Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: rendering

118 Neural Rendering Applied to Confocal Microscopy Images

Authors: Daniel Li

Abstract:

We present a novel application of neural rendering methods to confocal microscopy. Neural rendering and implicit neural representations have developed at a remarkable pace, and are prevalent in modern 3D computer vision literature. However, they have not yet been applied to optical microscopy, an important imaging field where 3D volume information may be heavily sought after. In this paper, we employ neural rendering on confocal microscopy focus stack data and share the results. We highlight the benefits and potential of adding neural rendering to the toolkit of microscopy image processing techniques.

Keywords: neural rendering, implicit neural representations, confocal microscopy, medical image processing

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117 The Influence of Project-Based Learning and Outcome-Based Education: Interior Design Tertiary Students in Focus

Authors: Omneya Messallam

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Technology has been developed dramatically in most of the educational disciplines. For instance, digital rendering subject, which is being taught in both Interior and Architecture fields, is witnessing almost annually updated software versions. A lot of students and educators argued that there will be no need for manual rendering techniques to be learned. Therefore, the Interior Design Visual Presentation 1 course (ID133) has been chosen from the first level of the Interior Design (ID) undergraduate program, as it has been taught for six years continually. This time frame will facilitate sound observation and critical analysis of the use of appropriate teaching methodologies. Furthermore, the researcher believes in the high value of the manual rendering techniques. The course objectives are: to define the basic visual rendering principles, to recall theories and uses of various types of colours and hatches, to raise the learners’ awareness of the value of studying manual render techniques, and to prepare them to present their work professionally. The students are female Arab learners aged between 17 and 20. At the outset of the course, the majority of them demonstrated negative attitude, lacking both motivation and confidence in manual rendering skills. This paper is a reflective appraisal of deploying two student-centred teaching pedagogies which are: Project-based learning (PBL) and Outcome-based education (OBE) on ID133 students. This research aims of developing some teaching strategies to enhance the quality of teaching in this given course over an academic semester. The outcome of this research emphasized the positive influence of applying such educational methods on improving the quality of students’ manual rendering skills in terms of: materials, textiles, textures, lighting, and shade and shadow. Furthermore, it greatly motivated the students and raised the awareness of the importance of learning the manual rendering techniques.

Keywords: project-based learning, outcome-based education, visual presentation, manual render, personal competences

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116 The Effect of System Parameters on the Biogas Production from Poultry Rendering Plant Anaerobic Digesters

Authors: N. Lovanh, J. Loughrin, G. Ruiz-Aguilar

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Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system parameters on methane production from anaerobic digesters utilizing poultry rendering plant wastewater was carried out. Anaerobic batch reactors and continuous flow system subjected to different operation conditions (i.e., flow rate, temperature, and etc.) containing poultry rendering wastewater were set up to evaluate methane potential from each scenario. Biogas productions were sampled and monitored by gas chromatography and photoacoustic gas analyzer over six months of operation. The results showed that methane productions increased as the temperature increased. However, there is an upper limit to the increase in the temperature on the methane production. Flow rates and type of systems (batch vs. plug-flow regime) also had a major effect on methane production. Constant biogas production was observed in plug-flow system whereas batch system produced biogas quicker and tapering off toward the end of the six-month study. Based on these results, it is paramount to consider operating conditions and system setup in optimizing biogas production from agricultural wastewater.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, methane, poultry rendering wastewater, biotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
115 A Fast Silhouette Detection Algorithm for Shadow Volumes in Augmented Reality

Authors: Hoshang Kolivand, Mahyar Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Mohd Azhar M. Arsad

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Real-time shadow generation in virtual environments and Augmented Reality (AR) was always a hot topic in the last three decades. Lots of calculation for shadow generation among AR needs a fast algorithm to overcome this issue and to be capable of implementing in any real-time rendering. In this paper, a silhouette detection algorithm is presented to generate shadows for AR systems. Δ+ algorithm is presented based on extending edges of occluders to recognize which edges are silhouettes in the case of real-time rendering. An accurate comparison between the proposed algorithm and current algorithms in silhouette detection is done to show the reduction calculation by presented algorithm. The algorithm is tested in both virtual environments and AR systems. We think that this algorithm has the potential to be a fundamental algorithm for shadow generation in all complex environments.

Keywords: silhouette detection, shadow volumes, real-time shadows, rendering, augmented reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
114 Gaming Tools for Efficient Low Cost Urban Planning Using Nature Based Solutions

Authors: Ioannis Kavouras, Eftychios Protopapadakis, Emmanuel Sardis, Anastasios Doulamis

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In this paper, we investigate the appropriateness and usability of three different free and open-source rendering tools for urban planning visualizations. The process involves the selection of a map area, the 3D rendering transformation, the addition of nature-based solution placement, and the evaluation and assessment of the suggested applied interventions. The manuscript uses a case study involved at Dilaveri Coast, Piraeus region, Greece. Research outcomes indicate that a Blender-OSM implementation is an appropriate tool capable of supporting high-fidelity urban planning, with quick and accurate visibility of related results for end users and involved in NBS transformations.

