Search results for: profit sharing
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1598

Search results for: profit sharing

1418 A Primer to the Learning Readiness Assessment to Raise the Sharing of E-Health Knowledge amongst Libyan Nurses

Authors: Mohamed Elhadi M. Sharif, Mona Masood


The usage of e-health facilities is seen to be the first priority by the Libyan government. As such, this paper focuses on how the key factors or elements of working size in terms of technological availability, structural environment, and other competence-related matters may affect nurses’ sharing of knowledge in e-health. Hence, this paper investigates learning readiness assessment to raise e-health for Libyan regional hospitals by using e-health services in nursing education.

Keywords: Libyan nurses, e-learning readiness, e-health, nursing education

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1417 Research and Implementation of Cross-domain Data Sharing System in Net-centric Environment

Authors: Xiaoqing Wang, Jianjian Zong, Li Li, Yanxing Zheng, Jinrong Tong, Mao Zhan


With the rapid development of network and communication technology, a great deal of data has been generated in different domains of a network. These data show a trend of increasing scale and more complex structure. Therefore, an effective and flexible cross-domain data-sharing system is needed. The Cross-domain Data Sharing System(CDSS) in a net-centric environment is composed of three sub-systems. The data distribution sub-system provides data exchange service through publish-subscribe technology that supports asynchronism and multi-to-multi communication, which adapts to the needs of the dynamic and large-scale distributed computing environment. The access control sub-system adopts Attribute-Based Access Control(ABAC) technology to uniformly model various data attributes such as subject, object, permission and environment, which effectively monitors the activities of users accessing resources and ensures that legitimate users get effective access control rights within a legal time. The cross-domain access security negotiation subsystem automatically determines the access rights between different security domains in the process of interactive disclosure of digital certificates and access control policies through trust policy management and negotiation algorithms, which provides an effective means for cross-domain trust relationship establishment and access control in a distributed environment. The CDSS’s asynchronous,multi-to-multi and loosely-coupled communication features can adapt well to data exchange and sharing in dynamic, distributed and large-scale network environments. Next, we will give CDSS new features to support the mobile computing environment.

Keywords: data sharing, cross-domain, data exchange, publish-subscribe

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1416 Characteristic Matrix Faults for Flight Control System

Authors: Thanh Nga Thai


A major issue in air transportation is in flight safety. Recent developments in control engineering have an attractive potential for resolving new issues related to guidance, navigation, and control of flying vehicles. Many future atmospheric missions will require increased on board autonomy including fault diagnosis and the subsequent control and guidance recovery actions. To improve designing system diagnostic, an efficient FDI- fault detection and identification- methodology is necessary to achieve. Contribute to characteristic of different faults in sensor and actuator in the view of mathematics brings a lot of profit in some condition changes in the system. This research finds some profit to reduce a trade-off to achieve between fault detection and performance of the closed loop system and cost and calculated in simulation.

Keywords: fault detection and identification, sensor faults, actuator faults, flight control system

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1415 Studyt on New Strategies of Sustainable Neighbourhood Design Based on the 2014 Waf

Authors: Zhou Xiaowen China, Zhang Sanming China


Neighbourhood space as a very important part of city spaces, is an organic combination of material environment and spiritual achievement in people’ daily life, and has a real impact upon the sustainable development of the whole city. Looking back on the past 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF), 4 out of 35winning buildings were neighbourhood designs, and all of them mentioned about space-sharing and sustainable development. In this paper, three award-winning cases were studied, including the world building of the year—the chapel (Vietnam, A21 studio), The Carve (Norway, A-Lab) and House for Trees (Vietnam, Vo Trong Nghia Architects). Urban context, planning, space construction and sustainable technology were discussed. Based on those, it was discovered that passive energy-saving technologies have been paid more and more attention, sharing space has been designed ingeniously, and the architectural forms of them reflect social inclusion and equity. This paper is aimed at summarizing the excellent works on the Festival and providing reference for the future design.

