Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: real-time shadows

31 A Review on Light Shafts Rendering for Indoor Scenes

Authors: Hatam H. Ali, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Hoshang Kolivand, Mohd Azhar Bin M. Arsad


Rendering light shafts is one of the important topics in computer gaming and interactive applications. The methods and models that are used to generate light shafts play crucial role to make a scene more realistic in computer graphics. This article discusses the image-based shadows and geometric-based shadows that contribute in generating volumetric shadows and light shafts, depending on ray tracing, radiosity, and ray marching technique. The main aim of this study is to provide researchers with background on a progress of light scattering methods so as to make it available for them to determine the technique best suited to their goals. It is also hoped that our classification helps researchers find solutions to the shortcomings of each method.

Keywords: shaft of lights, realistic images, image-based, and geometric-based

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30 150 KVA Multifunction Laboratory Test Unit Based on Power-Frequency Converter

Authors: Bartosz Kedra, Robert Malkowski


This paper provides description and presentation of laboratory test unit built basing on 150 kVA power frequency converter and Simulink RealTime platform. Assumptions, based on criteria which load and generator types may be simulated using discussed device, are presented, as well as control algorithm structure. As laboratory setup contains transformer with thyristor controlled tap changer, a wider scope of setup capabilities is presented. Information about used communication interface, data maintenance, and storage solution as well as used Simulink real-time features is presented. List and description of all measurements are provided. Potential of laboratory setup modifications is evaluated. For purposes of Rapid Control Prototyping, a dedicated environment was used Simulink RealTime. Therefore, load model Functional Unit Controller is based on a PC computer with I/O cards and Simulink RealTime software. Simulink RealTime was used to create real-time applications directly from Simulink models. In the next step, applications were loaded on a target computer connected to physical devices that provided opportunity to perform Hardware in the Loop (HIL) tests, as well as the mentioned Rapid Control Prototyping process. With Simulink RealTime, Simulink models were extended with I/O cards driver blocks that made automatic generation of real-time applications and performing interactive or automated runs on a dedicated target computer equipped with a real-time kernel, multicore CPU, and I/O cards possible. Results of performed laboratory tests are presented. Different load configurations are described and experimental results are presented. This includes simulation of under frequency load shedding, frequency and voltage dependent characteristics of groups of load units, time characteristics of group of different load units in a chosen area and arbitrary active and reactive power regulation basing on defined schedule.

Keywords: MATLAB, power converter, Simulink Real-Time, thyristor-controlled tap changer

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29 Performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Assay with SurePath Liquid Based Cytology Specimens from Women with Low Grade Cytological Abnormalities

Authors: Alexandra Sargent, Sarah Ferris, Ioannis Theofanous


The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime HPV) is one of five assays clinically validated and approved by the English NHS Cervical Screening Programme (CSP) for HPV triage of low grade dyskaryosis and test-of-cure of treated Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. The assay is a highly automated multiplex real-time PCR test for detecting 14 high risk (hr) HPV types, with simultaneous differentiation of HPV 16 and HPV 18 versus non-HPV 16/18 hrHPV. An endogenous internal control ensures sample cellularity, controls extraction efficiency and PCR inhibition. The original cervical specimen collected in SurePath (SP) liquid-based cytology (LBC) medium (BD Diagnostics) and the SP post-gradient cell pellets (SPG) after cytological processing are both CE marked for testing with the RealTime HPV test. During the 2011 NHSCSP validation of new tests only the original aliquot of SP LBC medium was investigated. Residual sample volume left after cytology slide preparation is low and may not always have sufficient volume for repeat HPV testing or for testing of other biomarkers that may be implemented in testing algorithms in the future. The SPG samples, however, have sufficient volumes to carry out additional testing and necessary laboratory validation procedures. This study investigates the correlation of RealTime HPV results of cervical specimens collected in SP LBC medium from women with low grade cytological abnormalities observed with matched pairs of original SP LBC medium and SP post-gradient cell pellets (SPG) after cytology processing. Matched pairs of SP and SPG samples from 750 women with borderline (N = 392) and mild (N = 351) cytology were available for this study. Both specimen types were processed and parallel tested for the presence of hrHPV with RealTime HPV according to the manufacturer´s instructions. HrHPV detection rates and concordance between test results from matched SP and SPGCP pairs were calculated. A total of 743 matched pairs with valid test results on both sample types were available for analysis. An overall-agreement of hrHPV test results of 97.5% (k: 0.95) was found with matched SP/SPG pairs and slightly lower concordance (96.9%; k: 0.94) was observed on 392 pairs from women with borderline cytology compared to 351 pairs from women with mild cytology (98.0%; k: 0.95). Partial typing results were highly concordant in matched SP/SPG pairs for HPV 16 (99.1%), HPV 18 (99.7%) and non-HPV16/18 hrHPV (97.0%), respectively. 19 matched pairs were found with discrepant results: 9 from women with borderline cytology and 4 from women with mild cytology were negative on SPG and positive on SP; 3 from women with borderline cytology and 3 from women with mild cytology were negative on SP and positive on SPG. Excellent correlation of hrHPV DNA test results was found between matched pairs of SP original fluid and post-gradient cell pellets from women with low grade cytological abnormalities tested with the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay, demonstrating robust performance of the test with both specimen types and reassuring the utility of the assay for cytology triage with both specimen types.

Keywords: Abbott realtime test, HPV, SurePath liquid based cytology, surepath post-gradient cell pellet

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28 A Novel Spectral Index for Automatic Shadow Detection in Urban Mapping Based on WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

Authors: Kaveh Shahi, Helmi Z. M. Shafri, Ebrahim Taherzadeh


In remote sensing, shadow causes problems in many applications such as change detection and classification. It is caused by objects which are elevated, thus can directly affect the accuracy of information. For these reasons, it is very important to detect shadows particularly in urban high spatial resolution imagery which created a significant problem. This paper focuses on automatic shadow detection based on a new spectral index for multispectral imagery known as Shadow Detection Index (SDI). The new spectral index was tested on different areas of World-View 2 images and the results demonstrated that the new spectral index has a massive potential to extract shadows effectively and automatically.

