Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6743

Search results for: pulsed electromagnetic field

6743 Therapeutic Application of Light and Electromagnetic Fields to Reduce Hyper-Inflammation Triggered by COVID-19

Authors: Blanche Aguida, Marootpong Pooam, Nathalie Jourdan, Margaret Ahmad

Abstract:

COVID-19-related morbidity is associated with exaggerated inflammation and cytokine production in the lungs, leading to acute respiratory failure. The cellular mechanisms underlying these so-called ‘cytokine storms’ are regulated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both light (photobiomodulation) and magnetic fields (e.g., pulsed electromagnetic field) stimulation are non-invasive therapies known to confer anti-inflammatory effects and regulate ROS signaling pathways. Here we show that daily exposure to two 10-minute intervals of moderate-intensity infra-red light significantly lowered the inflammatory response induced via the TLR4 receptor signaling pathway in human cell cultures. Anti-inflammatory effects were likewise achieved by electromagnetic field exposure of cells to daily 10-minute intervals of either pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) or to low-level static magnetic fields. Because current illumination and electromagnetic field therapies have no known side effects and are already approved for some medical uses, we have here developed protocols for verification in clinical trials of COVID 19 infection. These treatments are affordable, simple to implement, and may help to resolve the acute respiratory distress of COVID 19 patients both in the home and in the hospital.

Keywords: COVID 19, electromagnetic fields therapy, inflammation, photobiomodulation therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
6742 Enhancement Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Separation of Edible Oil from Oil-Water Emulsion

Authors: Olfat A. Fadali, Mohamed S. Mahmoud, Omnia H. Abdelraheem, Shimaa G. Mohammed

Abstract:

The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the removal of edible oil from oil-in-water emulsion by means of electrocoagulation was investigated in rectangular batch electrochemical cell with DC current. Iron (Fe) plate anodes and stainless steel cathodes were employed as electrodes. The effect of different magnetic field intensities (1.9, 3.9 and 5.2 tesla), three different positions of EMF (below, perpendicular and parallel to the electrocoagulation cell), as well as operating time; had been investigated. The application of electromagnetic field (5.2 tesla) raises percentage of oil removal from 72.4% for traditional electrocoagulation to 90.8% after 20 min.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, electromagnetic field, Oil-water emulsion, edible oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
6741 Electromagnetic Simulation of Underground Cable Perforation by Nail

Authors: Ahmed Nour El Islam Ayad, Tahar Rouibah, Wafa Krika, Houari Boudjella, Larab Moulay, Farid Benhamida, Selma Benmoussa

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the electromagnetic field of an underground cable of very high voltage perforated by nail. The aim of this work shows a numerical simulation of the electromagnetic field of 400 kV line after perforation through a ferrous nail in four positions for the pinch pin at different distances. From results for a longitudinal section, we observe and evaluate the distribution and the variation of the electromagnetic field in the cable and the earth. When the nail approaches the underground power cable, the distribution of the magnetic field changes and takes several forms, the magnetic field increase and become very important when the nail breaks the metal screen and will produce a significant leak of the electric field, characterized by a large electric arc and or electric discharge to earth and then a fault in the electrical network. These electromagnetic analysis results help to detect defects in underground cables.

Keywords: underground, electromagnetic, nail, defect

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
6740 Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Capacitive Deionization Performance

Authors: Alibi Kilybay, Emad Alhseinat, Ibrahim Mustafa, Abdulfahim Arangadi, Pei Shui, Faisal Almarzooqi

Abstract:

In this work, the electromagnetic field has been used for improving the performance of the capacitive deionization process. The effect of electromagnetic fields on the efficiency of the capacitive deionization (CDI) process was investigated experimentally. The results showed that treating the feed stream of the CDI process using an electromagnetic field can enhance the electrosorption capacity from 20% up to 70%. The effect of the degree of time of exposure, concentration, and type of ions have been examined. The electromagnetic field enhanced the salt adsorption capacity (SAC) of the Ca²⁺ ions by 70%, while the SAC enhanced 20% to the Na⁺ ions. It is hypnotized that the electrometric field affects the hydration shell around the ions and thus reduces their effective size and enhances the mass transfer. This reduction in ion effective size and increase in mass transfer enhanced the electrosorption capacity and kinetics of the CDI process.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, desalination, electromagnetic treatment, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
6739 Development of a Very High Sensitivity Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Planar Hall Effect