Keywords: urban planning, nature based solution, 3D gaming tools, game engine, free and open source

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113 A Review on Light Shafts Rendering for Indoor Scenes

Authors: Hatam H. Ali, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Azhar Bin M. Arsad

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Rendering light shafts is one of the important topics in computer gaming and interactive applications. The methods and models that are used to generate light shafts play crucial role to make a scene more realistic in computer graphics. This article discusses the image-based shadows and geometric-based shadows that contribute in generating volumetric shadows and light shafts, depending on ray tracing, radiosity, and ray marching technique. The main aim of this study is to provide researchers with background on a progress of light scattering methods so as to make it available for them to determine the technique best suited to their goals. It is also hoped that our classification helps researchers find solutions to the shortcomings of each method.

Keywords: shaft of lights, realistic images, image-based, and geometric-based

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112 Effects of Crushed Waste Aggregate from the Manufacture of Clay Bricks on Rendering Cement Mortar Performance

Authors: Benmalek M. Larbi, R. Harbi, S. Boukor

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This paper reports an experimental work that aimed to investigate the effects of clay brick waste, as part of fine aggregate, on rendering mortar performance. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that was rejected due to being of-standard. It was used to replace 33.33 %, 50 %, 66.66 % and 100 % by weight of the quarry sand in mortar. Effects of the brick replacement on the mortar key properties intended for wall plastering were investigated; these are workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption by total immersion and by capillary suction. The results showed that as the brick replacement level increased, the mortar workability reduced. The linear shrinkage increases over time and decreases with the introduction of brick waste. The compressive and flexural strengths decrease with the increase of brick waste because of their great water absorption.

Keywords: clay brick waste, mortar, properties, quarry sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
111 Android Graphics System: Study of Dual-Software VSync Synchronization Architecture and Optimization

Authors: Prafulla Kumar Choubey, Krishna Kishor Jha, S. B. Vaisakh Punnekkattu Chirayil

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In Graphics-display subsystem, frame buffers are shared between producer i.e. content rendering and consumer i.e. display. If a common buffer is operated by both producer and consumer simultaneously, their processing rates mismatch can cause tearing effect in displayed content. Therefore, Android OS employs triple buffered system, taking in to account an additional composition stage. Three stages-rendering, composition and display refresh, operate synchronously on three different buffers, which is achieved by using vsync pulses. This synchronization, however, brings in to the pipeline an additional latency of up to 26ms. The present study details about the existing synchronization mechanism of android graphics-display pipeline and discusses a new adaptive architecture which reduces the wait time to 5ms-16ms in all the use-cases. The proposed method uses two adaptive software vsyncs (PLL) for achieving the same result.

Keywords: Android graphics system, vertical synchronization, atrace, adaptive system

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110 Carnatic Music Ragas and Their Role in Music Therapy

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

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Raga, as the soul and base, is a distinctive musical entity, in the music system, with unique structure on its construction of srutis (musical sounds) and application. One of the essential components of the music system is the ‘tala’ that defines the rhythm of a song. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da and Ni in the carnatic music system that are analogous to the C, D, E, F, G, A and B of the western system. The carnatic music further builds on conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation) and rendering styles. It has basic 72 ragas known as melakarta ragas, and a plethora of ragas have been developed from them with permutations and combinations of the basic swaras. Among them, some ragas derived from a same melakarta raga are distinctly different from each other and could evoke a profound difference in the raga bhava (emotion) during rendering. Although these could bear similar arohana and avarohana swaras, their quintessential differences in the gamakas usage and srutis present therein offer varied melodic feelings; variations in the intonation and stress given to certain swara phrases are the root causes. This article enlightens a group of such allied ragas (AR) from the perspectives of their schema and raga alapana (improvisation), ranjaka prayogas (signature phrases), differences in rendering tempo, gamakas and delicate srutis along with the range of sancharas (musical phrases). The intricate differences on the sruti frequencies and use of AR in composing kritis (musical compositions) toward emotive accomplishments such as mood of valor, kindness, love, humor, anger, mercy to name few, have also been explored. A brief review on the existing scientific research on the music therapy on some of the Carnatic ragas is presented. Studying and comprehending the AR, indeed, enable the music aspirants to gain a thorough knowledge on the subtle nuances among the ragas. Such knowledge helps leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners and enable further research on the music therapy.