Keywords: spectral index, shadow detection, remote sensing images, World-View 2

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27 Developing a Multiagent-Based Decision Support System for Realtime Multi-Risk Disaster Management

Authors: D. Moser, D. Pinto, A. Cipriano


A Disaster Management System (DMS) for countries with different disasters is very important. In the world different disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruption, fire or other natural or man-made disasters occurs and have an effect on the population. It is also possible that two or more disasters arisen at the same time, this means to handle multi-risk situations. To handle such a situation a Decision Support System (DSS) based on multiagents is a suitable architecture. The most known DMSs deal with one (in the case of an earthquake-tsunami combination with two) disaster and often with one particular disaster. Nevertheless, a DSS helps for a better realtime response. Analyze the existing systems in the literature and expand them for multi-risk disasters to construct a well-organized system is the proposal of our work. The here shown work is an approach of a multi-risk system, which needs an architecture, and well-defined aims. In this moment our study is a kind of case study to analyze the way we have to follow to create our proposed system in the future.

Keywords: decision support system, disaster management system, multi-risk, multiagent system

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26 A Fast Silhouette Detection Algorithm for Shadow Volumes in Augmented Reality

Authors: Hoshang Kolivand, Mahyar Kolivand, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar, Mohd Azhar M. Arsad


Real-time shadow generation in virtual environments and Augmented Reality (AR) was always a hot topic in the last three decades. Lots of calculation for shadow generation among AR needs a fast algorithm to overcome this issue and to be capable of implementing in any real-time rendering. In this paper, a silhouette detection algorithm is presented to generate shadows for AR systems. Δ+ algorithm is presented based on extending edges of occluders to recognize which edges are silhouettes in the case of real-time rendering. An accurate comparison between the proposed algorithm and current algorithms in silhouette detection is done to show the reduction calculation by presented algorithm. The algorithm is tested in both virtual environments and AR systems. We think that this algorithm has the potential to be a fundamental algorithm for shadow generation in all complex environments.

Keywords: silhouette detection, shadow volumes, real-time shadows, rendering, augmented reality

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25 Deep Learning in Chest Computed Tomography to Differentiate COVID-19 from Influenza

Authors: Hongmei Wang, Ziyun Xiang, Ying liu, Li Yu, Dongsheng Yue


Intro: The COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) has greatly changed the global economic, political and financial ecology. The mutation of the coronavirus in the UK in December 2020 has brought new panic to the world. Deep learning was performed on Chest Computed tomography (CT) of COVID-19 and Influenza and describes their characteristics. The predominant features of COVID-19 pneumonia was ground-glass opacification, followed by consolidation. Lesion density: most lesions appear as ground-glass shadows, and some lesions coexist with solid lesions. Lesion distribution: the focus is mainly on the dorsal side of the periphery of the lung, with the lower lobe of the lungs as the focus, and it is often close to the pleura. Other features it has are grid-like shadows in ground glass lesions, thickening signs of diseased vessels, air bronchi signs and halo signs. The severe disease involves whole bilateral lungs, showing white lung signs, air bronchograms can be seen, and there can be a small amount of pleural effusion in the bilateral chest cavity. At the same time, this year's flu season could be near its peak after surging throughout the United States for months. Chest CT for Influenza infection is characterized by focal ground glass shadows in the lungs, with or without patchy consolidation, and bronchiole air bronchograms are visible in the concentration. There are patchy ground-glass shadows, consolidation, air bronchus signs, mosaic lung perfusion, etc. The lesions are mostly fused, which is prominent near the hilar and two lungs. Grid-like shadows and small patchy ground-glass shadows are visible. Deep neural networks have great potential in image analysis and diagnosis that traditional machine learning algorithms do not. Method: Aiming at the two major infectious diseases COVID-19 and influenza, which are currently circulating in the world, the chest CT of patients with two infectious diseases is classified and diagnosed using deep learning algorithms. The residual network is proposed to solve the problem of network degradation when there are too many hidden layers in a deep neural network (DNN). The proposed deep residual system (ResNet) is a milestone in the history of the Convolutional neural network (CNN) images, which solves the problem of difficult training of deep CNN models. Many visual tasks can get excellent results through fine-tuning ResNet. The pre-trained convolutional neural network ResNet is introduced as a feature extractor, eliminating the need to design complex models and time-consuming training. Fastai is based on Pytorch, packaging best practices for in-depth learning strategies, and finding the best way to handle diagnoses issues. Based on the one-cycle approach of the Fastai algorithm, the classification diagnosis of lung CT for two infectious diseases is realized, and a higher recognition rate is obtained. Results: A deep learning model was developed to efficiently identify the differences between COVID-19 and influenza using chest CT.

