Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 5808

Search results for: radium equivalent activity

5808 Radium Equivalent and External Hazard Indices of Trace Elements Concentrations in Aquatic Species by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

Authors: B. G. Muhammad, S. M. Jafar


Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were employed to analyze the level of trace elements concentrations in sediment samples and their bioaccumulation in some aquatic species selected randomly from surface water resources in the Northern peninsula of Malaysia. The NAA results of the sediment samples indicated a wide range in concentration of different elements were observed. Fe, K, and Na were found to have major concentration values that ranges between 61,000 ± 1400 to 4,500 ± 100 ppm, 20100±1000 to 3100±600 and 3,100±600 and 200±10 ppm, respectively. Traces of heavy metals with much more contamination health concern, such as Cr and As, were also identified in many of the samples analyzed. The average specific activities of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in soil and the corresponding radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were all found to be lower than the maximum permissible limits (370 Bq kg-1 and 1).

Keywords: external hazard index, Neutron Activation Analysis, radium equivalent, trace elements concentrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
5807 Natural Radioactivity in Tunisian Bottled Mineral Waters

Authors: Salam Labidi, Sonia Machraoui, Souha Gharbi


Radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and uranium isotopes (234U, 238U) activity concentrations were determined in most popular Tunisian bottled mineral waters samples. Activity concentrations of uranium were studied by radiochemical separation procedures followed by alpha spectrometry and that of radium isotopes by gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 238U, 234U, 226Ra and 228Ra in water samples varied in range 3.3 - 22.5 mBq.L−1, 4.0 - 34.2 mBq L−1, 2.0 - 67.0 mBq L−1 and 2.0 - 30.2 mBq L−1, respectively. These values are comparable with those reported for many other countries in the world for different types of water. Based on the activity concentration results obtained in this study, the estimated annual ingestion dose rates for three different age groups (babies, children and adults) due to the ingestion of radium and uranium isotopes through drinking water are lower than the limit of intake prescribed by WHO. The annual doses exceed the recommended value of 0.1 mSv y-1 in one case for babies.

Keywords: mineral water, natural radioactivity, radiation dose, radium, uranium

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5806 Measurement of Radon Exhalation Rate, Natural Radioactivity, and Radiation Hazard Assessment in Soil Samples from the Surrounding Area of Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant Kasimpur (U. P.), India

Authors: Anil Sharma, Ajay Kumar Mahur, R. G. Sonkawade, A. C. Sharma, R. Prasad


In coal fired thermal power stations, large amount of fly ash is produced after burning of coal. Fly ash is spread and distributed in the surrounding area by air and may be deposited on the soil of the region surrounding the power plant. Coal contains increased levels of these radionuclides and fly ash may increase the radioactivity in the soil around the power plant. Radon atoms entering into the pore space from the mineral grain are transported by diffusion and advection through this space until they in turn decay or are released into the atmosphere. In the present study, Soil samples were collected from the region around a Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant, Kasimpur, Aligarh (U.P.). Radon activity, radon surface exhalation and mass exhalation rates were measured using “sealed can technique” using LR 115-type II nuclear track detectors. Radon activities vary from 92.9 to 556.8 Bq m-3 with mean value of 279.8 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates (EX) in these samples are found to vary from 33.4 to 200.2 mBq m-2 h-1 with an average value of 100.5 mBq m-2 h-1 whereas, Mass exhalation rates (EM) vary from 1.2 to 7.7 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 3.8 mBq kg-1 h-1. Activity concentrations of radionuclides were measured in these samples by using a low level NaI (Tl) based gamma ray spectrometer. Activity concentrations of 226Ra 232Th and 40K vary from 12 to 49 Bq kg-1, 24 to 49 Bq kg-1 and 135 to 546 Bq kg-1 with overall mean values of 30.3 Bq kg-1, 38.5 Bq kg-1 and 317.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. Radium equivalent activity has been found to vary from 80.0 to 143.7 Bq kg-1 with an average value of 109.7 Bq kg-1. Absorbed dose rate varies from 36.1 to 66.4 nGy h-1 with an average value of 50.4 nGy h-1 and corresponding outdoor annual effective dose varies from 0.044 to 0.081 mSv with an average value of 0.061 mSv. Values of external and internal hazard index Hex, Hin in this study vary from 0.21 to 0.38 and 0.27 to 0.50 with an average value of 0.29 and 0.37, Respectively. The results will be discussed in light of various factors.

