Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1574

Search results for: requirements

1364 The Relationship of Creativity and Innovation in Artistic Work and Their Importance in Improving the Artistic Organizational Performance

Authors: Houyem Kotti

Abstract:

The development in societies requires that these societies are continuously changing in various aspects, a change that requires continuous adaptation to the data of the technical age. In order for the individual to perform his/her duty or task in a perfect way, it is necessary to provide all the basic requirements and necessities to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the personnel working to accomplish their tasks, requirements, and work successfully. The success of the industries and organizations are linked to the need to create individuals in the creative and innovative field. Formation process is considered an economic development and social prosperity, and to improve the quantity and quality of artistic work. Therefore, creativity and innovation play an important role in improving the performance of the artistic organization as it is one of the variables affecting the organization's ability to grow and invest. In order to provide better services to their customers, especially in the face of competition and traditional methods of work, and in an environment that discourages and hinders creativity and impairs any process of development, change or creative behavior. The research methodology that will be performed for this study is described as qualitative by conducting several interviews with artistic people, experts in the artistic field and reviewing the related literature to collect the necessary and required qualitative data from secondary sources such as statistical reports, previous research studies, etc. In this research, we will attempt to clarify the relationship between innovation and its importance in the artistic organization, the conditions of achieving innovation and its constraints, barriers, and challenges. The creativity and innovation and their impacts on the performance of artistic organizations, explaining this mechanism, so as to ensure continuity of these organizations and keeping pace with developments in the global economic environment.

Keywords: Performance, artistic work, creativity and innovation, artistic organization

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
1363 Approximate Spring Balancing for the Arm of a Humanoid Robot to Reduce Actuator Torque

Authors: Apurva Patil, Ashay Aswale, Akshay Kulkarni, Shubham Bharadiya

Abstract:

The potential benefit of gravity compensation of linkages in mechanisms using springs to reduce actuator requirements is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs with child–parent connections and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to the developed arm of a humanoid robot is presented here. Spring balancing is particularly important in this case because the serial chain of linkages has to work against gravity.This work involves approximate spring balancing of the open-loop chain of linkages using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Reduced actuator torque facilitates the use of lower end actuators which are generally smaller in weight and volume thereby lowering the space requirements and the total weight of the arm. This is particularly important for humanoid robots where the parent actuator has to handle the weight of the subsequent actuators as well. Actuators with lower actuation requirements are more energy efficient, thereby reduce the energy consumption of the mechanism. Lower end actuators are lower in cost and facilitate the development of low-cost devices. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free-length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached to the preceding parent link, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant arm of the humanoid robot is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this arm of the humanoid robot.

Keywords: actuator torque, child-parent connections, spring balancing, the arm of a humanoid robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
1362 Formulation of Highly Dosed Drugs Using Different Granulation Techniques: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ezeddin Kolaib

Abstract:

Paracetamol tablets and cimetidine tablets were prepared by single-step granulation/tabletting and by compression after high shear granulation. The addition of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) was essential for single-step granulation/tabletting of formulation containing high concentrations of paracetamol or cimetidine. Paracetamol tablets without and with PVP obtained by single-step granulation/tabletting exhibited a significantly higher tensile strength, a significantly lower disintegration time, a lower friability and a faster dissolution compared to those prepared by compression after high shear granulation. Cimetidine tablets with PVP obtained by single-step granulation/tabletting exhibited a significantly lower tensile strength, a significantly lower disintegration time and a faster dissolution compared to those prepared by compression after high shear granulation. Single-step granulation/tabletting allowed to produce tablets containing up to 80% paracetamol or cimetidine with a dissolution profile complying with the USP requirements. For pure paracetamol or pure cimetidine the addition of crospovidone as a disintegrant was required to obtain a dissolution profile that complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements. Long term and accelerated stability studies of paracetamol tablets produced by single-step granulation/tabletting over a period of one year showed no significant influence on the tablet tensile strength, friability and dissolution. Although a significant increase of the disintegration time was observed, it remained below 10 min. These results indicated that single-step granulation/tabletting could be an efficient technique for the production of highly dosed drugs such as paracetamol and cimetidine.

Keywords: paracetamol, single-step granulation/tabletting, twin screw extrusion, high shear granulation, high dosage drugs, cimetidine

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1361 The History of Chartered Certified Accountants: The Case of Tunisia

Authors: Yosra Makni Fourati, Mariam Dammak, Rania Mnejja

Abstract:

This paper aims to highlight the conditions and the context of the birth and the implementation of the Chartered Certified Accountants in Tunisian universities. For this purpose, we present an historical overview of the establishment of institutions that started the courses of Chartered accounting, including the Institute of Higher Commercial Studies (IHEC) of Carthage, the Higher Institute of Management (ISG) of Tunis, the Faculty of Economics and Management (FSEG) of Sfax and later the Higher Institute of Accounting and Administration of Enterprises (ISCAE) of Tunis. Then, it would be relevant to examine the changes, carried out by the Tunisian government, of the regulations in force relating to this academic path, from its birth during the 1970s until nowadays. We conducted a documentary study (archival documents, official documents, etc.) accompanied by semi-structured interviews with key actors (accountants, academics, officials of the Ministry of Higher Education) who marked the history of the studies of Tunisian charted accounting. Addressing this research question in Tunisia may contribute to the literature in three ways. First, previous researches dealing with the history of charted accounting-education are scared. Second, this paper allows us to understand the circumstances and context of the birth and teaching of accounting in Tunisia. Eventually, it helps to position the accounting curriculum in relation to international requirements. In fact, the training of accountants is closely related to the practice of the profession, regulated by the Order of Chartered Accountants in Tunisia (OECT). This Order is a member of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), since its creation in the 80s, has obligations to align with international requirements, particularly those relating to higher education, set up in 2005 and updated in 2015 (International Standard Education: IES).