Authors: Arnab Roy, P. S. Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Hall bar magnetic field sensors based on planar hall effect were fabricated from permalloy (Ni¬80Fe20) thin films grown by pulsed laser ablation. As large as 400% planar Hall voltage change was observed for a magnetic field sweep within ±4 Oe, a value comparable with present day TMR sensors at room temperature. A very large planar Hall sensitivity of 1200 Ω/T was measured close to switching fields, which was not obtained so far apart from 2DEG Hall sensors. In summary, a highly sensitive low magnetic field sensor has been constructed which has the added advantage of simple architecture, good signal to noise ratio and robustness.

Keywords: planar hall effect, permalloy, NiFe, pulsed laser ablation, low magnetic field sensor, high sensitivity magnetic field sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
6738 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Clement Temaneh-Nyah, Josiah Makiche, Josephine Nujoma

Abstract:

This paper considers the characterisation of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognised body such as the International commission on non-ionising radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: complex electromagnetic environment, electric field strength, mathematical models, multiple sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
6737 Liquid Food Sterilization Using Pulsed Electric Field

Authors: Tanmaya Pradhan, K. Midhun, M. Joy Thomas

Abstract:

Increasing the shelf life and improving the quality are important objectives for the success of packaged liquid food industry. One of the methods by which this can be achieved is by deactivating the micro-organisms present in the liquid food through pasteurization. Pasteurization is done by heating, but some serious disadvantages such as the reduction in food quality, flavour, taste, colour, etc. were observed because of heat treatment, which leads to the development of newer methods instead of pasteurization such as treatment using UV radiation, high pressure, nuclear irradiation, pulsed electric field, etc. In recent years the use of the pulsed electric field (PEF) for inactivation of the microbial content in the food is gaining popularity. PEF uses a very high electric field for a short time for the inactivation of microorganisms, for which we require a high voltage pulsed power source. Pulsed power sources used for PEF treatments are usually in the range of 5kV to 50kV. Different pulse shapes are used, such as exponentially decaying and square wave pulses. Exponentially decaying pulses are generated by high power switches with only turn-on capacity and, therefore, discharge the total energy stored in the capacitor bank. These pulses have a sudden onset and, therefore, a high rate of rising but have a very slow decay, which yields extra heat, which is ineffective in microbial inactivation. Square pulses can be produced by an incomplete discharge of a capacitor with the help of a switch having both on/off control or by using a pulse forming network. In this work, a pulsed power-based system is designed with the help of high voltage capacitors and solid-state switches (IGBT) for the inactivation of pathogenic micro-organism in liquid food such as fruit juices. The high voltage generator is based on the Marx generator topology, which can produce variable amplitude, frequency, and pulse width according to the requirements. Liquid food is treated in a chamber where pulsed electric field is produced between stainless steel electrodes using the pulsed output voltage of the supply. Preliminary bacterial inactivation tests were performed by subjecting orange juice inoculated with Escherichia Coli bacteria. With the help of the developed pulsed power source and the chamber, the inoculated orange has been PEF treated. The voltage was varied to get a peak electric field up to 15kV/cm. For a total treatment time of 200µs, a 30% reduction in the bacterial count has been observed. The detailed results and analysis will be presented in the final paper.

Keywords: Escherichia coli bacteria, high voltage generator, microbial inactivation, pulsed electric field, pulsed forming line, solid-state switch

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
6736 Kerr Electric-Optic Measurement of Electric Field and Space Charge Distribution in High Voltage Pulsed Transformer Oil

Authors: Hongda Guo, Wenxia Sima

Abstract:

Transformer oil is widely used in power systems because of its excellent insulation properties. The accurate measurement of electric field and space charge distribution in transformer oil under high voltage impulse has important theoretical and practical significance, but still remains challenging to date because of its low Kerr constant. In this study, the continuous electric field and space charge distribution over time between parallel-plate electrodes in high-voltage pulsed transformer oil based on the Kerr effect is directly measured using a linear array photoelectrical detector. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of this method. This study provides a feasible approach to further study the space charge effects and breakdown mechanisms in transformer oil.