Keywords: natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, gamma ray spectroscopy

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5805 Estimation of Emanation Properties of Kimberlites and Host Rocks of Lomonosov Diamond Deposit in Russia

Authors: E. Yu. Yakovlev, A. V. Puchkov


The study is devoted to experimental work on the assessment of emanation properties of kimberlites and host rocks of the Lomonosov diamond deposit of the Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province. The aim of the study is estimation the factors influencing on formation of the radon field over kimberlite pipes. For various types of rocks composing the kimberlite pipe and near-pipe space, the following parameters were measured: porosity, density, radium-226 activity, activity of free radon and emanation coefficient. The research results showed that the largest amount of free radon is produced by rocks of near-pipe space, which are the Vendian host deposits and are characterized by high values of the emanation coefficient, radium activity and porosity. The lowest values of these parameters are characteristic of vent-facies kimberlites, which limit the formation of activity of free radon in body of the pipe. The results of experimental work confirm the prospects of using emanation methods for prospecting of kimberlite pipes.

Keywords: emanation coefficient, kimberlites, porosity, radon volumetric activity

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5804 Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in Soil Samples Collected from Coal City Dhanbad, India

Authors: Zubair Ahmad


Specific activities of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using γ - ray spectrometric technique in soil samples collected from the city of Dhanbad, which is located near coal mines. Mean activity values for 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 60.29 Bq/kg, 64.50 Bq/kg and 481.0 Bq/kg, respectively. Mean radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, outdoor dose, external hazard index, internal hazard index, for the area under study were determined as 189.53 Bq/kg, 87.21 nGy/h, 0.37 mSv/y, 0.52 and 0.64, respectively. The annual effective dose to the general public was found 0.44 mSv/y. This value lies well below the limit of 1 mSv/y as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Measured values were found safe for environment and public health.

Keywords: coal city Dhanbad, gamma-ray spectroscopy, natural radioactivity, soil samples

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5803 Geochemistry of Natural Radionuclides Associated with Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in a Coal Mining Area in Southern Brazil

Authors: Juliana A. Galhardi, Daniel M. Bonotto


Coal is an important non-renewable energy source of and can be associated with radioactive elements. In Figueira city, Paraná state, Brazil, it was recorded high uranium activity near the coal mine that supplies a local thermoelectric power plant. In this context, the radon activity (Rn-222, produced by the Ra-226 decay in the U-238 natural series) was evaluated in groundwater, river water and effluents produced from the acid mine drainage in the coal reject dumps. The samples were collected in August 2013 and in February 2014 and analyzed at LABIDRO (Laboratory of Isotope and Hydrochemistry), UNESP, Rio Claro city, Brazil, using an alpha spectrometer (AlphaGuard) adjusted to evaluate the mean radon activity concentration in five cycles of 10 minutes. No radon activity concentration above 100 Bq.L-1, which was a previous critic value established by the World Health Organization. The average radon activity concentration in groundwater was higher than in surface water and in effluent samples, possibly due to the accumulation of uranium and radium in the aquifer layers that favors the radon trapping. The lower value in the river waters can indicate dilution and the intermediate value in the effluents may indicate radon absorption in the coal particles of the reject dumps. The results also indicate that the radon activities in the effluents increase with the sample acidification, possibly due to the higher radium leaching and the subsequent radon transport to the drainage flow. The water samples of Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream, which, respectively, supply Figueira city and receive the mining effluent, exhibited higher pH values upstream the mine, reflecting the acid mine drainage discharge. The radionuclides transport indicates the importance of monitoring their activity concentration in natural waters due to the risks that the radioactivity can represent to human health.

