Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: rectus abdominis

26 Comparison of Gestational Diabetes Influence on the Ultrastructure of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Women and Rats

Authors: Giovana Vesentini, Fernanda Piculo, Gabriela Marini, Debora Damasceno, Angelica Barbosa, Selma Martheus, Marilza Rudge


Problem statement: Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable, muscle fiber composition and size can respond to a variety of stimuli, such physiologic, as pregnancy, and metabolic abnormalities, as Diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to analyze the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the rectus abdominis muscle (RA), and to compare this changes in rats and women. Methods: Female Wistar rats were maintained under controlled conditions and distributed in Pregnant (P) and Long-term mild pregnant diabetic (LTMd) (n=3 r/group). Diabetes in rats was induced by streptozotocin (100mg/Kg, sc) on the first day of life, for a hyperglycemic state between 120-300 mg/dL in adult life. Female rats were mated overnight, at day 21 of pregnancy were anesthetized, and killed for the harvesting of maternal RA. Pregnant women who attended the Diabetes Prenatal Care Clinic of Botucatu Medical School were distributed in Pregnant non-diabetic (Pnd) and Gestational Diabetic (GDM) (n=3 w/group). The diagnosis of GDM was established according to ADA’s criteria (2016). The harvesting of RA was during the cesarean section. Transversal cross-sections of the RA of both women and rats were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Experiments of the Botucatu Medical School (Protocol Number 1003/2013) and by the Botucatu Medical School Ethical Committee for Human Research in Medical Sciences (CAAE: 41570815.0.0000.5411). Results: The photomicrographs of the RA of rats revealed disorganized Z lines, thinning sarcomeres, and a usual quantity of intermyofibrillar mitochondria in the P group. The LTMd group showed swollen sarcoplasmic reticulum, dilated T tubes and areas with sarcomere disruption. The ultrastructural analysis of Pnd non-diabetic women in the RA showed well-organized myofibrils forming intact sarcomeres, organized Z lines and a normal distribution of intermyofibrillar mitochondria. The GDM group revealed increase in intermyofibrillar mitochondria, areas with sarcomere disruption and increased lipid droplets. Conclusion: Pregnancy and diabetes induce adaptations in the ultrastructure of the rectus abdominis muscle for both women and rats, changing the architectural design of these tissues. However, in rats these changes are more severe maybe because, besides the high blood glucose levels, the quadrupedal animal may suffer an excessive mechanical tension during pregnancy by gravity. Probably, these findings may suggest that these alterations are a risk factor that contributes to the development of muscle dysfunction in women with GDM and may motivate treatment strategies in these patients.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, muscle dysfunction, pregnancy, rectus abdominis

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25 Electromyographic Analysis of Trunk Muscle Activity of Healthy Individuals While Catching a Ball on Three Different Seating Surfaces

Authors: Hanan H. ALQahtani, Karen Jones


Catching a ball during sitting is a functional exercise commonly used in rehabilitation to enhance trunk muscle activity. To progress this exercise, physiotherapists incorporate a Swiss ball or change seat height. However, no study has assessed the effect of different seating surfaces on trunk muscle activity while catching a ball. Objective: To investigate the effect of catching a ball during sitting on a Swiss ball, a low seat and a high seat on trunk muscle activity. Method: A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design was used. A total of 26 healthy participants (15 female and 11 male) performed three repetitions of catching a ball on each seating surface. Using surface electromyography (sEMG), the activity of the bilateral transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and lumbar multifidus (MF) was recorded. Trunk muscle activity was normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contraction and analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ .05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the activity of RA, TrA/IO, ES or MF between a low seat and a Swiss ball. However, the activity of the right and left ES on a low seat was significantly greater than on a high seat (p = .017 and p = .017, respectively). Conversely, the activity of the right and left RA on a high seat was significantly greater than on a low seat (p = .007 and p = .004, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that replacing a low seat with a Swiss ball while catching a ball is insufficient to increase trunk muscle activity, whereas changing the seat height could induce different trunk muscle activities. However, research conducted on patients is needed before translating these results into clinical settings.

Keywords: catching, electromyography, seating, trunk

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24 Long Standing Orbital Floor Fracture Repair: Case Report

Authors: Hisham A. Hashem, Sameh Galal, Bassem M. Moeshed


A 36 years old male patient presented to our unit with a history of motor-car accident from 7 months complaining of disfigurement and double vision. On examination and investigations, there was an orbital floor fracture in the left eye with inferior rectus muscle entrapment causing diplopia, dystopia and enophthalmos. Under general anesthesia, a sub-ciliary incision was performed, and the orbital floor fracture was repaired with a double layer Medpor sheet (30x50x15) with removing and freeing fibrosis that was present and freeing of the inferior rectus muscle. Remarkable improvement of the dystopia was noticed, however, there was a residual diplopia in upgaze and enophthalmos. He was then referred to a strabismologist, which upon examination found left hypotropia of 8 ΔD corrected by 8 ΔD base up prism and positive forced duction test on elevation and pseudoptosis. Under local anesthesia, a limbal incision approach with hangback 4mm recession of inferior rectus muscle was performed after identifying an inferior rectus muscle structure. Improvement was noted shortly postoperative with correction of both diplopia and pseudoptosis. Follow up after 1, 4 and 8 months was done showing a stable condition. Delayed surgery in cases of orbital floor fracture may still hold good results provided proper assessment of the case with management of each sign separately.