Keywords: electric field, Kerr, space charge, transformer oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6735 A Comprehensive Approach in Calculating the Impact of the Ground on Radiated Electromagnetic Fields Due to Lightning

Authors: Lahcene Boukelkoul

Abstract:

The influence of finite ground conductivity is of great importance in calculating the induced voltages from the radiated electromagnetic fields due to lightning. In this paper, we try to give a comprehensive approach to calculate the impact of the ground on the radiated electromagnetic fields to lightning. The vertical component of lightning electric field is calculated with a reasonable approximation assuming a perfectly conducting ground in case the observation point does not exceed a few kilometres from the lightning channel. However, for distant observation points the radiated vertical component of lightning electric field is attenuated due finitely conducting ground. The attenuation is calculated using the expression elaborated for both low and high frequencies. The horizontal component of the electric field, however, is more affected by a finite conductivity of a ground. Besides, the contribution of the horizontal component of the electric field, to induced voltages on an overhead transmission line, is greater than that of the vertical component. Therefore, the calculation of the horizontal electric field is great concern for the simulation of lightning-induced voltages. For field to transmission lines coupling the ground impedance is calculated for early time behaviour and for low frequency range.

Keywords: power engineering, radiated electromagnetic fields, lightning-induced voltages, lightning electric field

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
6734 Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic and Static Magnetic Fields on Musculoskeletal Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review Approach

Authors: Mohammad Javaherian, Siamak Bashardoust Tajali, Monavvar Hadizadeh

Abstract:

Objective: This systematic review study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic (PEMF) and Static Magnetic Fields (SMG) on pain relief and functional improvement in patients with musculoskeletal Low Back Pain (LBP). Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched by two researchers independently to identify the published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic, static magnetic, and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields. The identified databases for systematic search were Ovid Medline®, Ovid Cochrane RCTs and Reviews, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and EMBASE from 1968 to February 2016. The relevant keywords were selected by Mesh. After initial search and finding relevant manuscripts, all references in selected studies were searched to identify second hand possible manuscripts. The published RCTs in English would be included to the study if they reported changes on pain and/or functional disability following application of magnetic fields on chronic musculoskeletal low back pain. All studies with surgical patients, patients with pelvic pain, and combination of other treatment techniques such as acupuncture or diathermy were excluded. The identified studies were critically appraised and the data were extracted independently by two raters (M.J and S.B.T). Probable disagreements were resolved through discussion between raters. Results: In total, 1505 abstracts were found following the initial electronic search. The abstracts were reviewed to identify potentially relevant manuscripts. Seventeen possibly appropriate studies were retrieved in full-text of which 48 were excluded after reviewing their full-texts. Ten selected articles were categorized into three subgroups: PEMF (6 articles), SMF (3 articles), and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields (tNMF) (1 article). Since one study evaluated tNMF, we had to exclude it. In the PEMF group, one study of acute LBP did not show significant positive results and the majority of the other five studies on Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) indicated its efficacy on pain relief and functional improvement, but one study with the lowest sessions (6 sessions during 2 weeks) did not report a significant difference between treatment and control groups. In the SMF subgroup, two articles reported near significant pain reduction without any functional improvement although more studies are needed. Conclusion: The PEMFs with a strength of 5 to 150 G or 0.1 to 0.3 G and a frequency of 5 to 64 Hz or sweep 7 to 7KHz can be considered as an effective modality in pain relief and functional improvement in patients with chronic low back pain, but there is not enough evidence to confirm their effectiveness in acute low back pain. To achieve the appropriate effectiveness, it is suggested to perform this treatment modality 20 minutes per day for at least 9 sessions. SMFs have not been reported to be substantially effective in decreasing pain or improving the function in chronic low back pain. More studies are necessary to achieve more reliable results.