Keywords: radon, radium, acid mine drainage, coal

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5802 Natural Radionuclides and Doses Assessment in Soil Samples from Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayorinde B. Ogunremi, Kehinde A. Adewoyin, Adebamwo Adebayo


Record of radionuclide concentration in an environment is essential to ensure human safety due to exposure to ionizing radiation. This study aimed at assessing the radionuclide concentration and doses from soil samples in the study area. Twenty soil samples were collected and dried in the oven at 110°C to remove the moisture, pulverized, and sieved. 200 g of each of the samples were sealed in cylindrical sample holders; they were left for four weeks to attain secular equilibrium between ²²⁶Ra and its decay daughters, after which the sample was analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. After the well-guided procedure for the calibrations, the analysis of the samples was carried out using a well-calibrated NaI (TI) and well-shielded detector coupled to a computer resident quantum MCA2100 R Multichannel analyzer for 36,000 s. The mean activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th obtained were calculated to be 272.37 ± 33.58, 10.97 ± 3.24, 9.39 ± 2.27 Bqkg-1 respectively. The average absorbed dose obtained was 22.10 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) was estimated to be 43.27 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) were below the recommended values, which are 420, 33, and 45 for ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th, respectively. Considering the results, we conclude thus, the radiation level within the estate poses no significant health risk on dwellers and workers.

Keywords: absorbed, effective, multichannel, radionuclide

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5801 Radioactivity Assessment of Sediments in Negombo Lagoon Sri Lanka

Authors: H. M. N. L. Handagiripathira


The distributions of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radioactive materials were determined in surface sediments taken at 27 different locations along the bank of Negombo Lagoon in Sri Lanka. Hydrographic parameters of lagoon water and the grain size analyses of the sediment samples were also carried out for this study. The conductivity of the adjacent water was varied from 13.6 mS/cm to 55.4 mS/cm near to the southern end and the northern end of the lagoon, respectively, and equally salinity levels varied from 7.2 psu to 32.1 psu. The average pH in the water was 7.6 and average water temperature was 28.7 °C. The grain size analysis emphasized the mass fractions of the samples as sand (60.9%), fine sand (30.6%) and fine silt+clay (1.3%) in the sampling locations. The surface sediment samples of wet weight, 1 kg each from upper 5-10 cm layer, were oven dried at 105 °C for 24 hours to get a constant weight, homogenized and sieved through a 2 mm sieve (IAEA technical series no. 295). The radioactivity concentrations were determined using gamma spectrometry technique. Ultra Low Background Broad Energy High Purity Ge Detector, BEGe (Model BE5030, Canberra) was used for radioactivity measurement with Canberra Industries' Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software (LabSOCS) mathematical efficiency calibration approach and Geometry composer software. The mean activity concentration was found to be 24 ± 4, 67 ± 9, 181 ± 10, 59 ± 8, 3.5 ± 0.4 and 0.47 ± 0.08 Bq/kg for 238U, 232Th, 40K, 210Pb, 235U and 137Cs respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate in air, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual gonadal dose equivalent and annual effective dose equivalent were 60.8 nGy/h, 137.3 Bq/kg, 0.4, 425.3 mSv/year and 74.6 mSv/year, respectively. The results of this study will provide baseline information on the natural and artificial radioactive isotopes and environmental pollution associated with information on radiological risk.

Keywords: gamma spectrometry, lagoon, radioactivity, sediments

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5800 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Phenolic Extracts of Endemic Plants Marrubium deserti and Ammodaucus leucotrichus from Algeria

Authors: Sifi Ibrahim, Benaddou Fatima Zohra, Yousfi Mohamed


The Marrubium deserti and Ammodaucus leucotrichus L. an Algerian endemic species, has several applications in traditional medicine for example as a remedy for asthma and diabetes, and was found to have antibacterial properties. In this work, an antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was performed on phenolic extracts of Marrubium deserti, Ammodaucus leucotrichus plants. The yield of methanol maceration of these plants is 12.4% and 20.4% respectively. The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanin in methanolic extracts, are varied between 19.52±1.88 and 59.24±3.45 mg/g gallic acid equivalent, and 2.08±0.29 to 1.46±0.39 mg/g quercetin equivalent, and 0.395 to 1.934µmol/g respectively. The total chlorophylls and carotenoids were be ranged from 0.149±0.20 to 1.537±0.20 g/ml and 1.537±0.20 to 0.149 ± 0.20 g/ml, respectively. According to DPPH and FRAP test, the values of EC50 was shows a higher activity of Marrubium deserti than Ammodaucus leucotrichus with EC50 values (DPPH) were 34.53±0.71 μg/mL and 258.60±15.67 mg/ml respectively. The TEAC values of FRAP test was a highly superior for Marrubium deserti 209.66±0.26 mg Equivalent Trolox/g dry residue than Ammodaucus leucotrichus 45.88±2.93 mg Trolox Equivalent/g dry residue. The antimicrobial activity against nine strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus(+), Staphylococcus aureus (-), Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi), was showed that the tested extracts are a significant antibacterial activity with inhibition zones ranging from 10 to 50 mm. the value of CMI were ranging from 0.89 to 14.29 mg/ml.