Keywords: accounting history, chartered certified accountants, higher accounting education, Tunisian context

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1360 The Potential in the Use of Building Information Modelling and Life-Cycle Assessment for Retrofitting Buildings: A Study Based on Interviews with Experts in Both Fields

Authors: Alex Gonzalez Caceres, Jan Karlshøj, Tor Arvid Vik

Abstract:

Life cycle of residential buildings are expected to be several decades, 40% of European residential buildings have inefficient energy conservation measure. The existing building represents 20-40% of the energy use and the CO₂ emission. Since net zero energy buildings are a short-term goal, (should be achieved by EU countries after 2020), is necessary to plan the next logical step, which is to prepare the existing outdated stack of building to retrofit them into an energy efficiency buildings. In order to accomplish this, two specialize and widespread tool can be used Building Information Modelling (BIM) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). BIM and LCA are tools used by a variety of disciplines; both are able to represent and analyze the constructions in different stages. The combination of these technologies could improve greatly the retrofitting techniques. The incorporation of the carbon footprint, introducing a single database source for different material analysis. To this is added the possibility of considering different analysis approaches such as costs and energy saving. Is expected with these measures, enrich the decision-making. The methodology is based on two main activities; the first task involved the collection of data this is accomplished by literature review and interview with experts in the retrofitting field and BIM technologies. The results of this task are presented as an evaluation checklist of BIM ability to manage data and improve decision-making in retrofitting projects. The last activity involves an evaluation using the results of the previous tasks, to check how far the IFC format can support the requirements by each specialist, and its uses by third party software. The result indicates that BIM/LCA have a great potential to improve the retrofitting process in existing buildings, but some modification must be done in order to meet the requirements of the specialists for both, retrofitting and LCA evaluators.

Keywords: Energy Efficiency, bim, retrofitting, LCA

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1359 Design and Realization of Social Responsibility Report Writing System

Authors: Hao Qin

Abstract:

This paper proposes a guiding tool for companies to write social responsibility report by developing an applicable writing system based on analysis of its functional requirements, writing indicators and roles. The system’s operation and results concerned will be demonstrated as well.

Keywords: System, Social Responsibility, report writing, design and realization

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1358 Open Space Use in University Campuses with User Requirements Analysis: The Case of Eskişehir Osmangazi University Meşelik Campus

Authors: Aysen Celen Ozturk, Hatice Dulger

Abstract:

University may be defined as a teaching institution consisting of faculties, institutes, colleges, and units that have undergraduate and graduate education, scientific research and publications. It has scientific autonomy and public legal personality. Today, universities are not only the institutions in which students and lecturers experience education, training and scientific work. They also offer social, cultural and artistic activities that strengthen the link with the city. This also incorporates all city users into the campus borders. Thus, universities contribute to social and individual development of the country by providing science, art, socio-cultural development, communication and socialization with people of different cultural and social backgrounds. Moreover, universities provide an active social life, where the young population is the majority. This enables the sense of belonging to the users to develop, to increase the interaction between academicians and students, and to increase the learning / producing community by continuing academic sharing environments outside the classrooms. For this reason, besides academic spaces in university campuses, the users also need closed and open spaces where they can socialize, spend time together and relax. Public open spaces are the most important social spaces that individuals meet, express themselves and share. Individuals belonging to different socio-cultural structures and ethnic groups maintain their social experiences with the physical environment they are in, the outdoors, and their actions and sharing in these spaces. While university campuses are being designed for their individual and social development roles, user needs must be determined correctly and design should be realized in this direction. While considering that requirements may change over time, user satisfaction should be questioned at certain periods and new arrangements should be made in existing applications in the direction of current demands. This study aims to determine the user requirements through the case of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Meşelik Campus / Turkey. Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) questionnaire, cognitive mapping and deep interview methods are used in the research process. All these methods show that the students, academicians and other officials in the Meşelik Campus of Eskişehir Osmangazi University find way finding elements insufficient and are in need of efficient landscape design and social spaces. This study is important in terms of determining the needs of the users as a design input. This will help improving the quality of common space in Eskişehir Osmangazi University and in other similar universities.

Keywords: public open space, post occupancy evaluation, university campuses, user requirement

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
1357 Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Sadepovich Maikanov, Z. Shabanbayevich Adilbekov, R. Husainovna Mustafina, L. Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva

Abstract:

This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Keywords: Radionuclides, Antibiotics, honey, contamination of honey

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1356 Kenaf MDF Panels with Soy Based Adhesive. The Influence of Preparation Parameters on Physciomechanical Properties

Authors: Imtiaz Ali, Krishnan Jayaraman, Debes Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Soybean concentrate is abundant material and renewable product that is recently been explored as an alternative to conventional formaldehyde based resins in wood based products. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing environment friendly MDF panels from renewable resources. The panels are made by using kenaf bast fibers (KB) as wood substitute and soy based adhesive as bonding material. Second order response surface regression models are used to understand the effects and interactions of resin content (RC) and pressing time (PT) on the mechanical and water soaking properties of kenaf panels. The mechanical and water soaking properties are significantly improved as the RC increased and reached at the highest level at maximum resin loading (12%). The effect of pressing time is significant in the first phase when the pressing time increased from 4 to 6 min; however the effect was not as significant when pressing time further increased to 8 min. The second order regression equations further confirm that the variation in process parameters has strong relationship with the physciomechanical properties. The MDF panels the minimum requirements of internal bond strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity as recommended by US wood MDF standard specifications for G110, G120, G130 and G140 grade MDF panels. However, the thickness swelling results are considerably poorer than the recommended values of general purpose standard requirements. This deficiency can be counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde free panels made from renewable sources and by making them suitable alternative for less humid environment applications.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, kenaf, Medium density fibreboard, soy adhesive, water soaking properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
1355 Cycle-Oriented Building Components and Constructions Made from Paper Materials