Keywords: diplopia, dystopia, late surgery, orbital floor fracture

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23 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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22 Rectus Sheath Block to Extend the Effectiveness of Post Operative Epidural Analgesia

Authors: Sugam Kale, Arif Uzair Bin Mohammed Roslan, Cindy Lee, Syed Beevee Mohammed Ismail


Preemptive analgesia is an established concept in the modern practice of anaesthesia. To be most effective, it is best instituted earlier than the surgical stimulus and should last beyond the offset of surgically induced pain till healing is complete. Whereas the start of afferent pain blockade with regional anaesthesia is common, its effect often falls short to cover the entire period of pain impulses making their way to CNS in the post-operative period. We tried to use a combination of two regional anaesthetic techniques used sequentially to overcome this handicap. Madam S., a 56 year old lady, was scheduled for elective surgery for pancreatic cancer. She underwent laparotomy and distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, and sigmoid colectomy. Surgery was expected to be extensive, and it was presumed that the standard pain relief with PCA with opiates and oral analgesics would not be adequate. After counselling the patient pre-operative about the technique of regional anaesthesia techniques, including epidural catheterization and rectus sheath catheter placement, their benefits, and potential complications, informed consent was obtained. Epidural catheter was placed awake, and general anaesthesia was then induced. Epidural infusion of local anaesthetics was started prior to surgical incision and was continued till 60 hours into the postoperative period. Before skin closure, the surgeons inserted commercially available rectus sheath catheters bilaterally along the midline incision used for laparotomy. After 46 hours post-op, local anaesthetic infusion via these was started as bridging while the epidural infusion rate was tapered off. The epidural catheter was removed at 75 hours. Elastomeric pumps were used to provide local anaesthetic infusion with the ability to vary infusion rates. Acute pain service followed up the patient’s vital signs and effectiveness of pain relief twice daily or more frequently as required. Rectus sheath catheters were removed 137 hours post-op. The patient had good post-op analgesia with the minimal additional analgesic requirement. For the most part, the visual analog score (VAS) for pain remained at 1-3 on a scale of 1 to 10. Haemodynamics remained stable, and surgical recovery was as expected. Minimal opiate requirement after an extensive laparotomy also translates to the early return of intestinal motility. Our experience was encouraging, and we are hoping to extend this combination of two regional anaesthetic techniques to patients undergoing similar surgeries. Epidural analgesia is denser and offers excellent pain relief for both visceral and somatic pain in the first few days after surgery. As the pain intensity grows weaker, rectus sheath block and oral analgesics provide almost the same degree of pain relief after the epidural catheter is removed. We discovered that the background infusion of local anaesthetic down the rectus sheath catherter largely reduced the requirement for other classes of analgesics. We aim to study this further with a larger patient cohort and hope that it may become an established clinical practice that benefits patients everywhere.

Keywords: rectus sheath, epidural infusion, post operative analgesia, elastomeric

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21 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar


Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.


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20 Reconstruction of Complex Post Oncologic Maxillectomy Defects

Authors: Vinay Kant Shankhdhar


Purpose: Maxillary defects are three dimensional and require complex bone and soft tissue reconstruction. Maxillary reconstruction using fibula osteocutaneous flaps in situation requiring orbital floor, orbital wall, palatal defects, and external skin, all at the same time require special planning and multiple osteotomies. We tried to improvise our reconstruction using multiple osteotomies and skin paddle designs for fibula and Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle. This study aims at discussing the planning and outcome in complex maxillary reconstructions using fibula flaps and soft tissue flaps with or without bone grafts. Material and Methods: From 2011 to 2017 a total of 129 Free fibula flaps were done, 67 required two or more struts, 164 Anterolateral Thigh Flaps, 11 Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery perforator flaps and 3 vertical rectus abdominis muscle flaps with iliac crest bone graft. The age range was 2 to 70 years. The reconstruction was evaluated based on the post-operative rehabilitation including orbital support (prevention of diplopia), oral diet, speech and cosmetic appearance. Results: The follow- up is from 5 years to 1 year. In this series, we observed that the common complications were the de-vascularisation of most distal segment of osteotomised fibula and native skin necrosis. Commonest area of breakdown is the medial canthal region. Plate exposure occurs most commonly at the pyriform sinus. There was extrusion of one non-vascularized bone graft. All these complications were noticed post-radiotherapy. Conclusions: The use of free fibula osteocutaneous flap gives very good results when only alveolar reconstruction is required. The reconstruction of orbital floor with extensive skin loss with post operative radiotherapy has maximum complication rate in long term follow up. A soft tissue flap with non vascularized bone graft may be the best option in such cases.

