Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10971

Search results for: rate of production

10821 Comparisons of Individual and Group Replacement Policies for a Series Connection System with Two Machines

Authors: Wen Liang Chang, Mei Wei Wang, Ruey Huei Yeh


This paper studies the comparisons of individual and group replacement policies for a series connection system with two machines. Suppose that manufacturer’s production system is a series connection system which is combined by two machines. For two machines, when machines fail within the operating time, minimal repair is performed for machines by the manufacturer. The manufacturer plans to a preventive replacement for machines at a pre-specified time to maintain system normal operation. Under these maintenance policies, the maintenance cost rate models of individual and group replacement for a series connection system with two machines is derived and further, optimal preventive replacement time is obtained such that the expected total maintenance cost rate is minimized. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the influences of individual and group replacement policies to the maintenance cost rate.

Keywords: individual replacement, group replacement, replacement time, two machines, series connection system

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10820 In vitro Method to Evaluate the Effect of Steam-Flaking on the Quality of Common Cereal Grains

Authors: Wanbao Chen, Qianqian Yao, Zhenming Zhou


Whole grains with intact pericarp are largely resistant to digestion by ruminants because entire kernels are not conducive to bacterial attachment. But processing methods makes the starch more accessible to microbes, and increases the rate and extent of starch degradation in the rumen. To estimate the feasibility of applying a steam-flaking as the processing technique of grains for ruminants, cereal grains (maize, wheat, barley and sorghum) were processed by steam-flaking (steam temperature 105°C, heating time, 45 min). And chemical analysis, in vitro gas production, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and energetic values were adopted to evaluate the effects of steam-flaking. In vitro cultivation was conducted for 48h with the rumen fluid collected from steers fed a total mixed ration consisted of 40% hay and 60% concentrates. The results showed that steam-flaking processing had a significant effect on the contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (P < 0.01). The concentration of starch gelatinization degree in all grains was also great improved in steam-flaking grains, as steam-flaking processing disintegrates the crystal structure of cereal starch, which may subsequently facilitate absorption of moisture and swelling. Theoretical maximum gas production after steam-flaking processing showed no great difference. However, compared with intact grains, total gas production at 48 h and the rate of gas production were significantly (P < 0.01) increased in all types of grain. Furthermore, there was no effect of steam-flaking processing on total volatile fatty acid, but a decrease in the ratio between acetate and propionate was observed in the current in vitro fermentation. The present study also found that steam-flaking processing increased (P < 0.05) organic matter digestibility and energy concentration of the grains. The collective findings of the present study suggest that steam-flaking processing of grains could improve their rumen fermentation and energy utilization by ruminants. In conclusion, the utilization of steam-flaking would be practical to improve the quality of common cereal grains.

Keywords: cereal grains, gas production, in vitro rumen fermentation, steam-flaking processing

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10819 Money and Inflation in Cambodia

Authors: Siphat Lim


The result of the study revealed that the interaction between money, exchange rate, and price level was mainly derived from the policy-induced by the central bank. Furthermore, the variation of inflation was explained weakly by exchange rate and money supply. In the period of twelfth-month, the variation of inflation which caused by exchange rate and money supply were not more than 1.78 percent and 9.77 percent, respectively.

Keywords: money supply, exchange rate, price level, VAR model

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10818 The Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on Real Total Export and Sub-Categories of Real Total Export of Malaysia

Authors: Wong Hock Tsen


This study aims to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on real export in Malaysia. The moving standard deviation with order three (MSD(3)) is used for the measurement of exchange rate volatility. The conventional and partially asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models are used in the estimations. This study finds exchange rate volatility to have significant impact on real total export and some sub-categories of real total export. Moreover, this study finds that the positive or negative exchange rate volatility tends to have positive or negative impact on real export. Exchange rate volatility can be harmful to export of Malaysia.

