences in nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls of South India. The investigator administered a nutritional awareness questionnaire consisting of 25 statements among 100 rural; 100 semi urban and 100 urban girls studying in different schools in South India. The filled up questionnaire were scored and the total scores for all the twenty five statements were considered as the nutritional awareness level of the subjects. The differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls were tested for statistical significance using ANOVA. In all cases 0.05 level was fixed to test the significance. The results proved that there were significant differences on nutritional awareness among urban, semi urban and rural girls (P<0.05). The paired mean comparisons proved that urban girls were having highest nutritional awareness (M: 86.86), followed by semi urban girls (M: 81.86) and then by rural girls (M: 79.48). The differences between urban and semi urban girls and urban and rural girls were significant and there was no significant differences between semi urban and rural girls. The findings of this study proved that rural girls were significantly having lesser nutritional awareness and hence the study recommends the strong need of nutritional education for rural girls in South India.

Keywords: nutrition, awareness, urban, semi urban, rural girls

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2827 Rural School Superintendent Perceptions of Rural Development in Three U.S. States: A Collective Case Study

Authors: Jerry D. Johnson, Jason A. LaFrance, Matthew A. Ohlson, Shane C. Shope

Abstract:

The public school system is the largest employer and most impactful factor in the local economy for many rural communities in the United States. The relationship between the school system and the community is symbiotic—they thrive together or decline together. Understanding the perceptions of rural school superintendents (the titular head of the local school district) with regard to rural development is foundational to understanding how the school and community interact and collaborate in key areas like economic development, community development, and workforce development. To investigate those perceptions as they manifest among superintendents in thriving rural communities, a collective case study was designed and conducted to disclose and characterize superintendent perceptions about rural development in three diverse rural settings in the U.S.: Florida, Kansas, and Ohio. Appreciative Inquiry (AI) served as the conceptual framework and supported a focus on identifying and describing assets and strategies/activities that helped explain the positive results in the communities of interest. Implementation of a criterion-based purposive sampling process (using extant data and a nomination process to identify rural superintendents in communities with vibrant economies and recognized the contribution by the schools in rural development) resulted in two superintendents from each of these state settings who participated in semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts and relevant extant documents were coded and analyzed to produce individual cases with representative themes, after which a cross-case analysis was conducted to generate overarching themes. The overarching themes were then scrutinized and tested through the application of appropriate credibility techniques to promote the trustworthiness of the results. Findings include the importance of building and maintaining relationships that extend beyond the immediate collaboration activity, the importance of collaboration skills, intentionality of practice, and organizational systems/structures as facilitators/affordances. The results offer potential guidance for leveraging the potential for public schools to contribute to their rural development in the communities they serve.

Keywords: collaboration, leadership, rural development, rural schools

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2826 Creating an Enabling Learning Environment for Learners with Visual Impairments Inlesotho Rural Schools by Using Asset-Based Approaches

Authors: Mamochana, A. Ramatea, Fumane, P. Khanare

Abstract:

Enabling the learning environment is a significant and adaptive technique necessary to navigate learners’ educational challenges. However, research has indicated that quality provision of education in the environments that are enabling, especially to learners with visual impairments (LVIs, hereafter) in rural schools, remain an ongoing challenge globally. Hence, LVIs often have a lower level of academic performance as compared to their peers. To balance this gap and fulfill learners'fundamentalhuman rights¬ of receiving an equal quality education, appropriate measures and structures that make enabling learning environment a better place to learn must be better understood. This paper, therefore, intends to find possible means that rural schools of Lesotho can employ to make the learning environment for LVIs enabling. The present study aims to determine suitable assets that can be drawn to make the learning environment for LVIs enabling. The study is also informed by the transformative paradigm and situated within a qualitative research approach. Data were generated through focus group discussions with twelve teachers who were purposefully selected from two rural primary schools in Lesotho. The generated data were then analyzed thematically using Braun and Clarke's six-phase framework. The findings of the study indicated that participating teachers do have an understanding that rural schools boast of assets (existing and hidden) that have a positive influence in responding to the special educational needs of LVIs. However, the participants also admitted that although their schools boast of assets, they still experience limited knowledge about the use of the existing assets and thus, realized a need for improved collaboration, involvement of the existing assets, and enhancement of academic resources to make LVIs’ learning environment enabling. The findings of this study highlight the significance of the effective use of assets. Additionally, coincides with literature that shows recognizing and tapping into the existing assets enable learning for LVIs. In conclusion, the participants in the current study indicated that for LVIs’ learning environment to be enabling, there has to be sufficient use of the existing assets. The researchers, therefore, recommend that the appropriate use of assets is good, but may not be sufficient if the existing assets are not adequately managed. Hence,VILs experience a vicious cycle of vulnerability. It was thus, recommended that adequate use of assets and teachers' engagement as active assets should always be considered to make the learning environment a better place for LVIs to learan in the future

