Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7859

Search results for: reservoir properties

7859 Reservoir Properties Effect on Estimating Initial Gas in Place Using Flowing Material Balance Method

Authors: Yousef S. Kh. S. Hashem

Abstract:

Accurate estimation of initial gas in place (IGIP) plays an important factor in the decision to develop a gas field. One of the methods that are available in the industry to estimate the IGIP is material balance. This method required that the well has to be shut-in while pressure is measured as it builds to average reservoir pressure. Since gas demand is high and shut-in well surveys are very expensive, flowing gas material balance (FGMB) is sometimes used instead of material balance. This work investigated the effect of reservoir properties (pressure, permeability, and reservoir size) on the estimation of IGIP when using FGMB. A gas reservoir simulator that accounts for friction loss, wellbore storage, and the non-Darcy effect was used to simulate 165 different possible causes (3 pressures, 5 reservoir sizes, and 11 permeabilities). Both tubing pressure and bottom-hole pressure were analyzed using FGMB. The results showed that the FGMB method is very sensitive for tied reservoirs (k < 10). Also, it showed which method is best to be used for different reservoir properties. This study can be used as a guideline for the application of the FGMB method.

Keywords: flowing material balance, gas reservoir, reserves, gas simulator

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7858 An Approach to Correlate the Statistical-Based Lorenz Method, as a Way of Measuring Heterogeneity, with Kozeny-Carman Equation

Authors: H. Khanfari, M. Johari Fard

Abstract:

Dealing with carbonate reservoirs can be mind-boggling for the reservoir engineers due to various digenetic processes that cause a variety of properties through the reservoir. A good estimation of the reservoir heterogeneity which is defined as the quality of variation in rock properties with location in a reservoir or formation, can better help modeling the reservoir and thus can offer better understanding of the behavior of that reservoir. Most of reservoirs are heterogeneous formations whose mineralogy, organic content, natural fractures, and other properties vary from place to place. Over years, reservoir engineers have tried to establish methods to describe the heterogeneity, because heterogeneity is important in modeling the reservoir flow and in well testing. Geological methods are used to describe the variations in the rock properties because of the similarities of environments in which different beds have deposited in. To illustrate the heterogeneity of a reservoir vertically, two methods are generally used in petroleum work: Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V) and Lorenz coefficient (L) that are reviewed briefly in this paper. The concept of Lorenz is based on statistics and has been used in petroleum from that point of view. In this paper, we correlated the statistical-based Lorenz method to a petroleum concept, i.e. Kozeny-Carman equation and derived the straight line plot of Lorenz graph for a homogeneous system. Finally, we applied the two methods on a heterogeneous field in South Iran and discussed each, separately, with numbers and figures. As expected, these methods show great departure from homogeneity. Therefore, for future investment, the reservoir needs to be treated carefully.

Keywords: carbonate reservoirs, heterogeneity, homogeneous system, Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V), Lorenz coefficient (L)

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7857 The Relationship between Lithological and Geomechanical Properties of Carbonate Rocks. Case study: Arab-D Reservoir Outcrop Carbonate, Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ammar Juma Abdlmutalib, Osman Abdullatif

Abstract:

Upper Jurrasic Arab-D Reservoir is considered as the largest oil reservoir in Saudi Arabia. The equivalent outcrop is exposed near Riyadh. The study investigates the relationships between lithofacies properties changes and geomechanical properties of Arab-D Reservoir in the outcrop scale. The methods used included integrated field observations and laboratory measurements. Schmidt Hammer Rebound Hardness, Point Load Index tests were carried out to estimate the strength of the samples, ultrasonic wave velocity test also was applied to measure P-wave, S-wave, and dynamic Poisson's ratio. Thin sections have been analyzed and described. The results show that there is a variation in geomechanical properties between the Arab-D member and Upper Jubaila Formation at outcrop scale, the change in texture or grain size has no or little effect on these properties. This is because of the clear effect of diagenesis which changes the strength of the samples. The result also shows the negative or inverse correlation between porosity and geomechanical properties. As for the strength, dolomitic mudstone and wackestone within Upper Jubaila Formation has higher Schmidt hammer values, wavy rippled sandy grainstone which is rich in quarts has the greater point load index values. While laminated mudstone and breccias, facies has lower strength. This emphasizes the role of mineral content in the geomechanical properties of Arab-D reservoir lithofacies.

Keywords: geomechanical properties, Arab-D reservoir, lithofacies changes, Poisson's ratio, diageneis

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
7856 Petrophysical Interpretation of Unconventional Shale Reservoir Naokelekan in Ajeel Oil-Gas Field

Authors: Abeer Tariq, Mohammed S. Aljawad, Khaldoun S. Alfarisi

Abstract:

This paper aimed to estimate the petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, and fluid saturation) of the Ajeel well (Aj-1) Shale reservoir. Petrophysical properties of the Naokelekan Formation at Ajeel field are determined from the interpretation of open hole log data of one well which penetrated the source rock reservoir. However, depending on these properties, it is possible to divide the Formation which has a thickness of approximately 28-34 m, into three lithological units: A is the upper unit (thickness about 9 to 13 m) consisting of dolomitized limestones; B is a middle unit (thickness about 13 to 20 m) which is composed of dolomitic limestone, and C is a lower unit (>22 m thick) which consists of shale-rich and dolomitic limestones. The results showed that the average formation water resistivity for the formation (Rw = 0.024), the average resistivity of the mud filtration (Rmf = 0.46), and the Archie parameters were determined by the picket plot method, where (m) value equal to 1.86, (n) value equal to 2 and (a) value equal to 1. Also, this reservoir proved to be economical for future developments to increase the production rate of the field by dealing with challenging reservoirs. In addition, Porosity values and water saturation Sw were calculated along with the depth of the composition using Interactive Petrophysics (IP) V4.5 software. The interpretation of the computer process (CPI) showed that the better porous zone holds the highest amount of hydrocarbons in the second and third zone. From the flow zone indicator FZI method, there are two rock types in the studied reservoir.