Authors: Jens Schneider, Rebecca Bach, Evgenia Kanli, Nihat Kiziltoprak, Linda Hildebrand, Ulrich Knaack

Abstract:

The building industry has a high demand for resources and at the same time is responsible for a significant amount of waste created worldwide. Today's building components need to contribute to the protection of natural resources without creating waste. This is defined in the product development phase and impacts the product’s degree of being cycle-oriented. Paper-based materials show advantage due to their renewable origin and their ability to incorporate different functions. Besides the ecological aspects like renewable origin and recyclability the main advantages of paper materials are its light-weight but stiff structure, the optimized production processes and good insulation values. The main deficits from building technology’s perspective are the material's vulnerability to humidity and water as well as inflammability. On material level, those problems can be solved by coatings or through material modification. On construction level intelligent setup and layering of a building component can improve and also solve these issues. The target of the present work is to provide an overview of developed building components and construction typologies mainly made from paper materials. The research is structured in four parts: (1) functions and requirements, (2) preselection of paper-based materials, (3) development of building components and (4) evaluation. As part of the research methodology at first the needs of the building sector are analyzed with the aim to define the main areas of application and consequently the requirements. Various paper materials are tested in order to identify to what extent the requirements are satisfied and determine potential optimizations or modifications, also in combination with other construction materials. By making use of the material’s potentials and solving the deficits on material and on construction level, building components and construction typologies are developed. The evaluation and the calculation of the structural mechanics and structural principals will show that different construction typologies can be derived. Profiles like paper tubes can be used at best for skeleton constructions. Massive structures on the other hand can be formed by plate-shaped elements like solid board or honeycomb. For insulation purposes corrugated cardboard or cellulose flakes have the best properties, while layered solid board can be applied to prevent inner condensation. Enhancing these properties by material combinations for instance with mineral coatings functional constructions mainly out of paper materials were developed. In summary paper materials offer a huge variety of possible applications in the building sector. By these studies a general base of knowledge about how to build with paper was developed and is to be reinforced by further research.

Keywords: Renewable Resources, construction typologies, cycle-oriented construction, innovative building material, paper materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
1354 By Applying Normalized Systems Concept to Supply Chain Processes Yields Normalized Software Systems

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli

Abstract:

With the technology evolving every day and with the increase in global competition, industries are always under the pressure to be the best. They need to provide good quality products at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them. In order to achieve this level of service, products and their respective supply chain processes need to be flexible and evolvable; otherwise changes will be extremely expensive, slow and with many combinatorial effects. Those combinatorial effects impact the whole organizational structure, from a management, financial, documentation, logistics and specially the information system (ERP) perspective. By applying the normalized system concept/theory to segments of the supply chain, we believe minimal effects, especially at the time of launching an organization global software project. The purpose of this paper is to point out that if an organization wants to develop a software from scratch or implement an existing Enterprise Requirement Planning (ERP) software for their business needs and if their business processes are normalized and modular then most probably this will yield to a normalized and modular software system that can be easily modified when the business evolves. Another important goal of this paper is to increase the awareness regarding the design of the business processes in a software implementation project. If the blueprints created are normalized then the software developers and configurators will use those modular blueprints to map them into modular software. This paper only prepares the ground for further studies; I will support the above concept by going through the steps of developing, configuring and/or implementing a software system for an organization by using two methods: The Software Development Lifecycle method (SDLC) and the Accelerated SAP implementation method (ASAP). Both methods start with the customer requirements, then blue printing of its business processes and finally mapping those processes into a software system. Hence showing that those requirements/business processes are considered the launching pad/platform of the software system developed, implying modularized process yield modularized software.

Keywords: ERP, modular, Blueprint, Normalized

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1353 A Framework on Data and Remote Sensing for Humanitarian Logistics

Authors: Vishnu Nagendra, Marten Van Der Veen, Stefania Giodini

Abstract:

Effective humanitarian logistics operations are a cornerstone in the success of disaster relief operations. However, for effectiveness, they need to be demand driven and supported by adequate data for prioritization. Without this data operations are carried out in an ad hoc manner and eventually become chaotic. The current availability of geospatial data helps in creating models for predictive damage and vulnerability assessment, which can be of great advantage to logisticians to gain an understanding on the nature and extent of the disaster damage. This translates into actionable information on the demand for relief goods, the state of the transport infrastructure and subsequently the priority areas for relief delivery. However, due to the unpredictable nature of disasters, the accuracy in the models need improvement which can be done using remote sensing data from UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or satellite imagery, which again come with certain limitations. This research addresses the need for a framework to combine data from different sources to support humanitarian logistic operations and prediction models. The focus is on developing a workflow to combine data from satellites and UAVs post a disaster strike. A three-step approach is followed: first, the data requirements for logistics activities are made explicit, which is done by carrying out semi-structured interviews with on field logistics workers. Second, the limitations in current data collection tools are analyzed to develop workaround solutions by following a systems design approach. Third, the data requirements and the developed workaround solutions are fit together towards a coherent workflow. The outcome of this research will provide a new method for logisticians to have immediately accurate and reliable data to support data-driven decision making.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, damage prediction models, data driven decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1352 Paradigmatic Approach University Management from the Perspective of Strategic Management: A Research in the Marmara Region in Turkey

Authors: Recep Yücel, Cihat Kartal, Mustafa Kara

Abstract:

On the basis of strategic management, it is believed in the necessity of a number of innovations in the postmodern management approach in the management of universities in our country. In this sense, some of these requirements are the integration of public and private universities, international integration, R & D status and increasing young population will create a dynamic structure. According to the postmodern management approach, universities, in our country despite being governed by the classical approach autonomous universities; academically are thought solid, to be non-hierarchical and creative. In fact, studies that require a multidisciplinary academic environment, universities and there is a close cooperation between formal and non-formal sub-units. Moreover, terms of postmodern management approaches, the requirements specified in the direction of solving the problem of an increasing number of universities in our country is considered to be more difficult. Therefore, considering the psychological impact on the academic personnel the university organizational structure, the study are trying to aim to propose an appropriate model of university organization. In this context, the study sought to answer the question how to have an impact innovation and international integration on the academic achievement of the classical organizational structure. Finally, in the study, due to the adoption of the classical organizational structure of the university, integration is considered to be difficult, academic cooperation between universities at the international level and maintaining it. In addition, it was understood that block the efforts of this organization structure, academic motivation, development and innovation. In this study under these purposes; on the basis of the existing organization and management structure of the universities in the Marmara Region in Turkey, a study was conducted with qualitative research methods. The data have been analyzed using content analysis and assessment was based on the results obtained.

Keywords: Strategic Management, Multidisciplinary Studies, University, postmodern management approaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1351 Design and Simulation a Low Phase Noise CMOS LC VCO for IEEE802.11a WLAN Applications

Authors: Hooman Kaabi, Raziyeh Karkoub

Abstract:

This work proposes a structure of AMOS-varactors. A 5GHz LC-VCO designed in TSMC 0.18μm CMOS to improve phase noise and tuning range performance. The tuning range is from 5.05GHZ to 5.88GHz.The phase noise is -154.9dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset from the carrier. It meets the requirements for IEEE 802.11a WLAN standard.

Keywords: CMOS LC VCO, spiral inductor, varactor, phase noise, tuning range

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1350 Cloud Computing Impact on e-Government Adoption

Authors: Ali Elshabrawy

Abstract:

Cloud computing is expected to be important for e Government in near future. Governments need it for solving some of its e Government, financial, infrastructure, legacy systems and integration problems. It reduces information technology (IT) infrastructure needs and support costs, and offers on-demand infrastructure and computational power, improved collaboration capabilities, which are important for e Government projects start up and sustainability. Budget pressures will continue to drive more and more government IT to hybrid and even public clouds, and more cooperation between cloud service providers and governmental agencies are expected, Or developing governmental private, community clouds. Motivation to convince governments to use cloud computing services, will create a pressure on cloud service providers to cope with government's requirements for interoperability, security standards, open data and integration between their cloud systems There will be significant legal action arising out of governmental uses of cloud computing, and legislation addressing both IT and business needs and consumer fears and protections. Cloud computing is a considered a revolution for IT and E business in general and e commerce, e Government in particular. As governments faces increasing challenges regarding IT infrastructure required for e Government projects implementation. As a result of Lack of required financial resources allocated for e Government projects in developed and developing countries. Cloud computing can play a major role to solve some of e Government projects challenges such as, lack of financial resources, IT infrastructure, Human resources trained to manage e Government applications, interoperability, cost efficiency challenges. If we could solve some security issues related to cloud computing usage which considered critical for e Government projects. Pretty sure it’s Just a matter of time before cloud service providers will find out solutions to attract governments as major customers for their business.

Keywords: e-Government, Cloud Computing, Challenges, Adoption, supply side barriers, e-government requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1349 Performance Measurement by Analytic Hierarchy Process in Performance Based Logistics

Authors: M. Hilmi Ozdemir, Gokhan Ozkan

Abstract:

Performance Based Logistics (PBL) is a strategic approach that enables creating long-term and win-win relations among stakeholders in the acquisition. Contrary to the traditional single transactions, the expected value is created by the performance of the service pertaining to the strategic relationships in this approach. PBL motivates all relevant stakeholders to focus on their core competencies to produce the desired outcome in a collective way. The desired outcome can only be assured with a cost effective way as long as it is periodically measured with the right performance parameters. Thus, defining these parameters is a crucial step for the PBL contracts. In performance parameter determination, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is a multi-criteria decision making methodology for complex cases, was used within this study for a complex system. AHP has been extensively applied in various areas including supply chain, inventory management, outsourcing, and logistics. This methodology made it possible to convert end-user’s main operation and maintenance requirements to sub criteria contained by a single performance parameter. Those requirements were categorized and assigned weights by the relevant stakeholders. Single performance parameter capable of measuring the overall performance of a complex system is the major outcome of this study. The parameter deals with the integrated assessment of different functions spanning from training, operation, maintenance, reporting, and documentation that are implemented within a complex system. The aim of this study is to show the methodology and processes implemented to identify a single performance parameter for measuring the whole performance of a complex system within a PBL contract. AHP methodology is recommended as an option for the researches and the practitioners who seek for a lean and integrated approach for performance assessment within PBL contracts. The implementation of AHP methodology in this study may help PBL practitioners from methodological perception and add value to AHP in becoming prevalent.

