Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7664

Search results for: role ambiguity

7664 The Effect of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Job Satisfaction on Auditor Performance

Authors: Binti Shofiatul Jannah, Hans Wakhida Rakhmatullah

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the influence of role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction on auditor performance. This study uses survey method using a questionnaire to collect the data. The questionnaires distributes were 104 respondents. The respondents are auditors who work for public accounting firms in East Java. Partial Least Square (PLS) with program SmartPLS version 2.0 were used to hypothesis testing. The result shows that: (1) there is no negative influence of role conflict on auditor performance; (2) there is negative influence of role ambiguity on auditor performance; (3) there is positive influence of job satisfaction on auditor performance.

Keywords: role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, performance

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7663 Differences in the Processing of Sentences with Lexical Ambiguity and Structural Ambiguity: An Experimental Study

Authors: Mariana T. Teixeira, Joana P. Luz

Abstract:

This paper is based on assumptions of psycholinguistics and investigates the processing of ambiguous sentences in Brazilian Portuguese. Specifically, it aims to verify if there is a difference in processing time between sentences with lexical ambiguity and sentences with structural (or syntactic) ambiguity. We hypothesize, based on the Garden Path Theory, that the two types of ambiguity entail different cognitive efforts, since sentences with structural ambiguity require that two structures be processed, whereas ambiguous phrases whose root of ambiguity is in a word require the processing of a single structure, which admits a variation of punctual meaning, within the scope of only one lexical item. In order to test this hypothesis, 25 undergraduate students, whose average age was 27.66 years, native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, performed a self-monitoring reading task of ambiguous sentences, which had lexical and structural ambiguity. The results suggest that unambiguous sentence processing is faster than ambiguous sentence processing, whether it has lexical or structural ambiguity. In addition, participants presented a mean reading time greater for sentences with syntactic ambiguity than for sentences with lexical ambiguity, evidencing a greater cognitive effort in sentence processing with structural ambiguity.

Keywords: Brazilian portuguese, lexical ambiguity, sentence processing, syntactic ambiguity

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7662 Neural Correlates of Decision-Making Under Ambiguity and Conflict

Authors: Helen Pushkarskaya, Michael Smithson, Jane E. Joseph, Christine Corbly, Ifat Levy

Abstract:

Studies of decision making under uncertainty generally focus on imprecise information about outcome probabilities (“ambiguity”). It is not clear, however, whether conflicting information about outcome probabilities affects decision making in the same manner as ambiguity does. Here we combine functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and a simple gamble design to study this question. In this design, the levels of ambiguity and conflict are parametrically varied, and ambiguity and conflict gambles are matched on both expected value and variance. Behaviorally, participants avoided conflict more than ambiguity, and attitudes toward ambiguity and conflict did not correlate across subjects. Neurally, regional brain activation was differentially modulated by ambiguity level and aversion to ambiguity and by conflict level and aversion to conflict. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the level of ambiguity and with ambiguity aversion, whereas activation in the ventral striatum was correlated with the level of conflict and with conflict aversion. This novel double dissociation indicates that decision makers process imprecise and conflicting information differently, a finding that has important implications for basic and clinical research.

Keywords: decision making, uncertainty, ambiguity, conflict, fMRI

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7661 Management Support, Role Ambiguity and Role Ambiguity among Professional Nurses at National Health Insurance Pilot Sites in South Africa: An Interpretive Phenomenology

Authors: Nomcebo N. Mpili, Cynthia Z. Madlabana

Abstract:

The South African Primary Health Care (PHC) system has undergone a number of transformations such as the introduction of National Health Insurance (NHI) to bring about easily accessible universal health coverage and to meet the health needs for all its citizens. This provides ongoing challenges to ensure that health workers are equipped with appropriate knowledge, support, and skills to meet these changes. Therefore it is crucial to understand the experiences and challenges of nurses as the backbone of PHC in providing quality healthcare services. In addition there has been a need to understand nurses’ experiences with management support, role ambiguity and role conflict amongst other challenges in light of the current reforms in healthcare. Indeed these constructs are notorious for having a detrimental impact on the outcomes of change initiatives within any organisation, this is no different in healthcare. This draws a discussion on professional nurses within the South African health care system especially since they have been labelled as the backbone of PHC, meaning any healthcare backlog falls on them. The study made use of semi-structured interviews and adopted the interpretative phenomenological approach (IPA) as the researcher aimed to explore the lived experiences of (n= 18) participants. The study discovered that professional nurses experienced a lack of management support within PHC facilities and that management mainly played an administrative and disciplinary role. Although participants mainly held positive perceptions with regards to changes happening in health care however they also expressed negative experiences in terms of how change initiatives were introduced resulting in role conflict and role ambiguity. Participants mentioned a shortage of staff, inadequate training as well as a lack of management support as some of the key challenges faced in facilities. This study offers unique findings as participants have not only experienced the various reforms within the PHC system however they have also been part of NHI pilot. The authors are not aware of any other studies published that examine management support, role conflict and role ambiguity together especially in South African PHC facilities. In conclusion understanding these challenges may provide insight and opportunities available to improve the current landscape of PHC not only in South Africa but internationally.