Keywords: neighbourhood design, 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF), sustainable development, space-sharing

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1414 Investigating the Critical Drivers of Behavior: The Case of Online Taxi Services

Authors: Rosa Hendijani, Mohammadhesam Hajighasemi


As of late, the sharing economy has become an important type of business model. Online taxi services are one example that has grown rapidly around the world. This study examines the factors influencing the use of online taxis as one form of IT-enabled sharing services based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Based on the theory of planned behavior, these factors can be divided into three categories, including the ones related to attitude (e.g., image and perceived usefulness), normative believes (e.g., subjective norms), and behavioral control (e.g., technology facilitating conditions and self-efficacy). Three other factors were also considered based on the literature, including perceived economic benefits, openness towards using shared services, and perceived availability. The effect of all these variables was tested both directly and indirectly through intention as the mediating variable. A survey method was used to test the research hypotheses. In total, 361 individuals partook in the study. The results of a multiple regression analysis on behavior showed that perceived economic benefits, compatibility, and subjective norms were important factors influencing behavior among online taxi users. In addition, intention partially mediated the effect of perceived economic benefits and compatibility on behavior. It can be concluded that perceived economic benefits, compatibility, and subjective norms are the three main factors that influence behavior among online taxi users.

Keywords: collaborative consumption, IT-enabled sharing services model, online taxi, sharing economy, theory of planned behavior

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1413 Effect Of E-banking On Performance Efficiency Of Commercial Banks In Pakistan

Authors: Naeem Hassan


The study intended to investigate the impact of the e banking system on the performance efficiency of the commercial banks in KP, Pakistan. In addition to this main purpose, the study also aimed at analyzing the impact of e banking on the service quality as well as satisfaction of the customers using e banking system. More over, the focus was also given to highlight the risks involved in the e banking system. The researcher has adopted the quantitative methodology in the study. in order to reach concrete finding, the researcher has analyzed the secondary data taken from the annual reports of selected banks and State bank of Pakistan as well as the primary data collected through the self-administrated questionnaire from the participants selected for the current study. The study highlighted that there is a significant impact of e banking on the financial efficiency on the commercial banks in KP, Pakistan. Additionally, the results of the study also show that the online banking is having significant effects on the customer satisfaction. The researcher recommends on the bases of findings that commercial banks should continue to adopt new technologies which will improve their margins and hence their net profit after tax in order to attract more investors. Additionally, commercial bank needs to minimize the time and risk in e-banking to attract more customers which will improve their net profit. Furthermore, the study findings also recommend the banking policy makers should also review policies related to promotion of innovation adoption and transfer of technology. Commercial banking system should encourage adoption of innovations that will improve profit of the banking industry.

Keywords: E-banking, performance efficiency, commercial banks, effect

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1412 The Influence of Married Women's Adult Children Care Burden and Stress on Depression: Testing the Moderated Mediating Effect of Satisfaction with Husbands’ Sharing of the Care

Authors: Soo-Bi Lee, Jun Young Jeong, Zehgn Lin, Chenminxi


Background: In South Korea, a problematic phenomenon has recently arisen whereby adult children continue to receive parentalcaregivingin some cases. These phenomena has been shown to affect the mental health of mothers. Study Goals: The purposes of this study are to verify whether the mediating effects of stress on the relationship between a woman’s care burden for their adult children and depression are moderated by their satisfaction about their husbands’ sharing of the caregiving. Methodology: This study analyzed 3,053 married women with adult children using the most recent data from the “Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women & Families 7th(2018)" conducted at the national level. The analysis was conducted using the SPSS Process Macro Model 7 to verify the moderated mediating effects and subsequently confirm their significance based on the bootstrapping method. Results and Implications: (1) Stress was identified a mediating factor in the relationship between the care burden for adult children and depression; and (2) the mediating effects of stress on depression from the burden of caring for adult children are modulated by the woman's satisfaction with her husband’s sharing of the care burden. In other words, the higher the caring burden of adult children, the higher the mother's stress, which increases depression. At this time, the higher the their satisfaction with the husband's share of care in the path of mother's care burden and stress, the lower the mother's stress and, ultimately, the depression be alleviated. Conclusion: Programs that promote the mental health of married women heavily with the caring burden for their adult children, as well as those that improve social awareness regarding husbands' sharing of the care burden, should be implemented. Also, social welfare policy alternatives are needed at the national level to reduce the caring burden caused by adult children.