Keywords: Performance Measurement, analytic hierarchy process, performance parameters, performance based logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1348 Disclosure Extension of Oil and Gas Reserve Quantum

Authors: Ali Alsawayeh, Ibrahim Eldanfour

Abstract:

This paper examines the extent of disclosure of oil and gas reserve quantum in annual reports of international oil and gas exploration and production companies, particularly companies in untested international markets, such as Canada, the UK and the US, and seeks to determine the underlying factors that affect the level of disclosure on oil reserve quantum. The study is concerned with the usefulness of disclosure of oil and gas reserves quantum to investors and other users. Given the primacy of the annual report (10-k) as a source of supplemental reserves data about the company and as the channel through which companies disseminate information about their performance, the annual reports for one year (2009) were the central focus of the study. This comparative study seeks to establish whether differences exist between the sample companies, based on new disclosure requirements by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in respect of reserves classification and definition. The extent of disclosure of reserve is provided and compared among the selected companies. Statistical analysis is performed to determine whether any differences exist in the extent of disclosure of reserve under the determinant variables. This study shows that some factors would affect the extent of disclosure of reserve quantum in the above-mentioned countries, namely: company’s size, leverage and quality of auditor. Companies that provide reserves quantum in detail appear to display higher size. The findings also show that the level of leverage has affected companies’ reserves quantum disclosure. Indeed, companies that provide detailed reserves quantum disclosure tend to employ a ‘high-quality auditor’. In addition, the study found significant independent variable such as Profit Sharing Contracts (PSC). This factor could explain variations in the level of disclosure of oil reserve quantum between the contractor and host governments. The implementation of SEC oil and gas reporting requirements do not enhance companies’ valuation because the new rules are based only on past and present reserves information (proven reserves); hence, future valuation of oil and gas companies is missing for the market.

Keywords: Regulation, disclosure, comparison, company characteristics, reserve quantum

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
1347 Reduction of Cooling Demands in a Subtropical Humid Climate Zone: A Study on Roofs of Existing Residential Building Using Passive

Authors: Megha Jain, K. K. Pathak

Abstract:

In sub-tropical humid climates, it is estimated most of the urban peak load of energy consumption is used to satisfy air-conditioning or air-coolers cooling demand in summer time. As the urbanization rate in developing nation – like the case in India is rising rapidly, the pressure placed on energy resources to satisfy inhabitants’ indoor comfort requirements is consequently increasing too. This paper introduces passive cooling through roof as a means of reducing energy cooling loads for satisfying human comfort requirements in a sub-tropical climate. Experiments were performed by applying different insulators which are locally available solar reflective materials to insulate the roofs of five rooms of 4 case buildings; three rooms having RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) roof and two having Asbestos sheet roof of existing buildings. The results are verified by computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics tools with FLUENT software. The result of using solar reflective paint with high albedo coating shows a fall of 4.8⁰C in peak hours and saves 303 kWh considering energy load with air conditioner during the summer season in comparison to non insulated flat roof energy load of residential buildings in Bhopal. An optimum solution of insulator for both types of roofs is presented. It is recommended that the selected cool roof solution be combined with insulation on other elements of envelope, to increase the indoor thermal comfort. The application is intended for low cost residential buildings in composite and warm climate like Bhopal.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Thermal Performance, Insulators, passive cooling, subtropical climate, energy loads, cool roof

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1346 Study of the Behavior and Similarities of Flow and Level Transmitters in the Industries

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

In view of the requirements of the current industrial processes, the instrumentation plays a critical role. In this context, this work aims to raise some the operating characteristics of the level and flow transmitters, in addition to observing their similarities and possible limitations for certain configurations.

Keywords: Instrumentation, Flow, level, configurations of meters, method of choice of the meters, instrumentation in the industrial processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1345 Standard Protocol Selection for Acquisition of Breast Thermogram in Perspective of Early Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Usha Rani Gogoi Jr., Anjan Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

In the last few decades, breast thermography has achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 90% for breast tumor detection. Breast thermography is a non-invasive, cost-effective, painless and radiation-free breast imaging modality which makes a significant contribution to the evaluation and diagnosis of patients, suspected of having breast cancer. An abnormal breast thermogram may indicate significant biological risk for the existence or the development of breast tumors. Breast thermography can detect a breast tumor, when the tumor is in its early stage or when the tumor is in a dense breast. The infrared breast thermography is very sensitive to environmental changes for which acquisition of breast thermography should be performed under strictly controlled conditions by undergoing some standard protocols. Several factors like air, temperature, humidity, etc. are there to be considered for characterizing thermal images as an imperative tool for detecting breast cancer. A detailed study of various breast thermogram acquisition protocols adopted by different researchers in their research work is provided here in this paper. After going through a rigorous study of different breast thermogram acquisition protocols, a new standard breast thermography acquisition setup is proposed here in this paper for proper and accurate capturing of the breast thermograms. The proposed breast thermogram acquisition setup is being built in the Radiology Department, Agartala Government Medical College (AGMC), Govt. of Tripura, Tripura, India. The breast thermograms are captured using FLIR T650sc thermal camera with the thermal sensitivity of 20 mK at 30 degree C. The paper is an attempt to highlight the importance of different critical parameters of breast thermography like different thermography views, patient preparation protocols, acquisition room requirements, acquisition system requirements, etc. This paper makes an important contribution by providing a detailed survey and a new efficient approach on breast thermogram capturing.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, infrared thermography, acquisition protocol, breast thermography

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1344 Pre-Industrial Local Architecture According to Natural Properties

Authors: Selin Küçük

Abstract:

Pre-industrial architecture is integration of natural and subsequent properties by intelligence and experience. Since various settlements relatively industrialized or non-industrialized at any time, ‘pre-industrial’ term does not refer to a definite time. Natural properties, which are existent conditions and materials in natural local environment, are climate, geomorphology and local materials. Subsequent properties, which are all anthropological comparatives, are culture of societies, requirements of people and construction techniques that people use. Yet, after industrialization, technology took technique’s place, cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and local/natural properties are almost disappeared in architecture. Technology is universal, global and expands simply; conversely technique is time and experience dependent and should has a considerable cultural background. This research is about construction techniques according to natural properties of a region and classification of these techniques. Understanding local architecture is only possible by searching its background which is hard to reach. There are always changes in positive and negative in architectural techniques through the time. Archaeological layers of a region sometimes give more accurate information about transformation of architecture. However, natural properties of any region are the most helpful elements to perceive construction techniques. Many international sources from different cultures are interested in local architecture by mentioning natural properties separately. Unfortunately, there is no literature deals with this subject as far as systematically in the correct way. This research aims to improve a clear perspective of local architecture existence by categorizing archetypes according to natural properties. The ultimate goal of this research is generating a clear classification of local architecture independent from subsequent (anthropological) properties over the world such like a handbook. Since local architecture is the most sustainable architecture with refer to its economic, ecologic and sociological properties, there should be an excessive information about construction techniques to be learned from. Constructing the same buildings in all over the world is one of the main criticism of modern architectural system. While this critics going on, the same buildings without identity increase incrementally. In post-industrial term, technology widely took technique’s place, yet cultural effects are manipulated, requirements are changed and natural local properties are almost disappeared in architecture. These study does not offer architects to use local techniques, but it indicates the progress of pre-industrial architectural evolution which is healthier, cheaper and natural. Immigration from rural areas to developing/developed cities should be prohibited, thus culture and construction techniques can be preserved. Since big cities have psychological, sensational and sociological impact on people, rural settlers can be convinced to not to immigrate by providing new buildings designed according to natural properties and maintaining their settlements. Improving rural conditions would remove the economical and sociological gulf between cities and rural. What result desired to arrived in, is if there is no deformation (adaptation process of another traditional buildings because of immigration) or assimilation in a climatic region, there should be very similar solutions in the same climatic regions of the world even if there is no relationship (trade, communication etc.) among them.

Keywords: Geomorphology, Local Materials, climate zones, local architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1343 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Adhesives via Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method

Authors: Murat Demir Aydin, Elanur Celebi

Abstract:

Adhesively bonded joints are used as an alternative to traditional joining methods due to the important advantages they provide. The most important consideration in the use of adhesively bonded joints is that these joints have appropriate requirements for their use in terms of safety. In order to ensure control of this condition, damage analysis of the adhesively bonded joints should be performed by determining the mechanical properties of the adhesives. When the literature is investigated; it is generally seen that the mechanical properties of adhesives are determined by traditional measurement methods. In this study, to determine the mechanical properties of adhesives, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method, which can be an alternative to traditional measurement methods, has been used. The DIC method is a new optical measurement method which is used to determine the parameters of displacement and strain in an appropriate and correct way. In this study, tensile tests of Thick Adherent Shear Test (TAST) samples formed using DP410 liquid structural adhesive and steel materials and bulk tensile specimens formed using and DP410 liquid structural adhesive was performed. The displacement and strain values of the samples were determined by DIC method and the shear stress-strain curves of the adhesive for TAST specimens and the tensile strain curves of the bulk adhesive specimens were obtained. Various methods such as numerical methods are required as conventional measurement methods (strain gauge, mechanic extensometer, etc.) are not sufficient in determining the strain and displacement values of the very thin adhesive layer such as TAST samples. As a result, the DIC method removes these requirements and easily achieves displacement measurements with sufficient accuracy.

Keywords: digital image correlation, adhesively bonded joints, structural adhesive, thick adhered shear test (TAST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
1342 The Impact of Client Leadership, Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) on Construction Project: A Case Study in UAE

Authors: C. W. F. Che Wan Putra, M. Alshawi, M. S. Al Ahbabi, M. Jabakhanji

Abstract:

The construction industry is a multi-disciplinary and multi-national industry, which has an important role to play within the overall economy of any country. There are major challenges to an improved performance within the industry. Particularly lacking is, the ability to capture the large amounts of information generated during the life-cycle of projects and to make these available, in the right format, so that professionals can then evaluate alternative solutions based on life-cycle analysis. The fragmented nature of the industry is the main reason behind the unavailability and ill utilisation of project information. The lack of adequately engaging clients and managing their requirements contributes adversely to construction budget and schedule overruns. This is a difficult task to achieve, particularly if clients are not continuously and formally involved in the design and construction process, which means that the design intent is left to designers that may not always satisfy clients’ requirements. Client lead is strongly recognised in bringing change through better collaboration between project stakeholders. However, one of the major challenges is that collaboration is operated under conventional procurement methods, which hugely limit the stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities to bring about the required level of collaboration. A research has been conducted with a typical project in the UAE. A qualitative research work was conducted including semi-structured interviews with project partners to discover the real reasons behind this delay. The case study also investigated the real causes of the problems and if they can be adequately addressed by BIM and IPD. Special focus was also placed on the Client leadership and the role the Client can play to eliminate/minimize these problems. It was found that part of the ‘key elements’ from which the problems exist can be attributed to the client leadership and the collaborative environment and BIM.