Keywords: exchange rate volatility, autoregressive distributed lag, export, Malaysia

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10817 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke


The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

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10816 System Response of a Variable-Rate Aerial Application System

Authors: Daniel E. Martin, Chenghai Yang


Variable-rate aerial application systems are becoming more readily available; however, aerial applicators typically only use the systems for constant-rate application of materials, allowing the systems to compensate for upwind and downwind ground speed variations. Much of the resistance to variable-rate aerial application system adoption in the U.S. pertains to applicator’s trust in the systems to turn on and off automatically as desired. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system under field conditions to demonstrate both the response and accuracy of the system to desired application rate inputs. This study involved planting oats in a 35-acre fallow field during the winter months to establish a uniform green backdrop in early spring. A binary (on/off) prescription application map was generated and a variable-rate aerial application of glyphosate was made to the field. Airborne multispectral imagery taken before and two weeks after the application documented actual field deposition and efficacy of the glyphosate. When compared to the prescription application map, these data provided application system response and accuracy information. The results of this study will be useful for quantifying and documenting the response and accuracy of a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system so that aerial applicators can be more confident in their capabilities and the use of these systems can increase, taking advantage of all that aerial variable-rate technologies have to offer.

Keywords: variable-rate, aerial application, remote sensing, precision application

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10815 Improvement of Analysis Vertical Oil Exploration Wells (Case Study)

Authors: Azza Hashim Abbas, Wan Rosli Wan Suliman


The old school of study, well testing reservoir engineers used the transient pressure analyses to get certain parameters and variable factors on the reservoir's physical properties, such as, (permeability-thickness). Recently, the difficulties facing the newly discovered areas are the convincing fact that the exploration and production (E&p) team should have sufficiently accurate and appropriate data to work with due to different sources of errors. The well-test analyst does the work without going through well-informed and reliable data from colleagues which may consequently cause immense environmental damage and unnecessary financial losses as well as opportunity losses to the project. In 2003, new potential oil field (Moga) face circulation problem well-22 was safely completed. However the high mud density had caused an extensive damage to the nearer well area which also distracted the hypothetical oil rate of flow that was not representive of the real reservoir characteristics This paper presents methods to analyze and interpret the production rate and pressure data of an oil field. Specifically for Well- 22 using the Deconvolution technique to enhance the transient pressure .Applying deconvolution to get the best range of certainty of results needed for the next subsequent operation. The range determined and analysis of skin factor range was reasonable.

Keywords: well testing, exploration, deconvolution, skin factor, un certainity

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10814 Direction Stabilization and Simulation of an Aerial Delivery System with Ram-Air Parachute

Authors: Kemal Güven, Andaç T. Şamiloğlu


In this study, a controller system to stabilize the direction of an aerial delivery system is developed. First, a simulation platform is prepared in Matlab, Simulink. 6DOF vehicle model is used for simulations. Control algorithms for yaw, yaw rate and descent rate are developed and tested. For the flight stability, roll rate and pitch rate are observed.

Keywords: Aerial Delivery System, Direction Stabilization, Parachute , Simulink

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10813 Development of a Mathematical Model to Characterize the Oil Production in the Federal Republic of Nigeria Environment

Authors: Paul C. Njoku, Archana Swati Njoku


The study deals with the development of a mathematical model to characterize the oil production in Nigeria. This is calculated by initiating the dynamics of oil production in million barrels revenue plan cost of oil production in million nairas and unit cost of production from 1974-1982 in the contest of the federal Republic of Nigeria. This country export oil to other countries as well as importing specialized crude. The transport network from origin/destination tij to pairs is taking into account simulation runs, optimization have been considered in this study.

Keywords: mathematical oil model development dynamics, Nigeria, characterization barrels, dynamics of oil production

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10812 A Study of Factors Affecting the Elapsed Time of Housing Renewal Project Implementation in Seoul

Authors: In Su Na, Gunwon Lee, Seiyong Kim


This study analyzed the effect of area variables and economic variables on the length of each period of the project in order to analyze the effect of agreement rate on project implementation in housing renewal projects. In conclusion, as can be seen from these results, a low agreement rate may not translate into project promotion, and a higher agreement rate may not translate into project delay. The expectation of the policy is that the lower the agreement rate, the more projects would be promoted, but that is not the actual effect. From a policy consistency viewpoint, changing the agreement rate frequently, depending on the decision of the public, is not reasonable. The policy of using agreement rate as a necessary condition for project implementation should be reconsidered.

