Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10977

Search results for: rate of production

10887 Effect of Ramp Rate on the Preparation of Activated Carbon from Saudi Date Tree Fronds (Agro Waste) by Physical Activation Method

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M Al-Swaidan

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia is the major date producer in the world. In order to maximize the production from date tree, pruning of the date trees is required annually. Large amount of this agriculture waste material (palm tree fronds) is available in Saudi Arabia and considered as an ideal source as a precursor for production of activated carbon (AC). The single step procedure for the preparation of micro porous activated carbon (AC) from Saudi date tree fronds using mixture of gases (N2 and CO2) is carried out at carbonization/activation temperature at 850°C and at different ramp rates of 10, 20 and 30 degree per minute. Alloy 330 horizontal reactor is used for tube furnace. Flow rate of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases are kept at 150 ml/min and 50 ml/min respectively during the preparation. Characterization results reveal that the BET surface area, pore volume, and average pore diameter of the resulting activated carbon generally decreases with the increase in ramp rate. The activated carbon prepared at a ramp rate of 10 degrees/minute attains larger surface area and can offer higher potential to produce activated carbon of greater adsorption capacity from agriculture wastes such as date fronds. The BET surface areas of the activated carbons prepared at a ramp rate of 10, 20 and 30 degree/minute after 30 minutes activation time are 1094, 1020 and 515 m2/g, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology, and FTIR for functional groups was carried out that also verified the same trend. Moreover, by increasing the ramp rate from 10 and 20 degrees/min the yield remains same, i.e. 18%, whereas at a ramp rate of 30 degrees/min the yield increases from 18 to 20%. Thus, it is feasible to produce high-quality micro porous activated carbon from date frond agro waste using N2 carbonization followed by physical activation with CO2 and N2 mixture. This micro porous activated carbon can be used as adsorbent of heavy metals from wastewater, NOx SOx emission adsorption from ambient air and electricity generation plants, purification of gases, sewage treatment and many other applications.

Keywords: activated carbon, date tree fronds, agricultural waste, applied chemistry

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10886 Design and Fabrication of a Parabolic trough Collector and Experimental Investigation of Direct Steam Production in Tehran

Authors: M. Bidi, H. Akhbari, S. Eslami, A. Bakhtiari

Abstract:

Due to the high potential of solar energy utilization in Iran, development of related technologies is of great necessity. Linear parabolic collectors are among the most common and most efficient means to harness the solar energy. The main goal of this paper is design and construction of a parabolic trough collector to produce hot water and steam in Tehran. To provide precise and practical plans, 3D models of the collector under consideration were developed using Solidworks software. This collector was designed in a way that the tilt angle can be adjusted manually. To increase concentraion ratio, a small diameter absorber tube is selected and to enhance solar absorbtion, a shape of U-tube is used. One of the outstanding properties of this collector is its simple design and use of low cost metal and plastic materials in its manufacturing procedure. The collector under consideration was installed in Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran and the values of solar irradiation, ambient temperature, wind speed and collector steam production rate were measured in different days and hours of July. Results revealed that a 1×2 m parabolic trough collector located in Tehran is able to produce steam by the rate of 300ml/s under the condition of atmospheric pressure and without using a vacuum cover over the absorber tube.

Keywords: desalination, parabolic trough collector, direct steam production, solar water heater, design and construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
10885 Crickets as Social Business Model for Rural Women in Colombia

Authors: Diego Cruz, Helbert Arevalo, Diana Vernot

Abstract:

In 2013, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) said that insect production for food and feed could become an economic opportunity for rural women in developing countries. However, since then, just a few initiatives worldwide had tried to implement this kind of project in zones of tropical countries without previous experience in cricket production and insect human consumption, such as Colombia. In this project, ArthroFood company and the University of La Sabana join efforts to make a holistic multi-perspective analysis from biological, economic, culinary, and social sides of the Gryllodes sigillatus production by rural women of the municipality of La Mesa, Cundinamarca, Colombia. From a biological and economic perspective, G. sigillatus production in a 60m2 greenhouse was evaluated considering the effect of rearing density and substrates on final weight and length, developing time, survival rate, and proximate composition. Additionally, the production cost and labor hours were recorded for five months. On the other hand, from a socio- economic side, the intention of the rural women to implement cricket farms or micro-entrepreneurship around insect production was evaluated after developing ethnographies and empowerment, entrepreneurship, and cricket production workshops. Finally, the results of the elaboration of culinary recipes with cricket powder incorporating cultural aspects of the context of La Mesa, Cundinamarca, will be presented. This project represents Colombia's first attempt to create a social business model of cricket production involving rural women, academies, the private sector, and local authorities.