Keywords: petrophysical properties, porosity, permeability, ajeel field, Naokelekan formation, Jurassic sequences, carbonate reservoir, source rock

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7855 Failure Analysis of Khaliqabad Landslide along Mangla Reservoir Rim

Authors: Fatima Mehmood, Khalid Farooq

Abstract:

After the Mangla dam raising in 2010, the maximum reservoir impoundment level of 378.5 m SPD (Survey of Pakistan Datum) was achieved in September 2014. The reservoir drawdown was started on September 29, 2014 and a landslide occurred on Mirpur-Kotli Road near Khaliqabad on November 27, 2014. This landslide took place due to the failure of a slope along the reservoir rim. This study was undertaken to investigate the causative factors of Khaliqabad landslide. Site visits were carried out for recording the field observations and collection of the soil samples. The soil was subjected to different laboratory tests for the determination of index and engineering properties. The shear strength tests were performed at various levels of density and degrees of saturation. These soil parameters were used in an integrated SEEP-SLOPE/W analysis to obtain the drop in factor of safety with time and reservoir drawdown. The results showed the factor of safety dropped from 1.28 to 0.85 over a period of 60 days. The ultimate reduction in the shear strength of soil due to saturation with the simultaneous removal of the stabilizing effect of reservoir caused the disturbing forces to increase, and thus failure happened. The findings of this study can serve as a guideline for the modeling of the slopes experiencing rapid drawdown scenario with the consideration of more realistic distribution of soil moisture/ properties across the slope

Keywords: geotechnical investigation, landslide, reservoir drawdown, shear strength, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
7854 Architectural and Sedimentological Parameterization for Reservoir Quality of Miocene Onshore Sandstone, Borneo

Authors: Numair A. Siddiqui, Usman Muhammad, Manoj J. Mathew, Ramkumar M., Benjamin Sautter, Muhammad A. K. El-Ghali, David Menier, Shiqi Zhang

Abstract:

The sedimentological parameterization of shallow-marine siliciclastic reservoirs in terms of reservoir quality and heterogeneity from outcrop study can help improve the subsurface reservoir prediction. An architectural analysis has documented variations in sandstone geometry and rock properties within shallow-marine sandstone exposed in the Miocene Sandakan Formation of Sabah, Borneo. This study demonstrates reservoir sandstone quality assessment for subsurface rock evaluation, from well-exposed successions of the Sandakan Formation, Borneo, with which applicable analogues can be identified. The analyses were based on traditional conventional field investigation of outcrops, grain-size and petrographic studies of hand specimens of different sandstone facies and gamma-ray and permeability measurements. On the bases of these evaluations, the studied sandstone was grouped into three qualitative reservoir rock classes; high (Ø=18.10 – 43.60%; k=1265.20 – 5986.25 mD), moderate (Ø=17.60 – 37%; k=21.36 – 568 mD) and low quality (Ø=3.4 – 15.7%; k=3.21 – 201.30 mD) for visualization and prediction of subsurface reservoir quality. These results provided analogy for shallow marine sandstone reservoir complexity that can be utilized in the evaluation of reservoir quality of regional and subsurface analogues.

Keywords: architecture and sedimentology, subsurface rock evaluation, reservoir quality, borneo

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
7853 An Approach to Solving Some Inverse Problems for Parabolic Equations

Authors: Bolatbek Rysbaiuly, Aliya S. Azhibekova

Abstract:

Problems concerning the interpretation of the well testing results belong to the class of inverse problems of subsurface hydromechanics. The distinctive feature of such problems is that additional information is depending on the capabilities of oilfield experiments. Another factor that should not be overlooked is the existence of errors in the test data. To determine reservoir properties, some inverse problems for parabolic equations were investigated. An approach to solving the inverse problems based on the method of regularization is proposed.

Keywords: iterative approach, inverse problem, parabolic equation, reservoir properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
7852 Estimating CO₂ Storage Capacity under Geological Uncertainty Using 3D Geological Modeling of Unconventional Reservoir Rocks in Block nv32, Shenvsi Oilfield, China

Authors: Ayman Mutahar Alrassas, Shaoran Ren, Renyuan Ren, Hung Vo Thanh, Mohammed Hail Hakimi, Zhenliang Guan

Abstract:

The significant effect of CO₂ on global climate and the environment has gained more concern worldwide. Enhance oil recovery (EOR) associated with sequestration of CO₂ particularly into the depleted oil reservoir is considered the viable approach under financial limitations since it improves the oil recovery from the existing oil reservoir and boosts the relation between global-scale of CO₂ capture and geological sequestration. Consequently, practical measurements are required to attain large-scale CO₂ emission reduction. This paper presents an integrated modeling workflow to construct an accurate 3D reservoir geological model to estimate the storage capacity of CO₂ under geological uncertainty in an unconventional oil reservoir of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation (Es1) in the block Nv32, Shenvsi oilfield, China. In this regard, geophysical data, including well logs of twenty-two well locations and seismic data, were combined with geological and engineering data and used to construct a 3D reservoir geological modeling. The geological modeling focused on four tight reservoir units of the Shahejie Formation (Es1-x1, Es1-x2, Es1-x3, and Es1-x4). The validated 3D reservoir models were subsequently used to calculate the theoretical CO₂ storage capacity in the block Nv32, Shenvsi oilfield. Well logs were utilized to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, and lithofacies and indicate that the Es1 reservoir units are mainly sandstone, shale, and limestone with a proportion of 38.09%, 32.42%, and 29.49, respectively. Well log-based petrophysical results also show that the Es1 reservoir units generally exhibit 2–36% porosity, 0.017 mD to 974.8 mD permeability, and moderate to good net to gross ratios. These estimated values of porosity, permeability, lithofacies, and net to gross were up-scaled and distributed laterally using Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) and Simulation Sequential Indicator (SIS) methods to generate 3D reservoir geological models. The reservoir geological models show there are lateral heterogeneities of the reservoir properties and lithofacies, and the best reservoir rocks exist in the Es1-x4, Es1-x3, and Es1-x2 units, respectively. In addition, the reservoir volumetric of the Es1 units in block Nv32 was also estimated based on the petrophysical property models and fund to be between 0.554368

Keywords: CO₂ storage capacity, 3D geological model, geological uncertainty, unconventional oil reservoir, block Nv32

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7851 Wave Velocity-Rock Property Relationships in Shallow Marine Libyan Carbonate Reservoir

Authors: Tarek S. Duzan, Abdulaziz F. Ettir

Abstract:

Wave velocities, Core and Log petrophysical data were collected from recently drilled four new wells scattered through-out the Dahra/Jofra (PL-5) Reservoir. The collected data were analyzed for the relationships of Wave Velocities with rock property such as Porosity, permeability and Bulk Density. Lots of Literature review reveals a number of differing results and conclusions regarding wave velocities (Compressional Waves (Vp) and Shear Waves (Vs)) versus rock petrophysical property relationships, especially in carbonate reservoirs. In this paper, we focused on the relationships between wave velocities (Vp , Vs) and the ratio Vp/Vs with rock properties for shallow marine libyan carbonate reservoir (Real Case). Upon data analysis, a relationship between petrophysical properties and wave velocities (Vp, Vs) and the ratio Vp/Vs has been found. Porosity and bulk density properties have shown exponential relationship with wave velocities, while permeability has shown a power relationship in the interested zone. It is also clear that wave velocities (Vp , Vs) seems to be a good indicator for the lithology change with true vertical depth. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use the output relationships to predict porosity, bulk density and permeability of the similar reservoir type utilizing the most recent seismic data.

Keywords: conventional core analysis (porosity, permeability bulk density) data, VS wave and P-wave velocities, shallow carbonate reservoir in D/J field

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
7850 Reservoir Potential, Net Pay Zone and 3D Modeling of Cretaceous Clastic Reservoir in Eastern Sulieman Belt Pakistan

Authors: Hadayat Ullah, Pervez Khalid, Saad Ahmed Mashwani, Zaheer Abbasi, Mubashir Mehmood, Muhammad Jahangir, Ehsan ul Haq

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to explore subsurface structures through data that is acquired from the seismic survey to delineate the characteristics of the reservoir through petrophysical analysis. Ghazij Shale of Eocene age is regional seal rock in this field. In this research work, 3D property models of subsurface were prepared by applying Petrel software to identify various lithologies and reservoir fluids distribution throughout the field. The 3D static modeling shows a better distribution of the discrete and continuous properties in the field. This model helped to understand the reservoir properties and enhance production by selecting the best location for future drilling. A complete workflow is proposed for formation evaluation, electrofacies modeling, and structural interpretation of the subsurface geology. Based on the wireline logs, it is interpreted that the thickness of the Pab Sandstone varies from 250 m to 350 m in the entire study area. The sandstone is massive with high porosity and intercalated layers of shales. Faulted anticlinal structures are present in the study area, which are favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbon. 3D structural models and various seismic attribute models were prepared to analyze the reservoir character of this clastic reservoir. Based on wireline logs and seismic data, clean sand, shaly sand, and shale are marked as dominant facies in the study area. However, clean sand facies are more favorable to act as a potential net pay zone.

Keywords: cretaceous, pab sandstone, petrophysics, electrofacies, hydrocarbon

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7849 Numerical Simulation of Different Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Scenarios on a Volatile Oil Reservoir

Authors: Soheil Tavakolpour

Abstract:

Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) can be considered as an undeniable action in reservoirs life period. Different kind of EOR methods are available, but suitable EOR method depends on reservoir properties, like rock and fluid properties. In this paper, we nominated fifth SPE’s Comparative Solution Projects (CSP) for testing different scenarios. We used seven EOR scenarios for this reservoir and we simulated it for 10 years after 2 years production without any injection. The first scenario is waterflooding for whole of the 10 years period. The second scenario is gas injection for ten years. The third scenario is Water-Alternation-Gas (WAG). In the next scenario, water injected for 4 years before starting WAG injection for the next 6 years. In the fifth scenario, water injected after 6 years WAG injection for 4 years. For sixth and last scenarios, all the things are similar to fourth and fifth scenarios, but gas injected instead of water. Results show that fourth scenario was the most efficient method for 10 years EOR, but it resulted very high water production. Fifth scenario was efficient too, with little water production in comparison to the fourth scenario. Gas injection was not economically attractive. In addition to high gas production, it produced less oil in comparison to other scenarios.