Keywords: Area and Economic Variables, Elapsed time, Housing Renewal Project

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10811 Rapid Proliferation of Tissue Culture Using of Olive (Olea Europea L.) cv.Zard

Authors: Majid Gharaipour Abbasabad


This research is studying the effects that various densities of Zeatin, and BA hormones may have on the scale of transformation of plant nodes to new shoots, among seedlings produced by seed germination, and also surveys the amount of produced shoots and their lengths, inside the specific Olive seed lab medium (OM). It is also concerned with the effects that various densities of IBA hormone, and inoculating the shoots with Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 can have on shoots' root production. This is a totally random research, and each attendance group has had three occurrences, and ten samples per a hectare. The average amounts have been compared using Duncan's test method, which was done in 5% level. The results indicated that the highest rate of transformation of micro samples to shoots happened in the seed germination environments, containing Zetain with 5 mg, and also 15 mg per a liter densities. (respectively, 95% and 94%), while the highest rate of plants' stem production ,in micro samples, happened in the lab medium environments with 5mg per a liter Zetain density (4.5). In lab medium environments with 15 mg Zetain per liter, a decrease was observed in the number of produced stems (3.88). According to the produced stems' lenght, the longest stem length was observed in environments with 5 mg and also 15 mg per a liter Zetain, and 25 mg per a liter BA densities (respectively, 8.45 cm, 45.66 cm, 8.53 cm). Meanwhile, the lowest amount of transformation of micro samples to shoots, the lowest number of produced shoots, and the shortest shoots were observed in the environments without any hormones (respectively, 3.32 cm, 1.13, 19.66%). The results of root production in Olive indicated that attendance groups which were exposed to different hormones did not vary, and Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 had no effect on them, as well. The lowest root's growth rate (22%) happened in environments without any hormones and also, in environment with Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 (19.66%). The largest number of roots was observed in the environments, containing Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 plus IBA (10 mg/l) and Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 plus IBA (10 mg/l), (respectively, 8.46 and 8.70), which had a significant difference with environments merely containing 10 mg and 20 mg of IBA per a litre (respectively, 3.06 and 3.2). So it can be concluded that even though Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 had no impact on root's growth among shoots, it had an impact on the number of produced roots. It should be noted that even when the environment contained merely Agrobacterium Rhizogenez A4 without any hormones, only (1.16) roots were produced, which is significantly different from the attendance group with hormones (1.06).

Keywords: olive-effect of hormones-germination of seed, densities of zeatin, BA hormones, agriculture

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10810 Econometric Analysis of Organic Vegetable Production in Turkey

Authors: Ersin Karakaya, Halit Tutar


Reliable foods must be consumed in terms of healthy nutrition. The production and dissemination of diatom products in Turkey is rapidly evolving on the basis of preserving ecological balance, ensuring sustainability in agriculture and offering quality, reliable products to consumers. In this study, year in Turkey as (2002- 2015) to determine values of such as cultivated land of organic vegetable production, production levels, production quantity, number of products, number of farmers. It is intended to make the econometric analysis of the factors affecting the production of organic vegetable production (Number of products, Number of farmers and cultivated land). The main material of the study has created secondary data in relation to the 2002-2015 period as organic vegetable production in Turkey and regression analysis of the factors affecting the value of production of organic vegetable is determined by the Least Squares Method with EViews statistical software package.

Keywords: number of farmers, cultivated land, Eviews, Turkey

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10809 Impact of Private Oil Palm Expansion on Indonesia Tropical Forest Deforestation Rate: Case Study in the Province of Riau

Authors: Arzyana Sunkar, Yanto Santosa, Intan Purnamasari, Yohanna Dalimunthe


A variety of negative allegations have criticized the Indonesian oil palm plantations as being environmentally unfriendly. One of the important allegations thus must be verified is that expansion of Indonesian oil palm plantation has increased the deforestation rate of primary tropical forest. In relation to this, a research was conducted to study the origin or history of the status and land use of 8 private oil palm plantations (with a total of 46,372.38 ha) located in Riau Province. Several methods were employed: (1) conducting analysis of overlay maps between oil palm plantation studied with the 1986 Forest Map Governance Agreement (TGHK) and the 1994 and 2014 Riau Provincial Spatial Plans(RTRWP); (2) studying the Cultivation Right on Land (HGU) documents including the Forestry Ministerial Decree on the release of forest area and (3) interpretation of lands at imagery of bands 542, covering 3 years before and after the oil palm industries operated. In addition, field cross-checked, and interviews were conducted with National Land Agency, Plantation and Forestry Office and community figures. The results indicated that as much as 1.95% of the oil palm plantations under study were converted from production forest, 30.34% from limited production forest and 67.70% from area for other usage /conversion production forest. One year prior to the establishment of the plantations, the land cover types comprised of rubber plantations (49.96%), secondary forest (35.99%), bare land (10.17%), shrubs (3.03%) and mixed dryland farming-shrubs (0.84%), whereas the land use types comprised of 35.99% forest concession areas, 14.04% migrants dryland farms, and 49.96% Cultivation Right on Land of other companies. These results indicated that most of the private oil palm plantations under study, resulted from the conversion of production forests and the previous land use were not primary forest but rubber plantations and secondary forests.