Keywords: Carnatic music, allied ragas, melakarta, gamakam

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109 Virtual 3D Environments for Image-Based Navigation Algorithms

Authors: V. B. Bastos, M. P. Lima, P. R. G. Kurka

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This paper applies to the creation of virtual 3D environments for the study and development of mobile robot image based navigation algorithms and techniques, which need to operate robustly and efficiently. The test of these algorithms can be performed in a physical way, from conducting experiments on a prototype, or by numerical simulations. Current simulation platforms for robotic applications do not have flexible and updated models for image rendering, being unable to reproduce complex light effects and materials. Thus, it is necessary to create a test platform that integrates sophisticated simulated applications of real environments for navigation, with data and image processing. This work proposes the development of a high-level platform for building 3D model’s environments and the test of image-based navigation algorithms for mobile robots. Techniques were used for applying texture and lighting effects in order to accurately represent the generation of rendered images regarding the real world version. The application will integrate image processing scripts, trajectory control, dynamic modeling and simulation techniques for physics representation and picture rendering with the open source 3D creation suite - Blender.

Keywords: simulation, visual navigation, mobile robot, data visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
108 An Improved Multiple Scattering Reflectance Model Based on Specular V-Cavity

Authors: Hongbin Yang, Mingxue Liao, Changwen Zheng, Mengyao Kong, Chaohui Liu

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Microfacet-based reflection models are widely used to model light reflections for rough surfaces. Microfacet models have become the standard surface material building block for describing specular components with varying roughness; and yet, while they possess many desirable properties as well as produce convincing results, their design ignores important sources of scattering, which can cause a significant loss of energy. Specifically, they only simulate the single scattering on the microfacets and ignore the subsequent interactions. As the roughness increases, the interaction will become more and more important. So a multiple-scattering microfacet model based on specular V-cavity is presented for this important open problem. However, it spends much unnecessary rendering time because of setting the same number of scatterings for different roughness surfaces. In this paper, we design a geometric attenuation term G to compute the BRDF (Bidirectional reflection distribution function) of multiple scattering of rough surfaces. Moreover, we consider determining the number of scattering by deterministic heuristics for different roughness surfaces. As a result, our model produces a similar appearance of the objects with the state of the art model with significantly improved rendering efficiency. Finally, we derive a multiple scattering BRDF based on the original microfacet framework.

Keywords: bidirectional reflection distribution function, BRDF, geometric attenuation term, multiple scattering, V-cavity model

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107 Rendering of Indian History: A Study Based on Select Graphic Novels

Authors: Akhila Sara Varughese

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In the postmodern society, visual narratives became an emerging genre in the field of literature. Graphic literature focuses on the literal and symbolic layer of interpretation. The most salient feature of graphic literature is its exploration of the public history of events and life narratives. The Indian graphic literature re-interprets the canon, style and the form of texts in Indian Writing in English and it demands a new literacy and the structure of the English literature. With the help of visual-verbal language, the graphic narratives discuss various facets of contemporary India. Graphic novels have firmly identified itself with the art of storytelling because of its capability of expressing human experiences to the most. In the textual novels, the author usually deserts the imagination of the readers, but in the case of graphic narratives, due to the presence of visual elements, the interpretation becomes simpler. India is the second most populous country in the world with a long tradition of history and culture. Indian literature always tries to reconstruct Indian history in various modes of representation. The present paper focuses on the fictional articulation of Indian history through the graphic narratives and analyses how some historical events in India portrays. The paper also traces the differences in rendering the history in graphic novels with that of textual novels. The paper discusses how much the blending of words and images helps in represent the Indian history by analyzing the graphic novels like Kashmir Pending by Naseer Ahmed, Delhi Calm by Vishwajyoti Ghosh and Munnu by Malik Sajad.

Keywords: graphic novels, Indian history, representation, visual-verbal literacy

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106 Rendering Religious References in English: Naguib Mahfouz in the Arabic as a Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Shereen Yehia El Ezabi

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The transition from the advanced to the superior level of Arabic proficiency is widely known to pose considerable challenges for English speaking students of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL). Apart from the increasing complexity of the grammar at this juncture, together with the sprawling vocabulary, to name but two of those challenges, there is also the somewhat less studied hurdle along the way to superior level proficiency, namely, the seeming opacity of many aspects of Arab/ic culture to such learners. This presentation tackles one specific dimension of such issues: religious references in literary texts. It illustrates how carefully constructed translation activities may be used to expand and deepen students’ understanding and use of them. This is shown to be vital for making the leap to the desired competency, given that such elements, as reflected in customs, traditions, institutions, worldviews, and formulaic expressions lie at the very core of Arabic culture and, as such, pervade all modes and levels of Arabic discourse. A short story from the collection “Stories from Our Alley”, by preeminent novelist Naguib Mahfouz is selected for use in this context, being particularly replete with such religious references, of which religious expressions will form the focus of the presentation. As a miniature literary work, it provides an organic whole, so to speak, within which to explore with the class the most precise denotation, as well as the subtlest connotation of each expression in an effort to reach the ‘best’ English rendering. The term ‘best’ refers to approximating the meaning in its full complexity from the source text, in this case Arabic, to the target text, English, according to the concept of equivalence in translation theory. The presentation will show how such a process generates the sort of thorough discussion and close text analysis which allows students to gain valuable insight into this central idiom of Arabic. A variety of translation methods will be highlighted, gleaned from the presenter’s extensive work with advanced/superior students in the Center for Arabic Study Abroad (CASA) program at the American University in Cairo. These begin with the literal rendering of expressions, with the purpose of reinforcing vocabulary learning and practicing the rules of derivational morphology as they form each word, since the larger context remains that of an AFL class, as opposed to a translation skills program. However, departures from the literal approach are subsequently explored by degrees, moving along the spectrum of functional and pragmatic freer translations in order to transmit the ‘real’ meaning in readable English to the target audience- no matter how culture/religion specific the expression- while remaining faithful to the original. Samples from students’ work pre and post discussion will be shared, demonstrating how class consensus is formed as to the final English rendering, proposed as the closest match to the Arabic, and shown to be the result of the above activities. Finally, a few examples of translation work which students have gone on to publish will be shared to corroborate the effectiveness of this teaching practice.