Keywords: assets, enabling learning environment, rural schools, learners with visual impairments

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2825 The Effect of Ethnomathematics on School Mathematics in Kano State Junior Secondary Schools

Authors: Surajo Isa

Abstract:

In as much as mathematics is important to national development, it is regrettable to note that in Nigeria Students academic achievement especially in public examinations remains poor. Among the several factors responsible for such a poor performance is the lack of bringing cultural elements into the conventional school mathematics. The design for this study is triangulation in nature which is set to examined 800 students From 20 School (40 each from male and female schools). Ten (10) male and ten (10) female schools consisting of 400 male and 400 female students to formed the experiment and control groups with a further sub-groping of samples to represent urban and rural settings for both male and female groups. While the experimental groups were taught using ethnomathematics techniques, the control groups were taught using conventional techniques, the results of a t-test for independent samples at p =0.05 level of significance with tcritical = 1.968 showed that (a) boys performed significantly better than girls (b) there is no significantly difference in performance between urban and rural girls (c) significant difference in academic performance was obtained between urban and rural boys. Generally, it was observed that teaching mathematics with ethnomathematics technique would help in great achievement in mathematics.

Keywords: ethnomathematics, achievement, gender, settlement

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2824 Experiences and Views of Foundation Phase Teachers When Teaching English First Additional Language in Rural Schools

Authors: Rendani Mercy Makhwathana

Abstract:

This paper intends to explore the experiences and views of Foundation Phase teachers when teaching English First Additional Language in rural public schools. Teachers all over the world are pillars of any education system. Consequently, any education transformation should start with teachers as critical role players in the education system. As a result, teachers’ experiences and views are worth consideration, for they impact on learners learning and the wellbeing of education in general. An exploratory qualitative approach with the use of phenomenological research design was used in this paper. The population for this paper comprised all Foundation Phase teachers in the district. Purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 15 Foundation Phase teachers from five rural-based schools. Data was collected through classroom observation and individual face-to-face interviews. Data were categorised, analysed and interpreted. The findings revealed that from time-to-time teachers experiences one or more challenging situations, learners’ low participation in the classroom to lack of resources. This paper recommends that teachers should be provided with relevant resources and support to effectively teach English First Additional Language.

Keywords: the education system, first additional language, foundation phase, intermediate phase, language of learning and teaching, medium of instruction, teacher professional development

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2823 Perceived Difficult Concepts in Senior Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum by Mathematics Students and Teachers in Kwara State

Authors: Siddiq Mohammed

Abstract:

This study sought to identify the perceived difficult concepts in the new mathematics curriculum by senior secondary school students and mathematics teachers in Kwara State. The study involved a survey research type. Random sampling technique was used to select the 32 sampled schools, 469 students, and 103 teachers. The instrument used in data collection was a research-designed questionnaire tagged 'Perceived Difficult Concepts in Mathematics' (PDCM) was validated by two experts in mathematics education. The test-retest reliability index of 0.69 was obtained. Data analysis was carried out using frequency count percentages and chi-square. The result of the study showed that eight topics were identified as difficult to teach by the teachers, while 14 topics were also identified as difficult to learn by the students. This study also revealed that there was no significant difference in the topics perceived as difficult between the teachers teaching in the school located in urban and rural area. However, there was a significant difference in the perceived difficult topics between student schooling in the schools located in urban and rural area. It was therefore recommended among others that mathematics teachers should undergo training on how to concretize the abstractness of some of the topics especially the new ones as well as use appropriate teaching aid to facilitate teaching/learning of the difficult concepts. It was also recommended that there is a need for evenly development of human and materials among the schools in urban and rural areas.