Keywords: cricket production, developing country, edible insects, entrepreneurship, insect culinary recipes

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10884 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis

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10883 Cybernetic Modeling of Growth Dynamics of Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 and Xylitol Production in Batch Reactor

Authors: J. Sharon Mano Pappu, Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi

Abstract:

Growth of Debaryomyces nepalensis on mixed substrates in batch culture follows diauxic pattern of completely utilizing glucose during the first exponential growth phase, followed by an intermediate lag phase and a second exponential growth phase consuming xylose. The present study deals with the development of cybernetic mathematical model for prediction of xylitol production and yield. Production of xylitol from xylose in batch fermentation is investigated in the presence of glucose as the co-substrate. Different ratios of glucose and xylose concentrations are assessed to study the impact of multi substrate on production of xylitol in batch reactors. The parameters in the model equations were estimated from experimental observations using integral method. The model equations were solved simultaneously by numerical technique using MATLAB. The developed cybernetic model of xylose fermentation in the presence of a co-substrate can provide answers about how the ratio of glucose to xylose influences the yield and rate of production of xylitol. This model is expected to accurately predict the growth of microorganism on mixed substrate, duration of intermediate lag phase, consumption of substrate, production of xylitol. The model developed based on cybernetic modelling framework can be helpful to simulate the dynamic competition between the metabolic pathways.

Keywords: co-substrate, cybernetic model, diauxic growth, xylose, xylitol

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
10882 Placement of Inflow Control Valve for Horizontal Oil Well

Authors: S. Thanabanjerdsin, F. Srisuriyachai, J. Chewaroungroj

Abstract:

Drilling horizontal well is one of the most cost-effective method to exploit reservoir by increasing exposure area between well and formation. Together with horizontal well technology, intelligent completion is often co-utilized to increases petroleum production by monitoring/control downhole production. Combination of both technological results in an opportunity to lower water cresting phenomenon, a detrimental problem that does not lower only oil recovery but also cause environmental problem due to water disposal. Flow of reservoir fluid is a result from difference between reservoir and wellbore pressure. In horizontal well, reservoir fluid around the heel location enters wellbore at higher rate compared to the toe location. As a consequence, Oil-Water Contact (OWC) at the heel side of moves upward relatively faster compared to the toe side. This causes the well to encounter an early water encroachment problem. Installation of Inflow Control Valve (ICV) in particular sections of horizontal well can involve several parameters such as number of ICV, water cut constrain of each valve, length of each section. This study is mainly focused on optimization of ICV configuration to minimize water production and at the same time, to enhance oil production. A reservoir model consisting of high aspect ratio of oil bearing zone to underneath aquifer is drilled with horizontal well and completed with variation of ICV segments. Optimization of the horizontal well configuration is firstly performed by varying number of ICV, segment length, and individual preset water cut for each segment. Simulation results show that installing ICV can increase oil recovery factor up to 5% of Original Oil In Place (OOIP) and can reduce of produced water depending on ICV segment length as well as ICV parameters. For equally partitioned-ICV segment, more number of segment results in better oil recovery. However, number of segment exceeding 10 may not give a significant additional recovery. In first production period, deformation of OWC strongly depends on number of segment along the well. Higher number of segment results in smoother deformation of OWC. After water breakthrough at heel location segment, the second production period begins. Deformation of OWC is principally dominated by ICV parameters. In certain situations that OWC is unstable such as high production rate, high viscosity fluid above aquifer and strong aquifer, second production period may give wide enough window to ICV parameter to take the roll.

Keywords: horizontal well, water cresting, inflow control valve, reservoir simulation

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10881 Effects of Rumen Protozoa and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

Authors: S. H. Nguyen, L. Li, R. S. Hegarty

Abstract:

Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in-vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing coconut oil distillate 4.5% (COD) for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation. On d 48, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 48, 55, 62 and 69 were incubated for 23h in-vitro (experiment 1). On day 82, 2% of NO3 (as NaNO3) was included in in-vitro incubations (experiment 2) to test for additivity of NO3 and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production, with methane production rate significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 7, 14 and 21 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major VFA, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary nitrate as the addition of nitrate in the defaunated heifers resulted in 86% reduction in methane production in-vitro.

Keywords: defaunation, nitrate, fermentation, methane production

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10880 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi

Abstract:

Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
10879 Intelligent Production Machine

Authors: A. Şahinoğlu, R. Gürbüz, A. Güllü, M. Karhan

Abstract:

This study in production machines, it is aimed that machine will automatically perceive cutting data and alter cutting parameters. The two most important parameters have to be checked in machine control unit are progress feed rate and speeds. These parameters are aimed to be controlled by sounds of machine. Optimum sound’s features introduced to computer. During process, real time data is received and converted by Matlab software. Data is converted into numerical values. According to them progress and speeds decreases/increases at a certain rate and thus optimum sound is acquired. Cutting process is made in respect of optimum cutting parameters. During chip remove progress, features of cutting tools, kind of cut material, cutting parameters and used machine; affects on various parameters. Instead of required parameters need to be measured such as temperature, vibration, and tool wear that emerged during cutting process; detailed analysis of the sound emerged during cutting process will provide detection of various data that included in the cutting process by the much more easy and economic way. The relation between cutting parameters and sound is being identified.