Keywords: COVID-19, Fastai, influenza, transfer network

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24 Shadows and Symbols: The Tri-Level Importance of Memory in Jane Yolen's 'the Devil's Arithmetic' and Soon-To-Be-Published 'Mapping the Bones'

Authors: Kirsten A. Bartels


'Never again' and 'Lest we forget' have long been messages associated with the events of the Shoah. Yet as we attempt to learn from the past, we must find new ways to engage with its memories. The preservation of the culture and the value of tradition are critical factors in Jane Yolen's works of Holocaust fiction, The Devil's Arithmetic and Mapping the Bones, emphasized through the importance of remembering. That word, in its multitude of forms (remember, remembering, memories), occurs no less than ten times in the first four pages and over one hundred times in the one hundred and sixty-four-page narrative The Devil’s Arithmetic. While Yolen takes a different approach to showcasing the importance of memory in Mapping the Bones, it is of equal import in this work and arguably to the future of Holocaust knowing. The idea of remembering, the desire to remember, and the ability to remember, are explored in three divergent ways in The Devil’s Arithmetic. First, in the importance to remember a past which is not her own – to understand history or acquired memories. Second, in the protagonist's actual or initial memories, those of her life in modern-day New York. Third, in a reverse mode of forgetting and trying to reacquire that which has been lost -- as Hannah is processed in the camp and she forgets everything, all worlds prior to the camp are lost to her. As numbers replace names, Yolen stresses the importance of self-identity or owned memories. In addition, the importance of relaying memory, the transitions of memory from perspective, and the ideas of reflective telling are explored in Mapping the Bones -- through the telling of the story through the lens of one of the twins as the events are unfolding; and then the through the reflective telling from the lens of the other twin. Parallel to the exploration of the intersemiosis of memory is the discussion of literary shadows (foreshadowing, backshadowing, and side-shadowing) and their impact on the reader's experience with Yolen's narrative. For in this type of exploration, one cannot look at the events described in Yolen's work and not also contemplate the figurative shadows cast.

Keywords: holocaust literature, memory, narrative, Yolen

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23 Visualization-Based Feature Extraction for Classification in Real-Time Interaction

Authors: Ágoston Nagy


This paper introduces a method of using unsupervised machine learning to visualize the feature space of a dataset in 2D, in order to find most characteristic segments in the set. After dimension reduction, users can select clusters by manual drawing. Selected clusters are recorded into a data model that is used for later predictions, based on realtime data. Predictions are made with supervised learning, using Gesture Recognition Toolkit. The paper introduces two example applications: a semantic audio organizer for analyzing incoming sounds, and a gesture database organizer where gestural data (recorded by a Leap motion) is visualized for further manipulation.

Keywords: gesture recognition, machine learning, real-time interaction, visualization

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22 Lossless Secret Image Sharing Based on Integer Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Li Li, Ahmed A. Abd El-Latif, Aya El-Fatyany, Mohamed Amin


This paper proposes a new secret image sharing method based on integer discrete cosine transform (IntDCT). It first transforms the original image into the frequency domain (DCT coefficients) using IntDCT, which are operated on each block with size 8*8. Then, it generates shares among each DCT coefficients in the same place of each block, that is, all the DC components are used to generate DC shares, the ith AC component in each block are utilized to generate ith AC shares, and so on. The DC and AC shares components with the same number are combined together to generate DCT shadows. Experimental results and analyses show that the proposed method can recover the original image lossless than those methods based on traditional DCT and is more sensitive to tiny change in both the coefficients and the content of the image.

Keywords: secret image sharing, integer DCT, lossless recovery, sensitivity

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21 Out of the Shadows: Constructing a Female Gaze in Neo-Noir: Exegesis and Screenplay, The Lonely Drive

Authors: Jade Bitomsky


We all consume films on a daily basis. Yet, we frequently fail to recognize that these narratives shape our social, political, cultural, and economic values and attitudes. Narratives influence our perception; specifically, for this research, our perception of women within the genre of film noir. This creative research project examines to what extent film noir has perpetuated the male gaze and how noir’s representation of women has scripted female gender identity through perpetuated performative acts of femininity. Evolving from this research will be a deconstruction and (re)presentation of the femininity in noir. It will go beyond reiterated examinations, which developed awareness of Hollywood’s oppressive cinematic structures, to subvert the usual phallic diegesis and construct a female gaze in neo-noir screenplay, The Lonely Drive.

Keywords: femme fatale, film noir (classic), male gaze, neo-noir (contemporary), scopophilia

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20 Issues on Determination of Accurate Fajr and Dhuha Prayer Times According to Fiqh and Astronomical Perspectives in Malaysia: A Bibliography Study

Authors: Raihana Abdul Wahab, Norihan Kadir, Muhamad Hazwan Mustafa


The determination of accurate times for Fajr and Dhuha prayers in Malaysia is faced with issues of differing views in the fixation of the parameters of the sun’s altitude used in the calculation of astronomy, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to identify issues and problems in the methods used in determining the accurate times for both these prayers through a literature review of previous research studies. The results show the need to review the parameters of sun altitude used in calculating prayer times for both these prayers through observations in changes in the brightness of the early morning light for distinguish of true dawn and false dawn for the Fajr prayers and the length of the shadow for Dhuha payer by collecting data from all the states throughout Malaysia.

Keywords: fajr, Dhuha, sky brightness, length of shadows, astronomy, Islamic jurisprudence

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19 From the Bright Lights of the City to the Shadows of the Bush: Expanding Knowledge through a Case-Based Teaching Approach

Authors: Henriette van Rensburg, Betty Adcock


Concern about the lack of knowledge of quality teaching and teacher retention in rural and remote areas of Australia, has caused academics to improve pre-service teachers’ understanding of this problem. The participants in this study were forty students enrolled in an undergraduate educational course (EDO3341 Teaching in rural and remote communities) at the University of Southern Queensland in Toowoomba in 2012. This study involved an innovative case-based teaching approach in order to broaden their generally under-informed understanding of teaching in a rural and remote area. Three themes have been identified through analysing students’ critical reflections: learning expertise, case-based learning support and authentic learning. The outcomes identified the changes in pre-service teachers’ understanding after they have deepened their knowledge of the realities of teaching in rural and remote areas.