Keywords: curriculum, difficult concepts, mathematics, perceived

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2822 Rural School English Teacher Motivational Practice on Facilitating Student Motivation

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Hsu

Abstract:

It is generally believed that the teacher’s use of motivational strategies can enhance student motivation, especially in a place like Taiwan where teacher usually dominates student EFL learning. However, only little empirical studies support this claim. This study examined the connection between teachers’ use of motivational teaching practice and observed student motivated behavior in rural junior high schools in Taiwan. The use of motivational strategies by 12 teachers in five recognized rural junior high schools was investigated observed using a classroom observation instrument, the Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching. Meanwhile, post-lesson teacher evaluations accomplished by both the researcher and the teacher were functioning as part of the measure of teacher motivational practice. The data collected through observation scheme follows the real-time coding principle to examine observable teacher motivational practice and learner motivated behaviors. The results support the previous research findings that teachers’ use of motivational strategies is associated with the student motivated behaviors as well as the students’ level of motivation regarding English learning.

Keywords: English learning, motivational strategies, student motivation, teacher motivational practices

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2821 School Partners in Initial Teacher Education: An Including or Excluding Approach When Engaging Schools

Authors: Laila Niklasson

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to critically discuss how partner schools are engaged during Initial teacher education, ITE. The background is an experiment in Sweden where the practicum organization is reorganized due to a need to enhance quality during practicum. It is a national initiative from the government, supported by the National Agency of Education and lasts 2014-2019. The main features are concentration of students to school with a certain amount of mentors, mentors who have a mentor education and teachers with relevant subject areas and where there could be a mentor team with a leader at the school. An expected outcome is for example that the student teachers should be engaged in peer-learning. The schools should be supported by extra lectures from university teachers during practicum and also extra research projects where the schools should be engaged. A case study of one university based ITE was carried out to explore the consequences for the schools not selected. The result showed that from engaging x schools in a region, x was engaged. The schools are both in urban and rural areas, mainly in the latter. There is also a tendency that private schools are not engaged. On a unit level recruitment is perceived as harder for schools not engaged. In addition they cannot market themselves as ´selected school´ which can affect parent´s selection of school for their children. Also, on unit level, but with consequences for professional development, they are not selected for research project and thereby are not fully supported during school development. The conclusion is that from an earlier inclusive approach concerning professions where all teachers were perceived as possible mentors, there is a change to an exclusive approach where selected schools and selected teachers should be engaged. The change could be perceived as a change in governance mentality, but also in how professions are perceived, and development work is pursued.

Keywords: initial teacher education, practicum schools, profession, quality development

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2820 Efficiency of Secondary Schools by ICT Intervention in Sylhet Division of Bangladesh