Keywords: cutting process, sound processing, intelligent late, sound analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
10878 Effect of Time and Rate of Nitrogen Application on the Malting Quality of Barley Yield in Sandy Soil

Authors: A. S. Talaab, Safaa, A. Mahmoud, Hanan S. Siam

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2013/2014 in the barley production area of Dakhala – New Valley Governorate, Egypt to assess the effect of nitrogen rate and time of N fertilizer application on barley grain yield, yield components and N use efficiency of barley and their association with grain yield. The treatments consisted of three levels of nitrogen (0, 70 and 100 kg N/acre) and five application times. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with three replication. Results revealed that barley grain yield and yield components increased significantly in response to N rate. Splitting N fertilizer amount at several times result in significant effect on grain yield, yield components, protein content and N uptake efficiency when compared with the entire N was applied at once. Application of N at rate of 100 kg N/acre resulted in accumulation of nitrate in the subsurface soil > 30cm. When N application timing considered, less NO3 was found in the soil profile with splitting N application compared with all preplans application.

Keywords: nitrogen use efficiency, splitting N fertilizer, barley, NO3

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
10877 Estimation of Hydrogen Production from PWR Spent Fuel Due to Alpha Radiolysis

Authors: Sivakumar Kottapalli, Abdesselam Abdelouas, Christoph Hartnack

Abstract:

Spent nuclear fuel generates a mixed field of ionizing radiation to the water. This radiation field is generally dominated by gamma rays and a limited flux of fast neutrons. The fuel cladding effectively attenuates beta and alpha particle radiation. Small fraction of the spent nuclear fuel exhibits some degree of fuel cladding penetration due to pitting corrosion and mechanical failure. Breaches in the fuel cladding allow the exposure of small volumes of water in the cask to alpha and beta ionizing radiation. The safety of the transport of radioactive material is assured by the package complying with the IAEA Requirements for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material SSR-6. It is of high interest to avoid generation of hydrogen inside the cavity which may to an explosive mixture. The risk of hydrogen production along with other radiation gases should be analyzed for a typical spent fuel for safety issues. This work aims to perform a realistic study of the production of hydrogen by radiolysis assuming most penalizing initial conditions. It consists in the calculation of the radionuclide inventory of a pellet taking into account the burn up and decays. Westinghouse 17X17 PWR fuel has been chosen and data has been analyzed for different sets of enrichment, burnup, cycles of irradiation and storage conditions. The inventory is calculated as the entry point for the simulation studies of hydrogen production by radiolysis kinetic models by MAKSIMA-CHEMIST. Dose rates decrease strongly within ~45 μm from the fuel surface towards the solution(water) in case of alpha radiation, while the dose rate decrease is lower in case of beta and even slower in case of gamma radiation. Calculations are carried out to obtain spectra as a function of time. Radiation dose rate profiles are taken as the input data for the iterative calculations. Hydrogen yield has been found to be around 0.02 mol/L. Calculations have been performed for a realistic scenario considering a capsule containing the spent fuel rod. Thus, hydrogen yield has been debated. Experiments are under progress to validate the hydrogen production rate using cyclotron at > 5MeV (at ARRONAX, Nantes).

Keywords: radiolysis, spent fuel, hydrogen, cyclotron

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
10876 Simulation Study on Effects of Surfactant Properties on Surfactant Enhanced Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Xiaoqian Cheng, Jon Kleppe, Ole Torsaeter

Abstract:

One objective of this work is to analyze the effects of surfactant properties (viscosity, concentration, and adsorption) on surfactant enhanced oil recovery at laboratory scale. The other objective is to obtain the functional relationships between surfactant properties and the ultimate oil recovery and oil recovery rate. A core is cut into two parts from the middle to imitate the matrix with a horizontal fracture. An injector and a producer are at the left and right sides of the fracture separately. The middle slice of the core is used as the model in this paper, whose size is 4cm x 0.1cm x 4.1cm, and the space of the fracture in the middle is 0.1 cm. The original properties of matrix, brine, oil in the base case are from Ekofisk Field. The properties of surfactant are from literature. Eclipse is used as the simulator. The results are followings: 1) The viscosity of surfactant solution has a positive linear relationship with surfactant oil recovery time. And the relationship between viscosity and oil production rate is an inverse function. The viscosity of surfactant solution has no obvious effect on ultimate oil recovery. Since most of the surfactant has no big effect on viscosity of brine, the viscosity of surfactant solution is not a key parameter of surfactant screening for surfactant flooding in fractured reservoirs. 2) The increase of surfactant concentration results a decrease of oil recovery rate and an increase of ultimate oil recovery. However, there are no functions could describe the relationships. Study on economy should be conducted because of the price of surfactant and oil. 3) In the study of surfactant adsorption, assume that the matrix wettability is changed to water-wet when the surfactant adsorption is to the maximum at all cases. And the ratio of surfactant adsorption and surfactant concentration (Cads/Csurf) is used to estimate the functional relationship. The results show that the relationship between ultimate oil recovery and Cads/Csurf is a logarithmic function. The oil production rate has a positive linear relationship with exp(Cads/Csurf). The work here could be used as a reference for the surfactant screening of surfactant enhanced oil recovery from fractured reservoirs. And the functional relationships between surfactant properties and the oil recovery rate and ultimate oil recovery help to improve upscaling methods.

Keywords: fractured reservoirs, surfactant adsorption, surfactant concentration, surfactant EOR, surfactant viscosity

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10875 Heat Transfer Analysis of a Multiphase Oxygen Reactor Heated by a Helical Tube in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman

Abstract:

In the thermochemical water splitting process by Cu-Cl cycle, oxygen gas is produced by an endothermic thermolysis process at a temperature of 530oC. Oxygen production reactor is a three-phase reactor involving cuprous chloride molten salt, copper oxychloride solid reactant and oxygen gas. To perform optimal performance, the oxygen reactor requires accurate control of heat transfer to the molten salt and decomposing solid particles within the thermolysis reactor. In this paper, the scale up analysis of the oxygen reactor that is heated by an internal helical tube is performed from the perspective of heat transfer. A heat balance of the oxygen reactor is investigated to analyze the size of the reactor that provides the required heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. It is found that the helical tube wall and the service side constitute the largest thermal resistances of the oxygen reactor system. In the analysis of this paper, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be heated by two types of nuclear reactor, which are HTGR and CANDU SCWR. It is concluded that using CANDU SCWR requires more heat transfer rate by 3-4 times than that when using HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also studied and it is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Comparisons between the results of this study and pervious results of material balances in the oxygen reactor show that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: heat transfer, Cu-Cl cycle, hydrogen production, oxygen, clean energy

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10874 Chocomerr (Merr Leaves Chocolate) Alternative Food in Increasing Breastmilk Quantity

Authors: Rara Wulan Anggareni, Narita Putri, Riski Septianing Astuti

Abstract:

Breastfeeding is a key to prevent mortality and morbidity in children. It is also the second highest risk responsible for Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) among children below five years old. UNICEF estimates that during 1995 – 2003, there are only about 38% infants in developing countries who get to be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of their lives. According to Demography and Health Survey in Indonesia 2007, breastfeed practice rate still considered as low which is about 41%. One of the factors causing the low breastfeed practice rate in Indonesia is the anxiety and postpartum depression, and also the weanling dilemma in which mother feels that her breastmilk cannot suffice infant needs. Those factors finally resulting into low or even stopped production of breastmilk. Breastmilk production can be enhanced by consuming food containing phytosterol and lactogoga effect. Food with the highest phytosterol level is Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaf (merr leaf). In this study, we made alternative food which named Chocomerr for breastfeeding mothers. Chocomerr consists of merr leaves which have lactogoga effect and chocolate for relaxation. Based on organoleptic tests conducted towards 2 age groups, which are 18 – 21 and 25 – 40 years old, this product gets good acceptance in taste, texture, and colour categories. Chocomerr can be used as an alternative way for increasing breastmilk production to aim for the decreasing number of DALYs among children aged under 5 years old.

Keywords: breastfeeding, increasing, chocolate, merr leaves

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10873 Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector

Authors: Salma Parvin, M. A. Alim

Abstract:

The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.