Keywords: maxilla reconstruction, fibula maxilla, post cancer maxillary reconstruction

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19 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin


Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: bridging exercise, electromyography, low back pain, lower limb exercise

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18 Acute Effects of Local Vibration on Muscle Activation, Metabolic and Hormone Responses

Authors: Zong Yan Cai, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Chih-Min Wu


The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of local vibration on muscle activation, metabolic and hormone responses. Totally 12 healthy, physically inactive, male adults participated in this study and completed LV exercise session. During LV exercise session, four custom-made vibrations (diameter: 20 mm; thickness: 8 mm; weight: 0.022 g) were locally placed over the belly of the thigh of each subject’s non-dominant leg in supine lying position, and subjects received 10 sets for 1 min at the frequency of 35-40Hz, with 1–2 min of rest between sets. The surface electromyography (EMG) were obtained from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris, and the subjects’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were measured. EMG data, RPE values as well as HR were obtained by averaging the results of 10 sets of each exercise session. Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15min and 30min after exercise in each session for analysis of lactic acid (LA), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). The results indicated that the HR did not increase after LV (63.18±3.5 to 63.25±2.58 beat/min, p > 0.05). The average RPE values during the LV exposure were at 2.86±0.39. The root mean square % EMG values from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris were 19.02±2.19 and 8.25±2.20 respectively. There were no significant differences after acute LV exercise among LA, GH and T values as compared with baseline values (LA: 0.68±0.11 to 0.7±0.1 mmol/L; GH: 0.06±0.05 to 0.57±0.27 ng/mL; T: 551.33±46.62 to 520.42±43.78 ng/dL, p>0.05). However, the LV treatment caused a significant decrease in C values after exercise (16.56±1.05 to 11.64±1.85 nmol/L, p<0.05). In conclusion, acute LV exercise only slightly increase muscle activation which may not cause effective exercise response. However, acute LV exercise reduces C level, which may reduce the catabolic response. The probable reason might partly due to the vibration rhythmically which massage on muscles.

Keywords: cortisol, growth hormone, lactic acid, testosterone

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17 Characteristics of Rectus Femoris and Physical Performance Between Adults and Elderly

Authors: Sudarat Apibantaweesakul, Poonyanat Nualon, Piyasiri Ngamsangiam, Vinitha Puengtanom, Plaiwan Suttanon


The rectus femoris (RF) is important as a biomarker for physical disability and capacity related to age decline. Sarcopenia in elderly people is typically defined with essential criteria of low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and poor physical performance. Characteristics of muscle ultrasound image provide the qualitative and quantitative features of muscle, including muscle thickness (MT), cross-sectional area (CSA), echo intensity (EI) for early diagnosis of sarcopenia. Understanding the coverage of RF morphological characteristics and physical performance from young adults to older people may gain a better understanding of degenerative change. The present study aimed to examine RF characteristics and physical performance changes induced by the advanced age. The study employed a cross-sectional design. A total of 45 healthy participants were recruited to the study (30 adults and 15 elderly). The RF morphological characteristics, including MT, CSA, and EI, were measured using a B-mode ultrasonographic apparatus (Toshiba, Xario 100 MX EDITION). Physical performances, including knee extension strength (KES), five times sit to stand test (FTSST), and timed up and go test (TUG) also assessed. Then statistical analyses for correlation analyses and comparisons among groups were performed. Body height, RF size (thickness and cross-sectional area), and KES were negatively correlated with age. While EI, FTSST, and TUG were positively correlated with age. Body mass showed a positive association with RF size (MT and CSA) and KES. The correlation between MT and CSA was found in RF. Additionally, MT and CSA were negatively correlated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), EI, FTSST, and TUG, while positive correlations between RF size and KES were found. For comparison results, there were significant differences of body height; RF morphological characteristics (including normalized MT and CSA, and EI); normalized KES; and physical performance (FTSST, and TUG) between young adults and elderly. These parameters were found to be significantly decreased in the elderly than young adults except EI. Age-related RF morphological features and physical performances could represent the degenerative changes in the elderly. These findings supported that body mass is a crucial body dimension parameter for the normalization of RF size and its strength. Moreover, subcutaneous adipose tissue should be considered for declining RF size with Increasing age. These could help for monitoring health and performance as well as for emphasizing the related RF exercise in the elderly.

Keywords: aging, echo intensity, physical performance, ultrasonography

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16 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik


This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.

Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salat

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15 Eight-Week Exercise for Women: Impact on Anomalies in Width Depth and Environmental Dimension

Authors: Yalcin Kaya, Fatma Arslan, Ahmet Selim Kaya


This study aimed to determine the undesirable hypertrophic anomalies in the body of females and to investigate how they can be affected by the exercise program according to the applied 8 week individual conditions. The research was carried out on 35 women who did not have any regular previous sports practice and had an approximate age of 30 ± 5.0 at the gymnasium because of their asymmetric structure and weight gain of the body. Measurements of width, depth, and periphery were taken from the participants' body, and the exercise protocol was applied for 8 weeks according to the individual measurements in accordance with the obtained measurements. After 8 weeks, the same measurements were applied again. Measurements were made by using ruler and paper tape. The findings were evaluated and differences were analyzed by paired sample t test. According to the findings obtained, ulnae distal proiecturas width averages were 44.77 ± 3.65 and 43.52 ± 3.47 pre- and post-exercise respectively. Bithorachanteric width averages were 29.3 ± 3.12 before exercise and 26.67 ± 3.27 after exercise. Average abdominal widths were observed as 18.64 ± 4.14 (before exercise) and 18.01 ± 6.27 (after exercise). The distances between the malleolus were measured as 16.98 ± 1.62 (before exercise) and 16.70 ± 1.64 (after exercise). The results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean of pre-exercise Externus abdominis circumference was 93.97 ± 8.91, and the mean of post-exercise mean was 90.82 ± 8.24. The results are statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, findings of the study show that inactivity, daily uncontrolled activities or erroneous postural postures, malnutrition cause some anomalies in the human body. However, with consciously standardized and regular exercises, these abnormalities are reduced by an eight-week exercise protocol in parallel with the expulsion of excess kilos and can be removed when working much longer and fitter, it is proposed to be healthier and more beautiful in appearance.