Keywords: phenolic extract, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Marrubium deserti, Ammodaucus leucotrichus

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5799 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh Hamideen


In this investigation, the activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of the different countries of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30⁻¹ (Sample from Jordan) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²²⁶Ra, 31⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²³²Th, and 129⁻¹ (Sample from Spain) to 679⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) for ⁴⁰K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

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5798 Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Indigenous Vegetables in Northern Mindanao, Philippines

Authors: Renee P. Baang, Romeo M. del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes


The crude methanol extracts of five indigenous vegetables namely, Amarathus tricolor, Basella rubra L, Chochurus olitorius L., Ipomea batatas, and Momordica chuchinensis L., were examined for their phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The values for DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 7.6-89.53% with B. rubra and I. batatas having the lowest and highest values, respectively. The total flavonoid content of all five indigenous vegetables ranged from 74.65-277.3 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried vegetable material while the total phenolic content ranged from 1.93-6.15 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram dried material. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and reducing sugars, which may also be associated with the antioxidant activity shown by these indigenous vegetables.

Keywords: antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Philippine İndigenous vegetables, phytochemical screening

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5797 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum


At present, it is widely-known that free radicals are the causes of illness such as cancers, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and aging. One method of protection from free radical is the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods or herbs. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from cabbage (Brassicca oleracea L. var. capitata L.) measured by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results show that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 7.316 ± 0.715 and 4.66 ± 1.029 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 15.141 ± 2.092 and 4.955 ± 1.975 as determined by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Keywords: free radical, antioxidant, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.

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5796 Phytochemical Study and Biological Activity of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

Authors: Mekhaldi Abdelkader, Bouzned Ahcen, Djibaoui Rachid, Hamoum Hakim


This study presents an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract and essential oils prepared from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The content of polyphenols in the methanolic extract of the leaves from Salvia officinalis extract was determined by spectrophoto- metrically, calculated as gallic acid and catechin equivalent. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The plant essential oil and methanol extract were also subjected to screenings for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. While the plant essential oil showed only weak antioxidant activities, its methanol extract was considerably active in DPPH (IC50= 37.29µg/ml) test. Appreciable total phenolic content (31.25mg/g) was also detected for the plant methanol extract as gallic acid equivalent in the Folin–Ciocalteu test. The plant was also screened for its antimicrobial activity and good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for its essential oil and methanol extract against most of the tested microorganisms. The present investigation revealed that this plant has rich source of antioxidant properties. It is for this reason that sage has found increasing application in food formulations.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, flavonoid, polyphenol, salvia officinalis

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5795 Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Rice Paddy Herb (Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.)

Authors: Rutanachai Thaipratum


Free radicals are atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons. Many diseases are caused by free radicals. Normally, free radical formation is controlled naturally by various beneficial compounds known as antioxidants. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants, and each has its own specificity. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from the rice paddy herb (Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.) measured by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results showed that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 67.09± 4.99 and 15.55±4.82 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 21.08±1.25 and 10.14±3.94 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.

Keywords: free radical, antioxidant, rice paddy herb, Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.

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5794 Radiological Assessment of Fish Samples Due to Natural Radionuclides in River Yobe, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: H. T. Abba, Abbas Baba Kura


