Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10091

Search results for: robotic foot design

10091 The Design and Development of Foot Massage Plate from Coconut Shell

Authors: Chananchida Yuktirat, Nichanant Sermsri

Abstract:

The objectives of this research were to design and develop foot massage plate from coconut shell. The research investigated on the satisfaction of the users on the developed foot massage plate on 4 aspects; usage, practical in use, safety, and materials & production process. The sample group included 64 people joining the service at Wat Paitan Health Center, Bangkok. The samples were randomly tried on the massage plate and evaluated according to the 4 aspects. The data were analyzed to find mean, percentage, and standard deviation. The result showed that the overall satisfaction was at good level (mean = 3.80). When considering in details, it was found that the subjects reported their highest satisfaction on the practical usage (mean = 4.16), followed by safety (mean = 3.82); then, materials and production process (mean = 3.78). The least satisfaction aspect was on function and usage (mean = 3.45) or moderate level.

Keywords: coconut shell, design, foot massage, foot massage plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
10090 Dynamic Foot Pressure Measurement System Using Optical Sensors

Authors: Tanapon Keatsamarn, Chuchart Pintavirooj

Abstract:

Foot pressure measurement provides necessary information for diagnosis diseases, foot insole design, disorder prevention and other application. In this paper, dynamic foot pressure measurement is presented for pressure measuring with high resolution and accuracy. The dynamic foot pressure measurement system consists of hardware and software system. The hardware system uses a transparent acrylic plate and uses steel as the base. The glossy white paper is placed on the top of the transparent acrylic plate and covering with a black acrylic on the system to block external light. Lighting from LED strip entering around the transparent acrylic plate. The optical sensors, the digital cameras, are underneath the acrylic plate facing upwards. They have connected with software system to process and record foot pressure video in avi file. Visual Studio 2017 is used for software system using OpenCV library.

Keywords: foot, foot pressure, image processing, optical sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
10089 Bio-Mimetic Foot Design for Legged Locomotion over Unstructured Terrain

Authors: Hannah Kolano, Paul Nadan, Jeremy Ryan, Sophia Nielsen

Abstract:

The hooves of goats and other ruminants, or the family Ruminantia, are uniquely structured to adapt to rough terrain. Their hooves possess a hard outer shell and a soft interior that allow them to both conform to uneven surfaces and hook onto prominent features. In an effort to apply this unique mechanism to a robotics context, artificial feet for a hexapedal robot have been designed based on the hooves of ruminants to improve the robot’s ability to traverse unstructured environments such as those found on a rocky planet or asteroid, as well as in earth-based environments such as rubble, caves, and mountainous regions. The feet were manufactured using a combination of 3D printing and polyurethane casting techniques and attached to a commercially available hexapedal robot. The robot was programmed with a terrain-adaptive gait and proved capable of traversing a variety of uneven surfaces and inclines. This development of more adaptable robotic feet allows legged robots to operate in a wider range of environments and expands their possible applications.

Keywords: biomimicry, legged locomotion, robotic foot design, ruminant feet, unstructured terrain navigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
10088 A Robust System for Foot Arch Type Classification from Static Foot Pressure Distribution Data Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors: R. Periyasamy, Deepak Joshi, Sneh Anand

Abstract:

Foot posture assessment is important to evaluate foot type, causing gait and postural defects in all age groups. Although different methods are used for classification of foot arch type in clinical/research examination, there is no clear approach for selecting the most appropriate measurement system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a system for evaluation of foot type as clinical decision-making aids for diagnosis of flat and normal arch based on the Arch Index (AI) and foot pressure distribution parameter - Power Ratio (PR) data. The accuracy of the system was evaluated for 27 subjects with age ranging from 24 to 65 years. Foot area measurements (hind foot, mid foot, and forefoot) were acquired simultaneously from foot pressure intensity image using portable PedoPowerGraph system and analysis of the image in frequency domain to obtain foot pressure distribution parameter - PR data. From our results, we obtain 100% classification accuracy of normal and flat foot by using the linear discriminant analysis method. We observe there is no misclassification of foot types because of incorporating foot pressure distribution data instead of only arch index (AI). We found that the mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data and arch index (AI) value are well correlated to foot arch type based on visual analysis. Therefore, this paper suggests that the proposed system is accurate and easy to determine foot arch type from arch index (AI), as well as incorporating mid-foot pressure distribution ratio data instead of physical area of contact. Hence, such computational tool based system can help the clinicians for assessment of foot structure and cross-check their diagnosis of flat foot from mid-foot pressure distribution.