Keywords: WAG, SPE’s comparative solution projects, numerical simulation, EOR scenarios

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
7848 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Reservoir for Dwell Time Prediction

Authors: Nitin Dewangan, Nitin Kattula, Megha Anawat

Abstract:

Hydraulic reservoir is the key component in the mobile construction vehicles; most of the off-road earth moving construction machinery requires bigger side hydraulic reservoirs. Their reservoir construction is very much non-uniform and designers used such design to utilize the space available under the vehicle. There is no way to find out the space utilization of the reservoir by oil and validity of design except virtual simulation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helps to predict the reservoir space utilization by vortex mapping, path line plots and dwell time prediction to make sure the design is valid and efficient for the vehicle. The dwell time acceptance criteria for effective reservoir design is 15 seconds. The paper will describe the hydraulic reservoir simulation which is carried out using CFD tool acuSolve using automated mesh strategy. The free surface flow and moving reference mesh is used to define the oil flow level inside the reservoir. The first baseline design is not able to meet the acceptance criteria, i.e., dwell time below 15 seconds because the oil entry and exit ports were very close. CFD is used to redefine the port locations for the reservoir so that oil dwell time increases in the reservoir. CFD also proposed baffle design the effective space utilization. The final design proposed through CFD analysis is used for physical validation on the machine.

Keywords: reservoir, turbulence model, transient model, level set, free-surface flow, moving frame of reference

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7847 A Strategy to Oil Production Placement Zones Based on Maximum Closeness

Authors: Waldir Roque, Gustavo Oliveira, Moises Santos, Tatiana Simoes

Abstract:

Increasing the oil recovery factor of an oil reservoir has been a concern of the oil industry. Usually, the production placement zones are defined after some analysis of geological and petrophysical parameters, being the rock porosity, permeability and oil saturation of fundamental importance. In this context, the determination of hydraulic flow units (HFUs) renders an important step in the process of reservoir characterization since it may provide specific regions in the reservoir with similar petrophysical and fluid flow properties and, in particular, techniques supporting the placement of production zones that favour the tracing of directional wells. A HFU is defined as a representative volume of a total reservoir rock in which petrophysical and fluid flow properties are internally consistent and predictably distinct of other reservoir rocks. Technically, a HFU is characterized as a rock region that exhibit flow zone indicator (FZI) points lying on a straight line of the unit slope. The goal of this paper is to provide a trustful indication for oil production placement zones for the best-fit HFUs. The FZI cloud of points can be obtained from the reservoir quality index (RQI), a function of effective porosity and permeability. Considering log and core data the HFUs are identified and using the discrete rock type (DRT) classification, a set of connected cell clusters can be found and by means a graph centrality metric, the maximum closeness (MaxC) cell is obtained for each cluster. Considering the MaxC cells as production zones, an extensive analysis, based on several oil recovery factor and oil cumulative production simulations were done for the SPE Model 2 and the UNISIM-I-D synthetic fields, where the later was build up from public data available from the actual Namorado Field, Campos Basin, in Brazil. The results have shown that the MaxC is actually technically feasible and very reliable as high performance production placement zones.

Keywords: hydraulic flow unit, maximum closeness centrality, oil production simulation, production placement zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
7846 A Study on the Influence of Aswan High Dam Reservoir Loading on Earthquake Activity

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy

Abstract:

Aswan High Dam Reservoir extends for 500 km along the Nile River; it is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It was created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam between 1958 and 1970; about 95% of the main water resources for Egypt are from it. The purpose of this study is to discuss and understand the effect of the fluctuation of the water level in the reservoir on natural and human-induced environmental like earthquakes in the Aswan area, Egypt. In summary, the correlation between the temporal variations of earthquake activity and water level changes in the Aswan reservoir from 1982 to 2014 are investigated and analyzed. This analysis confirms a weak relation between the fluctuation of the water level and earthquake activity in the area around Aswan reservoir. The result suggests that the seismicity in the area becomes active during a period when the water level is decreasing from the maximum to the minimum. Behavior of the water level in this reservoir characterized by a special manner that is the unloading season extends to July or August, and the loading season starts to reach its maximum in October or November every year. Finally, daily rate of change in the water level did not show any direct relation with the size of the earthquakes, hence, it is not possible to be used as a single tool for prediction.

Keywords: Aswan high dam reservoir, earthquake activity, environmental, Egypt

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7845 Performance Evaluation and Plugging Characteristics of Controllable Self-Aggregating Colloidal Particle Profile Control Agent

Authors: Zhiguo Yang, Xiangan Yue, Minglu Shao, Yue Yang, Rongjie Yan

Abstract:

It is difficult to realize deep profile control because of the small pore-throats and easy water channeling in low-permeability heterogeneous reservoir, and the traditional polymer microspheres have the contradiction between injection and plugging. In order to solve this contradiction, the controllable self-aggregating colloidal particles (CSA) containing amide groups on the surface of microspheres was prepared based on emulsion polymerization of styrene and acrylamide. The dispersed solution of CSA colloidal particles, whose particle size is much smaller than the diameter of pore-throats, was injected into the reservoir. When the microspheres migrated to the deep part of reservoir, , these CSA colloidal particles could automatically self-aggregate into large particle clusters under the action of the shielding agent and the control agent, so as to realize the plugging of the water channels. In this paper, the morphology, temperature resistance and self-aggregation properties of CSA microspheres were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and bottle test. The results showed that CSA microspheres exhibited heterogeneous core-shell structure, good dispersion, and outstanding thermal stability. The microspheres remain regular and uniform spheres at 100℃ after aging for 35 days. With the increase of the concentration of the cations, the self-aggregation time of CSA was gradually shortened, and the influence of bivalent cations was greater than that of monovalent cations. Core flooding experiments showed that CSA polymer microspheres have good injection properties, CSA particle clusters can effective plug the water channels and migrate to the deep part of the reservoir for profile control.