Authors: Azizul Baten, Kamrul Hossain, Abdullah-Al-Zabir

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to develop an appropriate stochastic frontier secondary schools efficiency model by ICT Intervention and to examine the impact of ICT challenges on secondary schools efficiency in the Sylhet division in Bangladesh using stochastic frontier analysis. The Translog stochastic frontier model was found an appropriate than the Cobb-Douglas model in secondary schools efficiency by ICT Intervention. Based on the results of the Cobb-Douglas model, it is found that the coefficient of the number of teachers, the number of students, and teaching ability had a positive effect on increasing the level of efficiency. It indicated that these are related to technical efficiency. In the case of inefficiency effects for both Cobb-Douglas and Translog models, the coefficient of the ICT lab decreased secondary school inefficiency, but the online class in school was found to increase the level of inefficiency. The coefficients of teacher’s preference for ICT tools like multimedia projectors played a contributor role in decreasing the secondary school inefficiency in the Sylhet division of Bangladesh. The interaction effects of the number of teachers and the classrooms, and the number of students and the number of classrooms, the number of students and teaching ability, and the classrooms and teaching ability of the teachers were recorded with the positive values and these have a positive impact on increasing the secondary school efficiency. The overall mean efficiency of urban secondary schools was found at 84.66% for the Translog model, while it was 83.63% for the Cobb-Douglas model. The overall mean efficiency of rural secondary schools was found at 80.98% for the Translog model, while it was 81.24% for the Cobb-Douglas model. So, the urban secondary schools performed better than the rural secondary schools in the Sylhet division. It is observed from the results of the Tobit model that the teacher-student ratio had a positive influence on secondary school efficiency. The teaching experiences of those who have 1 to 5 years and 10 years above, MPO type school, conventional teaching method have had a negative and significant influence on secondary school efficiency. The estimated value of σ-square (0.0625) was different from Zero, indicating a good fit. The value of γ (0.9872) was recorded as positive and it can be interpreted as follows: 98.72 percent of random variation around in secondary school outcomes due to inefficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, secondary schools, ICT, stochastic frontier analysis

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2819 Exploring Psychosocial Factors That Enable Teachers to Cope with Workplace Adversity at a Rural District School Setting

Authors: K. R. Mukuna

Abstract:

Teachers are faced many challenges in the South African rural schools such as stress, depression, lack of resources, poor working relationships, inflexible curriculum etc. These could affect their wellbeing and effectiveness at the workplace. As a result, the study had a significance in the teacher’s lives, and community due teachers worked under conditions that are unfavourable to perform their jobs effectively. Despite these conditions, they still managed to do their jobs and the community is uplifted. However, this study aimed to explore factors that enable teachers to cope with workplace adversities at a rural school district in the Free State Province. It adopted a qualitative case study as a research design. Semi-structured interviews and colleges had employed as tools to collect data. Ten participants (n=10; 5 males and 5 females) were selected through purposive and convenience sampling. All participants selected from a South African rural school. Sesotho culture was their home language, and most of them had 5 years of teaching experiences. The thematic findings revealed that they developed abilities to cope with and adjust to the social and cultural environment. These included self-efficacy, developing problem-solving skills, awareness of strengths and asserts, self-managing of emotions, and self-confidence. This study concluded that these psychosocial factors contributed to coping with teacher’s diversities, and effectively stabilized their wellbeing in the schools.

Keywords: psychosocial factors, teachers counselling, teacher stress, workplace adversity, rural school, teachers’ wellbeing, teachers’ resilience, teachers’ self-efficacy, social interaction

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2818 Assessment of Personal Level Exposures to Particulate Matter among Children in Rural Preliminary Schools as an Indoor Air Pollution Monitoring

Authors: Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, J. Yazdani, S. M. Asadi, M. Rokni, A. Toosi

Abstract:

There are many indoor air quality studies with an emphasis on indoor particulate matters (PM2.5) monitoring. Whereas, there is a lake of data about indoor PM2.5 concentrations in rural area schools (especially in classrooms), since preliminary children are assumed to be more defenseless to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. The objective of this study was indoor PM2.5 concentration quality assessment. Fifteen preliminary schools by time-series sampling were selected to evaluate the indoor air quality in the rural district of Sari city, Iran. Data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) were measured by a hygrometer and thermometer. Particulate matters (PM2.5) were collected and assessed by Real Time Dust Monitor, (MicroDust Pro, Casella, UK). The mean indoor PM2.5 concentration in the studied classrooms was 135µg/m3 in average. The multiple linear regression revealed that a correlation between PM2.5 concentration and relative humidity, distance from city center and classroom size. Classroom size yields reasonable negative relationship, the PM2.5 concentration was ranged from 65 to 540μg/m3 and statistically significant at 0.05 level and the relative humidity was ranged from 70 to 85% and dry bulb temperature ranged from 28 to 29°C were statistically significant at 0.035 and 0.05 level, respectively. A statistical predictive model was obtained from multiple regressions modeling for PM2.5 and indoor psychrometric parameters.