Keywords: land cover types, land use history, primary forest, private oil palm plantations

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10808 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase


Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

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10807 Determinant Factor Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Asean-6 Countries Period 2004-2012

Authors: Eleonora Sofilda, Ria Amalia, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah


Foreign direct investment is one of the sources of financing or capital that important for a country, especially for developing countries. This investment also provides a great contribution to development through the transfer of assets, management improving, and transfer of technology in enhancing the economy of a country. In the other side currently in ASEAN countries emerge the interesting phenomenon where some big producers are re-locate their basic production among those countries. This research is aimed to analyze the factors that affect capital inflows of foreign direct investment into the 6 ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam) in period 2004-2012. This study uses panel data analysis to determine the factors that affect of foreign direct investment in 6 ASEAN. The factors that affect of foreign direct investment (FDI) are the gross domestic product (GDP), global competitiveness (GCI), interest rate, exchange rate and trade openness (TO). Result of panel data analysis show that three independent variables (GCI, GDP, and TO) have a significant effect to the FDI in 6 ASEAN Countries.

Keywords: foreign direct investment, the gross domestic product, global competitiveness, interest rate, exchange rate, trade openness, panel data analysis

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10806 A Deterministic Approach for Solving the Hull and White Interest Rate Model with Jump Process

Authors: Hong-Ming Chen


This work considers the resolution of the Hull and White interest rate model with the jump process. A deterministic process is adopted to model the random behavior of interest rate variation as deterministic perturbations, which is depending on the time t. The Brownian motion and jumps uncertainty are denoted as the integral functions piecewise constant function w(t) and point function θ(t). It shows that the interest rate function and the yield function of the Hull and White interest rate model with jump process can be obtained by solving a nonlinear semi-infinite programming problem. A relaxed cutting plane algorithm is then proposed for solving the resulting optimization problem. The method is calibrated for the U.S. treasury securities at 3-month data and is used to analyze several effects on interest rate prices, including interest rate variability, and the negative correlation between stock returns and interest rates. The numerical results illustrate that our approach essentially generates the yield functions with minimal fitting errors and small oscillation.

Keywords: optimization, interest rate model, jump process, deterministic

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10805 Assessment of Rural Youth Adoption of Cassava Production Technologies in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: J. O. Ayinde, S. O. Olatunji


This study assessed rural youth adoption of cassava production technologies in Southwestern, Nigeria. Specifically, it examine the level of awareness and adoption of cassava production technologies by rural youth, determined the extent of usage of cassava production technologies available to the rural youth, examined constrains to the adoption of cassava production technologies by youth and suggested possible solutions. Multistage sampling procedure was adopted for the study. In the first stage, two states were purposively selected in southwest, Nigeria which are Osun and Oyo states due to high level of cassava production and access to cassava production technology in the areas. In the second stage, purposive sampling technique was used to select two local governments each from the states selected which are Ibarapa central (Igbo-Ora) and Ibarapa East (Eruwa) Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Oyo state; and Ife North (Ipetumodu) and Ede South (Oke Ireesi) LGAs in Osun State. In the third stage, proportionate sampling technique was used to randomly select five, four, six and four communities from the selected LGAs respectively representing 20 percent of the rural communities in them, in all 19 communities were selected. In the fourth stage, Snow ball sampling technique was used to select about 7 rural youths in each community selected to make a total of 133 respondents. Validated structured interview schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics to summarize and test the hypotheses of the study. The results show that the average age of rural youths participating in cassava production in the study area is 29 ± 2.6 years and 60 percent aged between 30 and 35 years. Also, more male (67.4 %) were involved in cassava production than females (32.6 %). The result also reveals that the average size of farm land of the respondents is 2.5 ± 0.3 hectares. Also, more male (67.4 %) were involved in cassava production than females (32.6 %). Also, extent of usage of the technologies (r = 0.363, p ≤ 0.01) shows significant relationship with level of adoption of the technologies. Household size (b = 0.183; P ≤ 0.01) and membership of social organizations were significant at 0.01 (b = 0.331; P ≤ 0.01) while age was significant at 0.10 (b = 0.097; P ≤ 0.05). On the other hand 0.01, years of residence (b = - 0.063; P ≤ 0.01) and income (b = - 0.204; P ≤ 0.01) had negative values and implies that a unit increase in each of these variables would decrease extent of usage of the Cassava production technologies. It was concluded that the extent of usage of the technologies in the communities will affect the rate of adoption positively and this will change the negative perception of youths on cassava production thereby ensure food security in the study area.