Keywords: DASC, forced convection, mass flow rate, nanofluid

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10872 Water Dumpflood into Multiple Low-Pressure Gas Reservoirs

Authors: S. Lertsakulpasuk, S. Athichanagorn

Abstract:

As depletion-drive gas reservoirs are abandoned when there is insufficient production rate due to pressure depletion, waterflooding has been proposed to increase the reservoir pressure in order to prolong gas production. Due to high cost, water injection may not be economically feasible. Water dumpflood into gas reservoirs is a new promising approach to increase gas recovery by maintaining reservoir pressure with much cheaper costs than conventional waterflooding. Thus, a simulation study of water dumpflood into multiple nearly abandoned or already abandoned thin-bedded gas reservoirs commonly found in the Gulf of Thailand was conducted to demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method and to determine the most suitable operational parameters for reservoirs having different system parameters. A reservoir simulation model consisting of several thin-layered depletion-drive gas reservoirs and an overlying aquifer was constructed in order to investigate the performance of the proposed method. Two producers were initially used to produce gas from the reservoirs. One of them was later converted to a dumpflood well after gas production rate started to decline due to continuous reduction in reservoir pressure. The dumpflood well was used to flow water from the aquifer to increase pressure of the gas reservoir in order to drive gas towards producer. Two main operational parameters which are wellhead pressure of producer and the time to start water dumpflood were investigated to optimize gas recovery for various systems having different gas reservoir dip angles, well spacings, aquifer sizes, and aquifer depths. This simulation study found that water dumpflood can increase gas recovery up to 12% of OGIP depending on operational conditions and system parameters. For the systems having a large aquifer and large distance between wells, it is best to start water dumpflood when the gas rate is still high since the long distance between the gas producer and dumpflood well helps delay water breakthrough at producer. As long as there is no early water breakthrough, the earlier the energy is supplied to the gas reservoirs, the better the gas recovery. On the other hand, for the systems having a small or moderate aquifer size and short distance between the two wells, performing water dumpflood when the rate is close to the economic rate is better because water is more likely to cause an early breakthrough when the distance is short. Water dumpflood into multiple nearly-depleted or depleted gas reservoirs is a novel study. The idea of using water dumpflood to increase gas recovery has been mentioned in the literature but has never been investigated. This detailed study will help a practicing engineer to understand the benefits of such method and can implement it with minimum cost and risk.

Keywords: dumpflood, increase gas recovery, low-pressure gas reservoir, multiple gas reservoirs

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
10871 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: production planning, production control, energy-efficiency, energy-flexibility, energy-supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
10870 Production Process of Coconut-Shell Product in Amphawa District

Authors: Wannee Sutthachaidee

Abstract:

The study of the production process of coconut-shell product in Amphawa, Samutsongkram Province is objected to study the pattern of the process of coconut-shell product by focusing in the 3 main processes which are inbound logistics process, production process and outbound process. The result of the research: There were 4 main results from the study. Firstly, most of the manufacturer of coconut-shell product is usually owned by a single owner and the quantity of the finished product is quite low and the main labor group is local people. Secondly, the production process can be divided into 4 stages which are pre-production process, production process, packaging process and distribution process. Thirdly, each 3 of the logistics process of coconut shell will find process which may cause the problem to the business but the process which finds the most problem is the production process because the production process needs the skilled labor and the quantity of the labor does not match with the demand from the customers. Lastly, the factors which affect the production process of the coconut shell can be founded in almost every process of the process such as production design, packaging design, sourcing supply and distribution management.

Keywords: production process, coconut-shell product, Amphawa District, inbound logistics process

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
10869 Numerical Study of UV Irradiation Effect on Air Disinfection Systems

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, M. Degheh, B. Sajadi, H. Sobhani

Abstract:

The induct ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) systems are broadly used nowadays and their utilization is widened every day. Even though these systems are not applicable individually, they are very suitable supplements for the traditional filtration systems. The amount of inactivated microorganisms is dependent on the air velocity, lamp power, fluence rate distribution, and also germicidal susceptibility of microorganisms. In this paper, these factors are investigated utilizing an air-microorganism two-phase numerical model. The eulerian-lagrangian method was used to have more detailed information on the history of each particle. The UVGI system was modeled in three steps including: 1) modeling the air flow, 2) modeling the discrete phase of particles, 3) modeling the UV intensity field, and 4) modeling the particle inactivation. The results from modeling different lamp arrangements and powers showed that the system functions better at more homogeneous irradiation distribution. Since increasing the air flow rate of the device results in increasing of particle inactivation rate, the optimal air velocity shall be adjusted in accordance with the microorganism production rate, and the air quality requirement using the curves represented in this paper.