Keywords: particulate matters, classrooms, regression, concentration, humidity

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2817 Conceptualization and Strategies of Biogas Technology for Rural Development in Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi

Abstract:

The main challenge of present world is to harness the energy source which is environment friendly and ecologically balanced. This need has forced to search for other alternate source of energy. But unfortunately the new alternative energy sources like the solar, hydro, wind etc. require huge economical value and technical power to operate, which seem to be very difficult for the developing countries like Nigeria. In the present moment biogas energy can be one and only reliable, easily available and economically feasible source of alternative and renewable source which can be managed by locally available sources and simple technology for secondary schools, tertiary institution and rural villages. This paper is aimed at boosting the energy generation for developing of rural Nigeria, through Biogas.

Keywords: bio-gas, energy, environment, nigeria, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
2816 Rural Electrification in India-Challenges and Solutions

Authors: P. Chandhra Sekhar, R. A. Deshpande, T. Raghunatha

Abstract:

The government of India has given special attention on rural electrification under Rajiv Gandhi Grameena Vidyuthikarana Yojana (RGGVY) during 10th plan and 11th plan. Government of India electrified about 107523 villages and 21164003 BPL Households. This paper briefs about various rural electrification programs initiated by government of India and status of RGGVY in India. The paper mainly describes about challenges in the rural electrification, new ideas recently implemented and suggestions for improvement in the rural electrification.

Keywords: rural electrification, RGGVY, NJY, BPL

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2815 Dutch Schools: Their Ventilation Systems

Authors: Milad Golshan, Wim Zeiler

Abstract:

During the last decade research was done to clarify the importance of good Indoor Air Quality in schools. As a result, measurements were undertaken in different types of schools to see whether naturally ventilated schools could provide adequate indoor conditions. Also, a comparison was made between schools with hybrid ventilation and those with complete mechanical ventilation systems. Recently a large survey was undertaken at 60 schools to establish the average current situation of schools in the Netherlands. The results of the questionnaires were compared with those of earlier measured schools. This allowed us to compare different types of schools as well as schools of different periods. Overall it leads to insights about the actual current perceived quality by the teachers as well as the pupils and enables to draw some conclusions about the typical performances of specific types of school ventilation systems. Also, the perceived thermal comfort and controllability were researched. It proved that in around 50% of the schools there were major complains about the indoor air quality causing concentration problems and headaches by the pupils at the end of class. Although the main focus of the latest research was focused more on the quality of recently finished nearly Zero Energy schools, this research showed that especially the main focus school be on the renovation and upgrading of the existing 10.000 schools in the Netherlands.

Keywords: school ventilation, indoor air quality, perceiver thermal comfort, comparison different types

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2814 Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Public Girls’ and Boys’ Secondary Schools in Riyadh

Authors: Nasser Marshad Alzeer

Abstract:

This study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Riyadh. It considers both public girls and boys sector provision and assesses the efficiency of the spatial distribution of secondary schools. Since the establishment of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 1953 and General Presidency for Female Education, (GPFE) in 1960, there has been a great expansion of education services in Saudi Arabia, particularly during the 1980s. However, recent years have seen much slower rates of increase in the public education sector but the population continues to grow rapidly. This study investigates the spatial distribution of schools through the use of questionnaire surveys and applied GIS. Overall, the results indicate a shortage of public secondary schools, especially in the north of the city. It is clear that there is overcrowding in the majority of secondary schools. The establishment of new schools has been suggested to solve the problem of overcrowding. A number of socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with differences in the utilization of the public secondary schools. A GIS was applied in this study in order to assess the spatial distribution of secondary schools including the modification of existing catchment area boundaries and locating new schools. This modification could also reduce the pupil pressure on certain schools and further benefits could probably be gained.