Keywords: Case study, building information modelling (BIM), integrated project delivery (IPD), client leadership

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1341 A Suggested Study Plan for Mining Engineering Program in Northern Border University (NBU) to Match the Requirements of the Local Mining Industry

Authors: Mohammad Aljuhani, Yasamina Aljuhani

Abstract:

The Mining Engineering Department at College of Engineering in NBU is under establishment. It is essential to establish such department in NBU. This is because, it is the only university in the region. Moreover, the mining industry is very active in the northern borders region. However, there is no mining engineering department in KSA except one in King Abdulziz University, which is 1400 km from the mining industry in the northern borders. As a result, department graduates from KAU find difficulties to get suitable jobs in their specialization in spite of their few numbers graduated per year and the presence of many jobs vacancies at the local mining sector. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to identify, measure and analyze the above mentioned problem from educational point of view. One more objective is to add a contribution towards solving such vital, society affecting problem. For achieving the first task of the research, that is problem size identification and analyses, a questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire was directed towards experienced engineers, in the mining and related industries, including the ministry of petroleum and minerals, Saudi Geological Survey, and Ma’aden Company as being prospective employers for the mining sector. The questionnaire target was to evaluate the Saudi mining engineers from an industrial point of view and to detect the main reasons behind their failure to find jobs. In addition, the study focuses in the demand of mining engineers in the northern borders region. Moreover, the study plan of the suggested department is designed based on the requirements of the mining industry. The feedback received from the industry reflected major educational shortcomings. In order to overcome the revealed defects, the second objective of the research was achieved where a suggested study plan “curriculum” has been prepared to take into consideration all the points of weakness so as to improve the graduates’ quality to fit the local mining work market.

Keywords: Mining Engineering, Curriculum, Labor Market, qualifications, mining industry, mining engineers

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1340 Crossing the Interdisciplinary Border: A Multidimensional Linguistics Analysis of a Legislative Discourse

Authors: Manvender Kaur Sarjit Singh

Abstract:

There is a crucial mismatch between classroom written language tasks and real world written language requirements. Realizing the importance of reducing the gap between the professional needs of the legal practitioners and the higher learning institutions that offer the legislative education in Malaysia, it is deemed necessary to develop a framework that integrates real-life written communication with the teaching of content-based legislative discourse to future legal practitioners. By highlighting the actual needs of the legal practitioners in the country, the present teaching practices will be enhanced and aligned with the actual needs of the learners thus realizing the vision and aspirations of the Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025 and Legal Profession Qualifying Board. The need to focus future education according to the actual needs of the learners can be realized by developing a teaching framework which is designed within the prospective requirements of its real-life context. This paper presents the steps taken to develop a specific teaching framework that fulfills the fundamental real-life context of the prospective legal practitioners. The teaching framework was developed based on real-life written communication from the legal profession in Malaysia, using the specific genre analysis approach which integrates a corpus-based approach and a structural linguistics analysis. This approach was adopted due to its fundamental nature of intensive exploration of the real-life written communication according to the established strategies used. The findings showed the use of specific moves and parts-of-speech by the legal practitioners, in order to prepare the selected genre. The teaching framework is hoped to enhance the teachings of content-based law courses offered at present in the higher learning institutions in Malaysia.

Keywords: Genre Analysis, corpus analysis, linguistics analysis, legislative discourse

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1339 System-Driven Design Process for Integrated Multifunctional Movable Concepts

Authors: Oliver Bertram, Leonel Akoto Chama

Abstract:

In today's civil transport aircraft, the design of flight control systems is based on the experience gained from previous aircraft configurations with a clear distinction between primary and secondary flight control functions for controlling the aircraft altitude and trajectory. Significant system improvements are now seen particularly in multifunctional moveable concepts where the flight control functions are no longer considered separate but integral. This allows new functions to be implemented in order to improve the overall aircraft performance. However, the classical design process of flight controls is sequential and insufficiently interdisciplinary. In particular, the systems discipline is involved only rudimentarily in the early phase. In many cases, the task of systems design is limited to meeting the requirements of the upstream disciplines, which may lead to integration problems later. For this reason, approaching design with an incremental development is required to reduce the risk of a complete redesign. Although the potential and the path to multifunctional moveable concepts are shown, the complete re-engineering of aircraft concepts with less classic moveable concepts is associated with a considerable risk for the design due to the lack of design methods. This represents an obstacle to major leaps in technology. This gap in state of the art is even further increased if, in the future, unconventional aircraft configurations shall be considered, where no reference data or architectures are available. This means that the use of the above-mentioned experience-based approach used for conventional configurations is limited and not applicable to the next generation of aircraft. In particular, there is a need for methods and tools for a rapid trade-off between new multifunctional flight control systems architectures. To close this gap in the state of the art, an integrated system-driven design process for multifunctional flight control systems of non-classical aircraft configurations will be presented. The overall goal of the design process is to find optimal solutions for single or combined target criteria in a fast process from the very large solution space for the flight control system. In contrast to the state of the art, all disciplines are involved for a holistic design in an integrated rather than a sequential process. To emphasize the systems discipline, this paper focuses on the methodology for designing moveable actuation systems in the context of this integrated design process of multifunctional moveables. The methodology includes different approaches for creating system architectures, component design methods as well as the necessary process outputs to evaluate the systems. An application example of a reference configuration is used to demonstrate the process and validate the results. For this, new unconventional hydraulic and electrical flight control system architectures are calculated which result from the higher requirements for multifunctional moveable concept. In addition to typical key performance indicators such as mass and required power requirements, the results regarding the feasibility and wing integration aspects of the system components are examined and discussed here. This is intended to show how the systems design can influence and drive the wing and overall aircraft design.