Keywords: management support, professional nurse, role ambiguity, role conflict

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7660 The Effect of Contextual Factors on Degree of Trust in Kuwaiti Business Organization

Authors: Ali Muhammad

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect of a number of contextual on the degree of trust within Kuwaiti business organizations. The model used in this study suggests that degree of trust within the organization is determined by four contextual variables, namely, centralization, formalization, role ambiguity, and procedural justice. Organizational trust refers to employee’ positive assumptions in regard to the goal and behaviors of other members in the organization according to organizational duties, relationships, experiences, and interrelatedness. According to the norm of reciprocity, individuals with high perceived organizational justice will be compelled to react positively to the organization in the form of higher degree of trust. The duty to exchange kindness for kindness. Based on the exchange theory, this research proposes that procedural justice, role clarity, and voice in the organization will lead to the perception of an organization’s discretionary positive treatment of employees and, in return enhances their trust in the organization. Survey data were collected from a sample of 206 employees working in Kuwaiti business organizations. Results of multiple regression analysis revealed that both organizational justice and formalization have positive effects on organizational trust. Furthermore, results indicate that lower degree of role ambiguity leads to higher degree of organizational trust. On the other hand, centralization was not found to have a significant effect on organizational trust. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: centralization, formalization, organizational justice, organizational trust, role ambiguity

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7659 The Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Tolerance of Ambiguity on EFL Learners’ Listening Proficiency

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi, Azam Ghonchepoor, Sheilan Sohrabi

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of foreign language classroom anxiety and ambiguity tolerance on EFL Learners’ listening proficiency. In so doing, 442 EFL learners were randomly selected form Azad University and some accredited language institutions in Hamaden, and were given the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (1983), and Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (SLTAS) (1995). Participants’ listening proficiency level was determined through listening scores gained in standardized exams given by university professors or institutes in which they studied English. The results of two-way ANOVA revealed that listening proficiency was significantly affected by the interaction of anxiety and AT level of the participants. Each of the two variables were categorized in three levels of High, Mid, and Low. The highest mean score of listening belonged to the group with low degree of anxiety and high degree of ambiguity tolerance, and the lowest listening mean score was gained by the group with high level of anxiety and low level of tolerance of ambiguity. Also, the findings of multiple regressions confirmed that anxiety was the stronger predictor of listening comprehension in contrast with tolerance of ambiguity. Furthermore, the result of Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant negative relationship between the participants’ foreign language classroom anxiety and their ambiguity tolerance level.

Keywords: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Second language tolerance of ambiguity, Listening proficiency

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7658 Syntactic Ambiguity and Syntactic Analysis: Transformational Grammar Approach

Authors: Olufemi Olupe

Abstract:

Within linguistics, various approaches have been adopted to the study of language. One of such approaches is the syntax. The syntax is an aspect of the grammar of the language which deals with how words are put together to form phrases and sentences and how such structures are interpreted in language. Ambiguity, which is also germane in this discourse is about the uncertainty of meaning as a result of the possibility of a phrase or sentence being understood and interpreted in more than one way. In the light of the above, this paper attempts a syntactic study of syntactic ambiguities in The English Language, using the Transformational Generative Grammar (TGG) Approach. In doing this, phrases and sentences were raised with each description followed by relevant analysis. Finding in the work reveals that ambiguity cannot always be disambiguated by the means of syntactic analysis alone without recourse to semantic interpretation. The further finding shows that some syntactical ambiguities structures cannot be analysed on two surface structures in spite of the fact that there are more than one deep structures. The paper concludes that in as much as ambiguity remains in language; it will continue to pose a problem of understanding to a second language learner. Users of English as a second language, must, however, make a conscious effort to avoid its usage to achieve effective communication.

Keywords: language, syntax, semantics, morphology, ambiguity

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7657 A Supervised Approach for Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Arabic Diacritics

Authors: Alaa Alrakaf, Sk. Md. Mizanur Rahman

Abstract:

Since the last two decades’ Arabic natural language processing (ANLP) has become increasingly much more important. One of the key issues related to ANLP is ambiguity. In Arabic language different pronunciation of one word may have a different meaning. Furthermore, ambiguity also has an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of Machine Translation (MT). The issue of ambiguity has limited the usefulness and accuracy of the translation from Arabic to English. The lack of Arabic resources makes ambiguity problem more complicated. Additionally, the orthographic level of representation cannot specify the exact meaning of the word. This paper looked at the diacritics of Arabic language and used them to disambiguate a word. The proposed approach of word sense disambiguation used Diacritizer application to Diacritize Arabic text then found the most accurate sense of an ambiguous word using Naïve Bayes Classifier. Our Experimental study proves that using Arabic Diacritics with Naïve Bayes Classifier enhances the accuracy of choosing the appropriate sense by 23% and also decreases the ambiguity in machine translation.

Keywords: Arabic natural language processing, machine learning, machine translation, Naive bayes classifier, word sense disambiguation

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7656 The Effect of Stress on Job Performance of Frontline Employees of Hotels: Reference to Star Class Hotels in North Central Province, Sri Lanka

Authors: W. M. M. Weerasooriya, K. T. N. P. Abeywickrama

Abstract:

There has been some research on stress in the hotel industry in Sri Lanka and elsewhere. Still, the amount is not proportionate to the severity of the issue. This paper examined the effect of stress on job performance of frontline employees of Sri Lankan hotel context. Duly completed 70 self-administered questionnaires filled by frontline employees of star class hotels in North Central Province in Sri Lanka were used for the purpose with a response rate of 70%. The researcher employed empirical analysis using statistical tools such as regression analysis of Pearson’s correlation of coefficient. It was found that there is a high level of workload and role ambiguity existing among the frontline employees of hotels located in North Central Province and existing role ambiguity significantly reduce the job performance of the frontline employees of star class hotels while the existing low level of physical work environment also leads to a low level of job performance.