Keywords: rural and remote education, case based teaching, innovative education approach, higher education

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18 Holistic Approach for Natural Results in Facial Aesthetics

Authors: R. Denkova


Nowadays, aesthetic and psychological researches in some countries show that the aesthetic ideal for women is built by the same pattern of big volumes – lips, cheek, facial disproportions. They all look like made of a matrix. And they lose their unique and emotional aspects of beauty. How to escape this matrix and find the balance? The secret to being a unique injector is good assessment, creating a treatment plan and flawless injection strategy. The newest concepts in this new injection era which meet the requirements of a modern society and deliver balanced and natural looking results are based on the concept of injecting not the consequence, but the reason. Three case studies are presented with full face assessment, treatment plan and before/after pictures. Using different approaches and techniques of the MD codes concept, lights and shadows concept in order to preserve the emotional beauty and identity of the women. In conclusion, the cases demonstrate that beauty exists even beyond the matrix and it is the injector’s mission and responsibility is to preserve and highlight the natural beauty and unique identity of every different patient.

Keywords: beyond the matrix, emotional beauty, face assessment, injector, treatment plan

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17 A Building Structure Health Monitoring DeviceBased on Cost Effective 1-Axis Accelerometers

Authors: Chih Hsing Lin, Wen-Ching Chen, Ssu-Ying Chen, Chih-Chyau Yang, Chien-Ming Wu, Chun-Ming Huang


Critical structures such as buildings, bridges and dams require periodic inspections to ensure safe operation. The reliable inspection of structures can be achieved by combing temperature sensor and accelerometers. In this work, we propose a building structure health monitoring device (BSHMD) with using three 1-axis accelerometers, gateway, analog to digital converter (ADC), and data logger to monitoring the building structure. The proposed BSHMD achieves the features of low cost by using three 1-axis accelerometers with the data synchronization problem being solved, and easily installation and removal. Furthermore, we develop a packet acquisition program to receive the sensed data and then classify it based on time and date. Compared with 3-axis accelerometer, our proposed 1-axis accelerometers based device achieves 64.3% cost saving. Compared with previous structural monitoring device, the BSHMD achieves 89% area saving. Therefore, with using the proposed device, the realtime diagnosis system for building damage monitoring can be conducted effectively.

Keywords: building structure health monitoring, cost effective, 1-axis accelerometers, real-time diagnosis

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16 Computer Network Applications, Practical Implementations and Structural Control System Representations

Authors: El Miloudi Djelloul


The computer network play an important position for practical implementations of the differently system. To implement a system into network above all is needed to know all the configurations, which is responsible to be a part of the system, and to give adequate information and solution in realtime. So if want to implement this system for example in the school or relevant institutions, the first step is to analyze the types of model which is needed to be configured and another important step is to organize the works in the context of devices, as a part of the general system. Often before configuration, as important point is descriptions and documentations from all the works into the respective process, and then to organize in the aspect of problem-solving. The computer network as critic infrastructure is very specific so the paper present the effectiveness solutions in the structured aspect viewed from one side, and another side is, than the paper reflect the positive aspect in the context of modeling and block schema presentations as an better alternative to solve the specific problem because of continually distortions of the system from the line of devices, programs and signals or packed collisions, which are in movement from one computer node to another nodes.

Keywords: local area networks, LANs, block schema presentations, computer network system, computer node, critical infrastructure packed collisions, structural control system representations, computer network, implementations, modeling structural representations, companies, computers, context, control systems, internet, software

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15 Thermo-Economic Analysis of a Natural Draft Direct Cooling System for a Molten Salt Power Tower

Authors: Huiqiang Yang, Domingo Santana


Reducing parasitic power consumption of concentrating solar power plants is the main challenge to increase the overall efficiency, particularly for molten salt tower technology. One of the most effective approaches to reduce the parasitic power consumption is to implement a natural draft dry cooling system instead of the standard utilized mechanical draft dry cooling system. In this paper, a thermo-economic analysis of a natural draft direct cooling system was performed based on a 100MWe commercial scale molten salt power plant. In this configuration with a natural draft direct cooling system, the exhaust steam from steam turbine flows directly to the heat exchanger bundles inside the natural draft dry cooling tower, which eliminates the power consumption of circulation pumps or fans, although the cooling tower shadows a portion of the heliostat field. The simulation results also show that compared to a mechanical draft cooling system the annual solar field efficiency is decreased by about 0.2% due to the shadow, which is equal to a reduction of approximately 13% of the solar field area. As a contrast, reducing the solar field size by 13% in purpose in a molten salt power plant with a natural draft drying cooling system actually will lead to a reduction of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by about 4.06% without interfering the power generated.

Keywords: molten salt power tower, natural draft dry cooling, parasitic power consumption, commercial scale

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14 Multi-Temporal Urban Land Cover Mapping Using Spectral Indices

Authors: Mst Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu


Multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is of paramount importance for monitoring urban sprawl and managing the ecological environment. For diversified urban activities, it is challenging to map land covers in a complex urban environment. Spectral indices have proved to be effective for mapping urban land covers. To improve multi-temporal urban land cover classification and mapping, we evaluate the performance of three spectral indices, e.g. modified normalized difference bare-land index (MNDBI), tasseled cap water and vegetation index (TCWVI) and shadow index (ShDI). The MNDBI is developed to evaluate its performance of enhancing urban impervious areas by separating bare lands. A tasseled cap index, TCWVI is developed to evaluate its competence to detect vegetation and water simultaneously. The ShDI is developed to maximize the spectral difference between shadows of skyscrapers and water and enhance water detection. First, this paper presents a comparative analysis of three spectral indices using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Second, optimized thresholds of the spectral indices are imputed to classify land covers, and finally, their performance of enhancing multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is assessed. The results indicate that the spectral indices are competent to enhance multi-temporal urban land cover mapping and achieves an overall classification accuracy of 93-96%.