Keywords: CFD, microorganism, two-phase flow, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

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10868 Assessing the High Rate of Deforestation Caused by the Operations of Timber Industries in Ghana

Authors: Obed Asamoah

Abstract:

Forests are very vital for human survival and our well-being. During the past years, the world has taken an increasingly significant role in the modification of the global environment. The high rate of deforestation in Ghana is of primary national concern as the forests provide many ecosystem services and functions that support the country’s predominantly agrarian economy and foreign earnings. Ghana forest is currently major source of carbon sink that helps to mitigate climate change. Ghana forests, both the reserves and off-reserves, are under pressure of deforestation. The causes of deforestation are varied but can broadly be categorized into anthropogenic and natural factors. For the anthropogenic factors, increased wood fuel collection, clearing of forests for agriculture, illegal and poorly regulated timber extraction, social and environmental conflicts, increasing urbanization and industrialization are the primary known causes for the loss of forests and woodlands. Mineral exploitation in the forest areas is considered as one of the major causes of deforestation in Ghana. Mining activities especially mining of gold by both the licensed mining companies and illegal mining groups who are locally known as "gallantly mining" also cause damage to the nation's forest reserves. Several works have been conducted regarding the causes of the high rate of deforestation in Ghana, major attention has been placed on illegal logging and using forest lands for illegal farming and mining activities. Less emphasis has been placed on the timber production companies on their harvesting methods in the forests in Ghana and other activities that are carried out in the forest. The main objective of the work is to find out the harvesting methods and the activities of the timber production companies and their effects on the forests in Ghana. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were engaged in the research work. The study population comprised of 20 Timber industries (Sawmills) forest areas of Ghana. These companies were selected randomly. The cluster sampling technique was engaged in selecting the respondents. Both primary and secondary data were employed. In the study, it was observed that most of the timber production companies do not know the age, the weight, the distance covered from the harvesting to the loading site in the forest. It was also observed that old and heavy machines are used by timber production companies in their operations in the forest, which makes the soil compact prevents regeneration and enhances soil erosion. It was observed that timber production companies do not abide by the rules and regulations governing their operations in the forest. The high rate of corruption on the side of the officials of the Ghana forestry commission makes the officials relax and do not embark on proper monitoring on the operations of the timber production companies which makes the timber companies to cause more harm to the forest. In other to curb this situation the Ghana forestry commission with the ministry of lands and natural resources should monitor the activities of the timber production companies and sanction all the companies that make foul play in their activities in the forest. The commission should also pay more attention to the policy “fell one plant 10” to enhance regeneration in both reserves and off-reserves forest.

Keywords: companies, deforestation, forest, Ghana, timber

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10867 Efficiency of Pre-Treatment Methods for Biodiesel Production from Mixed Culture of Microalgae

Authors: Malith Premarathne, Shehan Bandara, Kaushalya G. Batawala, Thilini U. Ariyadasa

Abstract:

The rapid depletion of fossil fuel supplies and the emission of carbon dioxide by their continued combustion have paved the way for increased production of carbon-neutral biodiesel from naturally occurring oil sources. The high biomass growth rate and lipid production of microalgae make it a viable source for biodiesel production compared to conventional feedstock. In Sri Lanka, the production of biodiesel by employing indigenous microalgae species is at its emerging stage. This work was an attempt to compare the various pre-treatment methods before extracting lipids such as autoclaving, microwaving and sonication. A mixed culture of microalgae predominantly consisting of Chlorella sp. was obtained from Beire Lake which is an algae rich, organically polluted water body located in Colombo, Sri Lanka. After each pre-treatment method, a standard solvent extraction using Bligh and Dyer’s method was used to compare the total lipid content in percentage dry weight (% dwt). The fatty acid profiles of the oils extracted with each pretreatment method were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The properties of the biodiesels were predicted by Biodiesel Analyzer© Version 1.1, in order to compare with ASTM 6751-08 biodiesel standard.

Keywords: biodiesel, lipid extraction, microalgae, pre-treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
10866 Dynamic Shock Bank Liquidity Analysis

Authors: C. Recommandé, J. C. Blind, A. Clavel, R. Gourichon, V. Le Gal

Abstract:

Simulations are developed in this paper with usual DSGE model equations. The model is based on simplified version of Smets-Wouters equations in use at European Central Bank which implies 10 macro-economic variables: consumption, investment, wages, inflation, capital stock, interest rates, production, capital accumulation, labour and credit rate, and allows take into consideration the banking system. Throughout the simulations, this model will be used to evaluate the impact of rate shocks recounting the actions of the European Central Bank during 2008.

Keywords: CC-LM, Central Bank, DSGE, liquidity shock, non-standard intervention

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10865 Production Planning for Animal Food Industry under Demand Uncertainty

Authors: Pirom Thangchitpianpol, Suttipong Jumroonrut

Abstract:

This research investigates the distribution of food demand for animal food and the optimum amount of that food production at minimum cost. The data consist of customer purchase orders for the food of laying hens, price of food for laying hens, cost per unit for the food inventory, cost related to food of laying hens in which the food is out of stock, such as fine, overtime, urgent purchase for material. They were collected from January, 1990 to December, 2013 from a factory in Nakhonratchasima province. The collected data are analyzed in order to explore the distribution of the monthly food demand for the laying hens and to see the rate of inventory per unit. The results are used in a stochastic linear programming model for aggregate planning in which the optimum production or minimum cost could be obtained. Programming algorithms in MATLAB and tools in Linprog software are used to get the solution. The distribution of the food demand for laying hens and the random numbers are used in the model. The study shows that the distribution of monthly food demand for laying has a normal distribution, the monthly average amount (unit: 30 kg) of production from January to December. The minimum total cost average for 12 months is Baht 62,329,181.77. Therefore, the production planning can reduce the cost by 14.64% from real cost.