Keywords: arch index, computational tool, static foot pressure intensity image, foot pressure distribution, linear discriminant analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
10087 Assessment of Knowledge and Practices of Diabetic Patients Regarding Diabetic Foot Care, in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reda Goweda, Mokhtar Shatla, Arawa Alzaidi, Arij Alzaidi, Bashair Aldhawani, Hibah Alharbi, Noran Sultan, Daniah Alnemari, Badr Rawa

Abstract:

Background: 20.5% of Saudis between 20 and 79 years are diabetics. Diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes. The incidence of non traumatic lower extremity amputations is at least 15 times greater in those with diabetes than non diabetics. Patient education is important to reduce lower extremity complications. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of the diabetic patients regarding foot care and diabetic foot complications. Methods: In Makkah hospitals, 350 diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were involved in this cross sectional study. Interviewing questionnaire and patients’ charts review were used to collect the data. Results: Mean age of patients was 53.0083±13.1 years, and mean duration of diabetes was 11.24±8.7 years. 35.1% had history of foot ulcer while 25.7% had ulcer on the time of interview. 11.7 % had history of amputation and 83.1% had numbness. 77.1 % examine their feet while 49.1% received foot care education and 34% read handouts on foot care. 34% walk around in bare feet. There is a significant statistical association between foot education, foot care practices, and diabetic foot ulcer (p-value < 0.022). Conclusion: Patient knowledge and practices regarding diabetic foot care is significantly associated with the reduction of diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: knowledge, practice, attitude, diabetes, foot, care

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
10086 Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System

Authors: M. S. Sreejith, Steffy Joy, Abhishesh Pal, Beom-Sahng Ryuh, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper an attempt has been made for the design of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM. In this library issuance system the previous potential readers’ authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also produces quality readers.

Keywords: GPS bsed based Robotic library, library management system, robotic library, Wi-Fi library

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
10085 Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation

Authors: Rakkrit Duangsoithong, Jermphiphut Jaruenpunyasak, Alba Garcia

Abstract:

The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.

Keywords: foot recognition, deep learning, knee rehabilitation, convolutional neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
10084 Cloud Points to Create an Innovative and Custom Ankle Foot Orthosis in CAD Environment

Authors: Y. Benabid, K. Benfriha, V. Rieuf, J. F. Omhover

Abstract:

This paper describes an approach to create custom concepts for innovative products; this approach describes relations between innovation tools and Computer Aided Design environment (use creativity session and design tools). A model for the design process is proposed and explored in order to describe the power tool used to create and ameliorate an innovative product all based upon a range of data (cloud points) in this study. Comparison between traditional method and innovative method we help to generate and put forward a new model of the design process in order to create a custom Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) in a CAD environment in order to ameliorate and controlling the motion. The custom concept needs big development in different environments; the relation between these environments is described. The results can help the surgeons in the upstream treatment phases. CAD models can be applied and accepted by professionals in the design and manufacture systems. This development is based on the anatomy of the population of North Africa.

Keywords: ankle foot orthosis, CAD, reverse engineering, sketch

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
10083 Empirical Study and Modelling of Three-Dimensional Pedestrian Flow in Railway Foot-Over-Bridge Stair

Authors: Ujjal Chattaraj, M. Raviteja, Chaitanya Aemala

Abstract:

Over the years vehicular traffic has been given priority over pedestrian traffic. With the increase of population in cities, pedestrian traffic is increasing day by day. Pedestrian safety has become a matter of concern for the Traffic Engineers. Pedestrian comfort is primary important for the Engineers who design different pedestrian facilities. Pedestrian comfort and safety can be measured in terms of different level of service (LOS) of the facilities. In this study video data on pedestrian movement have been collected from different railway foot over bridges (FOB) in India. The level of service of those facilities has been analyzed. A cellular automata based model has been formulated to mimic the route choice behaviour of the pedestrians on the foot over bridges.

Keywords: cellular automata model, foot over bridge, level of service, pedestrian

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
10082 Stature and Gender Estimation Using Foot Measurements in South Indian Population

Authors: Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Mehak Bhandary, Sowmya J. Rao

Abstract:

Introduction: The significance of the human foot and its measurements in identifying an individual has been proved a lot of times by different studies in different geographical areas and its association to the stature and gender of the individual has been justified by many researches. In our study we have used different foot measurements including the length, width, malleol height and navicular height for establishing its association to stature and gender and to find out its accuracy. The purpose of this study is to show the relation of foot measurements with stature and gender, and to derive Multiple and Logistic regression equations for stature and gender estimation in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: The subjects for this study were 200 South Indian students out of which 100 were females and 100 were males, aged between 18 to 24 years. The data for the present study included the stature, foot length, foot breath, foot malleol height, foot navicular height of both right and left foot. Descriptive statistics, T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were derived between stature, gender and foot measurements. The stature was estimated from right and left foot measurements for both male and female South Indian population using multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis for gender estimation. Results: The means, standard deviation, stature, right and left foot measurements and T-test in male population were higher than in females. LFL (Left foot length) is more than RFL (Right Foot length) in male groups, but in female groups the length of both foot are almost equal [RFL=226.6, LFL=227.1]. There is not much of difference in means of RFW (Right foot width) and LFW (Left foot width) in both the genders. Significant difference were seen in mean values of malleol and navicular height of right and left feet in male gender. No such difference was seen in female subjects. Conclusions: The study has successfully demonstrated the correlation of foot length in stature estimation in all the three study groups in both right and left foot. Next in parameters are Foot width and malleol height in estimating stature among male and female groups. Navicular height of both right and left foot showed poor relationship with stature estimation in both male and female groups. Multiple regression equations for both right and left foot measurements to estimate stature were derived with standard error ranging from 11-12 cm in males and 10-11 cm in females. The SEE was 5.8 when both male and female groups were pooled together. The logistic regression model which was derived to determine gender showed 85% accuracy and 92.5% accuracy using right and left foot measurements respectively. We believe that stature and gender can be estimated with foot measurements in South Indian population.

Keywords: foot length, gender, stature, South Indian

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
10081 Multi-Tooled Robotic Hand for Tele-Operation of Explosive Devices

Authors: Faik Derya Ince, Ugur Topgul, Alp Gunay, Can Bayoglu, Dante J. Dorantes-Gonzalez

Abstract:

Explosive attacks are arguably the most lethal threat that may occur in terrorist attacks. In order to counteract this issue, explosive ordnance disposal operators put their lives on the line to dispose of a possible improvised explosive device. Robots can make the disposal process more accurately and saving human lives. For this purpose, there is a demand for more accurate and dexterous manipulating robotic hands that can be teleoperated from a distance. The aim of this project is to design a robotic hand that contains two active and two passive DOF for each finger, as well as a minimum set of tools for mechanical cutting and screw driving within the same robotic hand. Both hand and toolset, are teleoperated from a distance from a haptic robotic glove in order to manipulate dangerous objects such as improvised explosive devices. SolidWorks® Computer-Aided Design, computerized dynamic simulation, and MATLAB® kinematic and static analysis were used for the robotic hand and toolset design. Novel, dexterous and robust solutions for the fingers were obtained, and six servo motors are used in total to remotely control the multi-tooled robotic hand. This project is still undergoing and presents currents results. Future research steps are also presented.

Keywords: Explosive Manipulation, Robotic Hand, Tele-Operation, Tool Integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
10080 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu

Abstract:

The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
10079 Foot Self-Monitoring Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Related Factors among Diabetic Patients: A Descriptive and Correlational Study in a Taiwan Teaching Hospital

Authors: Li-Ching Lin, Yu-Tzu Dai

Abstract:

Recurrent foot ulcers or foot amputation have a major impact on patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), medical professionals, and society. A critical procedure for foot care is foot self-monitoring. Medical professionals’ understanding of patients’ foot self-monitoring knowledge, attitude, and practice is beneficial for raising patients’ disease awareness. This study investigated these and related factors among patients with DM through a descriptive study of the correlations. A scale for measuring the foot self-monitoring knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients with DM was used. Purposive sampling was adopted, and 100 samples were collected from the respondents’ self-reports or from interviews. The statistical methods employed were an independent-sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multivariate regression analysis. The findings were as follows: the respondents scored an average of 12.97 on foot self-monitoring knowledge, and the correct answer rate was 68.26%. The respondents performed relatively lower in foot health screenings and recording, and awareness of neuropathy in the foot. The respondents held a positive attitude toward self-monitoring their feet and a negative attitude toward having others check the soles of their feet. The respondents scored an average of 12.64 on foot self-monitoring practice. Their scores were lower in their frequency of self-monitoring their feet, recording their self-monitoring results, checking their pedal pulse, and examining if their soles were red immediately after taking off their shoes. Significant positive correlations were observed among foot self-monitoring knowledge, attitude, and practice. The correlation coefficient between self-monitoring knowledge and self-monitoring practice was 0.20, and that between self-monitoring attitude and self-monitoring practice was 0.44. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the main predictive factors of the foot self-monitoring practice in patients with DM were foot self-monitoring attitude, prior experience in foot care, and an educational attainment of college or higher. These factors predicted 33% of the variance. This study concludes that patients with DM lacked foot self-monitoring practice and advises that the patients’ self-monitoring abilities be evaluated first, including whether patients have poor eyesight, difficulties in bending forward due to obesity, and people who can assist them in self-monitoring. In addition, patient education should emphasize self-monitoring knowledge and practice, such as perceptions regarding the symptoms of foot neurovascular lesions, pulse monitoring methods, and new foot self-monitoring equipment. By doing so, new or recurring ulcers may be discovered in their early stages.