Keywords: superior level proficiency in Arabic as a foreign language, teaching Arabic as a foreign language, teaching idiomatic expressions, translation in foreign language teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
105 Manodharmam: A Scientific Methodology for Improvisation and Cognition in Carnatic Music

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev

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Music is ubiquitous in human lives. Ever since the fetus hears the sound inside the mother’s womb and later upon birth, the baby experiences alluring sounds, the curiosity of learning emanates and evokes exploration. Music is an education than mere entertainment. The intricate balance between music, education, and entertainment has well been recognized by the scientific community and is being explored as a viable tool to understand and improve human cognition. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, and Ni in the Carnatic music system that are analogous to C, D, E, F, G, A, and B of the western system. The Carnatic music builds on the conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation), and rendering styles that evolved over centuries and established its stance. The complex but erudite raga system has been designed with elaborate experiments on srutis (musical sounds) and human perception abilities. In parallel, ‘rasa’- the emotions evoked by certain srutis and hence the ragas been solidified along with the power of language in combination with the musical sounds. The Carnatic music branches out as Kalpita sangeetam (pre-composed music) and Manodharma sangeetam (improvised music). This article explores the Manodharma sangeetam and its subdivisions such as raga alapana, swara kalpana, neraval, and ragam-tanam-pallavi (RTP). The intrinsic mathematical strategies in it’s practice methods toward improvising the music have been explored in detail with concert examples. The techniques on swara weaving for swara kalpana rendering and methods on the alapana development are also discussed at length with an emphasis on the impact on the human cognitive abilities. The articulation of the outlined conscious practice methods not only helps to leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners but also onsets cognitive developments.

Keywords: Carnatic, Manodharmam, music cognition, Alapana

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
104 Death of the Author and Birth of the Adapter in a Literary Work

Authors: Slwa Al-Hammad

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Adaptation studies have been closely aligned to translation studies as both deal with the process of rendering the meaning from one culture to another. These two disciplines are related to each other, but the theories are still being developed. This research aims to fill this gap and provide a contribution to the growing discipline of adaptation studies through a theoretical perspective while investigating how different cultural interpretations of adaptation influence the final literary product. This research focuses on the theoretical concepts of Barthes’s death of the author and Benjamin’s afterlife of the text in translation, which is believed to lead to the birth of the adapter in a literary work. That is, in adaptation, the ‘death’ of the author allows for the ‘birth’ of the adapter, offering them all the creative possibilities of authorship. It also explores the differences between the meanings of adaptation in the West and the Arab world through the analysis of adapted texts in Arabic initially deriving from the European and American literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. The methodology of this thesis is based upon qualitative literary analysis, in which original and adapted works are compared and contrasted, with the additional insights of literary and adaptation theories and prior scholarship. The main works discussed are the Arabic adaptations of William Faulkner’s novels. The analysis is guided by theories of adaptation studies to help in explaining the concepts of relocating, recreating, and rewriting in the process of adaptation. It draws on scholarship on adaptations to inquire into the status of the adapted texts in relation to the original texts. Also, these theories prove that adaptation is the process that is used to transfer text from source to adapted text, not some other analytical practice. Through the textual analysis, concepts of the death of the author and the birth of the adapter will be illustrated, as will the roles of the adapter and the task of rendering works for a different culture, and the understanding of adaptation and Arabization in Arabic literature.