Keywords: women, body, circumference-width and depth measurements, hypertrophy, exercise

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14 Feature Extractions of EMG Signals during a Constant Workload Pedaling Exercise

Authors: Bing-Wen Chen, Alvin W. Y. Su, Yu-Lin Wang


Electromyography (EMG) is one of the important indicators during exercise, as it is closely related to the level of muscle activations. This work quantifies the muscle conditions of the lower limbs in a constant workload exercise. Surface EMG signals of the vastus laterals (VL), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), gastrocnemius medianus (GM), gastrocnemius lateral (GL) and Soleus (SOL) were recorded from fourteen healthy males. The EMG signals were segmented in two phases: activation segment (AS) and relaxation segment (RS). Period entropy (PE), peak count (PC), zero crossing (ZC), wave length (WL), mean power frequency (MPF), median frequency (MDF) and root mean square (RMS) are calculated to provide the quantitative information of the measured EMG segments. The outcomes reveal that the PE, PC, ZC and RMS have significantly changed (p<.001); WL presents moderately changed (p<.01); MPF and MDF show no changed (p>.05) during exercise. The results also suggest that the RS is also preferred for performance evaluation, while the results of the extracted features in AS are usually affected directly by the amplitudes. It is further found that the VL exhibits the most significant changes within six muscles during pedaling exercise. The proposed work could be applied to quantify the stamina analysis and to predict the instant muscle status in athletes.

Keywords: electromyographic feature extraction, muscle status, pedaling exercise, relaxation segment

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13 Trunk and Gluteus-Medius Muscles’ Fatigability during Occupational Standing in Clinical Instructors with Low Back Pain

Authors: Eman A. Embaby, Amira A. A. Abdallah


Background: Occupational standing is associated with low back pain (LBP) development. Yet, trunk and gluteus-medius muscles’ fatigability has not been extensively studied during occupational standing. This study examined and correlated the rectus abdominus (RA), erector-spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and gluteus-medius (GM) muscles’ fatigability on both sides while standing in a confined area for 30 min Methods: Median frequency EMG data were collected from 15 female clinical instructors with chronic LBP (group A) and 15 asymptomatic controls (group B) (mean age 29.53±2.4 vs. 29.07±2.4 years, weight 63.6±7 vs. 60±7.8 kg, and height 162.73±4 vs. 162.8±6 cm respectively) using a spectrum analysis program. Data were collected in the first and last 5min of the standing task. Results: Using Mixed three-way ANOVA, group A showed significantly (p<0.05) lower frequencies for the right and left ES, and right GM in the last 5 min and significantly higher frequencies for the left RA in the first and last 5min than group B. In addition, the left ES and right EO, ES and GM in group B showed significantly higher frequencies and the left ES in group A showed significantly lower frequencies in the last 5min compared with the first. Moreover, the right RA showed significantly higher frequencies than the left in the last 5min in group B. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) correlations among the median frequencies of the tested four muscles on the same side and between both sides in both groups. Discussion/Conclusions: Clinical instructors with LBP are more liable to have higher trunk and gluteus-medius muscle fatigue than asymptomatic individuals. Thus, endurance training for these muscles should be included in the rehabilitation of such patients.

Keywords: EMG, fatigability, gluteus-medius, LBP, standing, trunk

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12 Influence of an Octenidine Based Wound Gel on Postoperative Wound Healing and Scarring after Abdominoplasty

Authors: Johannes Matiasek


Introduction and Aims: Octenidine is a common antiseptic agent in the area of surgical interventions because of its antimicrobial efficacy and outstanding biocompatibility index. We investigate the direct postoperative application of octenilin® on typical procedures in the field of plastic surgery in a prospective, randomized controlled intervention study. The aim of this study is to determine the influence of a direct postoperative application of an octenidine-containing wound gel on wound healing and scarring after abdominoplasty. Material and Methods: In this study, we enrolled 33 patients who underwent abdominoplasty because of medical indications (e.g. Cutis laxa abdominis). To ensure an intraindividual comparison, each patient received both dressings (study-group: octenilin® wound gel; control-group: Omnistrip® dry plaster) immediately after surgery. We evaluate wound-healing tendency, pain during dressing changes and scar formation after two weeks, three, six and twelve months. Regarding scar-evaluation skin-elasticity, sebum on the skin, transepidermal waterloss, skin hydration, melanin content and erythema level were determined with special probes. Furthermore the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and pain level during dressing change are determined. Results: At the time of surgery the mean patient’s age was 44.1 years. On average 5.6 dressing changes were necessary. Wound healing disorders occurred more often in the control-group. In the control-group (dry plaster Omnistrip®) patients reported significantly more pain and superficial skin injuries during dressing changes occurred. Objective scar-evaluation after 3, 6 and 12 months resulted in a significant higher skin-elasticity and significant lower transepidermal water loss in the octenilin® group which is confirmed in the VSS. Conclusion: The immediate postoperative application of the octenidine-containing hydrogel octenilin® after abdominoplasty results in favoured scar formation compared to our actual standard therapy. Less hypertrophic scar formation was observed in the study-group.