Keywords: diabetic foot, foot self-monitoring attitude, foot self-monitoring knowledge, foot self-monitoring practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
10078 Neural Network and Support Vector Machine for Prediction of Foot Disorders Based on Foot Analysis

Authors: Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Adel Khorramrouz, Lalenoor Morvarid, Bagheri Mahtab

Abstract:

Background:- Foot disorders are common in musculoskeletal problems. Plantar pressure distribution measurement is one the most important part of foot disorders diagnosis for quantitative analysis. However, the association of plantar pressure and foot disorders is not clear. With the growth of dataset and machine learning methods, the relationship between foot disorders and plantar pressures can be detected. Significance of the study:- The purpose of this study was to predict the probability of common foot disorders based on peak plantar pressure distribution and center of pressure during walking. Methodologies:- 2323 participants were assessed in a foot therapy clinic between 2015 and 2021. Foot disorders were diagnosed by an experienced physician and then they were asked to walk on a force plate scanner. After the data preprocessing, due to the difference in walking time and foot size, we normalized the samples based on time and foot size. Some of force plate variables were selected as input to a deep neural network (DNN), and the probability of any each foot disorder was measured. In next step, we used support vector machine (SVM) and run dataset for each foot disorder (classification of yes or no). We compared DNN and SVM for foot disorders prediction based on plantar pressure distributions and center of pressure. Findings:- The results demonstrated that the accuracy of deep learning architecture is sufficient for most clinical and research applications in the study population. In addition, the SVM approach has more accuracy for predictions, enabling applications for foot disorders diagnosis. The detection accuracy was 71% by the deep learning algorithm and 78% by the SVM algorithm. Moreover, when we worked with peak plantar pressure distribution, it was more accurate than center of pressure dataset. Conclusion:- Both algorithms- deep learning and SVM will help therapist and patients to improve the data pool and enhance foot disorders prediction with less expense and error after removing some restrictions properly.

Keywords: deep neural network, foot disorder, plantar pressure, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
10077 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

Abstract:

The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance, injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
10076 Functional Electrical Stimulator and Neuromuscular Electro Stimulator System Analysis for Foot Drop

Authors: Gül Fatma Türker, Hatice Akman

Abstract:

Portable muscle stimulators for real-time applications has first introduced by Liberson in 1961. Now these systems has been advanced. In this study, FES (Functional Electrical Stimulator) and NMES (Neuromuscular Electrostimulator) systems are analyzed through their hardware and their quality of life improvements for foot drop patients. FES and NMES systems are used for people whose leg muscles and leg neural connections are healty but not able to walk properly because of their injured central nervous system like spinal cord injuries. These systems are used to stimulate neurons or muscles by getting information from other movements and programming these stimulations to get natural walk and it is accepted as a rehabilitation method for the correction of drop foot. This systems support person to approach natural form of walking. Foot drop is characterized by steppage gait. It is a gait abnormality. This systems helps to person for plantar and dorse reflection movements which are hard to done for foot drop patients.

Keywords: FES, foot drop, NMES, stimulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
10075 Outcomes in New-Onset Diabetic Foot Ulcers Stratified by Etiology

Authors: Pedro Gomes, Lia Ferreira, Sofia Garcia, Jaime Babulal, Luís Costa, Luís Castelo, José Muras, Isabel Gonçalves, Rui Carvalho

Abstract:

Introduction: Foot ulcers and their complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the outcomes in terms of need for hospitalization, amputation, healing time and mortality in patients with new-onset diabetic foot ulcers in subgroups stratified by etiology. Methods: A retrospective study based on clinical assessment of patients presenting with new ulcers to a multidisciplinary diabetic foot consult during 2012. Outcomes were determined until September 2014, from hospital registers. Baseline clinical examination was done to classify ulcers as neuropathic, ischemic or neuroischemic. Results: 487 patients with new diabetic foot ulcers were observed; 36%, 15% and 49% of patients had neuropathic, ischemic and neuroischemic ulcers, respectively. For analysis, patients were classified as having predominantly neuropathic (36%) or ischemic foot (64%). The mean age was significantly higher in the group with ischemic foot (70±12 vs 63±12 years; p <0.001), as well as the duration of diabetes (18±10 vs 16 ± 10years, p <0.05). A history of previous amputation was also significantly higher in this group (24.7% vs 15.6%, p <0.05). The evolution of ischemic ulcers was significantly worse, with a greater need for hospitalization (27.2% vs 18%, p <0.05), amputation (11.5% vs 3.6% p <0.05) mainly major amputation (3% vs. 0%; p <0.001) and higher mean healing time (151 days vs 89 days, p <0.05). The mortality rate at 18 months, was also significantly higher in the ischemic foot group (7.3% vs 1.8%, p <0.05). Conclusions: All types of diabetic foot ulcers are associated with high morbidity and mortality, however, the presence of arterial disease confers a poor prognosis. Diabetic foot can be successfully treated only by the multidisciplinary team which can provide more comprehensive and integrated care.

Keywords: diabetes, foot ulcers, etiology, outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
10074 Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot: Upper Egypt Experience

Authors: Ali Kassem, Mohamed Alsenbasy, Ahmed Nagaah

Abstract:

Background: Diabetic foot is one of the often neglected complications of diabetes mellitus It was reported that patients of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) have considerable morbidity and mortality. Due to arterial abnormalities, diabetic neuropathy, as well as the tendency to delayed wound healing, foot infection and or gangrene is relatively common in diabetic patients. Foot related problems are responsible for up to 50% of diabetic related hospital admissions. Aim of work: The aim of the present study is to assess the risk factors for DFU in diabetic patients attending Sohag University Hospitals (Upper Egypt) Material and methods: The present study includes 100 diabetic foot patients attending the diabetic outpatient clinic of Sohag University Hospitals. For all of the studied patients the following were done: Full medical history and clinical examination; thorough foot examination; Laboratory tests including: Blood glucose level, HBA1c, serum lipids and renal function tests, ECG and Echocardiography, Doppler study on the lower limbs. Results: Sixty eight percent of the affected patients were males versus 32 % female patients. All male patients and none of the female were smoker. Seventy nine percent of patients were living in rural areas versus 14 % in urban areas. Duration of diabetes was more than 12 years in 74%, less than 12 years in 26% of patients. Fifty percent of patients have associated hypertension, 46% have dyslipidemia, 18% have ischemic heart disease or old myocardial infarction and 8% have impaired renal function. History of previous foot ulcers was reported in 11 % and foot amputation in 2% of patients. Conclusion: Male gender, low socioeconomic status, smoking, long duration of diabetes, other cardiovascular risk factors particularly hypertension and previous history of foot ulceration are the major risk factors for diabetic foot in our locality.

Keywords: diabetic foot, diabetic neuropathy, foot gangrene, risk factors for diabetic complications

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
10073 Correlation between Clinical Measurements of Static Foot Posture in Young Adults

Authors: Phornchanok Motantasut, Torkamol Hunsawong, Lugkana Mato, Wanida Donpunha

Abstract:

Identifying abnormal foot posture is important for prescribing appropriate management in patients with lower limb disorders and chronic non-specific low back pain. The normalized navicular height truncated (NNHt) and the foot posture index-6 (FPI-6) have been recommended as the common, simple, valid, and reliable static measures for clinical application. The NNHt is a single plane measure while the FPI-6 is a triple plane measure. At present, there is inadequate information about the correlation between the NNHt and the FPI-6 for categorizing foot posture that leads to a difficulty of choosing the appropriate assessment. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the correlation between the NNHt and the FPI-6 measures in adult participants with asymptomatic feet. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 47 asymptomatic individuals (23 males and 24 females) aged 28.89 ± 7.67 years with body mass index 21.73 ± 1.76 kg/m². The right foot was measured twice by the experienced rater using the NNHt and the FPI-6. A sequence of the measures was randomly arranged for each participant with a 10-minute rest between the tests. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship between the measures. Results: The mean NNHt score was 0.23 ± 0.04 (ranged from 0.15 to 0.36) and the mean FPI-6 score was 4.42 ± 4.36 (ranged from -6 to +11). The Pearson’s correlation coefficient among the NNHt score and the FPI-6 score was -0.872 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The present finding demonstrates the strong correlation between the NNHt and FPI-6 in adult feet and implies that both measures could be substituted for each other in identifying foot posture.