Keywords: land cover, mapping, multi-temporal, spectral indices

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13 Identification of High-Rise Buildings Using Object Based Classification and Shadow Extraction Techniques

Authors: Subham Kharel, Sudha Ravindranath, A. Vidya, B. Chandrasekaran, K. Ganesha Raj, T. Shesadri


Digitization of urban features is a tedious and time-consuming process when done manually. In addition to this problem, Indian cities have complex habitat patterns and convoluted clustering patterns, which make it even more difficult to map features. This paper makes an attempt to classify urban objects in the satellite image using object-oriented classification techniques in which various classes such as vegetation, water bodies, buildings, and shadows adjacent to the buildings were mapped semi-automatically. Building layer obtained as a result of object-oriented classification along with already available building layers was used. The main focus, however, lay in the extraction of high-rise buildings using spatial technology, digital image processing, and modeling, which would otherwise be a very difficult task to carry out manually. Results indicated a considerable rise in the total number of buildings in the city. High-rise buildings were successfully mapped using satellite imagery, spatial technology along with logical reasoning and mathematical considerations. The results clearly depict the ability of Remote Sensing and GIS to solve complex problems in urban scenarios like studying urban sprawl and identification of more complex features in an urban area like high-rise buildings and multi-dwelling units. Object-Oriented Technique has been proven to be effective and has yielded an overall efficiency of 80 percent in the classification of high-rise buildings.

Keywords: object oriented classification, shadow extraction, high-rise buildings, satellite imagery, spatial technology

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12 Improvement of Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Using the Atrium Design for Traditional Folk Houses-Fujian Earthen Building

Authors: Ying-Ming Su


Fujian earthen building which was known as a classic for ecological buildings was listed on the world heritage in 2008 (UNESCO) in China. Its design strategy can be applied to modern architecture planning and design. This study chose two different cases (Round Atrium: Er-Yi Building, Double Round Atrium: Zhen-Chen Building) of earthen building in Fu-Jian to compare the ventilation effects of different atrium forms. We adopt field measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of temperature, humidity, and wind environment to identify the relationship between external environment and atrium about comfort and to confirm the relationship about atrium H/W (height/width). Results indicate that, through the atrium convection effect, it makes the natural wind guides to each space surrounded and keeps indoor comfort. It illustrates that the smaller the ratio of the H/W which is the relationship between the height and the width of an atrium is, the greater the wind speed generated within the street valley. Moreover, the wind speed is very close to the reference wind speed. This field measurement verifies that the value of H/W has great influence of solar radiation heat and sunshine shadows. The ventilation efficiency is: Er-Yi Building (H/W =0.2778) > Zhen-Chen Building (H/W=0.3670). Comparing the cases with the same shape but with different H/W, through the different size patios, airflow revolves in the atriums and can be brought into each interior space. The atrium settings meet the need of building ventilation, and can adjust the humidity and temperature within the buildings. It also creates good ventilation effect.

Keywords: traditional folk houses, atrium, tulou, ventilation, building microclimate

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11 Egg Yolk Peptide Stimulated Osteogenic Gene Expression

Authors: Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem


Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by low bone density which leads to increased bone fragility and greater susceptibility to fracture. Current treatments for osteoporosis are dominated by drugs that inhibit bone resorption although they also suppress bone formation that may contribute to pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. To restore the extensive bone loss, there is a great need for anabolic treatments that induce osteoblasts to build new bone. Pre-osteoblastic cells produce proteins of the extra-cellular matrix, including type I collagen at first, and then to successively produce alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin during differentiation to osteoblasts. Finally, osteoblasts deposit calcium. Present study investigated the effects of egg yolk peptide (EYP) on osteogenic activities and bone matrix gene expressions in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells. The effects of EYP on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization were measured. The expression of osteogenic genes including COL1A1 (collagen, type I, alpha 1), ALP, BGLAP (osteocalcin), and SPP1 (secreted phosphoprotein 1, osteopontin) were measured by quantitative realtime PCR. EYP dose-dependently increased MG-63 cell proliferation, ALP activity, collagen synthesis, and calcium deposition. Furthermore, COL1A1, ALP, and SPP1 gene expressions were increased by EYP treatment. Present study suggested that EYP treatment enhanced osteogenic activities and increased bone matrix osteogenicgenes. These results could provide a mechanistic explanation for the bone-strengthening effects of EYP.

Keywords: egg yolk peptide, osteoblastic MG-63 cells, alkaline phosphatase, collagen synthesis, osteogenic genes, COL1A1, osteocalcin, osteopontin

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10 Beyond Baudrillard: A Critical Intersection between Semiotics and Materialism

Authors: Francesco Piluso


Nowadays, to restore the deconstructive power of semiotics implies a critical analysis of neoliberal ideology, and, even more critically, a confrontation with materialist perspective. The theoretical path of Jean Baudrillard is crucial to understand the ambivalence of this intersection. A semiotic critique of Baudrillard’s work, through tools of both structuralism and interpretative semiotics, has the aim to give materialism a new consistent semiotic approach and vice-versa. According to Baudrillard, the commodity form is characterized by the same abstract and systemic logic of the sign-form, in which the production of the signified (use-value) is a mere ideological mean for the reproduction of the signifiers-chain (exchange-value). Nevertheless, this parallelism is broken by the author himself: if the use-value is deconstructed in its relative logic, the signified and the referent, both as discrete and positive elements, are collapsed on the same plane at the shadows of the signified forms. These divergent considerations lead Baudrillard to the same crucial point: the dismissal of the material world, replaced by the hyperreality as reproduction of a semiotic (genetic) Code. The stress on the concept of form, as an epistemological and semiotic tool to analyse the construction of values in the consumer society, has led to the Code as its ontological drift. In other words, Baudrillard seems to enclose consumer society (and reality) in this immanent and self-fetishized world of signs–an ideological perspective that mystifies the gravity of the material relationships between Northern-Western World and Third World. The notion of Encyclopaedia by Umberto Eco is the key to overturn the relationship of immanence/transcendence between the Code and the economic political of the sign, by understanding the former as an ideological plane within the encyclopedia itself. Therefore, rather than building semiotic (hyper)realities, semiotics has to deal with materialism in terms of material relationships of power which are mystified and reproduced through such ideological ontologies of signs.