Keywords: heterogeneous reservoir, deep profile control, emulsion polymerization, colloidal particles, plugging characteristic

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7844 Production Optimization under Geological Uncertainty Using Distance-Based Clustering

Authors: Byeongcheol Kang, Junyi Kim, Hyungsik Jung, Hyungjun Yang, Jaewoo An, Jonggeun Choe

Abstract:

It is important to figure out reservoir properties for better production management. Due to the limited information, there are geological uncertainties on very heterogeneous or channel reservoir. One of the solutions is to generate multiple equi-probable realizations using geostatistical methods. However, some models have wrong properties, which need to be excluded for simulation efficiency and reliability. We propose a novel method of model selection scheme, based on distance-based clustering for reliable application of production optimization algorithm. Distance is defined as a degree of dissimilarity between the data. We calculate Hausdorff distance to classify the models based on their similarity. Hausdorff distance is useful for shape matching of the reservoir models. We use multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) to describe the models on two dimensional space and group them by K-means clustering. Rather than simulating all models, we choose one representative model from each cluster and find out the best model, which has the similar production rates with the true values. From the process, we can select good reservoir models near the best model with high confidence. We make 100 channel reservoir models using single normal equation simulation (SNESIM). Since oil and gas prefer to flow through the sand facies, it is critical to characterize pattern and connectivity of the channels in the reservoir. After calculating Hausdorff distances and projecting the models by MDS, we can see that the models assemble depending on their channel patterns. These channel distributions affect operation controls of each production well so that the model selection scheme improves management optimization process. We use one of useful global search algorithms, particle swarm optimization (PSO), for our production optimization. PSO is good to find global optimum of objective function, but it takes too much time due to its usage of many particles and iterations. In addition, if we use multiple reservoir models, the simulation time for PSO will be soared. By using the proposed method, we can select good and reliable models that already matches production data. Considering geological uncertainty of the reservoir, we can get well-optimized production controls for maximum net present value. The proposed method shows one of novel solutions to select good cases among the various probabilities. The model selection schemes can be applied to not only production optimization but also history matching or other ensemble-based methods for efficient simulations.

Keywords: distance-based clustering, geological uncertainty, particle swarm optimization (PSO), production optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
7843 Water Injection in order to Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Hooman Fallah, Fatemeh Karampour

Abstract:

Low salinity water (LSW) has been proved to be efficacious because of low cost and ability to change properties of reservoir rock and fluids and their interactions toward desired condition. These include change in capillary pressure, interfacial tension, wettability tendency, permeability and pore sizing. This enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method has been studied so far for evaluating capability of inducing recent mentioned parameters and the mechanisms of its operation and applicabi-lity in different fields. This study investigates the effect of three types of salts (including Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42-) on wettability and final oil recovery in labratory.

Keywords: low salinity water, smart water, wettability alteration, carbonated reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
7842 Study on Inverse Solution from Remote Displacements to Reservoir Process during Flow Injection

Authors: Sumei Cai, Hong Li

Abstract:

Either during water or gas injection into reservoir, in order to understand the areal flow pressure distribution underground, associated bounding deformation is prevalently monitored by ground or downhole tiltmeters. In this paper, an inverse solution to elastic response of far field displacements induced by reservoir pressure change due to flow injection was studied. Furthermore, the fundamental theory on inverse solution to elastic problem as well as its spatial smoothing approach is presented. Taking advantage of source code development based on Boundary Element Method, numerical analysis on the monitoring data of ground surface displacements to further understand the behavior of reservoir process was developed. Numerical examples were also conducted to verify the effectiveness.

Keywords: remote displacement, inverse problem, boundary element method, BEM, reservoir process

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
7841 Estimation of Reservoir Capacity and Sediment Deposition Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Odai Ibrahim Mohammed Al Balasmeh, Tapas Karmaker, Richa Babbar

Abstract:

In this study, the reservoir capacity and sediment deposition were estimated using remote sensing data. The satellite images were synchronized with water level and storage capacity to find out the change in sediment deposition due to soil erosion and transport by streamflow. The water bodies spread area was estimated using vegetation indices, e.g., normalize differences vegetation index (NDVI) and normalize differences water index (NDWI). The 3D reservoir bathymetry was modeled by integrated water level, storage capacity, and area. From the models of different time span, the change in reservoir storage capacity was estimated. Another reservoir with known water level, storage capacity, area, and sediment deposition was used to validate the estimation technique. The t-test was used to assess the results between observed and estimated reservoir capacity and sediment deposition.