Keywords: assessment, rural youths’, Cassava production technologies, agricultural production, food security

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10804 Optimizing Cell Culture Performance in an Ambr15 Microbioreactor Using Dynamic Flux Balance and Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling

Authors: William Kelly, Sorelle Veigne, Xianhua Li, Zuyi Huang, Shyamsundar Subramanian, Eugene Schaefer


The ambr15™ bioreactor is a single-use microbioreactor for cell line development and process optimization. The ambr system offers fully automatic liquid handling with the possibility of fed-batch operation and automatic control of pH and oxygen delivery. With operating conditions for large scale biopharmaceutical production properly scaled down, micro bioreactors such as the ambr15™ can potentially be used to predict the effect of process changes such as modified media or different cell lines. In this study, gassing rates and dilution rates were varied for a semi-continuous cell culture system in the ambr15™ bioreactor. The corresponding changes to metabolite production and consumption, as well as cell growth rate and therapeutic protein production were measured. Conditions were identified in the ambr15™ bioreactor that produced metabolic shifts and specific metabolic and protein production rates also seen in the corresponding larger (5 liter) scale perfusion process. A Dynamic Flux Balance model was employed to understand and predict the metabolic changes observed. The DFB model-predicted trends observed experimentally, including lower specific glucose consumption when CO₂ was maintained at higher levels (i.e. 100 mm Hg) in the broth. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model of the ambr15™ was also developed, to understand transfer of O₂ and CO₂ to the liquid. This CFD model predicted gas-liquid flow in the bioreactor using the ANSYS software. The two-phase flow equations were solved via an Eulerian method, with population balance equations tracking the size of the gas bubbles resulting from breakage and coalescence. Reasonable results were obtained in that the Carbon Dioxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) and the air hold up increased with higher gas flow rate. Volume-averaged kLa values at 500 RPM increased as the gas flow rate was doubled and matched experimentally determined values. These results form a solid basis for optimizing the ambr15™, using both CFD and FBA modelling approaches together, for use in microscale simulations of larger scale cell culture processes.

Keywords: cell culture, computational fluid dynamics, dynamic flux balance analysis, microbioreactor

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10803 Similitude for Thermal Scale-up of a Multiphase Thermolysis Reactor in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman


The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is considered as a sustainable and efficient technology for a hydrogen production, when linked with clean-energy systems such as nuclear reactors or solar thermal plants. In the Cu-Cl cycle, water is decomposed thermally into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of intermediate reactions. This paper investigates the thermal scale up analysis of the three phase oxygen production reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle, where the reaction is endothermic and the temperature is about 530 oC. The paper focuses on examining the size and number of oxygen reactors required to provide enough heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. The type of the multiphase reactor used in this paper is the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that is heated by a half pipe jacket. The thermal resistance of each section in the jacketed reactor system is studied to examine its effect on the heat balance of the reactor. It is found that the dominant contribution to the system thermal resistance is from the reactor wall. In the analysis, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be driven by a nuclear reactor where two types of nuclear reactors are examined as the heat source to the oxygen reactor. These types are the CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) and High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). It is concluded that a better heat transfer rate has to be provided for CANDU-SCWR by 3-4 times than HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also examined in this paper and is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Finally, a comparison between the results of heat balance and existing results of mass balance is performed and is found that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: sustainable energy, clean energy, Cu-Cl cycle, heat transfer, hydrogen, oxygen

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10802 Optimization Model for Support Decision for Maximizing Production of Mixed Fruit Tree Farms

Authors: Andrés I. Ávila, Patricia Aros, César San Martín, Elizabeth Kehr, Yovana Leal


We consider a linear programming model to help farmers to decide if it is convinient to choose among three kinds of export fruits for their future investment. We consider area, investment, water, productivitiy minimal unit, and harvest restrictions and a monthly based model to compute the average income in five years. Also, conditions on the field as area, water availability and initia investment are required. Using the Chilean costs and dollar-peso exchange rate, we can simulate several scenarios to understand the possible risks associated to this market.