Keywords: Baudrillard, Code, Eco, Encyclopaedia, epistemology vs. ontology, semiotics vs. materialism

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9 Object Detection in Digital Images under Non-Standardized Conditions Using Illumination and Shadow Filtering

Authors: Waqqas-ur-Rehman Butt, Martin Servin, Marion Pause


In recent years, object detection has gained much attention and very encouraging research area in the field of computer vision. The robust object boundaries detection in an image is demanded in numerous applications of human computer interaction and automated surveillance systems. Many methods and approaches have been developed for automatic object detection in various fields, such as automotive, quality control management and environmental services. Inappropriately, to the best of our knowledge, object detection under illumination with shadow consideration has not been well solved yet. Furthermore, this problem is also one of the major hurdles to keeping an object detection method from the practical applications. This paper presents an approach to automatic object detection in images under non-standardized environmental conditions. A key challenge is how to detect the object, particularly under uneven illumination conditions. Image capturing conditions the algorithms need to consider a variety of possible environmental factors as the colour information, lightening and shadows varies from image to image. Existing methods mostly failed to produce the appropriate result due to variation in colour information, lightening effects, threshold specifications, histogram dependencies and colour ranges. To overcome these limitations we propose an object detection algorithm, with pre-processing methods, to reduce the interference caused by shadow and illumination effects without fixed parameters. We use the Y CrCb colour model without any specific colour ranges and predefined threshold values. The segmented object regions are further classified using morphological operations (Erosion and Dilation) and contours. Proposed approach applied on a large image data set acquired under various environmental conditions for wood stack detection. Experiments show the promising result of the proposed approach in comparison with existing methods.

Keywords: image processing, illumination equalization, shadow filtering, object detection

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8 In the Valley of the Shadow of Death: Gossip, God, and Scapegoating in Susannah, an American Opera by Carlisle Floyd

Authors: Shirl H. Terrell


In the telling of mythologies, stories of cultural and religious histories, the creative arts provide an archetypal lens through which the personal and collective unconscious are viewed, thus revealing mysteries of the unknown psyche. To that end, the author of this paper, using the hermeneutic approach, proves that Carlisle Floyd’s (1955) English language opera Susannah illuminates humanity’s instinctual nature and behaviors through music, libretto, and drama. While impressive musical works such as Wagner’s Ring Cycle and Webber’s Phantom of the Opera have received extensive Jungian analyses, critics and scholars often ignore lesser esteemed works, such as Susannah, notwithstanding the fact that they have been consistently performed on the theater circuit. Such pieces, when given notice, allow viewers to grasp the soul-making depth and timeless quality of productions which may otherwise go unrecognized as culturally or psychologically significant. Although Susannah has sometimes been described as unsophisticated and simple in scope, the author demonstrates why Floyd’s 'little' opera, set in New Hope Valley, Appalachia, a cultural region in the Eastern United States known for its prevailing myths and distortions of isolation, temperament, and the judgmentally conservative behavior of its inhabitants, belongs to opera’s hallmark works. Its approach to powerful underlying archetypal themes, which give rise to the poignant and haunting depictions of the darker and destructive side of the human soul, the Shadow, provides crucial significance to the work. The Shadow’s manifestation in the form of the scapegoating complex is central to the plot of Susannah; the church’s meting out of rules, judgment, and reparation for sins point to the foreboding aspects of human behavior that evoke their intrinsic nature. The scapegoating complex is highlighted in an eight-step process gleaned from the works of Kenneth Burke and Rene Girard. In summary, through depth psychological terms and mythological motifs, the author provides an insightful approach to perceiving instinctual behaviors as they play out in an American opera that has been staged over eight-hundred times, yet, unfortunately, remains in the shadows. Susannah’s timelessness is now.

Keywords: archetypes, mythology, opera, scapegoating, Shadow, Susannah

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7 Extraction of Urban Building Damage Using Spectral, Height and Corner Information

Authors: X. Wang


Timely and accurate information on urban building damage caused by earthquake is important basis for disaster assessment and emergency relief. Very high resolution (VHR) remotely sensed imagery containing abundant fine-scale information offers a large quantity of data for detecting and assessing urban building damage in the aftermath of earthquake disasters. However, the accuracy obtained using spectral features alone is comparatively low, since building damage, intact buildings and pavements are spectrally similar. Therefore, it is of great significance to detect urban building damage effectively using multi-source data. Considering that in general height or geometric structure of buildings change dramatically in the devastated areas, a novel multi-stage urban building damage detection method, using bi-temporal spectral, height and corner information, was proposed in this study. The pre-event height information was generated using stereo VHR images acquired from two different satellites, while the post-event height information was produced from airborne LiDAR data. The corner information was extracted from pre- and post-event panchromatic images. The proposed method can be summarized as follows. To reduce the classification errors caused by spectral similarity and errors in extracting height information, ground surface, shadows, and vegetation were first extracted using the post-event VHR image and height data and were masked out. Two different types of building damage were then extracted from the remaining areas: the height difference between pre- and post-event was used for detecting building damage showing significant height change; the difference in the density of corners between pre- and post-event was used for extracting building damage showing drastic change in geometric structure. The initial building damage result was generated by combining above two building damage results. Finally, a post-processing procedure was adopted to refine the obtained initial result. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated and compared to two existing methods in Port au Prince, Haiti, which was heavily hit by an earthquake in January 2010, using pre-event GeoEye-1 image, pre-event WorldView-2 image, post-event QuickBird image and post-event LiDAR data. The results showed that the method proposed in this study significantly outperformed the two comparative methods in terms of urban building damage extraction accuracy. The proposed method provides a fast and reliable method to detect urban building collapse, which is also applicable to relevant applications.