Keywords: pulsed electromagnetic field, static magnetic field, magnetotherapy, low back pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
6733 Laser Induced Transient Current in Quasi-One-Dimensional Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako

Abstract:

Light-induced ultrafast charge transfer in low-dimensional nanostructure has been studied by a model of a few electrons confined in a 1D electrostatic potential coupled to electrodes at both ends and subjected to an ultrashort pulsed laser field. The time-propagation of the one- and two-electron wave packets has been calculated by integrating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation by the symplectic integrator method with uniform Fourier grid. The temporal behavior of the resultant light-induced current in the studied systems has been discussed with respect to the central frequency and pulse width of the applied laser fields.

Keywords: pulsed laser field, nanowire, wave packet, quantum dots, conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
6732 Comparative Study Between Continuous Versus Pulsed Ultrasound in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Karim Mohamed Fawzy Ghuiba, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa, Shams Elbaz

Abstract:

Objectives: To compare between the effects continuous and pulsed ultrasound on pain and function in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized-Single blinded Study. Participants: 6 patients with knee osteoarthritis with mean age 53.66±3.61years, Altman Grade II or III. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; Group A received continuous ultrasound and Group B received pulsed ultrasound. Outcome measures: Effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound were evaluated by pain threshold assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant decrease in VAS and WOMAC scores in patients treated with pulsed or continuous ultrasound; and there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: there is no difference between the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound in pain relief or functional outcome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound therapy, continuous ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
6731 Dynamics of Light Induced Current in 1D Coupled Quantum Dots

Authors: Tokuei Sako

Abstract:

Laser-induced current in a quasi-one-dimensional nanostructure has been studied by a model of a few electrons confined in a 1D electrostatic potential coupled to electrodes at both ends and subjected to a pulsed laser field. The time-propagation of the one- and two-electron wave packets has been calculated by integrating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation directly by the symplectic integrator method with uniform Fourier grid. The temporal behavior of the resultant light-induced current in the studied systems has been discussed with respect to the lifetime of the quasi-bound states formed when the static bias voltage is applied.

Keywords: pulsed laser field, nanowire, electron wave packet, quantum dots, time-dependent Schrödinger equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
6730 Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array

Authors: Meiling Yang, Shuguo Xie, Yilong Zhu

Abstract:

Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.

Keywords: virtual antenna array, DOA, localization, far field

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
6729 Parallel Magnetic Field Effect on Copper Cementation onto Rotating Iron Rod

Authors: Hamouda M. Mousa, M. Obaid, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim

Abstract:

The rate of copper cementation on iron rod was investigated. The study was mainly dedicated to illustrate the effect of application of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the rate of cementation. The magnetic flux was placed parallel to the iron rod and different magnetic field strength was studied. The results showed that without EMF, the rate of mass transfer was correlated by the equation: Sh= 1.36 Re0. 098 Sc0.33. The application of EMF enhanced the time required to reach high percentage copper cementation by 50%. The rate of mass transfer was correlated by the equation: Sh= 2.29 Re0. 95 Sc0.33, with applying EMF. This work illustrates that the enhancement of copper recovery in presence of EMF is due to the induced motion of Fe+n in the solution which is limited in the range of rod rotation speed of 300~900 rpm. The calculation of power consumption of EMF showed that although the application of EMF partially reduced the cementation time, the reduction of power consumption due to utilization of magnetic field is comparable to the increase in power consumed by introducing magnetic field of 2462 A T/m.

Keywords: copper cementation, electromagnetic field, copper ions, iron cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
6728 Analyzing the Radar Cross-Section for Graphene, Titanium Bicarbonate, and Molybdenum Diselenide

Authors: Zhong Yu, Yanli Cui, Li Shi

Abstract:

Two-dimensional materials are utilized to reduce the radar cross-section (RCS), which estimates the stealth performance of the aircraft. The RCS of three candidate two-dimensional materials (graphene, titanium bicarbonate, and molybdenum diselenide) of three targets is analyzed by the radial point interpolation method (RPIM) algorithm with the near-field to far-field transformation (NFFFT) method. The RPIM is used to gain the near-field electromagnetic values by Maxwell equations, and the far-field electromagnetic values are obtained by the NFFFT method. The results show the value of the RCS of the molybdenum diselenide is the lowest among the proposed two-dimensional materials. The minimum values of the RCS of the molybdenum diselenide are -62.4213dBsm for pyramid at φ=271°. These experiments demonstrate that the molybdenum diselenide is a promising coating material for RCS reduction.