Keywords: satellite data, normalize differences vegetation index, NDVI, normalize differences water index, NDWI, reservoir capacity, sedimentation, t-test hypothesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
7840 Optimization of Acid Treatments by Assessing Diversion Strategies in Carbonate and Sandstone Formations

Authors: Ragi Poyyara, Vijaya Patnana, Mohammed Alam

Abstract:

When acid is pumped into damaged reservoirs for damage removal/stimulation, distorted inflow of acid into the formation occurs caused by acid preferentially traveling into highly permeable regions over low permeable regions, or (in general) into the path of least resistance. This can lead to poor zonal coverage and hence warrants diversion to carry out an effective placement of acid. Diversion is desirably a reversible technique of temporarily reducing the permeability of high perm zones, thereby forcing the acid into lower perm zones. The uniqueness of each reservoir can pose several challenges to engineers attempting to devise optimum and effective diversion strategies. Diversion techniques include mechanical placement and/or chemical diversion of treatment fluids, further sub-classified into ball sealers, bridge plugs, packers, particulate diverters, viscous gels, crosslinked gels, relative permeability modifiers (RPMs), foams, and/or the use of placement techniques, such as coiled tubing (CT) and the maximum pressure difference and injection rate (MAPDIR) methodology. It is not always realized that the effectiveness of diverters greatly depends on reservoir properties, such as formation type, temperature, reservoir permeability, heterogeneity, and physical well characteristics (e.g., completion type, well deviation, length of treatment interval, multiple intervals, etc.). This paper reviews the mechanisms by which each variety of diverter functions and discusses the effect of various reservoir properties on the efficiency of diversion techniques. Guidelines are recommended to help enhance productivity from zones of interest by choosing the best methods of diversion while pumping an optimized amount of treatment fluid. The success of an overall acid treatment often depends on the effectiveness of the diverting agents.

Keywords: diversion, reservoir, zonal coverage, carbonate, sandstone

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
7839 Alternative Acidizing Fluids and Their Impact on the Southern Algerian Shale Formations

Authors: Rezki Akkal, Mohamed Khodja, Slimane Azzi

Abstract:

Acidification is a technique used in oil reservoirs to improve annual production, reduce the skin and increase the pressure of an oil well while eliminating the formation damage that occurs during the drilling process, completion and, amongst others, to create new channels allowing the easy circulation of oil around a producing well. This is achieved by injecting an acidizing fluid at a relatively low pressure to prevent fracturing formation. The treatment fluid used depends on the type and nature of the reservoir rock traversed as well as its petrophysical properties. In order to understand the interaction mechanisms between the treatment fluids used for the reservoir rock acidizing, several candidate wells for stimulation were selected in the large Hassi Messaoud deposit in southern Algeria. The stimulation of these wells is completed using different fluids composed mainly of HCl acid with other additives such as corrosion inhibitors, clay stabilizers and iron controllers. These treatment fluids are injected over two phases, namely with clean tube (7.5% HCl) and matrix aidizing with HCl (15%). The stimulation results obtained are variable according to the type of rock traversed and its mineralogical composition. These results show that there has been an increase in production flow and head pressure respectively from 1.99 m3 / h to 3.56 m3 / h and from 13 Kgf / cm2 to 20 kgf / cm2 in the sands formation having good petrophysical properties of (porosity = 16%) and low amount of clay (Vsh = 6%).

Keywords: acidizing, Hassi-Messaoud reservoir, tube clean, matrix stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
7838 An Assessment of Bathymetric Changes in the Lower Usuma Reservoir, Abuja, Nigera

Authors: Rayleigh Dada Abu, Halilu Ahmad Shaba

Abstract:

Siltation is a serious problem that affects public water supply infrastructures such as dams and reservoirs. It is a major problem which threatens the performance and sustainability of dams and reservoirs. It reduces the dam capacity for flood control, potable water supply, changes water stage, reduces water quality and recreational benefits. The focus of this study is the Lower Usuma reservoir. At completion the reservoir had a gross storage capacity of 100 × 106 m3 (100 million cubic metres), a maximum operational level of 587.440 m a.s.l., with a maximum depth of 49 m and a catchment area of 241 km2 at dam site with a daily designed production capacity of 10,000 cubic metres per hour. The reservoir is 1,300 m long and feeds the treatment plant mainly by gravity. The reservoir became operational in 1986 and no survey has been conducted to determine its current storage capacity and rate of siltation. Hydrographic survey of the reservoir by integrated acoustic echo-sounding technique was conducted in November 2012 to determine the level and rate of siltation. The result obtained shows that the reservoir has lost 12.0 meters depth to siltation in 26 years of its operation; indicating 24.5% loss in installed storage capacity. The present bathymetric survey provides baseline information for future work on siltation depth and annual rates of storage capacity loss for the Lower Usuma reservoir.

Keywords: sedimentation, lower Usuma reservoir, acoustic echo sounder, bathymetric survey

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7837 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of Hydrocarbon-In-Place in Sandstone Reservoir Modeling: A Case Study

Authors: Nejoud Alostad, Anup Bora, Prashant Dhote

Abstract:

Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) has been producing from its major reservoirs that are well defined and highly productive and of superior reservoir quality. These reservoirs are maturing and priority is shifting towards difficult reservoir to meet future production requirements. This paper discusses the results of the detailed integrated study for one of the satellite complex field discovered in the early 1960s. Following acquisition of new 3D seismic data in 1998 and re-processing work in the year 2006, an integrated G&G study was undertaken to review Lower Cretaceous prospectivity of this reservoir. Nine wells have been drilled in the area, till date with only three wells showing hydrocarbons in two formations. The average oil density is around 300API (American Petroleum Institute), and average porosity and water saturation of the reservoir is about 23% and 26%, respectively. The area is dissected by a number of NW-SE trending faults. Structurally, the area consists of horsts and grabens bounded by these faults and hence compartmentalized. The Wara/Burgan formation consists of discrete, dirty sands with clean channel sand complexes. There is a dramatic change in Upper Wara distributary channel facies, and reservoir quality of Wara and Burgan section varies with change of facies over the area. So predicting reservoir facies and its quality out of sparse well data is a major challenge for delineating the prospective area. To characterize the reservoir of Wara/Burgan formation, an integrated workflow involving seismic, well, petro-physical, reservoir and production engineering data has been used. Porosity and water saturation models are prepared and analyzed to predict reservoir quality of Wara and Burgan 3rd sand upper reservoirs. Subsequently, boundary conditions are defined for reservoir and non-reservoir facies by integrating facies, porosity and water saturation. Based on the detailed analyses of volumetric parameters, potential volumes of stock-tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) and gas initially in place (GIIP) were documented after running several probablistic sensitivity analysis using Montecalro simulation method. Sensitivity analysis on probabilistic models of reservoir horizons, petro-physical properties, and oil-water contacts and their effect on reserve clearly shows some alteration in the reservoir geometry. All these parameters have significant effect on the oil in place. This study has helped to identify uncertainty and risks of this prospect particularly and company is planning to develop this area with drilling of new wells.