Keywords: building damage, corner, earthquake, height, very high resolution (VHR)

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6 A Question of Ethics and Faith

Authors: Madhavi-Priya Singh, Liam Lowe, Farouk Arnaout, Ludmilla Pillay, Giordan Perez, Luke Mischker, Steve Costa


An Emergency Department consultant identified the failure of medical students to complete the task of clerking a patient in its entirety. As six medical students on our first clinical placement, we recognised our own failure and endeavoured to examine why this failure was consistent among all medical students that had been given this task, despite our best motivations as adult learner. Our aim is to understand and investigate the elements which impeded our ability to learn and perform as medical students in the clinical environment, with reference to the prescribed task. We also aim to generate a discussion around the delivery of medical education with potential solutions to these barriers. Six medical students gathered together to have a comprehensive reflective discussion to identify possible factors leading to the failure of the task. First, we thoroughly analysed the delivery of the instructions with reference to the literature to identify potential flaws. We then examined personal, social, ethical, and cultural factors which may have impacted our ability to complete the task in its entirety. Through collation of our shared experiences, with support from discussion in the field of medical education and ethics, we identified two major areas that impacted our ability to complete the set task. First, we experienced an ethical conflict where we believed the inconvenience and potential harm inflicted on patients did not justify the positive impact the patient interaction would have on our medical learning. Second, we identified a lack of confidence stemming from multiple factors, including the conflict between preclinical and clinical learning, perceptions of perfectionism in the culture of medicine, and the influence of upward social comparison. After discussions, we found that the various factors we identified exacerbated the fears and doubts we already had about our own abilities and that of the medical education system. This doubt led us to avoid completing certain aspects of the tasks that were prescribed and further reinforced our vulnerability and perceived incompetence. Exploration of philosophical theories identified the importance of the role of doubt in education. We propose the need for further discussion around incorporating both pedagogic and andragogic teaching styles in clinical medical education and the acceptance of doubt as a driver of our learning. Doubt will continue to permeate our thoughts and actions no matter what. The moral or psychological distress that arises from this is the key motivating factor for our avoidance of tasks. If we accept this doubt and education embraces this doubt, it will no longer linger in the shadows as a negative and restrictive emotion but fuel a brighter dialogue and positive learning experience, ultimately assisting us in achieving our full potential.

Keywords: medical education, clinical education, andragogy, pedagogy

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5 The Medical Student Perspective on the Role of Doubt in Medical Education

Authors: Madhavi-Priya Singh, Liam Lowe, Farouk Arnaout, Ludmilla Pillay, Giordan Perez, Luke Mischker, Steve Costa


Introduction: An Emergency Department consultant identified the failure of medical students to complete the task of clerking a patient in its entirety. As six medical students on our first clinical placement, we recognised our own failure and endeavored to examine why this failure was consistent among all medical students that had been given this task, despite our best motivations as adult learners. Aim: Our aim is to understand and investigate the elements which impeded our ability to learn and perform as medical students in the clinical environment, with reference to the prescribed task. We also aim to generate a discussion around the delivery of medical education with potential solutions to these barriers. Methods: Six medical students gathered together to have a comprehensive reflective discussion to identify possible factors leading to the failure of the task. First, we thoroughly analysed the delivery of the instructions with reference to the literature to identify potential flaws. We then examined personal, social, ethical, and cultural factors which may have impacted our ability to complete the task in its entirety. Results: Through collation of our shared experiences, with support from discussion in the field of medical education and ethics, we identified two major areas that impacted our ability to complete the set task. First, we experienced an ethical conflict where we believed the inconvenience and potential harm inflicted on patients did not justify the positive impact the patient interaction would have on our medical learning. Second, we identified a lack of confidence stemming from multiple factors, including the conflict between preclinical and clinical learning, perceptions of perfectionism in the culture of medicine, and the influence of upward social comparison. Discussion: After discussions, we found that the various factors we identified exacerbated the fears and doubts we already had about our own abilities and that of the medical education system. This doubt led us to avoid completing certain aspects of the tasks that were prescribed and further reinforced our vulnerability and perceived incompetence. Exploration of philosophical theories identified the importance of the role of doubt in education. We propose the need for further discussion around incorporating both pedagogic and andragogic teaching styles in clinical medical education and the acceptance of doubt as a driver of our learning. Conclusion: Doubt will continue to permeate our thoughts and actions no matter what. The moral or psychological distress that arises from this is the key motivating factor for our avoidance of tasks. If we accept this doubt and education embraces this doubt, it will no longer linger in the shadows as a negative and restrictive emotion but fuel a brighter dialogue and positive learning experience, ultimately assisting us in achieving our full potential.

Keywords: ethics, medical student, doubt, medical education, faith

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4 Kidnapping of Migrants by Drug Cartels in Mexico as a New Trend in Contemporary Slavery