Keywords: graphene, molybdenum diselenide, radar cross-section, titanium bicarbonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
6727 Exposure Analysis of GSM Base Stations in Industrial Area

Authors: A. D. Usman, W. F. Wan Ahmad, H. H. Danjuma

Abstract:

Exposure due to GSM frequencies is subject of daily debate. Though regulatory bodies provide guidelines for exposure, people still exercise fear on the possible health hazard that may result due to long term usage. In this study, exposure due to electromagnetic field emitted by GSM base stations in industrial areas was investigated. The aimed was to determine whether industrial area exposure is higher as compared to residential as well as compliance with ICNIRP guidelines. Influence of reflection and absorption with respect to inverse square law was also investigated. Measurements from GSM base stations were performed at various distances in far field region. The highest measured peak power densities as well as the calculated values at GSM 1.8 GHz were 6.05 and 90 mW/m2 respectively. This corresponds to 0.07 and 1% of ICNIRP guidelines. The highest peak power densities as well as the calculated values at GSM 0.9 GHz were 11.92 and 49.7 mW/m2 respectively. These values were 0.3 and 1.1% of ICNIRP guidelines.

Keywords: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Electromagnetic Field (EMF), far field, power density, Radiofrequency (RF)

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
6726 Health and Safety Risk Assesment with Electromagnetic Field Exposure for Call Center Workers

Authors: Dilsad Akal

Abstract:

Aim: Companies communicate with each other and with their costumers via call centers. Call centers are defined as stressful because of their uncertain working hours, inadequate relief time, performance based system and heavy workload. In literature, this sector is defined as risky as mining sector by means of health and safety. The aim of this research is to enlight the relatively dark area. Subject and Methods: The collection of data for this study completed during April-May 2015 for the two selected call centers in different parts of Turkey. The applied question mostly investigated the health conditions of call center workers. Electromagnetic field measurements were completed at the same time with applying the question poll. The ratio of employee accessibility noted as 73% for the first call center and 87% for the second. Results: The results of electromagnetic field measurements were as between 371 V/m-32 V/m for the first location and between 370 V/m-61 V/m for the second. The general complaints of the employees for both workplaces can be counted as; inadequate relief time, inadequate air conditioning, disturbance, poor thermal conditions, inadequate or extreme lighting. Furthermore, musculoskeletal discomfort, stress, ear and eye discomfort are main health problems of employees. Conclusion: The measured values and the responses to the question poll were found parallel with the other similar research results in literature. At the end of this survey, a risk map of workplace was prepared in terms of safety and health at work in general and some suggestions for resolution were provided.

Keywords: call center, health and safety, electromagnetic field, risk map

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
6725 Conservativeness of Functional Proteins in Bovine Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Technology

Authors: Sulhee Lee, Geon Kim, Young-Seo Park

Abstract:

Unlike the traditional milk sterilization methods (LTLT, HTST, or UHT), pulsed electric field (PEF) technology is a non-thermal pasteurization process. This technology minimizes energy required for heat treatment in food processing, changes in sensory properties, and physical losses. In this study, structural changes of bovine milk proteins, the amount of immunoproteins such as IgG, and their storability by PEF treatment were examined. When the changes of protein content in PEF-treated milk were examined using HPLC, the amounts of α-casein and β-lactoglobulin were reduced over 40% each, whereas those of κ-casein and β-casein did not change. The amount of α-casein in HTST milk was reduced to 50%. When PEF was applied to milk at the energy level of 250 kJ, the amounts of IgG, IgA, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin, and α-lactalbumin (α-LA) decreased by 43, 41, 35, 63, and 45%, respectively. When milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the level of 150 kJ, the concentrations of IgG, IgA, β-LG, lactoferrin, and α-LA were 56.6, 10.6, 554, 2.8 and 660.1 μg/mL, respectively. When the bovine milk was sterilized by LTLT process followed by PEF process at the energy level of 180 kJ, storability of immunoproteins of milk was the highest and the concentrations of IgG, IgA, and β-LG decreased by 79.5, 6.5, and 134.5 μg/mL, respectively, when compared with the initial concentrations of those proteins. When bovine milk was stored at 4℃ after sterilization through HTST sterilizer followed by PEF process at the energy level of 200 kJ, the amount of lactoferrin decreased 7.3% after 36 days of storage, whereas that of lactoferrin of raw milk decreased 16.4%. Our results showed that PEF treatment did not change the protein structure nor induce protein denaturation in milk significantly when compared with LTLT or HTST sterilization. Also, LTLT or HTST process in combination with PEF were more effective than LTLT only or HTST only process in the conservation of immunoproteins in bovine milk.