Keywords: mixed integer problem, fruit production, support decision model, fruit tree farms

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10801 Enhanced Peroxidase Production by Raoultella Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh


Given the high-utility of peroxidase, its production in large amount is of utmost importance. Over the years, actinomycetes have been the major peroxidase-producing bacteria. Consequently, other classes of bacteria with peroxidase production potentials are underexplored. This study, therefore, sought to enhance peroxidase production by a Raoultella species, a new ligninolytic proteobacteria strain, by determining the optimum culture conditions (initial pH, incubation temperature and agitation speed) for peroxidase production under submerged fermentation using the classical process of one variable at a time and supplementing the fermentation medium with some lignin model and inorganic nitrogen compounds. Subsequently, the time-course assay was carried out under optimized conditions. Then, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimal at initial pH 5, incubation temperature of 35 °C and agitation speed of 150 rpm with guaiacol and ammonium chloride as the best inducer and nitrogen supplement respectively. Peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was optimal at 72 h with specific productivity of 16.48 ± 0.89 U mg⁻¹. A simultaneous production of a non-peroxide dependent extracellular enzyme which suggests probable laccase production was observed with specific productivity of 13.63 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ while sawdust gave the best peroxidase yield under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, peroxidase production by the Raoultella species was increased by 3.40-fold.

Keywords: enzyme production, ligninolytic bacteria, peroxidase, proteobacteria

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10800 Short-Term Forecast of Wind Turbine Production with Machine Learning Methods: Direct Approach and Indirect Approach

Authors: Mamadou Dione, Eric Matzner-lober, Philippe Alexandre


The Energy Transition Act defined by the French State has precise implications on Renewable Energies, in particular on its remuneration mechanism. Until then, a purchase obligation contract permitted the sale of wind-generated electricity at a fixed rate. Tomorrow, it will be necessary to sell this electricity on the Market (at variable rates) before obtaining additional compensation intended to reduce the risk. This sale on the market requires to announce in advance (about 48 hours before) the production that will be delivered on the network, so to be able to predict (in the short term) this production. The fundamental problem remains the variability of the Wind accentuated by the geographical situation. The objective of the project is to provide, every day, short-term forecasts (48-hour horizon) of wind production using weather data. The predictions of the GFS model and those of the ECMWF model are used as explanatory variables. The variable to be predicted is the production of a wind farm. We do two approaches: a direct approach that predicts wind generation directly from weather data, and an integrated approach that estimâtes wind from weather data and converts it into wind power by power curves. We used machine learning techniques to predict this production. The models tested are random forests, CART + Bagging, CART + Boosting, SVM (Support Vector Machine). The application is made on a wind farm of 22MW (11 wind turbines) of the Compagnie du Vent (that became Engie Green France). Our results are very conclusive compared to the literature.

Keywords: forecast aggregation, machine learning, spatio-temporal dynamics modeling, wind power forcast

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10799 Fuel Quality of Biodiesel from Chlorella protothecoides Microalgae Species

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Mahendra Pal Sharma


Depleting fossil fuel resources coupled with serious environmental degradation has led to the search for alternative resources for biodiesel production as a substitute of Petro-diesel. Currently, edible, non-edible oils and microalgal plant species are cultivated for biodiesel production. Looking at the demerits of edible and non-edible oil resources, the focus is being given to grow microalgal species having high oil productivities, less maturity time and less land requirement. Out of various microalgal species, Chlorella protothecoides is considered as the most promising species for biodiesel production owing to high oil content (58 %), faster growth rate (24–48 h) and high biomass productivity (1214 mg/l/day). The present paper reports the results of optimization of reaction parameters of transesterification process as well as the kinetics of transesterification with 97% yield of biodiesel. The measurement of fuel quality of microalgal biodiesel shows that the biodiesel exhibit very good oxidation stability (O.S) of 7 hrs, more than ASTM D6751 (3 hrs) and EN 14112 (6 hrs) specifications. The CP and PP of 0 and -3 °C are finding as per ASTM D 2500-11 and ASTM D 97-12 standards. These results show that the microalgal biodiesel does not need any enhancement in O.S & CFP and hence can be recommended to be directly used as MB100 or its blends into diesel engine operation. Further, scope is available for the production of binary blends using poor quality biodiesel for engine operation.