Keywords: adaptation, Arabization, authorship, recreating, relocating

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103 Dry-Extrusion of Asian Carp, a Sustainable Source of Natural Methionine for Organic Poultry Production

Authors: I. Upadhyaya, K. Arsi, A. M. Donoghue, C. N. Coon, M. Schlumbohm, M. N. Riaz, M. B. Farnell, A. Upadhyay, A. J. Davis, D. J. Donoghue

Abstract:

Methionine, a sulfur containing amino acid, is essential for healthy poultry production. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry. However, for organic poultry, a natural, cost effective source of methionine that can replace synthetic methionine is unavailable. Invasive Asian carp (AC) are a potential natural methionine source; however, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish methionine. Commercially available rendering is environmentally challenging due to the offensive smell produced during production. We explored extrusion technology as a potential cost effective alternative to fish rendering. We also determined the amino acid composition, digestible amino acids and total metabolizable energy (TMEn) for the extruded AC fish meal. Dry extrusion of AC was carried out by mixing the fish with soybean meal (SBM) in a 1:1 proportion to reduce high moisture in the fishmeal using an Insta Pro Jr. dry extruder followed by drying and grinding of the product. To determine the digestible amino acids and TMEn of the extruded product, a colony of cecectomized Bovans White Roosters was used. Adult roosters (48 weeks of age) were fasted for 30 h and tube fed 35 grams of 3 treatments: (1) extruded AC fish meal, (2) SBM and (3) corn. Excreta from each individual bird was collected for the next 48 h. An additional 10 unfed roosters served as endogenous controls. The gross energy and protein content of the feces from the treatments were determined to calculate the TMEn. Fecal samples and treatment feeds were analyzed for amino acid content and percent digestible amino acid. Results from the analysis suggested that addition of Asian carp increased the methionine content of SBM from 0.63 to 0.83%. Also, the digestibility of amino acid and the TMEn values were greater for the AC meal with SBM than SBM alone. The dry extruded AC meal analysis is indicative that the product can replace SBM alone and enhance natural methionine in a standard poultry ration. The results from feed formulation using different concentrations of the AC fish meal depict a potential diet which can supplement the required methionine content in organic poultry production.

Keywords: Asian carp, extrusion, natural methionine, organic poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
102 The Contract for Educational Services: Civil and Administrative Aspects

Authors: Yuliya Leonidovna Kiva-Khamzina

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The legal nature of the contract for educational services causes a lot of controversies. In particular, it raises the question about industry sector relationships, which require making a contract for educational services. The article describes the different types of contracts classifications for services provision from the perspective of civil law, deals with the specifics of the contract on rendering educational services; the author makes the conclusion that the contract for the provision of educational services is a complex institution that includes elements of the civil and administrative law. The following methods were used to conduct the study: dialectical method of cognition, the historical method, systemic analysis, classification.

Keywords: administrative aspect, civil aspect, educational service, industry, legal nature, services provision

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
101 Incorporating Chinese Calligraphic Concept in 3D Space

Authors: Woon Lam Ng.

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This paper explores the basic structures of Chinese calligraphy brushwork, its textures, its characteristic forms, and how its strength can be incorporated into 3d animation. It investigates how these structures could create visual simplification and suggest movement. The conceptual difference between realistic rendering and the Chinese calligraphic concept of simplification is discussed. With the help of the Python programmable environment in Maya, the concept of Chinese calligraphy in 3d space and its idea of visual simplification and abstraction were explored. The work demonstrates how the Chinese calligraphic brushwork could suggest the dynamics of motion in 3d space. Some limitations of the Maya emitting process are also discussed. Possible further explorations through additional mathematical adjustments to the selected Maya shader are also suggested to enhance the presentation.

Keywords: calligraphy, brushwork, dynamics, movements

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100 Strong Antiferromagnetic Super Exchange in AgF2

Authors: Wojciech Grochala

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AgF2 is an important two-dimensional antiferromagnet and an analogue of [CuO2]2– sheet. However, the strength of magnetic superexchange as well as magnetic dimensionality have not been explored before . Here we report our recent Raman and neutron scattering experiments which led to better understanding of the magnetic properties of the title compound. It turns out that intra-sheet magnetic superexchange constant reaches 70 meV, thus some 2/3 of the value measured for parent compounds of oxocuprate superconductors which is over 100 meV. The ratio of intra-to-inter-sheet superexchange constants is of the order of 102 rendering AgF2 a quasi-2D material, similar to the said oxocuprates. The quantum mechanical calculations reproduce the abovementioned values quite well and they point out to substantial covalence of the Ag–F bonding. After 3 decades of intense research on layered oxocuprates, AgF2 now stands as a second-to-none analogue of these fascinating systems. It remains to be seen whether this 012 parent compound may be doped in order to achieve superconductivity.

Keywords: antiferromagnets, superexchange, silver, fluorine

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99 Patterns of TV Simultaneous Interpreting of Emotive Overtones in Trump’s Victory Speech from English into Arabic