Keywords: abdominoplasty, octenidine, scarring, wound healing

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11 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa


Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, non-obstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.

Keywords: Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus

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10 The Effect of Education on Nurses' Knowledge Level for Ventrogluteal Site Injection: Pilot Study

Authors: Emel Bayraktar, Gulengun Turk


Introduction and Objective: Safe administration of medicines is one of the main responsibilities of nurses. Intramuscular drug administration is among the most common methods used by nurses among all drug applications. This study was carried out in order to determine determine the effect of education given on injection in ventrogluteal area on the level of knowledge of nurses on this subject. Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 nurses who agreed to participate in the study between 01 October and 31 December 2019. The research is a pretest-posttest comparative, quasi-experimental type pilot study. The nurses were given a 4-hour training prepared on injection into the ventrogluteal area. The training consisted of two hours of theoretical and two hours of laboratory practice. Before the training and 4 weeks after the training, a questionnaire form containing questions about their knowledge and practices regarding the injection of the ventrogluteal region was applied to the nurses. Results: The average age of the nurses is 26.55 ± 7.60, 35% (n = 7) of them are undergraduate and 30% (n = 6) of them work in intensive care units. Before the training, 35% (n = 7) of the nurses stated that the most frequently used intramuscular injection site was the ventrogluteal area, and 75% (n = 15) stated that the safest area was the rectus femoris muscle. After the training, 55% (n = 11) of the nurses stated that they most frequently used the ventrogluteal area and 100% (n = 20) of them stated that the ventrogluteal area was the safest area. The average score the nurses got from the premises before the training is 14.15 ± 6.63 (min = 0, max = 20), the total score is 184. The average score obtained after the training was determined as 18.69 ± 2.35 (min = 12, max = 20), and the total score was 243. Conclusion: As a result of the research, it was determined that the training given on the injection of ventrogluteal area increased the knowledge level of the nurses. It is recommended to organize in-service trainings for all nurses on the injection of ventrogluteal area.

Keywords: safe injection, knowledge level, nurse, intramuscular injection, ventrogluteal area

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9 Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking

Authors: Takeshi Sato, Mizuki Nakajima, Macky Kato, Shoji Igawa


The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as Electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age = 22.5 (±1.0) years, body mass = 61.4 (±3.6) kg, height = 170.3 (±4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age = 22.7 (±2.9) years, body mass = 53.0 (±1.7) kg, height = 156.7 (±4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Seven healthy subjects were tested on the treadmill, walking, walking (W) with Nordic Poles (NW) and walking with 1kg weight Nordic Poles (NW+1). Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Eight EMG activities were recorded by bipolar surface methods in biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The level of significance was set at a = 0.05, with p < 0.05 regarded as statistically significant. Our results confirmed that use of NW poles increased HR at a given upper arm muscle activity but decreased lower limb EMGs in comparison with W. Moreover NW was able to increase more step lengths with hip joint extension during NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). Therefore, it was thought either of NW and 1kgNW were to have benefit as a physical exercise for safe, feasible, and readily training for a wide range of aged people in the quality of daily life. However, there was no significant effected in leg muscles activity by using 1kgNW except for upper arm muscle activity during Nordic pole walking.

Keywords: Nordic walking, electromyogram, heart rate, RPE

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8 Quadriceps Muscle Activity in Response to Slow and Fast Perturbations following Fatiguing Exercise

Authors: Nosratollah Hedayatpour, Hamid Reza Taheri, Mehrdad Fathi


Introduction: Quadriceps femoris muscle is frequently involved in various movements e.g., jumping, landing) during sport and/or daily activities. During ballistic movement when individuals are faced with unexpected knee perturbation, fast twitch muscle fibers contribute to force production to stabilize knee joint. Fast twitch muscle fiber is more susceptible to fatigue and therefor may reduce the ability of the quadriceps muscle to stabilize knee joint during fast perturbation. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatigue on postural response of the knee extensor muscles to fast and slow perturbations. Methods: Fatigue was induced to the quadriceps muscle using a KinCom Isokinetic Dynamometer (Chattanooga, TN). Bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) signals were simultaneously recorded from quadriceps components (vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis) during pre- and post-fatigue postural perturbation performed at two different velocities of 120 ms and 250 mes. Results: One-way ANOVA showed that maximal voluntary knee extension force and time to task failure, and associated EMG activities were significantly reduced after fatiguing knee exercise (P< 0.05). Two-ways ANOVA also showed that ARV of EMG during backward direction was significantly larger than forward direction (P< 0.05), and during fast-perturbation it was significantly higher than slow-perturbation (P< 0.05). Moreover, ARV of EMG was significantly reduced during post fatigue perturbation, with the largest reduction identified for fast-perturbation compared with slow perturbation (P< 0.05). Conclusion: A larger reduction in muscle activity of the quadriceps muscle was observed during post fatigue fast-perturbation to stabilize knee joint, most likely due to preferential recruitment of fast twitch muscle fiber which are more susceptible to fatigue. This may partly explain that why knee injuries is common after fast ballistic movement.