Keywords: analysis, distribution, Saudi, GIS, schools

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2813 Research on the Application of Renewability in the Construction Model of Zhejiang Rural Revitalization

Authors: Zheng Junchao, Wang Zhu

Abstract:

With the advancement of China's urbanization process, the Chinese government has put forward the strategy of rural revitalization which is aiming at realizing the comprehensive integration of urban and rural areas and the comprehensive revitalization of rural areas. The path of rural revitalization in Zhejiang province put forward a typical model from four dimensions: suburban area, plain, island and mountain area. Research methods include on-the-spot investigation, visiting a number of successful demonstration villages in Zhejiang and interviewing village officials. Based on the location conditions, resource endowments, industrial forms and development foundations of Zhejiang Province, this paper introduces in detail the model of rural revitalization in Zhejiang Province and the challenges it encounters, as well as the role of building construction. The rural development model of Zhejiang province makes the rural culture flourish. Taking the construction of rural scenic spots as the carrier, the rural culture, and natural landscape are constantly improved. It provides a model and template for the country's rural revitalization. The promotion of Zhejiang rural revitalization model will improve the current rural landscape, living standard and industrial structure, which will narrow the urban-rural gap greatly.

Keywords: comprehensive rural revitalization, Zhejiang model, reproducible, comprehensive integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
2812 Research on the Evolutionary Character of Capital in Rural Areas and Counter-Measure of Planning

Authors: Han Song, Tingting Wei, Dong Chen

Abstract:

The combination of capital and rural areas in China has shown its great significance in promoting urban-rural integration and new-style urbanization, enhancing regional capacity for sustainable rural development and optimizing human settlement environment. The purpose of this study is to find capital operation mechanism in rural area and rural planning guidance in China. Based on case studies in Chinese rural areas, two types of capital operation mechanism in rural areas are summed up: intervention in the field of agriculture promoting the upgrading and innovation of agricultural industry chain, intervention in rural life and leisure areas updating rural connotation and form. In the light of experiences in Japan and Taiwan, it is proposed that government's norms and guidance, rural investment intensity and rural self-organization are three important factors for capital to drive rural development. It is also found that the unique land tenure and rural governance tradition are two important factors effecting the combination of capital and rural regions in China, which requires full attention in rational policy-making and rural planning. It comes to a conclusion as four directions of the overall reform of the rural planning: targeting at enhancing the viability of rural and sustainable capacity, encouraging differences in investment incentives and planning policies, providing land usage in the rural areas with planning support and reforming the village system. Directional guidance is also made for different types of capital investments, suggesting that capital should be rooted in agriculture and rural land to benefit farmers and update human settlements.

Keywords: capital, rural areas, rural planning, rural governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
2811 Charter versus District Schools and Student Achievement: Implications for School Leaders

Authors: Kara Rosenblatt, Kevin Badgett, James Eldridge

Abstract:

There is a preponderance of information regarding the overall effectiveness of charter schools and their ability to increase academic achievement compared to traditional district schools. Most research on the topic is focused on comparing long and short-term outcomes, academic achievement in mathematics and reading, and locale (i.e., urban, v. Rural). While the lingering unanswered questions regarding effectiveness continue to loom for school leaders, data on charter schools suggests that enrollment increases by 10% annually and that charter schools educate more than 2 million U.S. students across 40 states each year. Given the increasing share of U.S. students educated in charter schools, it is important to better understand possible differences in student achievement defined in multiple ways for students in charter schools and for those in Independent School District (ISD) settings in the state of Texas. Data were retrieved from the Texas Education Agency’s (TEA) repository that includes data organized annually and available on the TEA website. Specific data points and definitions of achievement were based on characterizations of achievement found in the relevant literature. Specific data points include but were not limited to graduation rate, student performance on standardized testing, and teacher-related factors such as experience and longevity in the district. Initial findings indicate some similarities with the current literature on long-term student achievement in English/Language Arts; however, the findings differ substantially from other recent research related to long-term student achievement in social studies. There are a number of interesting findings also related to differences between achievement for students in charters and ISDs and within different types of charter schools in Texas. In addition to findings, implications for leadership in different settings will be explored.