Keywords: hotel front line employees, job stress, job performance, Sri Lanka

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7655 The Power of Inferences and Assumptions: Using a Humanities Education Approach to Help Students Learn to Think Critically

Authors: Randall E. Osborne

Abstract:

A four-step ‘humanities’ thought model has been used in an interdisciplinary course for almost two decades and has been proven to aid in student abilities to become more inclusive in their world view. Lack of tolerance for ambiguity can interfere with this progression so we developed an assignment that seems to have assisted students in developing more tolerance for ambiguity and, therefore, opened them up to make more progress on the critical thought model. A four-step critical thought model (built from a humanities education approach) is used in an interdisciplinary course on prejudice, discrimination, and hate in an effort to minimize egocentrism and promote sociocentrism in college students. A fundamental barrier to this progression is a lack of tolerance for ambiguity. The approach to the course is built on the assumption that Tolerance for Ambiguity (characterized by a dislike of uncertain, ambiguous or situations in which expected behaviors are uncertain, will like serve as a barrier (if tolerance is low) or facilitator (if tolerance is high) of active ‘engagement’ with assignments. Given that active engagement with course assignments would be necessary to promote an increase in critical thought and the degree of multicultural attitude change, tolerance for ambiguity inhibits critical thinking and, ultimately multicultural attitude change. As expected, those students showing the least amount of decrease (or even an increase) in intolerance across the semester, earned lower grades in the course than those students who showed a significant decrease in intolerance, t(1,19) = 4.659, p < .001. Students who demonstrated the most change in their Tolerance for Ambiguity (showed an increasing ability to tolerate ambiguity) earned the highest grades in the course. This is, especially, significant because faculty did not know student scores on this measure until after all assignments had been graded and course grades assigned. An assignment designed to assist students in making their assumption and inferences processes visible so they could be explored, was implemented with the goal of this exploration then promoting more tolerance for ambiguity, which, as already outlined, promotes critical thought. The assignment offers students two options and then requires them to explore what they have learned about inferences and/or assumptions This presentation outlines the assignment and demonstrates the humanities model, what students learn from particular assignments and how it fosters a change in Tolerance for Ambiguity which, serves as the foundational component of critical thinking.

Keywords: critical thinking, humanities education, sociocentrism, tolerance for ambiguity

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7654 Organisational Culture and the Role of the Mental Health Nurse: An Ethnography of the New Graduate Nurse Experience

Authors: Mary-Ellen Hooper, Graeme Browne, Anthony Paul O'Brien

Abstract:

Background: It has been reported that the experience of the organisational workplace culture for new graduate mental health nurses plays an important role in their attraction and retention to the discipline. Additionally, other research indicates that a negative workplace culture contributes to their dissatisfaction and attrition rate. Method: An ethnographic research design was applied to explore the subcultural experiences of new graduate nurses as they encounter mental health nursing. Data was collected between April and September 2017 across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units. Data comprised of semi-structured interviews (n=24) and 31 episodes of field observation (62 hours). A total number of 26 new graduate and recent graduate nurses participated in the study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduated nurses. Results: A key finding from this study was the New Graduate difficulty in articulating the role the of mental health nurse. Participants described a dichotomy between their ideological view of the mental health nurse and the reality of clinical practice. The participants’ ideological view of the mental health nurse involved providing holistic and individualised care within a flexible framework. Participants, however, described feeling powerless to change the recovery practices within the mental health service(s) because of their low status within the hierarchy. Resulting in participants choosing to fit into the existing culture, or considering leaving the field altogether. Conclusion: An incongruence between the values and ideals of an organisational culture and the reality shock of practice are shown to contribute to role ambiguity within its members. New graduate nurses entering the culture of mental health nursing describe role ambiguity resulting in dissatisfaction with practice. The culture and philosophy inherent to a service are posited to be crucial in creating positive experiences for graduate nurses.

Keywords: culture, mental health nurse, mental health nursing role, new graduate nurse

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7653 Attachment as a Predictor for Cognitive Rigidity

Authors: Barbara Gawda

Abstract:

Attachment model formed in childhood has an important impact on emotional development, personality, and social relationships. Attachment is also thought to have an impact on construction of affective-cognitive schemas and cognitive functioning. The aim of the current study was to verify whether there is an association between attachment and cognitive rigidity defined as dogmatism and intolerance of ambiguity. The analysis of 180 participants (persons of a similar age and education level, number of men and women was equal) was conducted. To test the attachment styles, the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory (ECR-R) was used. To examine cognitive rigidity, the Rokeach and Budner questionnaires were used. A multiple regression model was employed to examine whether attachment styles are predictors for dogmatism. The results confirmed that fearful-ambivalent attachment is the main predictor for dogmatism but not for intolerance of ambiguity.