Keywords: foot posture index, foot type, measurement of foot posture, navicular height

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10072 Development of a Three-Dimensional-Flywheel Robotic System

Authors: Chung-Chun Hsiao, Yu-Kai, Ting, Kai-Yuan Liu, Pang-Wei Yen, Jia-Ying Tu

Abstract:

In this paper, a new design of spherical robotic system based on the concepts of gimbal structure and gyro dynamics is presented. Robots equipped with multiple wheels and complex steering mechanics may increase the weight and degrade the energy transmission efficiency. In addition, the wheeled and legged robots are relatively vulnerable to lateral impact and lack of lateral mobility. Therefore, the proposed robotic design uses a spherical shell as the main body for ground locomotion, instead of using wheel devices. Three spherical shells are structured in a similar way to a gimbal device and rotate like a gyro system. The design and mechanism of the proposed robotic system is introduced. In addition, preliminary results of the dynamic model based on the principles of planar rigid body kinematics and Lagrangian equation are included. Simulation results and rig construction are presented to verify the concepts.

Keywords: gyro, gimbal, lagrange equation, spherical robots

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
10071 Foot Self-Care Practices among Filipino Adults with Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Raya Kathreen T. Fuentes, Christian Owen P. Domingo, Kaisha V. Durana, Kristine Chelsea Shynne M. Evangelista, Nicole A. Feliciano, Kathleen Patricia Q. Ferido, Christianna Joy J. Ferrer

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a global public health concern. The foot ulcer is one of the most serious and costly complications of DM. Among the components of diabetes self-management (DSM), foot self-care was found to be one of the best preventive measures for foot ulcers yet is seldom performed. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine how adequate foot self-care practices (FSP) are among Filipino adults with DM with the following objectives: 1) determine their DSM, 2) describe their FSP, 3) determine the relationship between FSP and DSM, and 4) determine the relationship of FSP to sociodemographic characteristics, disease-related characteristics, social support, and knowledge. A descriptive correlational design was utilized. 114 respondents aged 19-65 were selected through purposive sampling from diabetes clinics. A self-administered questionnaire regarding FSP, DSM, sociodemographic and disease-related characteristics, social support, and knowledge on diabetes were used. Pearson's correlation was utilized to determine the relationship between FSP and DSM while simple linear regression was used to determine the relationship of FSP to the factors aforementioned. Results showed that majority of the respondents have desirable DSM but inadequate FSP. FSP and DSM were shown to be positively correlated but not statistically significant (p = 0.8). Disparity among the two suggests that there is less emphasis on foot self-care compared to other components of DSM. Findings further revealed that patients diagnosed with DM for < 5 years demonstrated more adequate FSP compared to patients diagnosed for > 5 years which may suggest that newly diagnosed patients are more receptive to new information about DSM. Health education on DSM should place more emphasis on FSP. Reiteration of health education and continuous motivation should be done to all DM patients, not just to newly diagnosed patients, to improve compliance to FSP and enhance patient empowerment regarding self-care.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetes self-management, foot self-care practices, foot ulcer

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
10070 A Convolution Neural Network Approach to Predict Pes-Planus Using Plantar Pressure Mapping Images

Authors: Adel Khorramrouz, Monireh Ahmadi Bani, Ehsan Norouzi, Morvarid Lalenoor

Abstract:

Background: Plantar pressure distribution measurement has been used for a long time to assess foot disorders. Plantar pressure is an important component affecting the foot and ankle function and Changes in plantar pressure distribution could indicate various foot and ankle disorders. Morphologic and mechanical properties of the foot may be important factors affecting the plantar pressure distribution. Accurate and early measurement may help to reduce the prevalence of pes planus. With recent developments in technology, new techniques such as machine learning have been used to assist clinicians in predicting patients with foot disorders. Significance of the study: This study proposes a neural network learning-based flat foot classification methodology using static foot pressure distribution. Methodologies: Data were collected from 895 patients who were referred to a foot clinic due to foot disorders. Patients with pes planus were labeled by an experienced physician based on clinical examination. Then all subjects (with and without pes planus) were evaluated for static plantar pressures distribution. Patients who were diagnosed with the flat foot in both feet were included in the study. In the next step, the leg length was normalized and the network was trained for plantar pressure mapping images. Findings: From a total of 895 image data, 581 were labeled as pes planus. A computational neural network (CNN) ran to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The prediction accuracy of the basic CNN-based model was performed and the prediction model was derived through the proposed methodology. In the basic CNN model, the training accuracy was 79.14%, and the test accuracy was 72.09%. Conclusion: This model can be easily and simply used by patients with pes planus and doctors to predict the classification of pes planus and prescreen for possible musculoskeletal disorders related to this condition. However, more models need to be considered and compared for higher accuracy.