Keywords: pulsed electric field, bovine milk, immunoproteins, sterilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
6724 Dependence of the Electro-Stimulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Pulsed Electric Field at the Yeast Growth Phase

Authors: Jessy Mattar, Mohamad Turk, Maurice Nonus, Nikolai Lebovka, Henri El Zakhem, Eugene Vorobiev

Abstract:

The effects of electro-stimulation of S. cerevisiae cells in colloidal suspension by Pulsed Electric Fields ‎‎(PEF) with electric field strength E = 20 – 2000 V.cm-1 and effective PEF treatment time tPEF = 10^−5 – 1 s were ‎investigated. The applied experimental procedure includes variations in the preliminary fermentation time and ‎electro-stimulation by PEF-treatment. Plate counting was performed.‎ At relatively high electric fields (E ≥ 1000 V.cm-1) and moderate PEF treatment time (tPEF > 100 µs), the ‎extraction of ionic components from yeast was observed by conductivity measurements, which can be related to ‎electroporation of cell membranes. Cell counting revealed a dependency of the colonies’ size on the time of ‎preliminary fermentation tf and the power consumption W, however no dependencies were noticeable by varying the initial yeast concentration in the treated suspensions.‎

Keywords: intensification, yeast, fermentation, electroporation, biotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
6723 Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Electric and Magnetic Fields Behavior in the Vicinity of High-Voltage Power Lines

Authors: Tourab Wafa, Nemamcha Mohamed, Babouri Abdessalem

Abstract:

This paper consists on an experimental and analytical characterization of the electromagnetic environment in the in the medium surrounding a circuit of two 220 Kv power lines running in parallel. The analysis presented in this paper is divided into two main parts. The first part concerns the experimental study of the behavior of the electric field and magnetic field generated by the selected double-circuit at ground level (0 m). While the second part simulate and calculate the fields profiles generated by the both lines at different levels above the ground, from (0 m) to the level close to the lines conductors (20 m above the ground) using the electrostatic and magneto-static modules of the COMSOL multi-physics software. The implications of the results are discussed and compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational and non occupational exposures.

Keywords: HV power lines, low frequency electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic compatibility, inductive and capacitive coupling, standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
6722 Numerical Analysis of 3D Electromagnetic Fields in Annular Induction Plasma

Authors: Abderazak Guettaf

Abstract:

The mathematical models of the physical phenomena interacting in inductive plasma were described by the physics equations of the continuous mediums. A 3D model based on magnetic potential vector and electric scalar potential (A, V) formulation is used. The finished volume method is applied to electromagnetic equation, to obtain the field distribution inside the plasma. The numerical results of the method developed on a basic model designed starting from a real three-dimensional model were exposed. From the mathematical model 3D spreading assumptions and boundary conditions, we evaluated the electric field in the load and we have developed a numerical code made under the MATLAB environment, all verifying the effectiveness and validity of this code.