Keywords: attachment styles, cognitive rigidity, dogmatism, intolerance of ambiguity

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7652 Study of the Ambiguity of Effective Hamiltonian for the Fundamental Degenerate States V3 of the Molecule 12CD4

Authors: Ouardi Okkacha, Kaarour Abedlkrim, Meskine Mohamed

Abstract:

The effective Hamiltonians are widely used in molecular spectroscopy for the interpretation of the vibration-rotation spectra. Their construction is an ambiguous procedure due to the existence of unitary transformations that change the effective Hamiltonian but do not change its eigenvalues. As a consequence of this ambiguity, it may happen that some parameters of effective Hamiltonians cannot be recovered from experimental data in a unique way. The type of admissible transformations which keeps the operator form of the effective Hamiltonian unaltered and the number of empirically determinable parameters strongly depend on the symmetry type of a molecule (asymmetric top, spherical top, and so on) and on the degeneracy of the vibrational state. In this work, we report the study of the ambiguity of effective Hamiltonian for the fundamental degenerate states v3 of the Molecule 12CD4.

Keywords: 12CD4, high-resolution infrared spectra, tetrahedral tensorial formalism, vibrational states, rovibrational line position analysis, XTDS, SPVIEW

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7651 Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguity Resolution in L2: the Role of Semantics

Authors: Hamideh Marefat, Eskandar Samadi

Abstract:

This study examined the effect of semantics on processing ambiguous sentences containing Relative Clauses (RCs) preceded by a complex Determiner Phrase (DP) by Persian-speaking learners of L2 English with different proficiency and Working Memory Capacities (WMCs). The semantic relationship studied was one between the subject of the main clause and one of the DPs in the complex DP to see if, as predicted by Spreading Activation Model, priming one of the DPs through this semantic manipulation affects the L2ers’ preference. The results of a task using Rapid Serial Visual Processing (time-controlled paradigm) showed that manipulation of the relationship between the subject of the main clause and one of the DPs in the complex DP preceding RC has no effect on the choice of the antecedent; rather, the L2ers' processing is guided by the phrase structure information. Moreover, while proficiency did not have any effect on the participants’ preferences, WMC brought about a difference in their preferences, with a DP1 preference by those with a low WMC. This finding supports the chunking hypothesis and the predicate proximity principle, which is the strategy also used by monolingual Persian speakers.

Keywords: semantics, relative clause processing, ambiguity resolution, proficiency, working memory capacity

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7650 Relationship between Perceived Level of Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Role Stress of Fire Fighters in Mumbai

Authors: Payal Maheshwari, Bansari Shah

Abstract:

The research aimed to study the level of emotional intelligence (EI) and organizational role stress (ORS) of fire-fighters and the relationship between the two variables. Hundred and twenty fire-fighters were selected from different fire stations of Mumbai by purposive sampling. The firefighters who had the basic training, a minimum experience of 2 years and had been on the field during a crisis situation were selected for the study. The firefighters selected ranged from 23-58 years of age, and the number of years of experience ranged from 2 to 33 years. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the firefighters perceived themselves to be at an above average (57) and high (58) level of EI (M=429.35, SD=38.712). Domain-wise analysis disclosed that compared to self-awareness (92) and relationship management (93), more number of participants perceived themselves in the high category in the domains of self-management (108) and social management (106). Further, examination of the subdomain scores conveyed that a large number of participants rated themselves in the average level of these skills of accurate self-assessment (50), emotional self-control (50), adaptability (56) initiative (41), influence (66), change catalyst (53), and conflict management (50). With relation to the stress variable, it was found that almost half the number of the participants (59) rated themselves as having an average level of stress (M=137.44, SD=28.800). In most of the domains, majority of the participants perceived themselves as having an average level of stress, while in the domain of role isolation, self-role distance, and role ambiguity, majority of the firefighters rated themselves as having a low level of stress. A strong negative correlation (r=-.360**, p=.000) was found between EI and ORS. This study is a contribution to the literature and has implications for fire-fighters at the personal level, for the policymakers, and the fire department.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, organizational role stress, firefighters, relationship

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7649 A Literature Review of Emotional Labor and Emotional Labor Strategies

Authors: Yeong-Gyeong Choi, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

This study, literature review research, intends to deal with the problem of conceptual ambiguity among research on emotional labor, and to look into the evolutionary trends and changing aspects of defining the concept of emotional labor. For this, it gropes for methods for reducing conceptual ambiguity. Further, it arranges the concept of emotional labor; and examines and reviews comparatively the currents of the existing studies and looks for the characteristics and correlations of their classification criteria. That is, this study intends to arrange systematically and examine theories on emotional labor suggested hitherto, and suggest a future direction of research on emotional labor on the basis thereof. In addition, it attempts to look for positive aspects of the results of emotional labor.

Keywords: emotion labor, dimensions of emotional labor, surface acting, deep acting

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7648 Implementation of Statistical Parameters to Form an Entropic Mathematical Models

Authors: Gurcharan Singh Buttar

Abstract:

It has been discovered that although these two areas, statistics, and information theory, are independent in their nature, they can be combined to create applications in multidisciplinary mathematics. This is due to the fact that where in the field of statistics, statistical parameters (measures) play an essential role in reference to the population (distribution) under investigation. Information measure is crucial in the study of ambiguity, assortment, and unpredictability present in an array of phenomena. The following communication is a link between the two, and it has been demonstrated that the well-known conventional statistical measures can be used as a measure of information.