Keywords: Flight Control Surfaces, Actuation Systems, multi-functional movables, wing design process

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
1338 Effective Teaching Pyramid and Its Impact on Enhancing the Participation of Students in Swimming Classes

Authors: Salam M. H. Kareem

Abstract:

Instructional or teaching procedures and their proper sequence are essential for high-quality learning outcomes. These actions are the path that the teacher takes during the learning process after setting the learning objectives. Teachers and specialists in the education field should include teaching procedures with putting in place an effective mechanism for the procedure’s implementation to achieve a logical sequence with the desired output of overall education process. Determining the sequence of these actions may be a strategic process outlined by a strategic educational plan or drawn by teachers with a high level of experience, enabling them to determine those logical procedures. While specific actions may be necessary for a specific form, many Physical Education (PE) teachers can work out on various sports disciplines. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of using the teaching sequence of the teaching pyramid in raising the level of enjoyment in swimming classes. Four months later of teaching swimming skills to the control and experimental groups of the study, we figured that using the tools shown in the teaching pyramid with the experimental group led to statistically significant differences in the positive tendencies of students to participate in the swimming classes by using the traditional procedures of teaching and using of successive procedures in the teaching pyramid, and in favor of the teaching pyramid, The students are influenced by enhancing their tendency to participate in swimming classes when the teaching procedures followed are sensitive to individual differences and are based on the element of pleasure in learning, and less positive levels of the tendency of students when using traditional teaching procedures, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform. The level of positive tendencies of students when using successive procedures in the teaching pyramid was increased, by getting the level of skills' requirements higher and more difficult to perform, because of the high level of motivation and the desire to challenge the self-provided by the teaching pyramid.

Keywords: Physical Education, teaching process, swimming classes, teaching pyramid

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1337 Capacity Oversizing for Infrastructure Sharing Synergies: A Game Theoretic Analysis

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) rely on two basic modes of cooperation between organizations that are infrastructure/service sharing and resource substitution (the use of waste materials, fatal energy and recirculated utilities for production). The former consists in the intensification of use of an asset and thus requires to compare the incremental investment cost to be incurred and the stand-alone cost faced by each potential participant to satisfy its own requirements. In order to investigate the way such a cooperation mode can be implemented we formulate a game theoretic model integrating the grassroot investment decision and the ex-post access pricing problem. In the first period two actors set cooperatively (resp. non-cooperatively) a level of common (resp. individual) infrastructure capacity oversizing to attract ex-post a potential entrant with a plug-and-play offer (available capacity, tariff). The entrant’s requirement is randomly distributed and known only after investments took place. Capacity cost exhibits sub-additive property so that there is room for profitable overcapacity setting in the first period under some conditions that we derive. The entrant willingness-to-pay for the access to the infrastructure is driven by both her standalone cost and the complement cost to be incurred in case she chooses to access an infrastructure whose the available capacity is lower than her requirement level. The expected complement cost function is thus derived, and we show that it is decreasing, convex and shaped by the entrant’s requirements distribution function. For both uniform and triangular distributions optimal capacity level is obtained in the cooperative setting and equilibrium levels are determined in the non-cooperative case. Regarding the latter, we show that competition is deterred by the first period investor with the highest requirement level. Using the non-cooperative game outcomes which gives lower bounds for the profit sharing problem in the cooperative one we solve the whole game and describe situations supporting sharing agreements.

Keywords: cooperation, Capacity, Pricing, Industrial Symbiosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1336 Exchanging Radiology Reporting System with Electronic Health Record: Designing a Conceptual Model

Authors: Azadeh Bashiri

Abstract:

Introduction: In order to better designing of electronic health record system in Iran, integration of health information systems based on a common language must be done to interpret and exchange this information with this system is required. Background: This study, provides a conceptual model of radiology reporting system using unified modeling language. The proposed model can solve the problem of integration this information system with electronic health record system. By using this model and design its service based, easily connect to electronic health record in Iran and facilitate transfer radiology report data. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013. The student community was 22 experts that working at the Imaging Center in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran and the sample was accorded with the community. Research tool was a questionnaire that prepared by the researcher to determine the information requirements. Content validity and test-retest method was used to measure validity and reliability of questioner respectively. Data analyzed with average index, using SPSS. Also, Visual Paradigm software was used to design a conceptual model. Result: Based on the requirements assessment of experts and related texts, administrative, demographic and clinical data and radiological examination results and if the anesthesia procedure performed, anesthesia data suggested as minimum data set for radiology report and based it class diagram designed. Also by identifying radiology reporting system process, use case was drawn. Conclusion: According to the application of radiology reports in electronic health record system for diagnosing and managing of clinical problem of the patient, provide the conceptual Model for radiology reporting system; in order to systematically design it, the problem of data sharing between these systems and electronic health records system would eliminate.

Keywords: Minimum data set, information needs, structured radiology report, electronic health record system in Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1335 Contrasting Infrastructure Sharing and Resource Substitution Synergies Business Models

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) rely on two modes of cooperation that are infrastructure sharing and resource substitution to obtain economic and environmental benefits. The former consists in the intensification of use of an asset while the latter is based on the use of waste, fatal energy (and utilities) as alternatives to standard inputs. Both modes, in fact, rely on the shift from a business-as-usual functioning towards an alternative production system structure so that in a business point of view the distinction is not clear. In order to investigate the way those cooperation modes can be distinguished, we consider the stakeholders' interplay in the business model structure regarding their resources and requirements. For infrastructure sharing (following economic engineering literature) the cost function of capacity induces economies of scale so that demand pooling reduces global expanses. Grassroot investment sizing decision and the ex-post pricing strongly depends on the design optimization phase for capacity sizing whereas ex-post operational cost sharing minimizing budgets are less dependent upon production rates. Value is then mainly design driven. For resource substitution, synergies value stems from availability and is at risk regarding both supplier and user load profiles and market prices of the standard input. Baseline input purchasing cost reduction is thus more driven by the operational phase of the symbiosis and must be analyzed within the whole sourcing policy (including diversification strategies and expensive back-up replacement). Moreover, while resource substitution involves a chain of intermediate processors to match quality requirements, the infrastructure model relies on a single operator whose competencies allow to produce non-rival goods. Transaction costs appear higher in resource substitution synergies due to the high level of customization which induces asset specificity, and non-homogeneity following transaction costs economics arguments.

Keywords: Capacity, Business Model, sourcing, synergies

Procedia PDF Downloads 71