Keywords: electromyography, fast-slow perturbations, fatigue, quadriceps femoris muscle

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7 An Ergonomic Evaluation of Three Load Carriage Systems for Reducing Muscle Activity of Trunk and Lower Extremities during Giant Puppet Performing Tasks

Authors: Cathy SW. Chow, Kristina Shin, Faming Wang, B. C. L. So


During some dynamic giant puppet performances, an ergonomically designed load carrier system is necessary for the puppeteers to carry a giant puppet body’s heavy load with minimum muscle stress. A load carrier (i.e. prototype) was designed with two small wheels on the foot; and a hybrid spring device on the knee in order to assist the sliding and knee bending movements respectively. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three load carriers including two other commercially available load mounting systems, Tepex and SuitX, and the prototype. Ten male participants were recruited for the experiment. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to collect the participants’ muscle activities during forward moving and bouncing and with and without load of 11.1 kg that was 60 cm above the shoulder. Five bilateral muscles including the lumbar erector spinae (LES), rectus femoris (RF), bicep femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GM) were selected for data collection. During forward moving task, the sEMG data showed smallest muscle activities by Tepex harness which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the prototype and SuitX which were significantly higher on left LES 68.99% and 64.99%, right LES 26.57% and 82.45%; left RF 87.71% and 47.61%, right RF 143.57% and 24.28%; left BF 80.21% and 22.23%, right BF 96.02% and 21.83%; right TA 6.32% and 4.47%; left GM 5.89% and 12.35% respectively. The result above reflected mobility was highly restricted by tested exoskeleton devices. On the other hand, the sEMG data from bouncing task showed the smallest muscle activities by prototype which exhibited consistently the lowest, compared with the Tepex harness and SuitX which were significantly lower on lLES 6.65% and 104.93, rLES 23.56% and 92.19%; lBF 33.21% and 93.26% and rBF 24.70% and 81.16%; lTA 46.51% and 191.02%; rTA 12.75% and 125.76%; IGM 31.54% and 68.36%; rGM 95.95% and 96.43% respectively.

Keywords: exoskeleton, giant puppet performers, load carriage system, surface electromyography

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6 Antagonist Coactivation in Athletes Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Milad Pirali, Sohrab Keyhani, Mohhamad Ali Sanjari, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi


Purpose: The effect of hamstring antagonist activity on the knee extensors torque of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is not clear and persistent muscle weakness is common after ACLR. Hamstring activation when acting as antagonist is considered very important for knee strengths. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine hamstring antagonist coactivation during maximal effort of the isokinetic knee extension in ACLR athletes with hamstring autograft. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 20 professional athletes who underwent primary ACLR (hamstring tendon autograft)with 6-24 months postoperative and 20 healthy subjects as control group. Each subjects performed maximal effort isokinetic knee extension and flexion in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities for the involved and uninvolved limb. Synchronously, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF). The antagonist integrated EMG (IEMG) values were normalized to the IEMG of the same muscle during maximal isokinetic eccentric effort at the same velocities and ROM. Results: A one-way analysis of variance designs shows significantly greater IEMG coactivation of hamstring and decreased activation of Vm in ACLR when compared to uninvolved and control group leg in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities. Likewise peak torque to body weight was decreased in ACLR compared to uninvolved and control group during knee extension in both velocities (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Decreased extensors moment caused by decreased quadriceps inhibition and increased hamstring coactivation. In addition, these result indicated to decrease of motor unit recruitment in the VM (as a kinesiologicmonitore of the knee). It is appearing that strengthening of the quadriceps to be an important for rehabilitation program after ACLR for preparation in athletes endeavors. Therefore, we suggest that having more emphasis and focus on quadriceps strength and less emphasis on hamstring following ACLR.

Keywords: ACLR-coactivation, dynamometry, electromyography, isokinetic

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5 The Influence of Ecologically -Valid High- and Low-Volume Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Size in Trained Men

Authors: Jason Dellatolla, Scott Thomas


Much of the current literature pertaining to resistance training (RT) volume prescription lacks ecological validity, and very few studies investigate true high-volume ranges. Purpose: The present study sought to investigate the effects of ecologically-valid high- vs low-volume RT on muscular size and strength in trained men. Methods: This study systematically randomized trained, college-aged men into two groups: low-volume (LV; n = 4) and high-volume (HV; n = 5). The sample size was affected by COVID-19 limitations. Subjects followed an ecologically-valid 6-week RT program targeting both muscle size and strength. RT occurred 3x/week on non-consecutive days. Over the course of six weeks, LVR and HVR gradually progressed from 15 to 23 sets/week and 30 to 46 sets/week of lower-body RT, respectively. Muscle strength was assessed via 3RM tests in the squat, stiff-leg deadlift (SL DL), and leg press. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated through a combination of DXA, BodPod, and ultrasound (US) measurements. Results: Two-way repeated-measures ANOVAs indicated that strength in all 3 compound lifts increased significantly among both groups (p < 0.01); between-group differences only occurred in the squat (p = 0.02) and SL DL (p = 0.03), both of which favored HVR. Significant pre-to-post-study increases in indicators of hypertrophy were discovered for lean body mass in the legs via DXA, overall fat-free mass via BodPod, and US measures of muscle thickness (MT) for the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, long-head of the biceps femoris, and total MT. Between-group differences were only found for MT of the vastus medialis – favoring HVR. Moreover, each additional weekly set of lower-body RT was associated with an average increase in MT of 0.39% in the thigh muscles. Conclusion: We conclude that ecologically-valid RT regimens significantly improve muscular strength and indicators of hypertrophy. When HVR is compared to LVR, HVR provides significantly greater gains in muscular strength but has no greater effect on hypertrophy over the course of 6 weeks in trained, college-aged men.