Keywords: foot disorder, machine learning, neural network, pes planus

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
10069 Design of Reconfigurable Supernumerary Robotic Limb Based on Differential Actuated Joints

Authors: Qinghua Zhang, Yanhe Zhu, Xiang Zhao, Yeqin Yang, Hongwei Jing, Guoan Zhang, Jie Zhao

Abstract:

This paper presents a wearable reconfigurable supernumerary robotic limb with differential actuated joints, which is lightweight, compact and comfortable for the wearers. Compared to the existing supernumerary robotic limbs which mostly adopted series structure with large movement space but poor carrying capacity, a prototype with the series-parallel configuration to better adapt to different task requirements has been developed in this design. To achieve a compact structure, two kinds of cable-driven mechanical structures based on guide pulleys and differential actuated joints were designed. Moreover, two different tension devices were also designed to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the cable-driven transmission. The proposed device also employed self-designed bearings which greatly simplified the structure and reduced the cost.

Keywords: cable-driven, differential actuated joints, reconfigurable, supernumerary robotic limb

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
10068 Orthosis and Finite Elements: A Study for Development of New Designs through Additive Manufacturing

Authors: M. Volpini, D. Alves, A. Horta, M. Borges, P. Reis

Abstract:

The gait pattern in people that present motor limitations foment the demand for auxiliary locomotion devices. These artifacts for movement assistance vary according to its shape, size and functional features, following the clinical applications desired. Among the ortheses of lower limbs, the ankle-foot orthesis aims to improve the ability to walk in people with different neuromuscular limitations, although they do not always answer patients' expectations for their aesthetic and functional characteristics. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of using new design in additive manufacturer to reproduce the shape and functional features of a ankle-foot orthesis in an efficient and modern way. Therefore, this work presents a study about the performance of the mechanical forces through the analysis of finite elements in an ankle-foot orthesis. It will be demonstrated a study of distribution of the stress on the orthopedic device in orthostatism and during the movement in the course of patient's walk.

Keywords: additive manufacture, new designs, orthoses, finite elements

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10067 Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on First Ray Mobility Test and Sprint Time

Authors: Yu-Ju Tsai, Ching-Chun Wang, Wen-Tzu Tang, Huei-Ming Chai

Abstract:

A pronated foot is frequently associated with a hypermobile first ray, then developing further severe foot problems. Low-Dye taping with athletic tape has been widely used to restrict excessive first ray motion and re-build height of the medial longitudinal arch in general population with pronated foot. It is not the case, however, for sprinters since they feel too much restriction of foot motions. Currently, the kinesio tape, more elastic than the athletic tape, has been widely used to re-adjust joint positions. It was interesting whether modified low-Dye taping using kinesio tape was beneficial for altering first ray mobility and still giving enough arch support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modified low-Dye taping on first ray mobility test and 60-m sprint time for sprinters with pronated foot. The significance of this study provides new insight into a treatment alternative of modified low-Dye taping for sprinter with pronated foot. Ten young male sprinters, aged 20.8±1.6 years, with pronated foot were recruited for this study. The pronated foot was defined as the foot that the navicular drop test was greater than 1.0 cm. Three optic shutters were placed at the start, 30-m, and 60-m sites to record sprint time. All participants were asked to complete 3 trials of the 60-m dash with both taping and non-taping conditions in a random order. The low-Dye taping was applied using the method postulated by Ralph Dye in 1939 except the kinesio tape was used instead. All outcome variables were recorded for taping and non-taping conditions. Paired t-tests were used to analyze all outcome variables between 2 conditions. Although there were no statistically significant differences in dorsal and plantar mobility between taping and non-taping conditions, a statistical significance was found in a total range of motion (dorsiflexion plus plantarflexion angle) of the first ray when a modified low-Dye taping was applied (p < 0.05). Time to complete 60-m sprint was significantly increased with low-Dye taping (p < 0.05) while no significance was found for time to 30-m. it indicated that modified low-Dye taping changed maximum sprint speed of 60-m dash. Conclusively, modified low-Dye taping was capable of increasing first ray mobility and further altered maximum sprint speed.