Keywords: fuel quality, methyl ester yield, microalgae, transesterification

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10798 Evaluation of Different Cropping Systems under Organic, Inorganic and Integrated Production Systems

Authors: Sidramappa Gaddnakeri, Lokanath Malligawad


Any kind of research on production technology of individual crop / commodity /breed has not brought sustainability or stability in crop production. The sustainability of the system over years depends on the maintenance of the soil health. Organic production system includes use of organic manures, biofertilizers, green manuring for nutrient supply and biopesticides for plant protection helps to sustain the productivity even under adverse climatic condition. The study was initiated to evaluate the performance of different cropping systems under organic, inorganic and integrated production systems at The Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) under ICAR Network Project on Organic Farming. The trial was conducted for four years (2013-14 to 2016-17) on fixed site. Five cropping systems viz., sequence cropping of cowpea – safflower, greengram– rabi sorghum, maize-bengalgram, sole cropping of pigeonpea and intercropping of groundnut + cotton were evaluated under six nutrient management practices. The nutrient management practices are NM1 (100% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 100% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes), NM2 (75% Organic farming (Organic manures equivalent to 75% N (Cereals/cotton) or 100% P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application), NM3 (Integrated farming (50% Organic + 50% Inorganic nutrients, NM4 (Integrated farming (75% Organic + 25% Inorganic nutrients, NM5 (100% Inorganic farming (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers)) and NM6 (Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + Recommended rate of farm yard manure (FYM). Among the cropping systems evaluated for different production systems indicated that the Groundnut + Hybrid cotton (2:1) intercropping system found more remunerative as compared to Sole pigeonpea cropping system, Greengram-Sorghum sequence cropping system, Maize-Chickpea sequence cropping system and Cowpea-Safflower sequence cropping system irrespective of the production systems. Production practices involving application of recommended rates of fertilizers + recommended rates of organic manures (Farmyard manure) produced higher net monetary returns and higher B:C ratio as compared to integrated production system involving application of 50 % organics + 50 % inorganic and application of 75 % organics + 25 % inorganic and organic production system only Both the two organic production systems viz., 100 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 100 % N (Cereals/cotton) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) and 75 % Organic production system (Organic manures equivalent to 75 % N (Cereals) or 100 % P2O5 (Legumes) + Cow urine and Vermi-wash application) are found to be on par. Further, integrated production system involving application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers found more beneficial over organic production systems.

Keywords: cropping systems, production systems, cowpea, safflower, greengram, pigeonpea, groundnut, cotton

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10797 Prevalence of Gastro-Intestinal Helminthes of Farm Animals by Coprological Examination

Authors: Mohammad Saleh Al-Aboody


In the present study 442 fecal samples from cattle, buffaloes, and sheep for contamination with helminthes. Samples were examined from 171 cattle, 128 buffaloes, and 143 sheep. The testing, during the period from May 2014 to April 2015, showed that 81 out of 171cattle were positive for helminthes infection (47.3%), with the rate of infection higher in females (55%) than in males (40%). In buffaloes, 41 of 128 tested were positive, a 32% rate of infection. Again, the infection rate was higher in females (47%) than in males (22%). In sheep, the rate of infection was highest of all three species. The results showed that, the infection rate among cattle were 50.3 % and Trichostrongyle species were the predominant parasites among both cattle and buffaloes. The prevalence rate was much higher in females than males. Regarding seasonal dynamics the highest infection rates with helminthes reported was in spring season.