Authors: Itze Coronel Salomon


The rise of organized crime and violence related to drug cartels in Mexico has created serious challenges for the authorities to provide security to those who live within its borders. However, to achieve a significant improvement in security is absolute respect for fundamental human rights by the authorities. Irregular migrants in Mexico are at serious risk of abuse. Research by Amnesty International as well as reports of the NHRC (National Human Rights) in Mexico, have indicated the major humanitarian crisis faced by thousands of migrants traveling in the shadows. However, the true extent of the problem remains invisible to the general population. The fact that federal and state governments leave no proper record of abuse and do not publish reliable data contributes to ignorance and misinformation, often spread by the media that portray migrants as the source of crime rather than their victims. Discrimination and intolerance against irregular migrants can generate greater hostility and exclusion. According to the modus operandi that has been recorded criminal organizations and criminal groups linked to drug trafficking structures deprive migrants of their liberty for forced labor and illegal activities related to drug trafficking, even some have been kidnapped for be trained as murderers . If the victim or their family cannot pay the ransom, the kidnapped person may suffer torture, mutilation and amputation of limbs or death. Migrant women are victims of sexual abuse during her abduction as well. In 2011, at least 177 bodies were identified in the largest mass grave found in Mexico, located in the town of San Fernando, in the border state of Tamaulipas, most of the victims were killed by blunt instruments, and most seemed to be immigrants and travelers passing through the country. With dozens of small graves discovered in northern Mexico, this may suggest a change in tactics between organized crime groups to the different means of obtaining revenue and reduce murder profile methods. Competition and conflict over territorial control drug trafficking can provide strong incentives for organized crime groups send signals of violence to the authorities and rival groups. However, as some Mexican organized crime groups are increasingly looking to take advantage of income and vulnerable groups, such as Central American migrants seem less interested in advertising his work to authorities and others, and more interested in evading detection and confrontation. This paper pretends to analyze the introduction of this new trend of kidnapping migrants for forced labors by drug cartels in Mexico into the forms of contemporary slavery and its implications.

Keywords: international law, migration, transnational organized crime

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3 Geoinformation Technology of Agricultural Monitoring Using Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery

Authors: Olena Kavats, Dmitry Khramov, Kateryna Sergieieva, Vladimir Vasyliev, Iurii Kavats


Geoinformation technologies of space agromonitoring are a means of operative decision making support in the tasks of managing the agricultural sector of the economy. Existing technologies use satellite images in the optical range of electromagnetic spectrum. Time series of optical images often contain gaps due to the presence of clouds and haze. A geoinformation technology is created. It allows to fill gaps in time series of optical images (Sentinel-2, Landsat-8, PROBA-V, MODIS) with radar survey data (Sentinel-1) and use information about agrometeorological conditions of the growing season for individual monitoring years. The technology allows to perform crop classification and mapping for spring-summer (winter and spring crops) and autumn-winter (winter crops) periods of vegetation, monitoring the dynamics of crop state seasonal changes, crop yield forecasting. Crop classification is based on supervised classification algorithms, takes into account the peculiarities of crop growth at different vegetation stages (dates of sowing, emergence, active vegetation, and harvesting) and agriculture land state characteristics (row spacing, seedling density, etc.). A catalog of samples of the main agricultural crops (Ukraine) is created and crop spectral signatures are calculated with the preliminary removal of row spacing, cloud cover, and cloud shadows in order to construct time series of crop growth characteristics. The obtained data is used in grain crop growth tracking and in timely detection of growth trends deviations from reference samples of a given crop for a selected date. Statistical models of crop yield forecast are created in the forms of linear and nonlinear interconnections between crop yield indicators and crop state characteristics (temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, etc.). Predicted values of grain crop yield are evaluated with an accuracy up to 95%. The developed technology was used for agricultural areas monitoring in a number of Great Britain and Ukraine regions using EOS Crop Monitoring Platform ( The obtained results allow to conclude that joint use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images improve separation of winter crops (rapeseed, wheat, barley) in the early stages of vegetation (October-December). It allows to separate successfully the soybean, corn, and sunflower sowing areas that are quite similar in their spectral characteristics.

Keywords: geoinformation technology, crop classification, crop yield prediction, agricultural monitoring, EOS Crop Monitoring Platform

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2 Sculpted Forms and Sensitive Spaces: Walking Through the Underground in Naples

Authors: Chiara Barone


In Naples, the visible architecture is only what emerges from the underground. Caves and tunnels cross it in every direction, intertwining with each other. They are not natural caves but spaces built by removing what is superfluous in order to dig a form out of the material. Architects, as sculptors of space, do not determine the exterior, what surrounds the volume and in which the forms live, but an interior underground space, perceptive and sensitive, able to generate new emotions each time. It is an intracorporeal architecture, linked to the body, not in its external relationships but rather with what happens inside. The proposed aims to reflect on the design of underground spaces in Neapolitan city. The idea is to intend the underground as a spectacular museum of the city, an opportunity to learn in situ the history of the place along an unpredictable itinerary that crosses the caves and in certain points emerges, escaping from the world of shadows. Starting form the analysis and the study of the many overlapping elements, the archaeological one, the geological layer and the contemporary city above, it is possible to develop realistic alternatives for the underground itineraries. The objective is to define minor paths to ensure the continuity between the touristic flows and entire underground segments already investigated but now disconnected: open-air paths, which abyss in the earth, retracing historical and preserved fragments. The visitor, in this way, passes from real spaces to sensitive spaces, in which the imaginary replaces the real experience, running towards an exciting and secret knowledge. To safeguard the complex framework of historical-artistic values, it is essential to use a multidisciplinary methodology based on a global approach. Moreover, it is essential to refer to similar design projects for the archaeological underground, capable of guide action strategies, looking at similar conditions in other cities, where the project has led to an enhancement of the heritage in the city. The research limits the field of investigation by choosing the historic center of Naples and applying bibliographic and theoretical research to a real place. First of all, it’s necessary to deepen the places’ knowledge and understand the potentialities of the project as a link between what is below and what is above. Starting from a scientific approach, in which theory and practice are constantly intertwined through the architectural project, the major contribution is to provide possible alternative configurations for the underground space and its relationship with the city above, understanding how the condition of transition, as a passage between the below and the above becomes structuring in the design process. Starting from the consideration of the underground as both a real physical place and a sensitive place, which engages the memory, imagination and sensitivity of a man, the research aims at identifying possible configurations and actions useful for the future urban programs to make the underground a central part of the lived city, again.

Keywords: underground paths, invisible ruins, imaginary, sculpted forms, sensitive spaces, Naples

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