Keywords: probability distribution, entropy, concavity, symmetry, variance, central tendency

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7647 An Improved Robust Algorithm Based on Cubature Kalman Filter for Single-Frequency Global Navigation Satellite System/Inertial Navigation Tightly Coupled System

Authors: Hao Wang, Shuguo Pan

Abstract:

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal received by the dynamic vehicle in the harsh environment will be frequently interfered with and blocked, which generates gross error affecting the positioning accuracy of the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation. Therefore, this paper put forward an improved robust Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) algorithm for single-frequency GNSS/INS tightly coupled system ambiguity resolution. Firstly, the dynamic model and measurement model of a single-frequency GNSS/INS tightly coupled system was established, and the method for GNSS integer ambiguity resolution with INS aided is studied. Then, we analyzed the influence of pseudo-range observation with gross error on GNSS/INS integrated positioning accuracy. To reduce the influence of outliers, this paper improved the CKF algorithm and realized an intelligent selection of robust strategies by judging the ill-conditioned matrix. Finally, a field navigation test was performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm based on the double-differenced solution mode. The experiment has proved the improved robust algorithm can greatly weaken the influence of separate, continuous, and hybrid observation anomalies for enhancing the reliability and accuracy of GNSS/INS tightly coupled navigation solutions.

Keywords: GNSS/INS integrated navigation, ambiguity resolution, Cubature Kalman filter, Robust algorithm

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7646 Upon Further Reflection: More on the History, Tripartite Role, and Challenges of the Professoriate

Authors: Jeffrey R. Mueller

Abstract:

This paper expands on the role of the professor by detailing the origins of the profession, adding some of the unique contributions of North American Universities, as well as some of the best practice recommendations, to the unique tripartite role of the professor. It describes current challenges to the profession including the ever-controversial student rating of professors. It continues with the significance of empowerment to the role of the professor. It concludes with a predictive prescription for the future of the professoriate and the role of the university-level educational administrator toward that end.

Keywords: professoriate history, tripartite role, challenges, empowerment, shared governance, administratization

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7645 A Case Study on Experiences of Clinical Preceptors in the Undergraduate Nursing Program

Authors: Jacqueline M. Dias, Amina A Khowaja

Abstract:

Clinical education is one of the most important components of a nursing curriculum as it develops the students’ cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills. Clinical teaching ensures the integration of knowledge into practice. As the numbers of students increase in the field of nursing coupled with the faculty shortage, clinical preceptors are the best choice to ensure student learning in the clinical settings. The clinical preceptor role has been introduced in the undergraduate nursing programme. In Pakistan, this role emerged due to a faculty shortage. Initially, two clinical preceptors were hired. This study will explore clinical preceptors views and experiences of precepting Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) students in an undergraduate program. A case study design was used. As case studies explore a single unit of study such as a person or very small number of subjects; the two clinical preceptors were fundamental to the study and served as a single case. Qualitative data were obtained through an iterative process using in depth interviews and written accounts from reflective journals that were kept by the clinical preceptors. The findings revealed that the clinical preceptors were dedicated to their roles and responsibilities. Another, key finding was that clinical preceptors’ prior knowledge and clinical experience were valuable assets to perform their role effectively. The clinical preceptors found their new role innovative and challenging; it was stressful at the same time. Findings also revealed that in the clinical agencies there were unclear expectations and role ambiguity. Furthermore, clinical preceptors had difficulty integrating theory into practice in the clinical area and they had difficulty in giving feedback to the students. Although this study is localized to one university, generalizations can be drawn from the results. The key findings indicate that the role of a clinical preceptor is demanding and stressful. Clinical preceptors need preparation prior to precepting students on clinicals. Also, institutional support is fundamental for their acceptance. This paper focuses on the views and experiences of clinical preceptors undertaking a newly established role and resonates with the literature. The following recommendations are drawn to strengthen the role of the clinical preceptors: A structured program for clinical preceptors is needed along with mentorship. Clinical preceptors should be provided with formal training in teaching and learning with emphasis on clinical teaching and giving feedback to students. Additionally, for improving integration of theory into practice, clinical modules should be provided ahead of the clinical. In spite of all the challenges, ten more clinical preceptors have been hired as the faculty shortage continues to persist.

Keywords: baccalaureate nursing education, clinical education, clinical preceptors, nursing curriculum

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7644 Evaluation of Teaching Team Stress Factors in Two Engineering Education Programs

Authors: Kari Bjorn

Abstract:

Team learning has been studied and modeled as double loop model and its variations. Also, metacognition has been suggested as a concept to describe the nature of team learning to be more than a simple sum of individual learning of the team members. Team learning has a positive correlation with both individual motivation of its members, as well as the collective factors within the team. Team learning of previously very independent members of two teaching teams is analyzed. Applied Science Universities are training future professionals with ever more diversified and multidisciplinary skills. The size of the units of teaching and learning are increasingly larger for several reasons. First, multi-disciplinary skill development requires more active learning and richer learning environments and learning experiences. This occurs on students teams. Secondly, teaching of multidisciplinary skills requires a multidisciplinary and team-based teaching from the teachers as well. Team formation phases have been identifies and widely accepted. Team role stress has been analyzed in project teams. Projects typically have a well-defined goal and organization. This paper explores team stress of two teacher teams in a parallel running two course units in engineering education. The first is an Industrial Automation Technology and the second is Development of Medical Devices. The courses have a separate student group, and they are in different campuses. Both are run in parallel within 8 week time. Both of them are taught by a group of four teachers with several years of teaching experience, but individually. The team role stress scale items - the survey is done to both teaching groups at the beginning of the course and at the end of the course. The inventory of questions covers the factors of ambiguity, conflict, quantitative role overload and qualitative role overload. Some comparison to the study on project teams can be drawn. Team development stage of the two teaching groups is different. Relating the team role stress factors to the development stage of the group can reveal the potential of management actions to promote team building and to understand the maturity of functional and well-established teams. Mature teams indicate higher job satisfaction and deliver higher performance. Especially, teaching teams who deliver highly intangible results of learning outcome are sensitive to issues in the job satisfaction and team conflicts. Because team teaching is increasing, the paper provides a review of the relevant theories and initial comparative and longitudinal results of the team role stress factors applied to teaching teams.

Keywords: engineering education, stress, team role, team teaching

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7643 Understanding Europe’s Role in the Area of Liberty, Security, and Justice as an International Actor

Authors: Barrere Sarah

Abstract:

The area of liberty, security, and justice within the European Union is still a work in progress. No one can deny that the EU struggles between a monistic and a dualist approach. The aim of our essay is to first review how the European law is perceived by the rest of the international scene. It will then discuss two main mechanisms at play: the interpretation of larger international treaties and the penal mechanisms of European law. Finally, it will help us understand the role of a penal Europe on the international scene with concrete examples. Special attention will be paid to cases that deal with fundamental rights as they represent an interesting case study in Europe and in the rest of the World. It could illustrate the aforementioned duality currently present in the Union’s interpretation of international public law. On the other hand, it will explore some specific European penal mechanism through mutual recognition and the European arrest warrant in the transnational criminality frame. Concerning the interpretation of the treaties, it will first, underline the ambiguity and the general nature of some treaties that leave the EU exposed to tension and misunderstanding then it will review the validity of an EU act (whether or not it is compatible with the rules of International law). Finally, it will focus on the most complete manifestation of liberty, security and justice through the principle of mutual recognition. Used initially in commercial matters, it has become “the cornerstone” of European construction. It will see how it is applied in judicial decisions (its main event and achieving success is via the European arrest warrant) and how European member states have managed to develop this cooperation.

Keywords: European penal law, international scene, liberty security and justice area, mutual recognition

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7642 Risk in the South African Sectional Title Industry: An Assurance Perspective

Authors: Leandi Steenkamp

Abstract:

The sectional title industry has been a part of the property landscape in South Africa for almost half a century, and plays a significant role in addressing the housing problem in the country. Stakeholders such as owners and investors in sectional title property are in most cases not directly involved in the management thereof, and place reliance on the audited annual financial statements of bodies corporate for decision-making purposes. Although the industry seems to be highly regulated, the legislation regarding accounting and auditing of sectional title is vague and ambiguous. Furthermore, there are no industry-specific auditing and accounting standards to guide accounting and auditing practitioners in performing their work and industry financial benchmarks are not readily available. In addition, financial pressure on sectional title schemes is often very high due to the fact that some owners exercise unrealistic pressure to keep monthly levies as low as possible. All these factors have an impact on the business risk as well as audit risk of bodies corporate. Very little academic research has been undertaken on the sectional title industry in South Africa from an accounting and auditing perspective. The aim of this paper is threefold: Firstly, to discuss the findings of a literature review on uncertainties, ambiguity and confusing aspects in current legislation regarding the audit of a sectional title property that may cause or increase audit and business risk. Secondly, empirical findings of risk-related aspects from the results of interviews with three groups of body corporate role-players will be discussed. The role-players were body corporate trustee chairpersons, body corporate managing agents and accounting and auditing practitioners of bodies corporate. Specific reference will be made to business risk and audit risk. Thirdly, practical recommendations will be made on possibilities of closing the audit expectation gap, and further research opportunities in this regard will be discussed.

Keywords: assurance, audit, audit risk, body corporate, corporate governance, sectional title

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7641 A Quantitative Evaluation of Text Feature Selection Methods

Authors: B. S. Harish, M. B. Revanasiddappa

Abstract:

Due to rapid growth of text documents in digital form, automated text classification has become an important research in the last two decades. The major challenge of text document representations are high dimension, sparsity, volume and semantics. Since the terms are only features that can be found in documents, selection of good terms (features) plays an very important role. In text classification, feature selection is a strategy that can be used to improve classification effectiveness, computational efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we present a quantitative analysis of most widely used feature selection (FS) methods, viz. Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (tfidf ), Mutual Information (MI), Information Gain (IG), CHISquare (x2), Term Frequency-Relevance Frequency (tfrf ), Term Strength (TS), Ambiguity Measure (AM) and Symbolic Feature Selection (SFS) to classify text documents. We evaluated all the feature selection methods on standard datasets like 20 Newsgroups, 4 University dataset and Reuters-21578.