Keywords: electric field, 3D magnetic potential vector and electric scalar potential (A, V) formulation, finished volumes, annular plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
6721 Mass Transfer in Reactor with Magnetic Field Generator

Authors: Tomasz Borowski, Dawid Sołoducha, Rafał Rakoczy, Marian Kordas

Abstract:

The growing interest in magnetic fields applications is visible due to the increased number of articles on this topic published in the last few years. In this study, the influence of various magnetic fields (MF) on the mass transfer process was examined. To carry out the prototype set-up equipped with an MF generator that is able to generate a pulsed magnetic field (PMF), oscillating magnetic field (OMF), rotating magnetic field (RMF) and static magnetic field (SMF) was used. To demonstrate the effect of MF’s on mass transfer, the calcium carbonate precipitation process was selected. To the vessel with attached conductometric probes and placed inside the generator, specific doses of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate were added. Electrical conductivity changes of the mixture inside the vessel were measured over time until equilibrium was established. Measurements were conducted for various MF strengths and concentrations of added chemical compounds. Obtained results were analyzed, which allowed to creation of mathematical correlation models showing the influence of MF’s on the studied process.

Keywords: mass transfer, oscillating magnetic field, rotating magnetic field, static magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
6720 A Review of Protocols and Guidelines Addressing the Exposure of Occupants to Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Radiation in Buildings

Authors: Shabnam Monadizadeh, Charles Kibert, Jiaxuan Li, Janghoon Woo, Ashish Asutosh, Samira Roostaei, Maryam Kouhirostami

Abstract:

A significant share of the technology that has emerged over the past several decades produces electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation. Communications devices, household appliances, industrial equipment, and medical devices all produce EMF radiation with a variety of frequencies, strengths, and ranges. Some EMF radiation, such as Extremely Low Frequency (ELF), Radio Frequency (RF), and the ionizing range have been shown to have harmful effects on human health. Depending on the frequency and strength of the radiation, EMF radiation can have health effects at the cellular level as well as at brain, nervous, and cardiovascular levels. Health authorities have enacted regulations locally and globally to set critical values to limit the adverse effects of EMF radiation. By introducing a more comprehensive field of EMF radiation study and practice, architects and designers can design for a safer electromagnetic (EM) indoor environment, and, as building and construction specialists, will be able to monitor and reduce EM radiation. This paper identifies the nature of EMF radiation in the built environment, the various EMF radiation sources, and its human health effects. It addresses European and US regulations for EMF radiation in buildings and provides a preliminary action plan. The challenges of developing measurement protocols for the various EMF radiation frequency ranges and determining the effects of EMF radiation on building occupants are discussed. This paper argues that a mature method for measuring EMF radiation in building environments and linking these measurements to human health impacts occupant health should be developed to provide adequate safeguards for human occupants of buildings for future research.

Keywords: biological affection, electromagnetic field, building regulation, human health, healthy building, clean construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
6719 Analysis of the Scattered Fields by Dielectric Sphere Inside Different Dielectric Mediums: The Case of the Source and Observation Point Is Reciprocal

Authors: Emi̇ne Avşar Aydin, Nezahat Günenç Tuncel, A. Hami̇t Serbest

Abstract:

The electromagnetic scattering from a canonical structure is an important issue in electromagnetic theory. In this study, the electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric sphere with oblique incidence is investigated. The incident field is considered as a plane wave with H polarized. The scattered and transmitted field expressions with unknown coefficients are written. The unknown coefficients are obtained by using exact boundary conditions. Then, the sphere is considered as having frequency dependent dielectric permittivity. The frequency dependence is shown by Cole-Cole model. The far scattered field expressions are found respect to different incidence angles in the 1-8 GHz frequency range. The observation point is the angular distance of pi from an incident wave. While an incident wave comes with a certain angle, observation point turns from 0 to 360 degrees. According to this, scattered field amplitude is maximum at the location of the incident wave, scattered field amplitude is minimum at the across incident wave. Also, the scattered fields are plotted versus frequency to show frequency-dependence explicitly. Graphics are shown for some incident angles compared with the Harrington's solution. Thus, the results are obtained faster and more reliable with reciprocal rotation. It is expected that when there is another sphere with different properties in the outer sphere, the presence and location of the sphere will be detected faster. In addition, this study leads to use for biomedical applications in the future.