Assessment of natural radioactivity of some fish samples in river Yobe was conducted, using gamma spectroscopy method with NaI(TI) detector. Radioactivity is phenomenon that leads to production of radiations, whereas radiation is known to trigger or induce cancer. The fish were analyzed to estimate the radioactivity (activity) concentrations due to natural radionuclides (Radium 222(226Ra), Thorium 232 (232Th) and Potassium 40 (40K)). The obtained result show that the activity concentration for (226Ra), in all the fish samples collected ranges from 15.23±2.45 BqKg-1 to 67.39±2.13 BqKg-1 with an average value of 34.13±1.34 BqKg-1. That of 232Th, ranges from 42.66±0.81 BqKg-1 to 201.18±3.82 BqKg-1, and the average value stands at 96.01±3.82 BqKg-1. The activity concentration for 40K, ranges between 243.3±1.56 BqKg-1 to 618.2±2.81 BqKg-1 and the average is 413.92±1.7 BqKg-1. This study indicated that average daily intake due to natural activity from the fish is valued at 0.913 Bq/day, 2.577Bq/day and 11.088 Bq/day for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K respectively. This shows that the activity concentration values for fish, shows a promising result with most of the fish activity concentrations been within the acceptable limits. However locations (F02, F07 and F12) fish, became outliers with significant values of 112.53μSvy-1, 121.11μSvy-1 and 114.32μSvy-1 effective Dose. This could be attributed to variation in geological formations within the river as while as the feeding habits of these fish. The work shows that consumers of fish from River Yobe have no risk of radioactivity ingestion, even though no amount of radiation is assumed to be totally safe.

Keywords: radiation, radio-activity, dose, radionuclides, river Yobe

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5793 Assessment of Gamma Radiation Exposure of Soils Associated with Granitic Rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey

Authors: Buket Canbaz Öztürk, N. Füsun Çam, Günseli Yaprak, Osman Candan


The external terrestrial radiation exposure is related to the types of rock from which the soils originate. Higher radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks, such as granite, and lower levels with sedimentary rocks. Therefore, this study aims to assess the gamma radiation exposure of soils associated with granitic rocks in Kapıdağ Peninsula, Turkey. In the ongoing study, a comprehensive survey carried out systematically as a part of the environmental monitoring program on radiologic impact of the granitoid areas in Western Anatolia. The activity measurements of the gamma emitters (238U, 232Th and 40K) in the surface soil samples and the granitic rocks carried out by means of NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the external (Hex) hazard index were calculated according to the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all natural radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h-1 and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noticed in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the correlation between soil and granitic rock samples were utilized, and external gamma radiation exposure distribution was mapped in Kapıdağ Peninsula.

Keywords: external absorbed dose, granitic rocks, Kapıdağ Peninsula, soil

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5792 Antioxidant Activity of the Methanolic Extract and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Grown in Algeria

Authors: Nassim Belkacem, Amina Azzam, Dalila Haouchine, Kahina Bennacer, Samira Soufit


Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract along with the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in the region of Bejaia (northern center of Algeria). Materials and methods: The polyphenols and flavonoids contents of the methanolic extract were measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using two methods: the ABTS method and DPPH assay. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the agar diffusion method against five bacterial strains (Three Gram positive strains and two Gram negative strains) and one fungus. Results: The total polyphenol and flavonoid content was about 43.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GA Eq/g) and 7.04 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (Q Eq/g), respectively. In the ABTS assay, the rosemary extract has shown an inhibition of 98.02% at the concentration of 500ug/ml with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 194.92ug/ml. The results of DPPH assay have shown that the rosemary extract has an inhibition of 94.67 % with an IC50 value of 17.87ug/ml, which is lower than that of Butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) about 6.03ug/ml and ascorbic acid about 1.24μg/ml. The yield in essential oil of rosemary obtained by hydrodistillation was 1.42%. Based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition, different antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was revealed against the six tested microbes. Escherichia coli from the University Hospital (UH), Streptococcus aureus (UH) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC have a minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) of 62.5µl/ml. However, Bacillus sp (UH) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC have an MIC value of 125μl/ml. The inhibition zone against Candida sp was about 24 mm. The aromatograms showed that the essential oil of rosemary exercises an antifungal activity more important than the antibacterial one.

Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis L., maceration, essential oil, antioxidant, antimicrobial activity

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5791 Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficacy of the Endocarps Fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae) in Mostaganem

Authors: Sebaa H., Cherifi F., Djabeur Abderrezak M.