Keywords: first ray mobility, kinesio taping, pronated foot, sprint time

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10066 Multi-objective Rationality Optimisation for Robotic-fabrication-oriented Free-form Timber Structure Morphology Design

Authors: Yiping Meng, Yiming Sun

Abstract:

The traditional construction industry is unable to meet the requirements for novel fabrication and construction. Automated construction and digital design have emerged as industry development trends that compensate for this shortcoming under the backdrop of Industrial Revolution 4.0. Benefitting from more flexible working space and more various end-effector tools compared to CNC methods, robot fabrication and construction techniques have been used in irregular architectural design. However, there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive design and optimisation workflow considering geometric form, material, and fabrication methods. This paper aims to propose a design optimisation workflow for improving the rationality of a free-form timber structure fabricated by the robotic arm. Firstly, the free-form surface is described by NURBS, while its structure is calculated using the finite element analysis method. Then, by considering the characteristics and limiting factors of robotic timber fabrication, strain energy and robustness are set as optimisation objectives to optimise structural morphology by gradient descent method. As a result, an optimised structure with axial force as the main force and uniform stress distribution is generated after the structure morphology optimisation process. With the decreased strain energy and the improved robustness, the generated structure's bearing capacity and mechanical properties have been enhanced. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimisation workflow for free-form timber structure morphology design.

Keywords: robotic fabrication, free-form timber structure, Multi-objective optimisation, Structural morphology, rational design

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
10065 Motion Performance Analyses and Trajectory Planning of the Movable Leg-Foot Lander

Authors: Shan Jia, Jinbao Chen, Jinhua Zhou, Jiacheng Qian

Abstract:

In response to the functional limitations of the fixed landers, those are to expand the detection range by the use of wheeled rovers with unavoidable path-repeatability in deep space exploration currently, a movable lander based on the leg-foot walking mechanism is presented. Firstly, a quadruped landing mechanism based on pushrod-damping is proposed. The configuration is of the bionic characteristics such as hip, knee and ankle joints, and the multi-function main/auxiliary buffers based on the crumple-energy absorption and screw-nut mechanism. Secondly, the workspace of the end of the leg-foot mechanism is solved by Monte Carlo method, and the key points on the desired trajectory of the end of the leg-foot mechanism are fitted by cubic spline curve. Finally, an optimal time-jerk trajectory based on weight coefficient is planned and analyzed by an adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA). The simulation results prove the rationality and stability of walking motion of the movable leg-foot lander in the star catalogue. In addition, this research can also provide a technical solution integrating of soft-landing, large-scale inspection and material transfer for future star catalogue exploration, and can even serve as the technical basis for developing the reusable landers.

Keywords: motion performance, trajectory planning, movable, leg-foot lander

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
10064 Effects of EMS on Foot Drop Associated with Grade III Wound: A Case Report

Authors: Mirza Obaid Baig, MaimoonaYaqub

Abstract:

A 51 year old lady; known case of diabetes mellitus, post wound debridement i.e. 4 open wounds of grade III presented to us with foot drop, with prominent sensory deficit over right lower leg/foot i.e. 0 on Nottingham scale for impaired sensation, marked pedal edema and 5/10 – 6/10 pain on VAS during day and night respectively, Wounds were poorly granulated and foul smelling. Physiotherapy sessions were planned including twice a day electrical muscle stimulation sessions, strategies to decrease edema and improve muscle action which resulted in noticeable improvement in motor and sensory ability, pain levels, edema and psychological status of patient. Thus, this study gives evidence of the effect of Electrical muscle stimulation in grade III open wounds associated with motor/sensory weakness post-surgery.

Keywords: EMS, foot drop, grade III wound, diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
10063 Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga

Abstract:

Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, kinematics, robotic arm, neural networks, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
10062 Embedded Hardware and Software Design of Omnidirectional Autonomous Robotic Platform Suitable for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Testing with Focus on Modularity and Safety

Authors: Ondrej Lufinka, Jan Kaderabek, Juraj Prstek, Jiri Skala, Kamil Kosturik

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of using Autonomous Robotic Platforms (ARP) for the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) testing in automotive. There are different possibilities of the testing already in development, and lately, the autonomous robotic platforms are beginning to be used more and more widely. Autonomous Robotic Platform discussed in this paper explores the hardware and software design possibilities related to the field of embedded systems. The paper focuses on its chapters on the introduction of the problem in general; then, it describes the proposed prototype concept and its principles from the embedded HW and SW point of view. It talks about the key features that can be used for the innovation of these platforms (e.g., modularity, omnidirectional movement, common and non-traditional sensors used for localization, synchronization of more platforms and cars together, or safety mechanisms). In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed as well.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, autonomous robotic platform, embedded systems, hardware, localization, modularity, multiple robots synchronization, omnidirectional movement, safety mechanisms, software

Procedia PDF Downloads 56