Keywords: animal food, stochastic linear programming, aggregate planning, production planning, demand uncertainty

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10864 Control System Design for a Simulated Microbial Electrolysis Cell

Authors: Pujari Muruga, T. K. Radhakrishnan, N. Samsudeen

Abstract:

Hydrogen is considered as the most important energy carrier and fuel of the future because of its high energy density and zero emission properties. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) is a new and promising approach for hydrogen production from organic matter, including wastewater and other renewable resources. By utilizing anode microorganism activity, MEC can produce hydrogen gas with smaller voltages (as low as 0.2 V) than those required for electrolytic hydrogen production ( ≥ 1.23 V). The hydrogen production processes of the MEC reactor are very nonlinear and highly complex because of the presence of microbial interactions and highly complex phenomena in the system. Increasing the hydrogen production rate and lowering the energy input are two important challenges of MEC technology. The mathematical model of the MEC is based on material balance with the integration of bioelectrochemical reactions. The main objective of the research is to produce biohydrogen by selecting the optimum current and controlling applied voltage to the MEC. Precise control is required for the MEC reactor, so that the amount of current required to produce hydrogen gas can be controlled according to the composition of the substrate in the reactor. Various simulation tests involving multiple set-point changes disturbance and noise rejection were performed to evaluate the performance using PID controller tuned with Ziegler Nichols settings. Simulation results shows that other good controller can provide better control effect on the MEC system, so that higher hydrogen production can be obtained.

Keywords: microbial electrolysis cell, hydrogen production, applied voltage, PID controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
10863 Improvement Anaerobic Digestion Performance of Sewage Sludge by Co-Digestion with Cattle Manure

Authors: Raouf Hassan

Abstract:

Biogas energy production from sewage sludge is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. Sewage sludge is considered nutrient-rich substrates, but had lower values of carbone which consider an energy source for anaerobic bacteria. The lack or lower values of carbone-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) reduced biogas yield and fermentation rate. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge offers several benefits over mono-digestion such as optimize nutrient balance, increased cost-efficiency and increased degradation rate. The high produced amounts of animal manures, which reach up to 90% of the total collected organic wastes, are recommended for the co-digestion with sewage sludge, especially with the limitations of industrial substrates. Moreover, cattle manures had high methane production potential (500 m3/t vsadded). When mixed with sewage sludge the potential methane production increased with increasing cattle manure content. In this paper, the effect of cattle manure (CM) addition as co-substrates on the sewage sludge (SS) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using anaerobic batch reactors. The batch reactors were operated with a working volume 0.8 liter, and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The research work focus on studying two main parameters; the biogas yield (expressed as VSS) and pH values inside the reactors.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, sewage sludge, cattle manure, mesophilic, biogas yield, pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
10862 Investigations into the Efficiencies of Steam Conversion in Three Reactor Chemical Looping

Authors: Ratnakumar V. Kappagantula, Gordon D. Ingram, Hari B. Vuthaluru

Abstract:

This paper analyzes a three reactor chemical looping process for hydrogen production from natural gas, allowing for carbon dioxide capture through chemical looping technology. An oxygen carrier is circulated to separate carbon dioxide, to reduce steam for hydrogen production and to supply oxygen for combustion. In this study, the emphasis is placed on the steam conversion in the steam reactor by investigating the hydrogen efficiencies of the complete system at steam conversions of 15.8% and 50%. An Aspen Plus model was developed for a Three Reactor Chemical Looping process to study the effects of operational parameters on hydrogen production is investigated. Maximum hydrogen production was observed under stoichiometric conditions. Different conversions in the steam reactor, which was modelled as a Gibbs reactor, were found when Gibbs-identified products and user identified products were chosen. Simulations were performed for different oxygen carriers, which consist of an active metal oxide on an inert support material. For the same metal oxide mass flowrate, the fuel reactor temperature decreased for different support materials in the order: aluminum oxide (Al2O3) > magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) > zirconia (ZrO2). To achieve the same fuel reactor temperature for the same oxide mass flow rate, the inert mass fraction was found to be 0.825 for ZrO2, 0.7 for MgAl2O4 and 0.6 for Al2O3. The effect of poisoning of the oxygen carrier was also analyzed. With 3000 ppm sulfur-based impurities in the feed gas, the hydrogen product energy rate of the process were found to decrease by 0.4%.