Argania spinosa, Sapotaceae sole representative in Algeria and Morocco; hence it is endemic in these regions. However, it is a recognised oil, forage, and timber tree highly adapted to aridity. The exploitation of the argan fruits produces considerable amounts of under or related products. These products, such as the endocarps of a fruit, recuperated after the use of kernels to extract oil. This research studies in detail the contents of total phenolic content was determined by Folin Ciocalteu reagent and Flavonoids by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay). Antioxidant activity of extracts was expressed as the percentage of DPPH radical inhibition and IC50 values (μg/mL). Antimicrobial activity evaluated using agar disk diffusion method against reference Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27453, Escherichia coli ATCC 23922. Immature endocarps showed a higher polyphenol content than mature endocarps. The total phenolic content in immature endocarps was found to vary from 983,75+ /- 0.45 to 980,1 +/- 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, whereas in mature endocarps, the polyphenol content ranged from 100,58 mg/g +/- 0.42 to 105 +/- 0.55% mg gallic acid equivalent / g dry weight. The flavonoid content was 16.5 mg equivalent catechin/g dry weight and 9.81mg equivalent catechin /g dry weight for immature and mature endocarp fruits, respectively. DPPH assay of the endocarps extract yielded a half-maximal effective concentration (IC50) value in the immature endocarps (549.33 μg/mL) than in mature endocarps (322 μg/mL). This result can be attributed to the higher phenolics and flavonoid compounds in the immature endocarps. Methanol extract of immature endocarps exhibited antibacterial activity against E.colie (inhibition zone, 11mm).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, total phenolic content, DPPH assay

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5790 Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam


This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Keywords: Equivalent circuit modelling, planar reflectors, reflectarray antenna, PIN diode, liquid crystal

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5789 Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu


In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.

Keywords: displacement-based design, ductility demand spectrum, equivalent linearization method, RC buildings, single-degree-of-freedom

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5788 Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Ficus sagittifolia (Warburg Ex Mildbread and Burret)

Authors: Taiwo O. Margaret, Olaoluwa O. Olaoluwa


Moraceae family has immense phytochemical constituents and significant pharmacological properties, hence have great medicinal values. The aim of this study was to screen and quantify phytochemicals as well as the antioxidant activities of the leaf and stem bark extracts and fractions (crude ethanol extracts, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous ethanol fractions) of Ficus sagittifolia. Leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia were extracted by maceration method using ethanol to give ethanol crude extract. The ethanol crude extract was partitioned by n-hexane and ethyl-acetate to give their respective fractions. All the extracts were screened for their phytochemicals using standard methods. The total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, saponin contents and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometric method while the alkaloid content was evaluated by titrimetric method. The amount of total phenolic in extracts and fractions were estimated in comparison to gallic acid, whereas total flavonoids, tannins and saponins were estimated corresponding to quercetin, tannic acid and saponin respectively. 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH)* and phosphomolybdate methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids/steroids, alkaloids for both extracts of leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia. The phenolic content of F. sagittifolia was most abundant in leaf ethanol crude extract as 3.53 ± 0.03 mg/g equivalent of gallic acid. Total flavonoids and tannins content were highest in stem bark aqueous ethanol fraction of F. sagittifolia estimated as 3.41 ± 0.08 mg/g equivalent of quercetin and 1.52 ± 0.05 mg/g equivalent of tannic acid respectively. The hexane leaf fraction of F. sagittifolia had the utmost saponin and alkaloid content as 5.10 ± 0.48 mg/g equivalent of saponins and 0.171 ± 0.39 g of alkaloids. Leaf aqueous ethanol fraction of F. sagittifolia showed high antioxidant activity (IC50 value of 63.092 µg/mL) and stem ethanol crude extract (227.43 ± 0.78 mg/g equivalent of ascorbic acid) for DPPH and phosphomolybdate method respectively and the least active was found to be the stem hexane fraction using both methods (313.32 µg/mL; 16.21 ± 1.30 mg/g equivalent of ascorbic acid). The presence of these phytochemicals in the leaf and stem bark of F. sagittifolia are responsible for their therapeutic importance as well as the ability to scavenge free radicals in living systems.