Authors: Hanan Al-Jabri

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Simultaneous interpreting is deemed to be the most challenging mode of interpreting by many scholars. The special constraints involved in this task including time constraints, different linguistic systems, and stress pose a great challenge to most interpreters. These constraints are likely to maximise when the interpreting task is done live on TV. The TV interpreter is exposed to a wide variety of audiences with different backgrounds and needs and is mostly asked to interpret high profile tasks which raise his/her levels of stress, which further complicate the task. Under these constraints, which require fast and efficient performance, TV interpreters of four TV channels were asked to render Trump's victory speech into Arabic. However, they had also to deal with the burden of rendering English emotive overtones employed by the speaker into a whole different linguistic system. The current study aims at investigating the way TV interpreters, who worked in the simultaneous mode, handled this task; it aims at exploring and evaluating the TV interpreters’ linguistic choices and whether the original emotive effect was maintained, upgraded, downgraded or abandoned in their renditions. It also aims at exploring the possible difficulties and challenges that emerged during this process and might have influenced the interpreters’ linguistic choices. To achieve its aims, the study analysed Trump’s victory speech delivered on November 6, 2016, along with four Arabic simultaneous interpretations produced by four TV channels: Al-Jazeera, RT, CBC News, and France 24. The analysis of the study relied on two frameworks: a macro and a micro framework. The former presents an overview of the wider context of the English speech as well as an overview of the speaker and his political background to help understand the linguistic choices he made in the speech, and the latter framework investigates the linguistic tools which were employed by the speaker to stir people’s emotions. These tools were investigated based on Shamaa’s (1978) classification of emotive meaning according to their linguistic level: phonological, morphological, syntactic, and semantic and lexical levels. Moreover, this level investigates the patterns of rendition which were detected in the Arabic deliveries. The results of the study identified different rendition patterns in the Arabic deliveries, including parallel rendition, approximation, condensation, elaboration, transformation, expansion, generalisation, explicitation, paraphrase, and omission. The emerging patterns, as suggested by the analysis, were influenced by factors such as speedy and continuous delivery of some stretches, and highly-dense segments among other factors. The study aims to contribute to a better understanding of TV simultaneous interpreting between English and Arabic, as well as the practices of TV interpreters when rendering emotiveness especially that little is known about interpreting practices in the field of TV, particularly between Arabic and English.

Keywords: emotive overtones, interpreting strategies, political speeches, TV interpreting

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98 Parallelization of Random Accessible Progressive Streaming of Compressed 3D Models over Web

Authors: Aayushi Somani, Siba P. Samal

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Three-dimensional (3D) meshes are data structures, which store geometric information of an object or scene, generally in the form of vertices and edges. Current technology in laser scanning and other geometric data acquisition technologies acquire high resolution sampling which leads to high resolution meshes. While high resolution meshes give better quality rendering and hence is used often, the processing, as well as storage of 3D meshes, is currently resource-intensive. At the same time, web applications for data processing have become ubiquitous owing to their accessibility. For 3D meshes, the advancement of 3D web technologies, such as WebGL, WebVR, has enabled high fidelity rendering of huge meshes. However, there exists a gap in ability to stream huge meshes to a native client and browser application due to high network latency. Also, there is an inherent delay of loading WebGL pages due to large and complex models. The focus of our work is to identify the challenges faced when such meshes are streamed into and processed on hand-held devices, owing to its limited resources. One of the solutions that are conventionally used in the graphics community to alleviate resource limitations is mesh compression. Our approach deals with a two-step approach for random accessible progressive compression and its parallel implementation. The first step includes partition of the original mesh to multiple sub-meshes, and then we invoke data parallelism on these sub-meshes for its compression. Subsequent threaded decompression logic is implemented inside the Web Browser Engine with modification of WebGL implementation in Chromium open source engine. This concept can be used to completely revolutionize the way e-commerce and Virtual Reality technology works for consumer electronic devices. These objects can be compressed in the server and can be transmitted over the network. The progressive decompression can be performed on the client device and rendered. Multiple views currently used in e-commerce sites for viewing the same product from different angles can be replaced by a single progressive model for better UX and smoother user experience. Can also be used in WebVR for commonly and most widely used activities like virtual reality shopping, watching movies and playing games. Our experiments and comparison with existing techniques show encouraging results in terms of latency (compressed size is ~10-15% of the original mesh), processing time (20-22% increase over serial implementation) and quality of user experience in web browser.

Keywords: 3D compression, 3D mesh, 3D web, chromium, client-server architecture, e-commerce, level of details, parallelization, progressive compression, WebGL, WebVR

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
97 Digitalised Welfare: Systems for Both Seeing and Working with Mess

Authors: Amelia Morris, Lizzie Coles-Kemp, Will Jones

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This paper examines how community welfare initiatives transform how individuals use and experience an ostensibly universal welfare system. This paper argues that the digitalisation of welfare overlooks the complex reality of being unemployed or in low-wage work, and erects digital barriers to accessing welfare. Utilising analysis of ethnographic research in food banks and community groups, the paper explores the ways that Universal Credit has not abolished face-to-face support, but relocated it to unofficial sites of welfare. The apparent efficiency and simplicity of the state’s digital welfare apparatus, therefore, is produced not by reducing the ‘messiness’ of welfare, but by rendering it invisible within the digital framework. Using the analysis of the study’s data, this paper recommends three principles of service design that would render the messiness visible to the state.