Keywords: ecological validity, hypertrophy, resistance training, strength

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4 Insulin-Producing Cells from Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control Chemically-Induced Diabetes in Dogs

Authors: Maha Azzam, Mahmoud Gabr, Mahmoud Zakaria, Ayman Refaie, Amani Ismail, Sherry Khater, Sylvia Ashamallah, Mohamed Ghoniem


Evidence was provided that human bone marrow-derived mesenhymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs) could be differentiated to form insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Transplantation of these cells was able to cure chemically-induced diabetes in nude mice. The efficacy of these cells to control diabetes in large animals was carried out to evaluate the sufficient number of cells needed/Kg body weight and to determine the functional longevity in vivo. Materials/Methods: Ten male mongrel dogs weighing 15-20 Kg were used in this study. Diabetes was chemically-induced in 7 dogs by a mixture of alloxan and streptozotocin. Three non-diabetic served as normal controls. Differentiated HBM-MSCs (5 million/Kg) were encapsulated in theracyte capsules and transplanted beneath the rectus sheath. Each dog received 2 capsules. One dog died 4 days postoperative from inhalation pneumonia. The remaining 6 dogs were followed up for 6-18 months. Results: Four dogs became normoglycemic within 6-8 weeks with normal glucose tolerance curves providing evidence that the transplanted cells were glucose-sensitive and insulin-responsive. In the remaining 2 dogs, fasting blood glucose was reduced but did not reach euglycemic levels. The sera of all transplanted dogs contained human insulin and c-peptide but negligible levels of canine insulin. When the HBM-MSCs loaded capsules were removed, rapid return of diabetic state was noted. The harvested capsules were examined by immunofluorescence. IPCs were seen and co-expression of with c-peptide was confirmed. Furthermore, all the pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed by the transplanted cells. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that theracyte capsules could protect the xenogenic HBM-MSCs from the host immune response. This is an important issue when clinical stem cell therapy is considered for definitive treatment for T1DM.

Keywords: diabetes, mesenchymal stem cells, dogs, Insulin-producing cells

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3 The Effect of Seated Distance on Muscle Activation and Joint Kinematics during Seated Strengthening in Patients with Stroke with Extensor Synergy Pattern in the Lower Limbs

Authors: Y. H. Chen, P. Y. Chiang, T. Sugiarto, I. Karsuna, Y. J. Lin, C. C. Chang, W. C. Hsu


Task-specific training with intense practice of functional tasks has been emphasized for the approaches in motor rehabilitation in patients with hemiplegic strokes. Although reciprocal actions which may increase demands on motor control during seated stepping exercise, motor control is not explicitly trained with emphasis and instruction focused on traditional strengthening. Apart from cycling and treadmill, various forms of seated exerciser are becoming available for the lower extremity exercise. The benefit of seated exerciser has been focused on the effect on the cardiopulmonary system. Thus, the aim of current study is to investigate the effect of seated distance on muscle activation during seated strengthening in patients with stroke with extensor synergy pattern in the lower extremities. Electrodes were placed on the surface of lower limbs muscles, including rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GT) of both sides. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the muscles were obtained to normalize the EMG amplitude obtained during dynamic trials with analog raw data digitized with a sampling frequency of 2000 Hz, fully rectified and the linear enveloped. Movement cycle was separated into two phases by pushing (PP) and Return (RP). Integral EMG (iEMG) is then used to quantify level of activation during each of the phases. Subjects performed strengthening with moderate resistance with speed of 60 rpm in two different distances (D1, short) and (D2, long). The results showed greater iEMG in RF and smaller iEMG in VL and BF with obvious increase range of motion of hip flexion in D1 condition. On the contrary, no significant involvement of RF while greater level of muscular activation in VL and BF during RP was found during PP in D2 condition. In addition, greater hip internal rotation was observed in D2 condition. In patients with stroke with abnormal tone revealed by extensor synergy in the lower extremities, shorter seated distance is suggested to facilitate hip flexor muscle activation while avoid inducing hyper extensor tone which may prevent a smooth repetitive motion. Repetitive muscular contraction exercise of hip flexor may be helpful for further gait training as it may assist hip flexion during swing phase of the walking.