Keywords: charter schools, ISDs, student achievement, implications for PK-12 school leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2810 Analyzing the Perceived Relationship between Motivation and Satisfaction for Rural Tourists in a Digital World

Authors: N. P. Tsephe, S. D. Eyono Obono

Abstract:

Rural tourism is usually associated with rural development because it has strong linkages to rural resources; but it remains underdeveloped compared to urban tourism. This underdevelopment of rural tourism serves as a motivation for this study whose aim is to examine the factors affecting the perceived satisfaction of rural tourists. The objectives of this study are: to identify and design theories and models on rural tourism satisfaction, and to empirically validate these models and theories through a survey of tourists from the Malealea Lodge which is located in the Mafeteng District, in the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho. Data generated by the collection of questionnaires used by this survey was analyzed quantitatively using descriptive statistics and correlations in SPSS after checking the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire. The main hypothesis behind this study is the relationship between the demographics of rural tourists, the motivation, and their satisfaction of tourists, as supported by existing literature; except that motivation is measured in this study according to three dimensions: push factors, pull factors, and perceived usefulness of ICT's in the rural tourism experience. Findings from this study indicate that among the demographics factors, continent of origin and marital status influence the satisfaction of rural tourists; and their occupation affects their perceptions on the use of ICT's in rural tourism. Moreover, only pull factors were found to influence the satisfaction of rural tourists.

Keywords: digital world, motivation, rural tourism, satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
2809 Rural Sanitation in India: Special Context in the State of Odisa

Authors: Monalisha Ghosh, Asit Mohanty

Abstract:

The lack of sanitation increases living costs, decreases spend on education and nutrition, lowers income earning potential, and threatens safety and welfare. This is especially true for rural India. Only 32% of rural households have their own toilets and that less than half of Indian households have a toilet at home. Of the estimated billion people in the world who defecate in the open, more than half reside in rural India. It is empirically established that poor sanitation leads to high infant mortality rate and low income generation in rural India. In India, 1,600 children die every day before reaching their fifth birthday and 24% of girls drop out of school as the lack of basic sanitation. Above all, lack of sanitation is not a symptom of poverty but a major contributing factor. According to census 2011, 67.3% of the rural households in the country still did not have access to sanitation facilities. India’s sanitation deficit leads to losses worth roughly 6% of its gross domestic product (GDP) according to World Bank estimates by raising the disease burden in the country. The dropout rate for girl child is thirty percent in schools in rural areas because of lack of sanitation facilities for girl students. The productivity loss per skilled labors during a year is calculated at Rs.44, 160 in Odisha. The performance of the state of Odisha has not been satisfactory in improving sanitation facilities. The biggest challenge is triggering behavior change in vast section of rural population regarding need to use toilets. Another major challenge is funding and implementation for improvement of sanitation facility. In an environment of constrained economic resources, Public Private Partnership in form of performance based management or maintenance contract will be all the more relevant to improve the sanitation status in rural sector.

Keywords: rural sanitation, infant mortality rate, income, granger causality, pooled OLS method test public private partnership

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
2808 Net Zero Energy Schools: The Starting Block for the Canadian Energy Neutral K-12 Schools

Authors: Hamed Hakim, Roderic Archambault, Charles J. Kibert, Maryam Mirhadi Fard

Abstract:

Changes in the patterns of life in the late 20th and early 21st century have created new challenges for educational systems. Greening the physical environment of school buildings has emerged as a response to some of those challenges and led to the design of energy efficient K-12 school buildings. With the advancement in knowledge and technology, the successful construction of Net Zero Energy Schools, such as the Lady Bird Johnson Middle School demonstrates a cutting edge generation of sustainable schools, and solves the former challenge of attaining energy self-sufficient educational facilities. There are approximately twenty net zero energy K-12 schools in the U.S. of which about six are located in Climate Zone 5 and 6 based on ASHRAE climate zone classification. This paper aims to describe and analyze the current status of energy efficient and NZE schools in Canada. An attempt is made to study existing U.S. energy neutral strategies closest to the climate zones in Canada (zones 5 and 6) and identify the best practices for Canadian schools.

Keywords: Canada K-12 schools, green school, energy efficient, net-zero energy schools

Procedia PDF Downloads 267