Keywords: welfare, digitalisation, food bank, Universal Credit

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96 Challenges of e-Service Adoption and Implementation in Nigeria: Lessons from Asia

Authors: Kazeem Oluwakemi Oseni, Kate Dingley

Abstract:

E-Service has moved from the usual manual and traditional way of rendering services to electronic service provision for the public and there are several reasons for implementing these services, Airline ticketing have gone from its manual traditional way to an intelligent web-driven service of purchasing. Many companies have seen their profits doubled through the use of online services in their operation and a typical example is Hewlett Packard (HP) which is rapidly transforming their after sales business into a profit generating e-service business unit. This paper will examine the various challenges confronting e-Service adoption and implementation in Nigeria and also analyse lessons learnt from e-Service adoption and implementation in Asia to see how it could be useful in Nigeria which is a lower middle income country. Based on the analysis of the online survey data. It has been identified that the public in Nigeria are much aware of e-Services but successful adoption and implementation have been the problems faced.

Keywords: e-government service, adoption, implementation, Nigeria, Asia

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95 Treatment with Triton-X 100: An Enhancement Approach for Cardboard Bioprocessing

Authors: Ahlam Said Al Azkawi, Nallusamy Sivakumar, Saif Nasser Al Bahri

Abstract:

Diverse approaches and pathways are under development with the determination to develop cellulosic biofuels and other bio-products eventually at commercial scale in “bio-refineries”; however, the key challenge is mainly the high level of complexity in processing the feedstock which is complicated and energy consuming. To overcome the complications in utilizing the naturally occurring lignocellulose biomass, using waste paper as a feedstock for bio-production may solve the problem. Besides being abundant and cheap, bioprocessing of waste paper has evolved in response to the public concern from rising landfill cost from shrinking landfill capacity. Cardboard (CB) is one of the major components of municipal solid waste and one of the most important items to recycle. Although 50-70% of cardboard constitute is known to be cellulose and hemicellulose, the presence of lignin around them cause hydrophobic cross-link which physically obstructs the hydrolysis by rendering it resistant to enzymatic cleavage. Therefore, pretreatment is required to disrupt this resistance and to enhance the exposure of the targeted carbohydrates to the hydrolytic enzymes. Several pretreatment approaches have been explored, and the best ones would be those can influence cellulose conversion rates and hydrolytic enzyme performance with minimal or less cost and downstream processes. One of the promising strategies in this field is the application of surfactants, especially non-ionic surfactants. In this study, triton-X 100 was used as surfactants to treat cardboard prior enzymatic hydrolysis and compare it with acid treatment using 0.1% H2SO4. The effect of the surfactant enhancement was evaluated through its effect on hydrolysis rate in respect to time in addition to evaluating the structural changes and modification by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and through compositional analysis. Further work was performed to produce ethanol from CB treated with triton-X 100 via separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The hydrolysis studies have demonstrated enhancement in saccharification by 35%. After 72 h of hydrolysis, a saccharification rate of 98% was achieved from CB enhanced with triton-X 100, while only 89 of saccharification achieved from acid pre-treated CB. At 120 h, the saccharification % exceeded 100 as reducing sugars continued to increase with time. This enhancement was not supported by any significant changes in the cardboard content as the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content remained same after treatment, but obvious structural changes were observed through SEM images. The cellulose fibers were clearly exposed with very less debris and deposits compared to cardboard without triton-X 100. The XRD pattern has also revealed the ability of the surfactant in removing calcium carbonate, a filler found in waste paper known to have negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose crystallinity without surfactant was 73.18% and reduced to 66.68% rendering it more amorphous and susceptible to enzymatic attack. Triton-X 100 has proved to effectively enhance CB hydrolysis and eventually had positive effect on the ethanol yield via SSF. Treating cardboard with only triton-X 100 was a sufficient treatment to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

Keywords: cardboard, enhancement, ethanol, hydrolysis, treatment, Triton-X 100

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94 Effect of Mercerization on Coconut Fiber Surface Condition

Authors: Sphiwe Simelane, Daniel Madyira

Abstract:

The use of natural fibers requires that they should be treated in preparation for their use in Natural Fiber-reinforced polymer composites. This paper reports on the effects of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment on the surface of coconut fibers. The fibers were subjected to 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% NaOH concentrations and soaked for 4 hours and thoroughly rinsed and allowed to dry in the open air for seven days, after which time they were dried in an oven for 30 minutes. Untreated and treated coconut fibers were observed under the Scanning Electron Microscope and it was noted that the surface structure of the fibers was modified differently by the different NaOH concentrations, and the resultant colour of the treated fibers got darker as the solution concentration increased, and the texture felt rougher to the touch as a result of the erosion of the fiber surface. Further, the increase in alkali concentration striped the surface of more constituents, thus exposing “pits” and other surface components rendering the surface rough.