Keywords: seated strengthening, patients with stroke, electromyography, synergy pattern

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2 Interrelationship between Quadriceps' Activation and Inhibition as a Function of Knee-Joint Angle and Muscle Length: A Torque and Electro and Mechanomyographic Investigation

Authors: Ronald Croce, Timothy Quinn, John Miller


Incomplete activation, or activation failure, of motor units during maximal voluntary contractions is often referred to as muscle inhibition (MI), and is defined as the inability of the central nervous system to maximally drive a muscle during a voluntary contraction. The purpose of the present study was to assess the interrelationship amongst peak torque (PT), muscle inhibition (MI; incomplete activation of motor units), and voluntary muscle activation (VMA) of the quadriceps’ muscle group as a function of knee angle and muscle length during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). Nine young adult males (mean + standard deviation: age: 21.58 + 1.30 years; height: 180.07 + 4.99 cm; weight: 89.07 + 7.55 kg) performed MVICs in random order with the knee at 15, 55, and 95° flexion. MI was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique and was estimated by the amount of additional knee extensor PT evoked by the superimposed twitch during MVICs. Voluntary muscle activation was estimated by root mean square amplitude electromyography (EMGrms) and mechanomyography (MMGrms) of agonist (vastus medialis [VM], vastus lateralis [VL], and rectus femoris [RF]) and antagonist (biceps femoris ([BF]) muscles during MVICs. Data were analyzed using separate repeated measures analysis of variance. Results revealed a strong dependency of quadriceps’ PT (p < 0.001), MI (p < 0.001) and MA (p < 0.01) on knee joint position: PT was smallest at the most shortened muscle position (15°) and greatest at mid-position (55°); MI and MA were smallest at the most shortened muscle position (15°) and greatest at the most lengthened position (95°), with the RF showing the greatest change in MA. It is hypothesized that the ability to more fully activate the quadriceps at short compared to longer muscle lengths (96% contracted at 15°; 91% at 55°; 90% at 95°) might partly compensate for the unfavorable force-length mechanics at the more extended position and consequent declines in VMA (decreases in EMGrms and MMGrms muscle amplitude during MVICs) and force production (PT = 111-Nm at 15°, 217-NM at 55°, 199-Nm at 95°). Biceps femoris EMG and MMG data showed no statistical differences (p = 0.11 and 0.12, respectively) at joint angles tested, although there were greater values at the extended position. Increased BF muscle amplitude at this position could be a mechanism by which anterior shear and tibial rotation induced by high quadriceps’ activity are countered. Measuring and understanding the degree to which one sees MI and VMA in the QF muscle has particular clinical relevance because different knee-joint disorders, such ligament injuries or osteoarthritis, increase levels of MI observed and markedly reduced the capability of full VMA.

Keywords: electromyography, interpolated twitch technique, mechanomyography, muscle activation, muscle inhibition

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1 Vertebral Artery Dissection Complicating Pregnancy and Puerperium: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Authors: N. Reza Pour, S. Chuah, T. Vo


Background: Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It can occur spontaneously or following a traumatic event. The pathogenesis is unclear. Predisposing factors include chronic hypertension, Marfan’s syndrome, fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculitis and cystic medial necrosis. Physiological changes of pregnancy have also been proposed as potential mechanisms of injury to the vessel wall. The clinical presentation varies and it can present as a headache, neck pain, diplopia, transient ischaemic attack, or an ischemic stroke. Isolated cases of VAD in pregnancy and puerperium have been reported in the literature. One case was found to have posterior circulation stroke as a result of bilateral VAD and labour was induced at 37 weeks gestation for preeclampsia. Another patient at 38 weeks with severe neck pain that persisted after induction for elevated blood pressure and arteriography showed right VAD postpartum. A single case of lethal VAD in pregnancy with subsequent massive subarachnoid haemorrhage has been reported which was confirmed by the autopsy. Case Presentation: We report two cases of vertebral artery dissection in pregnancy. The first patient was a 32-year-old primigravida presented at the 38th week of pregnancy with the onset of early labour and blood pressure (BP) of 130/70 on arrival. After 2 hours, the patient developed a severe headache with blurry vision and BP was 238/120. Despite treatment with an intravenous antihypertensive, she had eclamptic fit. Magnesium solfate was started and Emergency Caesarean Section was performed under the general anaesthesia. On the second day after the operation, she developed left-sided neck pain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) angiography confirmed a short segment left vertebral artery dissection at the level of C3. The patient was treated with aspirin and remained stable without any neurological deficit. The second patient was a 33-year-old primigavida who was admitted to the hospital at 36 weeks gestation with BP of 155/105, constant headache and visual disturbances. She was medicated with an oral antihypertensive agent. On day 4, she complained of right-sided neck pain. MRI angiogram revealed a short segment dissection of the right vertebral artery at the C2-3 level. Pregnancy was terminated on the same day with emergency Caesarean Section and anticoagulation was started subsequently. Post-operative recovery was complicated by rectus sheath haematoma requiring evacuation. She was discharged home on Aspirin without any neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Because of collateral circulation, unilateral vertebral artery dissections may go unrecognized and may be more common than suspected. The outcome for most patients is benign, reflecting the adequacy of the collateral circulation in young patients. Spontaneous VAD is usually treated with anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy for a minimum of 3-6 months to prevent future ischaemic events, allowing the dissection to heal on its own. We had two cases of VAD in the context of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with an acceptable outcome. A high level of vigilance is required particularly with preeclamptic patients presenting with head/neck pain to allow an early diagnosis. This is as we hypothesize, early and aggressive management of vertebral artery dissection may potentially prevent further complications.

Keywords: eclampsia, preeclampsia, pregnancy, Vertebral Artery Dissection

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