Keywords: Moraceae, Ficus sagittifolia, phytochemicals, antioxidant

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5787 Radionuclide Contents and Exhalation Studies in Soil Samples from Sub-Mountainous Region of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Manpreet Kaur


The effect of external and internal exposure in outdoor and indoor environment can be significantly gauged by natural radionuclides. Therefore, it is a consequential to approximate the level of radionuclide contents in soil samples of any area and the risks associated with it. Rate of radon emerging from soil is also one of the prominent parameters for the assessment of radon levels in environmental. In present study, natural radionuclide contents viz. ²³²Th, ²³⁸U and ⁴⁰K and radon/thoron exhalation rates were evaluated operating thallium doped sodium iodide gamma radiation detector and advanced Smart Rn Duo technique in the soil samples from 30 villages of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Radon flux rate was also measured by using surface chamber technique. Results obtained with two different methods were compared to investigate the cause of emanation factor in the soil profile. The radon mass exhalation rate in the soil samples has been found varying from 15 ± 0.4 to 38 ± 0.8 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ while thoron surface exhalation rate has been found varying from 90 ± 22 to 4880 ± 280 Bq m⁻² h⁻¹. The mean value of radium equivalent activity (99 ± 27 Bq kg⁻¹) was appeared to be well within the admissible limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹ suggested by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009) report. The values of various parameters related to radiological hazards were also calculated and all parameters have been found to be well below the safe limits given by various organizations. The outcomes pointed out that region was protected from danger as per health risks effects associated with these radionuclide contents is concerned.

Keywords: absorbed dose rate, exhalation rate, human health, radionuclide

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5786 Chemical and Biological Examination of De-Oiled Indian Propolis

Authors: Harshada Vaidya-Kannur, Dattatraya Naik


Propolis, one of the beehive products also referred as bee-glue is sticky dark coloured complex mixture of compounds. The volatile oil can be isolated from the propolis by hydrodistillation. The mark that is left behind after the removal of volatile oil is referred as the de-oiled propolis. Antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties of total ethanolic extract of de-oiled propolis (TEEDP) was investigated. Another lot of deoiled propolis was successively exacted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. Activities of these fractions were also determined. Antioxidant activity was determined by studying ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging. Determination of anti-inflammatory activity was carried out by topical TPA induced mouse ear oedema model. It is noteworthy that ethyl acetate fraction of deoiled propolis (EAFDP) exhibited 49.45 % TEAC activity at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml which is equivalent to the activity of trolox at the concentration 0.2 mg/ml. Its DPPH scavenging activity (72.56%) was closely comparable to that of trolox (75%). However its NO scavenging activity was comparatively low. From IC50 values it could be concluded that the efficiency of scavenging ABTS radicals by the de-oiled propolis was more pronounced as compared to scavenging of other radicals. Studies by TPA induced mouse ear inflammation model indicated that the de-oiled propolis of Indian origin had significant topical anti-inflammatory activity. The EAFDP was found to be the most active fraction for this activity also. The purification of EAFP yielded six pure crystalline compounds. These compounds were identified by their physical data and spectral data.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, anti-oxidant activity, column chromatography, de-oiled propolis

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5785 On Chromaticity of Wheels

Authors: Zainab Yasir Abed Al-Rekaby, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf


Let the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W12 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

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5784 Infringement of Patent Rights with Doctrine of Equivalent for Turkey

Authors: Duru Helin Ozaner


Due to the doctrine of equivalent, the words in the claims' sentences are insufficient for the protection area provided by the patent registration. While this situation widens the boundaries of the protection area, it also obscures the boundaries of the protected area of patents. In addition, it creates distrust for third parties. Therefore, the doctrine of equivalent aims to establish a balance between the rights of patent owners and the legal security of third parties. The current legal system of Turkey has been tried to be created as a parallel judicial system to the widely applied regulations. Therefore, the regulations regarding the protection provided by patents in the current Turkish legal system are similar to many countries. However, infringement through equivalent is common by third parties. This study, it is aimed to explain that the protection provided by the patent is not only limited to the words of the claims but also the wide-ranging protection provided by the claims for the doctrine of equivalence. This study is important to determine the limits of the protection provided by the patent right holder and to indicate the importance of the equivalent elements of the protection granted to the patent right holder.