Keywords: scattering, dielectric sphere, oblique incidence, reciprocal rotation

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
6718 Electromagnetic Radiation Generation by Two-Color Sinusoidal Laser Pulses Propagating in Plasma

Authors: Nirmal Kumar Verma, Pallavi Jha

Abstract:

Generation of the electromagnetic radiation oscillating at the frequencies in the terahertz range by propagation of two-color laser pulses in plasma is an active area of research due to its potential applications in various areas, including security screening, material characterization, and spectroscopic techniques. Due to nonionizing nature and the ability to penetrate several millimeters, THz radiation is suitable for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Traditional THz emitters like optically active crystals, when irradiated with high power laser radiation, are subject to material breakdown and hence low conversion efficiencies. This problem is not encountered in laser-plasma based THz radiation sources. The present paper is devoted to the study of the enhanced electromagnetic radiation generation by propagation of two-color, linearly polarized laser pulses through the magnetized plasma. The two lasers pulse orthogonally polarized are co-propagating along the same direction. The direction of the external magnetic field is such that one of the two laser pulses propagates in the ordinary mode, while the other pulse propagates in the extraordinary mode through the homogeneous plasma. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the THz range is generated due to the presence of the static magnetic field. It is observed that larger amplitude terahertz can be generated by mixing of ordinary and extraordinary modes of two-color laser pulses as compared with a single laser pulse propagating in the extraordinary mode.

Keywords: two-color laser pulses, electromagnetic radiation, magnetized plasma, ordinary and extraordinary modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
6717 Analysis of Effects of Magnetic Slot Wedges on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Authors: B. Ladghem Chikouche

Abstract:

The influence of slot wedges permeability on the electromagnetic performance of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the back-EMF waveform, electromagnetic torque and electromagnetic torque ripple are all significantly affected by slot wedges permeability. The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model and confirmed by finite-element analyses.

Keywords: exact analytical calculation, finite-element method, magnetic field distribution, permanent magnet machines performance, stator slot wedges permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
6716 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Titanium Alloy Dental Implants Coated by Bio-ceramic Apatite Wollastonite (Aw) and Hydroxyapatite (Ha) by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Betsy S. Thomas, Manjeet Marpara, K. M. Bhat

Abstract:

Introduction: After the initial enthusiasm and interest in hydroxyapatite products subsided due to dissolution of the coating and failure at the coating interface, this was a unique attempt to create a next generation of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The adhesion property of AW and HA coatings at various temperature by pulsed laser deposition was assessed on titanium plates. Moreover, AW/HA coated implants implanted in the femur of the rabbits was evaluated at various intervals. Results: Decohesion load was more for AW in scratch test and more bone formation around AW coated implants on histological evaluation. Discussion: AW coating by pulsed laser deposition was more adherent to the titanium surface and led to faster bone formation than HA. Conclusion: This experiment opined that AW coated by pulsed laser deposition seems to be a promising method in achieving bioactive coatings on titanium implants.

Keywords: surface coating, dental implants, osseo integration, biotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
6715 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential

Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.

Keywords: The photon-drag effect, the constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
6714 Influence of 50 Hz, 1m Tesla Electromagnetic Fields on Serum Male Sex Hormones of Male Rats

Authors: Randa M. Mostafa, Y. Moustafa

Abstract:

During our daily life, we are continuously exposed to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances. The possible relation between exposure to (ELF-MFs) and adverse health effects has attracted and passed through long debate sessions. Extremely low frequency is a term used to describe radiation frequencies below 300 Hertz (Hz).It is very important for public health because of the widespread use of electrical power at 50-60 Hz in most countries. This study set out to investigate the impact of chronic exposure of male rats to 50- Hz, 1 mTesla (ELF-EMF) of over periods of 1, 2, and 4 weeks on concentration of serum FSH, LH, and testosterone hormones. 60 male albino rats were divided into 6 groups and were continuously exposed to 50-Hz, 1 m Tesla (ELF-EMF) generated by magnetic field chamber for periods of 1, 2, and 4 weeks. For each experimental point, sham treated group was used as a control. Assay of serum testosterone LH, and FSHwere performed. Serum testosterone showed no significant changes. FSH showed significant increase than sham exposed group after 1 week of field exposure. LH showed significant increase than sham exposed group only after 4 weeks of field exposure. A future detailed molecular studies must be carried out to figure out and may be able to explain the possible interactions between ELF-EMF and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis.

Keywords: extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone, LH

Procedia PDF Downloads 383