Keywords: helminthes, prevalence, ruminants, trichostrongyle

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10796 Investment Adjustments to Exchange Rate Fluctuations Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Tunisia

Authors: Mourad Zmami Oussema BenSalha


The current research aims to assess empirically the reaction of private investment to exchange rate fluctuations in Tunisia using a sample of 548 firms operating in manufacturing industries between 1997 and 2002. The micro-econometric model we estimate is based on an accelerator-profit specification investment model increased by two variables that measure the variation and the volatility of exchange rates. Estimates using the system the GMM method reveal that the effects of the exchange rate depreciation on investment are negative since it increases the cost of imported capital goods. Turning to the exchange rate volatility, as measured by the GARCH (1,1) model, our findings assign a significant role to the exchange rate uncertainty in explaining the sluggishness of private investment in Tunisia in the full sample of firms. Other estimation attempts based on various sub samples indicate that the elasticities of investment relative to the exchange rate volatility depend upon many firms’ specific characteristics such as the size and the ownership structure.

Keywords: investment, exchange rate volatility, manufacturing firms, system GMM, Tunisia

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10795 Pilot Scale Production and Compatibility Criteria of New Self-Cleaning Materials

Authors: Jonjaua Ranogajec, Ognjen Rudic, Snezana Pasalic, Snezana Vucetic, Damir Cjepa


The paper involves a chain of activities from synthesis, establishment of the methodology for characterization and testing of novel protective materials through the pilot production and application on model supports. It summarizes the results regarding the development of the pilot production protocol for newly developed self-cleaning materials. The optimization of the production parameters was completed in order to improve the most important functional properties (mineralogy characteristics, particle size, self-cleaning properties and photocatalytic activity) of the newly designed nanocomposite material.

Keywords: pilot production, self-cleaning materials, compatibility, cultural heritage

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10794 Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanostars for ROS Production

Authors: H. D. Duong, J. I. Rhee


In this work, gold nanoparticles in star shape (called gold nanostars, GNS) were synthesized and coated by N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide hydrochloride (PA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) for functionalizing their surface by amine and carboxyl groups and then investigated for ROS production. The GNS with big size and multi-tips seem to be superior in singlet oxygen production as compared with that of small GNS and less tips. However, the functioned GNS in small size could also enhance efficiency of singlet oxygen production about double as compared with that of the intact GNS. In combination with methylene blue (MB+), the functioned GNS could enhance the singlet oxygen production of MB+ after 1h of LED750 irradiation and no difference between small size and big size in this reaction was observed. In combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), only GNS coated PA could enhance the singlet oxygen production of ALA and the small size of GNS coated PA was a little higher effect than that of the bigger size. However, GNS coated MPA with small size had strong effect on hydroxyl radical production of ALA.

Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, gold nanostars, methylene blue, ROS production

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10793 Settlement Network Supplying Energy

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár


Few people now doubt the future of the global energy transition. The only question is whether the pace of renewables' penetration will be sufficient to compete with the rate of warming. Dynamic changes are also taking place in the Hungarian electricity system. In addition to nuclear power, which provides the basic electricity supply, the most dynamic is solar power, which is largely small-scale and residential. The emergence of solar power is outlining the emergence of energy production and supply fabric of municipalities. This creates the potential for over-producing municipalities to supply the electricity needs of neighboring settlements with lower production beyond renewables. By taking advantage of this energy sharing, electricity supply based on pure renewables can be achieved more quickly.

Keywords: renewable energy, energy geography, self-sufficiency, energy transition

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10792 Exchange Rate Forecasting by Econometric Models

Authors: Zahid Ahmad, Nosheen Imran, Nauman Ali, Farah Amir


The objective of the study is to forecast the US Dollar and Pak Rupee exchange rate by using time series models. For this purpose, daily exchange rates of US and Pakistan for the period of January 01, 2007 - June 2, 2017, are employed. The data set is divided into in sample and out of sample data set where in-sample data are used to estimate as well as forecast the models, whereas out-of-sample data set is exercised to forecast the exchange rate. The ADF test and PP test are used to make the time series stationary. To forecast the exchange rate ARIMA model and GARCH model are applied. Among the different Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models best model is selected on the basis of selection criteria. Due to the volatility clustering and ARCH effect the GARCH (1, 1) is also applied. Results of analysis showed that ARIMA (0, 1, 1 ) and GARCH (1, 1) are the most suitable models to forecast the future exchange rate. Further the GARCH (1,1) model provided the volatility with non-constant conditional variance in the exchange rate with good forecasting performance. This study is very useful for researchers, policymakers, and businesses for making decisions through accurate and timely forecasting of the exchange rate and helps them in devising their policies.

Keywords: exchange rate, ARIMA, GARCH, PAK/USD

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