Keywords: patent, infringement, intellectual property, the doctrine of equivalent

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5783 Selected Ethnomedicinal Plants of Northern Surigao Del Sur: Their Antioxidant Activities in Terms of Total Phenolics, ABTS Radical Cation Decolorization Power, and Ferric Reducing Ability

Authors: Gemma A. Gruyal


Plants can contain a wide variety of substances with antioxidative properties which are associated to important health benefits. These positive health effects are of great importance at a time when the environment is laden with many toxic substances. Five selected herbal plants namely, Mimosa pudica, Phyllanthus niruri, Ceiba pentandra, Eleusine polydactyla and Trema amboinensis, were chosen for the experiment to investigate their total phenolics content and antioxidant activities using ABTS radical cation decolorization power, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The total phenolic content of each herbal plants ranges from 0.84 to 42.59 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The antioxidant activity in the ABTS radical cation decolorization power varies from 0.005 to 0.362 mg trolox equivalent/g and the FRAP ranges from 0.30 to 28.42 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. Among the five medicinal plants, Mimosa pudica has been an excellent performer in terms of the 3 parameters measured; it is followed by Phyllanthus niruri. The five herbal plants do not have equivalent antioxidant power. The relative high values for M. pudica and P. niruri supports the medicinal value of both plants. The total phenolics, ABTS and FRAP correlate strongly with one another.

Keywords: ABTS, FRAP, Leaf extracts, phenol

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5782 A Study of Chromatic Uniqueness of W14

Authors: Zainab Yasir Al-Rekaby, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf


Coloring the vertices of a graph such that every two adjacent vertices have different color is a very common problem in the graph theory. This is known as proper coloring of graphs. The possible number of different proper colorings on a graph with a given number of colors can be represented by a function called the chromatic polynomial. Two graphs G and H are said to be chromatically equivalent, if they share the same chromatic polynomial. A Graph G is chromatically unique, if G is isomorphic to H for any graph H such that G is chromatically equivalent to H. The study of chromatically equivalent and chromatically unique problems is called chromaticity. This paper shows that a wheel W14 is chromatically unique.

Keywords: chromatic polynomial, chromatically Equivalent, chromatically unique, wheel

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5781 Biological Activities of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. Herba from Turkey

Authors: Hulya Tuba Kiyan, Nilgun Ozturk


Gentiana, a member of Gentianaceae, is represented by approximately 400 species in the world and 12 species in Turkey. Flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids and also xanthones are the major compounds of this genus, have been previously reported to have antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, DNA repair and immunomodulatory properties. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. from Turkey was evaluated for its biological activities and its total phenolic content in the present study. According to the antioxidant activity results, G. brachyphylla methanolic extract showed very strong anti-DNA damage antioxidant activity with an inhibition of 81.82%. It showed weak ferric-reducing power with a EC50 value of 0.65 when compared to BHT (EC50 = 0.2). Also, at 0.5 mg/ml concentration, the methanolic extract inhibited ABTS radical cation activity with an inhibition of 20.13% when compared to Trolox (79.01%). Chelating ability of G. brachyphylla was 44.71% whereas EDTA showed 78.87% chelating activity at 0.2 mg/ml. Also G. brachyphylla showed weak 27.21% AChE, 20.23% BChE, strong 67.86% MAO-A and moderate 50.06% MAO-B, weak 19.14% COX-1, 29.11% COX-2 inhibitory activities at 0.25 mg/ml. The total phenolic content of G. brachyphylla was 156.23 ± 2.73 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, Gentiana brachyphylla Vill., total phenolic content

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5780 Finite Element Modeling of Stockbridge Damper and Vibration Analysis: Equivalent Cable Stiffness

Authors: Nitish Kumar Vaja, Oumar Barry, Brian DeJong


Aeolian vibrations are the major cause for the failure of conductor cables. Using a Stockbridge damper reduces these vibrations and increases the life span of the conductor cable. Designing an efficient Stockbridge damper that suits the conductor cable requires a robust mathematical model with minimum assumptions. However it is not easy to analytically model the complex geometry of the messenger. Therefore an equivalent stiffness must be determined so that it can be used in the analytical model. This paper examines the bending stiffness of the cable and discusses the effect of this stiffness on the natural frequencies. The obtained equivalent stiffness compensates for the assumption of modeling the messenger as a rod. The results from the free vibration analysis of the analytical model with the equivalent stiffness is validated using the full scale finite element model of the Stockbridge damper.

Keywords: equivalent stiffness, finite element model, free vibration response, Stockbridge damper

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5779 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri


One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 398