Keywords: original oil-in-place, sensitivity, uncertainty, sandstone, reservoir modeling, Monte-Carlo simulation

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7836 Combination of Geological, Geophysical and Reservoir Engineering Analyses in Field Development: A Case Study

Authors: Atif Zafar, Fan Haijun

Abstract:

A sequence of different Reservoir Engineering methods and tools in reservoir characterization and field development are presented in this paper. The real data of Jin Gas Field of L-Basin of Pakistan is used. The basic concept behind this work is to enlighten the importance of well test analysis in a broader way (i.e. reservoir characterization and field development) unlike to just determine the permeability and skin parameters. Normally in the case of reservoir characterization we rely on well test analysis to some extent but for field development plan, the well test analysis has become a forgotten tool specifically for locations of new development wells. This paper describes the successful implementation of well test analysis in Jin Gas Field where the main uncertainties are identified during initial stage of field development when location of new development well was marked only on the basis of G&G (Geologic and Geophysical) data. The seismic interpretation could not encounter one of the boundary (fault, sub-seismic fault, heterogeneity) near the main and only producing well of Jin Gas Field whereas the results of the model from the well test analysis played a very crucial rule in order to propose the location of second well of the newly discovered field. The results from different methods of well test analysis of Jin Gas Field are also integrated with and supported by other tools of Reservoir Engineering i.e. Material Balance Method and Volumetric Method. In this way, a comprehensive way out and algorithm is obtained in order to integrate the well test analyses with Geological and Geophysical analyses for reservoir characterization and field development. On the strong basis of this working and algorithm, it was successfully evaluated that the proposed location of new development well was not justified and it must be somewhere else except South direction.

Keywords: field development plan, reservoir characterization, reservoir engineering, well test analysis

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7835 Determination of Inflow Performance Relationship for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs: Numerical Simulation Study

Authors: Melissa Ramirez, Mohammad Awal

Abstract:

The Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) of a well is a relation between the oil production rate and flowing bottom-hole pressure. This relationship is an important tool for petroleum engineers to understand and predict the well performance. In the petroleum industry, IPR correlations are used to design and evaluate well completion, optimizing well production, and designing artificial lift. The most commonly used IPR correlations models are Vogel and Wiggins, these models are applicable to homogeneous and isotropic reservoir data. In this work, a new IPR model is developed to determine inflow performance relationship of oil wells in a naturally fracture reservoir. A 3D black-oil reservoir simulator is used to develop the oil mobility function for the studied reservoir. Based on simulation runs, four flow rates are run to record the oil saturation and calculate the relative permeability for a naturally fractured reservoir. The new method uses the result of a well test analysis along with permeability and pressure-volume-temperature data in the fluid flow equations to obtain the oil mobility function. Comparisons between the new method and two popular correlations for non-fractured reservoirs indicate the necessity for developing and using an IPR correlation specifically developed for a fractured reservoir.

Keywords: inflow performance relationship, mobility function, naturally fractured reservoir, well test analysis

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7834 Assessment of Petrophysical Parameters Using Well Log and Core Data

Authors: Khulud M. Rahuma, Ibrahim B. Younis

Abstract:

Assessment of petrophysical parameters are very essential for reservoir engineer. Three techniques can be used to predict reservoir properties: well logging, well testing, and core analysis. Cementation factor and saturation exponent are very required for calculation, and their values role a great effect on water saturation estimation. In this study a sensitive analysis was performed to investigate the influence of cementation factor and saturation exponent variation applying logs, and core analysis. Measurements of water saturation resulted in a maximum difference around fifteen percent.

Keywords: porosity, cementation factor, saturation exponent, formation factor, water saturation

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7833 Artificial Neural Network for Forecasting of Daily Reservoir Inflow: Case Study of the Kotmale Reservoir in Sri Lanka

Authors: E. U. Dampage, Ovindi D. Bandara, Vinushi S. Waraketiya, Samitha S. R. De Silva, Yasiru S. Gunarathne

Abstract:

The knowledge of water inflow figures is paramount in decision making on the allocation for consumption for numerous purposes; irrigation, hydropower, domestic and industrial usage, and flood control. The understanding of how reservoir inflows are affected by different climatic and hydrological conditions is crucial to enable effective water management and downstream flood control. In this research, we propose a method using a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to assist the aforesaid decision-making process. The Kotmale reservoir, which is the uppermost reservoir in the Mahaweli reservoir complex in Sri Lanka, was used as the test bed for this research. The ANN uses the runoff in the Kotmale reservoir catchment area and the effect of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) to make a forecast for seven days ahead. Three types of ANN are tested; Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and LSTM. The extensive field trials and validation endeavors found that the LSTM ANN provides superior performance in the aspects of accuracy and latency.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, CNN, inflow, long short-term memory, LSTM, multi-layer perceptron, MLP, neural network