Keywords: classifiers, feature selection, text classification

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7640 Delegation or Assignment: Registered Nurses’ Ambiguity in Interpreting Their Scope of Practice in Long Term Care Settings

Authors: D. Mulligan, D. Casey

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: Delegation is when a registered nurse (RN) transfers a task or activity that is normally within their scope of practice to another person (delegatee). RN delegation is common practice with unregistered staff, e.g., student nurses and health care assistants (HCAs). As the role of the HCA is increasingly embedded as a direct care and support role, especially in long-term residential care for older adults, there is RN uncertainty as to their role as a delegator. The assignment is when a task is transferred to a person that is within the role specification of the delegatee. RNs in long-term care (LTC) for older people are increasingly working in teams where there are less RNs and more HCAs providing direct care to the residents. The RN is responsible and accountable for their decision to delegate and assign tasks to HCAs. In an interpretive, multiple case studies to explore how delegation of tasks by RNs to HCAs occurred in long-term care settings in Ireland the importance of the RN understanding their scope of practice emerged. Methodology: Focus group interviews and individual interviews were undertaken as part of a multiple case study. Both cases, anonymized as Case A and Case B, were within the public health service in Ireland. The case study sites were long-term care settings for older adults located in different social care divisions, and in different geographical areas. Four focus group interviews with staff nurses and three individual interviews with CNMs were undertaken. The interactive data analysis approach was the analytical framework used, with within-case and cross-case analysis. The theoretical lens of organizational role theory, applying the role episode model (REM), was used to understand, interpret, and explain the findings. Study Findings: RNs and CNMs understood the role of the nurse regulator and the scope of practice. RNs understood that the RN was accountable for the care and support provided to residents. However, RNs and CNM2s could not describe delegation in the context of their scope of practice. In both cases, the RNs did not have a standardized process for assessing HCA competence to undertake nursing tasks or interventions. RNs did not routinely supervise HCAs. Tasks were assigned and not delegated. There were differences between the cases in relation to understanding which nursing tasks required delegation. HCAs in Case A undertook clinical vital sign assessments and documentation. HCAs in Case B did not routinely undertake these activities. Delegation and assignment were influenced by the organizational factors, e.g., model of care, absence of delegation policies, inadequate RN education on delegation, and a lack of RN and HCA role clarity. Concluding Statement: Nurse staffing levels and skill mix in long-term care settings continue to change with more HCAs providing more direct care and support. With decreasing RN staffing levels RNs will be required to delegate and assign more direct care to HCAs. There is a requirement to distinguish between RN assignment and delegation at policy, regulation, and organizational levels.

Keywords: assignment, delegation, registered nurse, scope of practice

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7639 Place and Role of Corporate Governance in Japan

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

In a broad sense, corporate governance covers the organization of the control and management. The term is also used in a narrower sense, to refer to the relationship between shareholders, and the company’s board. There are a lot of discussions devoted to the understanding of the corporate governance role and its principles. In this paper, we are going to describe the definition of corporate governance as a control system and its principles, and find the role of corporate governance and its pillars. Finally, we are going to drop the theoretical study on the case of Japan.

Keywords: corporate governance, place, role, Japan

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7638 The Quality of Business Relationships in the Tourism System: An Imaginary Organisation Approach

Authors: Armando Luis Vieira, Carlos Costa, Arthur Araújo

Abstract:

The tourism system is viewable as a network of relationships amongst business partners where the success of each actor will ultimately be determined by the success of the whole network. Especially since the publication of Gümmesson’s (1996) ‘theory of imaginary organisations’, which suggests that organisational effectiveness largely depends on managing relationships and sharing resources and activities, relationship quality (RQ) has been increasingly recognised as a main source of value creation and competitive advantage. However, there is still ambiguity around this topic, and managers and researchers have been recurrently reporting the need to better understand and capitalise on the quality of interactions with business partners. This research aims at testing an RQ model from a relational, imaginary organisation’s approach. Two mail surveys provide the perceptions of 725 hotel representatives about their business relationships with tour operators, and 1,224 corporate client representatives about their business relationships with hotels (21.9 % and 38.8 % response rate, respectively). The analysis contributes to enhance our understanding on the linkages between RQ and its determinants, and identifies the role of their dimensions. Structural equation modelling results highlight trust as the dominant dimension, the crucial role of commitment and satisfaction, and suggest customer orientation as complementary building block. Findings also emphasise problem solving behaviour and selling orientation as the most relevant dimensions of customer orientation. The comparison of the two ‘dyads’ deepens the discussion and enriches the suggested theoretical and managerial guidelines concerning the contribution of quality relationships to business performance.

Keywords: corporate clients, destination competitiveness, hotels, relationship quality, structural equations modelling, tour operators

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7637 Exploring the Power of Words: Domesticating the Competence/Competency Concept in Ugandan Organisations

Authors: John C. Munene, Florence Nansubuga

Abstract:

The study set out to examine a number of theories that have directly or indirectly implied that words are potent but that the potency depends on the context or practice in which they are utilised. The theories include the Freudian theory of Cathexis, which directly suggests that ambiguous events when named become potent as well as the word that is used to name them. We briefly examine Psychological differentiation, which submit that ambiguity is often a result of failure to distinguish figure from ground. The investigate Prospecting Theory, which suggests that in a situation when people have to make decisions, they have options to utilise intuition or reasoned judgment. It suggests that more often than not, the tendency is to utilise intuition especially when generic heuristics such as representativeness and similarity are available. That usage of these heuristics may depend on lack of a salience or accessibility of the situation due to ambiguity. We also examine Activity Theory, which proposes that meaning of words emerge directly and dialectically from the activities in which they are used. The paper argues that the power of words will depend on either or all of the theories mentioned above. To examine this general proposition we test the utilization of a generic competence framework in a local setting. The assumption is that generic frameworks are inherently ambiguous and lack the potency normally associated with the competence concept in the management of human resources. A number of case studies provide initial supporting evidence for the general proposition.