Keywords: coconut fiber, scanning electron microscope, sodium hydroxide, surface treatment

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93 DURAFILE: A Collaborative Tool for Preserving Digital Media Files

Authors: Santiago Macho, Miquel Montaner, Raivo Ruusalepp, Ferran Candela, Xavier Tarres, Rando Rostok

Abstract:

During our lives, we generate a lot of personal information such as photos, music, text documents and videos that link us with our past. This data that used to be tangible is now digital information stored in our computers, which implies a software dependence to make them accessible in the future. Technology, however, constantly evolves and goes through regular shifts, quickly rendering various file formats obsolete. The need for accessing data in the future affects not only personal users but also organizations. In a digital environment, a reliable preservation plan and the ability to adapt to fast changing technology are essential for maintaining data collections in the long term. We present in this paper the European FP7 project called DURAFILE that provides the technology to preserve media files for personal users and organizations while maintaining their quality.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, digital preservation, social search, digital preservation plans

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92 Portable Hands-Free Process Assistant for Gas Turbine Maintenance

Authors: Elisabeth Brandenburg, Robert Woll, Rainer Stark

Abstract:

This paper presents how smart glasses and voice commands can be used for improving the maintenance process of industrial gas turbines. It presents the process of inspecting a gas turbine’s combustion chamber and how it is currently performed using a set of paper-based documents. In order to improve this process, a portable hands-free process assistance system has been conceived. In the following, it will be presented how the approach of user-centered design and the method of paper prototyping have been successfully applied in order to design a user interface and a corresponding workflow model that describes the possible interaction patterns between the user and the interface. The presented evaluation of these results suggests that the assistance system could help the user by rendering multiple manual activities obsolete, thus allowing him to work hands-free and to save time for generating protocols.

Keywords: paper prototyping, smart glasses, turbine maintenance, user centered design

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91 The Modern Paradigm Features of Social Management Based on Postindustrial Theory

Authors: Yulia Totskaya

Abstract:

Nowadays, society is in a postindustrial/informational phase of its development. Certain changes have occurred in different parts of society life as a result of the social reality transformations due to the influence of changes in the productive forces. As a result, the personality has received autonomy and independence, as in her or his hands appeared new means of production–information, knowledge, creativity. In such a society, there is a new middle class, which is called meritocratic. It consists of personalities, who are engaged in highly intelligent, creative work; who independently pursue their own well-being and status; who are active in the economic and social spheres. At the forefront there are such qualities as independence, commitment and self-actualization. This modern, intellectual and sovereign personality is no longer in need of care. The role of management has transformed from a paternalistic to the "service", which is aimed at creating the conditions for citizens’ self-realization to meet their needs through the rendering of public services. Such society alterations motivate the need to change the key parameters of social management, which are identified in this article on the basis of the postindustrial society key features.

Keywords: informational society, postindustrial society, postindustrial sociality, public services, social management

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90 Exploring Nanoformulations for Therapeutic Induction of Necroptosis

Authors: Tianjiao Chu, Carla Rios Luci, Christy Maksoudian, Ara Sargsian, Bella B. Manshian, Stefaan J. Soenen

Abstract:

Nanomaterials have gained high interest in their use as potent anticancer agents. Apart from delivering chemotherapeutic agents in order to reduce off-target effects, molecular agents have also been widely explored. The advances in our understanding of cell biology and cell death mechanisms1 has generated a broad library of potential therapeutic targets by siRNA, mRNA, or pDNA complexes. In the present study, we explore the ability of pDNA-polyplexes to induce tumor-specific necroptosis. This results in a cascade of effects, where immunogenic cell death potentiates anti-tumor immune responses and results in an influx of dendritic cells and cytotoxic T cells, rendering the tumor more amenable to immune checkpoint inhibition. This study aims to explore whether the induction of necroptosis in a subpopulation of tumor cells can be used to potentiate immune checkpoint inhibition studies.

Keywords: nanoparticle, MLKL, necroptosis, immunotherapy

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89 Enigmatic Identity and Alienated Self: Existential Analysis of Paul Auster's the Brooklyn Follies

Authors: Sapna Bhargav

Abstract:

Contemporary fiction is an intricate exercise where novelist acquires the role of a philosopher, a sociologist and a psychologist. The dilemma of fragmented self that a man experiences, is a crucial subject of contemporary fiction. Paul Auster's fiction is exemplary of the merger of Existentialism and Postmodernism, and while both of these movements insist on isolation of the self from all aspects of social affiliation, Auster's unique blend of these concepts presents man in a state which is not just alienated, but stranded in a desolate abyss, rendering even the release of death as questionable. The conundrums of the self is a compulsory consequence of the existentialist alienation that postmodern man is subjected to, and is further accentuated by the fact that existentialist freedom dictates that not only are one's actions not dictated by any form of external entity, but also the onus of one's destiny lies on an individual's own deeds. This paper will analyse Auster's The Brooklyn Follies from an Existentialist perspective, and will attempt to trace the alienation and identity conflicts of the Auster’s characters along with some of the common Austerian themes. An emphasis will be laid on the characters’ endeavour to reconstruct their lost self.

Keywords: alienation, existentialism, identity, postmodernism, self

Procedia PDF Downloads 383