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7832 Evaluation of Cyclic Steam Injection in Multi-Layered Heterogeneous Reservoir

Authors: Worawanna Panyakotkaew, Falan Srisuriyachai

Abstract:

Cyclic steam injection (CSI) is a thermal recovery technique performed by injecting periodically heated steam into heavy oil reservoir. Oil viscosity is substantially reduced by means of heat transferred from steam. Together with gas pressurization, oil recovery is greatly improved. Nevertheless, prediction of effectiveness of the process is difficult when reservoir contains degree of heterogeneity. Therefore, study of heterogeneity together with interest reservoir properties must be evaluated prior to field implementation. In this study, thermal reservoir simulation program is utilized. Reservoir model is firstly constructed as multi-layered with coarsening upward sequence. The highest permeability is located on top layer with descending of permeability values in lower layers. Steam is injected from two wells located diagonally in quarter five-spot pattern. Heavy oil is produced by adjusting operating parameters including soaking period and steam quality. After selecting the best conditions for both parameters yielding the highest oil recovery, effects of degree of heterogeneity (represented by Lorenz coefficient), vertical permeability and permeability sequence are evaluated. Surprisingly, simulation results show that reservoir heterogeneity yields benefits on CSI technique. Increasing of reservoir heterogeneity impoverishes permeability distribution. High permeability contrast results in steam intruding in upper layers. Once temperature is cool down during back flow period, condense water percolates downward, resulting in high oil saturation on top layers. Gas saturation appears on top after while, causing better propagation of steam in the following cycle due to high compressibility of gas. Large steam chamber therefore covers most of the area in upper zone. Oil recovery reaches approximately 60% which is of about 20% higher than case of heterogeneous reservoir. Vertical permeability exhibits benefits on CSI. Expansion of steam chamber occurs within shorter time from upper to lower zone. For fining upward permeability sequence where permeability values are reversed from the previous case, steam does not override to top layers due to low permeability. Propagation of steam chamber occurs in middle of reservoir where permeability is high enough. Rate of oil recovery is slower compared to coarsening upward case due to lower permeability at the location where propagation of steam chamber occurs. Even CSI technique produces oil quite slowly in early cycles, once steam chamber is formed deep in the reservoir, heat is delivered to formation quickly in latter cycles. Since reservoir heterogeneity is unavoidable, a thorough understanding of its effect must be considered. This study shows that CSI technique might be one of the compatible solutions for highly heterogeneous reservoir. This competitive technique also shows benefit in terms of heat consumption as steam is injected periodically.

Keywords: cyclic steam injection, heterogeneity, reservoir simulation, thermal recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
7831 Reservoir Characterization using Comparative Petrophysical Testing Approach Acquired with Facies Architecture Properties Analysis

Authors: Axel Priambodo, Dwiharso Nugroho

Abstract:

Studies conducted to map the reservoir properties based on facies architecture in which to determine the distribution of the petrophysical properties and calculate hydrocarbon reserves in study interval. Facies Architecture analysis begins with stratigraphic correlation that indicates the area is divided into different system tracts. The analysis of distribution patterns and compiling core analysis with facies architecture model show that there are three estuarine facies appear. Formation evaluation begins with shale volume calculation using Asquith-Krygowski and Volan Triangle Method. Proceed to the calculation of the total and effective porosity using the Bateman-Konen and Volan Triangle Method. After getting the value of the porosity calculation was continued to determine the effective water saturation and non-effective by including parameters of water resistivity and resistivity clay. The results of the research show that the Facies Architecture on the field in divided into three main facies which are Estuarine Channel, Estuarine Sand Bar, and Tidal Flat. The petrophysics analysis are done by comparing different methods also shows that the Volan Triangle Method does not give a better result of the Volume Shale than the Gamma Ray Method, but on the other hand, the Volan Triangle Methode is better on calculating porosity compared to the Bateman-Konen Method. The effective porosity distributions are affected by the distribution of the facies. Estuarine Sand Bar has a low porosity number and Estuarine Channel has a higher number of the porosity. The effective water saturation is controlled by structure where on the closure zone the water saturation is lower than the area beneath it. It caused by the hydrocarbon accumulation on the closure zone.

Keywords: petrophysics, geology, petroleum, reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
7830 Research on Reservoir Lithology Prediction Based on Residual Neural Network and Squeeze-and- Excitation Neural Network

Authors: Li Kewen, Su Zhaoxin, Wang Xingmou, Zhu Jian Bing

Abstract:

Conventional reservoir prediction methods ar not sufficient to explore the implicit relation between seismic attributes, and thus data utilization is low. In order to improve the predictive classification accuracy of reservoir lithology, this paper proposes a deep learning lithology prediction method based on ResNet (Residual Neural Network) and SENet (Squeeze-and-Excitation Neural Network). The neural network model is built and trained by using seismic attribute data and lithology data of Shengli oilfield, and the nonlinear mapping relationship between seismic attribute and lithology marker is established. The experimental results show that this method can significantly improve the classification effect of reservoir lithology, and the classification accuracy is close to 70%. This study can effectively predict the lithology of undrilled area and provide support for exploration and development.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, lithology, prediction of reservoir, seismic attributes

Procedia PDF Downloads 75