Keywords: competence, meaning, operationalisation, power of words

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7636 Combined Civilian and Military Disaster Response: A Critical Analysis of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Relief Effort

Authors: Matthew Arnaouti, Michael Baird, Gabrielle Cahill, Tamara Worlton, Michelle Joseph

Abstract:

Introduction: Over ten years after the 7.0 magnitude Earthquake struck the capital of Haiti, impacting over three million people and leading to the deaths of over two hundred thousand, the multinational humanitarian response remains the largest disaster relief effort to date. This study critically evaluates the multi-sector and multinational disaster response to the Earthquake, looking at how the lessons learned from this analysis can be applied to future disaster response efforts. We put particular emphasis on assessing the interaction between civilian and military sectors during this humanitarian relief effort, with the hopes of highlighting how concrete guidelines are essential to improve future responses. Methods: An extensive scoping review of the relevant literature was conducted - where library scientists conducted reproducible, verified systematic searches of multiple databases. Grey literature and hand searches were utilised to identify additional unclassified military documents, for inclusion in the study. More than 100 documents were included for data extraction and analysis. Key domains were identified, these included: Humanitarian and Military Response, Communication, Coordination, Resources, Needs Assessment and Pre-Existing Policy. Corresponding information and lessons-learned pertaining to these domains was then extracted - detailing the barriers and facilitators to an effective response. Results: Multiple themes were noted which stratified all identified domains - including the lack of adequate pre-existing policy, as well as extensive ambiguity of actors’ roles. This ambiguity was continually influenced by the complex role the United States military played in the disaster response. At a deeper level, the effects of neo-colonialism and concern about infringements on Haitian sovereignty played a substantial role at all levels: setting the pre-existing conditions and determining the redevelopment efforts that followed. Furthermore, external factors significantly impacted the response, particularly the loss of life within the political and security sectors. This was compounded by the destruction of important infrastructure systems - particularly electricity supplies and telecommunication networks, as well as air and seaport capabilities. Conclusions: This study stands as one of the first and most comprehensive evaluations, systematically analysing the civilian and military response - including their collaborative efforts. This study offers vital information for improving future combined responses and provides a significant opportunity for advancing knowledge in disaster relief efforts - which remains a more pressing issue than ever. The categories and domains formulated serve to highlight interdependent factors that should be applied in future disaster responses, with significant potential to aid the effective performance of humanitarian actors. Further studies will be grounded in these findings, particularly the need for greater inclusion of the Haitian perspective in the literature, through additional qualitative research studies.

Keywords: civilian and military collaboration, combined response, disaster, disaster response, earthquake, Haiti, humanitarian response

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7635 Attitudes Towards the Supernatural in Benjamin Britten’s The Turn of the Screw

Authors: Yaou Zhang

Abstract:

Background: Relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to the production of Benjamin Britten’s chamber opera The Turn of the Screw. As one of Britten’s most remarkable operas. The story of the libretto was from Henry James’s novella of the same name. The novella was created in 1898 and one of the primary questions addressed to people in the story is “how real the ghosts are,” which leads the story to a huge ambiguity in readers’ minds. Aims: This research focuses on the experience of seeing the opera on stage over several decades. This study of opera productions over time not only provides insight into how stage performances can alter audience members' perceptions of the opera in the present but also reveals a landscape of shifting aesthetics and receptions. Methods: To examine the hypotheses in interpretation and reception, the qualitative analysis is used to examine the figures of ghosts in different productions across the time from 1954 to 2021 in the UK: by accessing recordings, newspapers, and reviews for the productions that are sourced from online and physical archives. For instance, the field research is conducted on the topic by arranging interviews with the creative team and visiting Opera North in Leeds and Britten-Pears Foundation. The collected data reveals the “hidden identity” in creative teams’ interpretations, social preferences, and rediscover that have previously remained unseen. Results: This research presents an angle of Britten’s Screw by using the third position; it shows how the attention moved from the stage of “do the ghosts really exist” to “traumatised children.” Discussion: Critics and audiences have debated whether the governess hallucinates the ghosts in the opera for decades. While, in recent years, directors of new productions have given themselves the opportunity to go deeper into Britten's musical structure and offer the opera more space to be interpreted, rather than debating if "ghosts actually exist" or "the psychological problems of the governess." One can consider and reflect that the questionable actions of the children are because they are suffering from trauma, whether the trauma comes from the ghosts, the hallucinating governess, or some prior experiences: various interpretations cause one result that children are the recipients of trauma. Arguably, the role of the supernatural is neither simply one of the elements of a ghost story nor simply one of the parts of the ambiguity between the supernatural and the hallucination of the governess; rather, the ghosts and the hallucinating governess can exist at the same time - the combination of the supernatural’s and the governess’s behaviours on stage generates a sharper and more serious angle that draws our attention to the traumatized children.

Keywords: benjamin britten, chamber opera, production, reception, staging, the turn of the screw

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