Keywords: aspen plus, chemical looping combustion, inert support balls, oxygen carrier

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10861 Studying the Impact of Farmers Field School on Vegetable Production in Peshawar District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Sumeera Abbasi

Abstract:

The Farmers Field School (FFS) learning approach aims to improve knowledge of the farmers through integrated crop management and provide leadership in their decision making process. The study was conducted to assess the impact of FFS on vegetables production before and after FFS intervention in four villages of district Peshawar in cropping season 2012, by interviewing 80 FFS respondents, twenty from each selected village. It was observed from the study results that all the respondents were satisfied from the impact of FFS and they informed an increased in production in vegetables. It was further observed that after the implementation of FFS the sowing seed rate of tomato and cucumber were decreased from 0.185kg/kanal to 0.100 kg/ kanal and 0.120kg/kanal to 0.010kg/kanal where as the production of tomato and cucumber were increased from 8158.75kgs/kanal to 10302. 5kgs/kanal and 3230kgs/kanal to 5340kgs/kanal, respectively. The cost of agriculture inputs per kanal including seed cost, crop management, Farm Yard Manure, and weedicides in case of tomato were reduced by Rs.28, Rs. 3170, Rs.658and Rs 205 whereas in cucumber reduced by Rs.35, Rs.570, Rs 80 and Rs.430 respectively. Only fertilizers cost was increased by Rs. 2200 in case of tomato and Rs 465 in case of cucumber. Overall the cost was reduced to Rs 545 in tomato and Rs 490 in cucumber production.FFS provided a healthy vegetables and also reduced input cost by adopting integrated crop management. Therefore the promotion of FFS is needed to be planned for farmers to reduce cost of production, so that the more farmers should be benefited.

Keywords: impact, farmer field schools, vegetable production, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
10860 A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model

Authors: Eduardo C. Guardia, Jose W. M. Lima, Afonso H. M. Santos

Abstract:

This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.

Keywords: bathtub curve, failure analysis, lifetime estimation, parameter estimation, Weibull distribution

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10859 Imperfect Production Inventory Model with Inspection Errors and Fuzzy Demand and Deterioration Rates

Authors: Chayanika Rout, Debjani Chakraborty, Adrijit Goswami

Abstract:

Our work presents an inventory model which illustrates imperfect production and imperfect inspection processes for deteriorating items. A cost-minimizing model is studied considering two types of inspection errors, namely, Type I error of falsely screening out a proportion of non-defects, thereby passing them on for rework and Type II error of falsely not screening out a proportion of defects, thus selling those to customers which incurs a penalty cost. The screened items are reworked; however, no returns are entertained due to deteriorating nature of the items. In more practical situations, certain parameters such as the demand rate and the deterioration rate of inventory cannot be accurately determined, and therefore, they are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers in our model. We calculate the optimal lot size that must be produced in order to minimize the total inventory cost for both the crisp and the fuzzy models. A numerical example is also considered to exemplify the procedure which is followed by the analysis of sensitivity of various parameters on the decision variable and the objective function.

Keywords: deteriorating items, EPQ, imperfect quality, rework, type I and type II inspection errors

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
10858 High Efficient Biohydrogen Production from Cassava Starch Processing Wastewater by Two Stage Thermophilic Fermentation and Electrohydrogenesis

Authors: Peerawat Khongkliang, Prawit Kongjan, Tsuyoshi Imai, Poonsuk Prasertsan, Sompong O-Thong

Abstract:

A two-stage thermophilic fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert cassava starch processing wastewater into hydrogen gas. Maximum hydrogen yield from fermentation stage by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum PSU-2 was 248 mL H2/g-COD at optimal pH of 6.5. Optimum hydrogen production rate of 820 mL/L/d and yield of 200 mL/g COD was obtained at HRT of 2 days in fermentation stage. Cassava starch processing wastewater fermentation effluent consisted of acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid. The effluent from fermentation stage was used as feedstock to generate hydrogen production by microbial electrolysis cell (MECs) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V in second stage with additional 657 mL H2/g-COD was produced. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC were 330 % with COD removals of 95 %. The overall hydrogen yield was 800-900 mL H2/g-COD. Microbial community analysis of electrohydrogenesis by DGGE shows that exoelectrogens belong to Acidiphilium sp., Geobacter sulfurreducens and Thermincola sp. were dominated at anode. These results show two-stage thermophilic fermentation, and electrohydrogenesis process improved hydrogen production performance with high hydrogen yields, high gas production rates and high COD removal efficiency.

Keywords: cassava starch processing wastewater, biohydrogen, thermophilic fermentation, microbial electrolysis cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 224