Keywords: married women, adult children care burden, stress, depression, satisfaction with husbands sharing of the care

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1411 Knowledge Management (KM) Practices: A Study of KM Adoption among Doctors in Kuwait

Authors: B. Alajmi, L. Marouf, A. S. Chaudhry


In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed upon issues concerning the evaluation of health care. In this regard, knowledge management has also been considered an important component of the evaluation process. KM facilitates the transfer of existing knowledge or the development of new knowledge among healthcare staff and patients. This research aimed to examine how hospitals in Kuwait employ knowledge management practices, including capturing, sharing, and generating, and the perceived impact of KM practices on performance of hospitals in Kuwait. Through adopting a quantitative survey method with 277 sample of doctors, the study found that in terms of the three major knowledge management practices – knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating – the adoption of KM practices were rated very low in the sampled hospitals in Kuwait. Hospitals paid little attention to the main activities that support the transfer of expertise among doctors in hospitals. However, as predicted by previous studies, knowledge management practices were perceived to have an impact on hospitals’ performance. Through knowledge capturing, sharing, and generating, hospitals could improve the services they provide through documenting best practices, transforming their hospitals into learning organizations in which lessons learned are captured, stored, and made available for others to learn from.

Keywords: knowledge management, hospitals, knowledge management practices, knowledge management tools, performance

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1410 Hydrological Benefits Sharing Concepts in Constructing Friendship Dams on Transboundary Tigris River Between Iraq and Turkey

Authors: Thair Mahmood Altaiee


Because of the increasing population and the growing water requirements from the transboundary water resources within riparian countries in addition to un-proper management of these transboundary water resources, it is likely that a conflicts on the water will be occurred. So it is mandatory to search solutions to mitigate the action and probabilities of these undesired conflicts. One of the solutions for these crises may be sharing the riparian countries in the management of their transboundary water resources and share benefit. Effective cooperation on a transboundary river is any action by the riparian countries that lead to improve management of the river to their mutual acceptance. In principle, friendship dams constructed by riparian countries may play an important role in preventing conflicts like the Turkish-Syrian friendship dam on Asi river (Orontes), Iranian-Tukmenistan dam on Hariroud river, Bulgarian-Turkish dam on Tundzha river, Brazil-Paraguay dam on Parana river, and Aras dam between Iran and Azerbaijan. The objective of this study is to focus the light on the hydrological aspects of cooperation in constructing dams on the transboundary rivers, which may consider an option to prevent conflicts on water between the riparian countries. The various kinds of benefits and external impacts associated with cooperation in dams construction on the transboundary rivers with a real examples will be presented and analyzed. The hydrological benefit sharing from cooperation in dams construction, which type of benefit sharing mechanisms are applicable to dams, and how they vary were discussed. The study considered the cooperative applicability to dams on shared rivers according to selected case study of friendship dams in the world to illustrate the relevance of the cooperation concepts and the feasibility of such propose cooperation between Turkey and Iraq within the Tigris river. It is found that the opportunities of getting benefit from cooperation depend mainly on the hydrological boundary and location of the dam in relation to them. The desire to cooperate on dams construction on transboundary rivers exists if the location of a dam upstream will increase aggregate net benefits. The case studies show that various benefit sharing mechanisms due to cooperation in constructing friendship dams on the riparian countries border are possible for example when the downstream state (Iraq) convinces the upstream state (Turkey) to share building a dam on Tigris river across the Iraqi –Turkish border covering the cost and sharing the net benefit derived from this dam. These initial findings may provide guidance for riparian states engaged in and donors facilitating negotiation on dam projects on transboundary rivers.

Keywords: friendship dams, transboundary rivers, water cooperation, benefit sharing

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1409 Creating a Quasi-Folklore as a Tool for Knowledge Sharing in a Family-Based Business

Authors: Chico A. E. Hindarto


Knowledge management practices are more contextual when they combine with the corporate culture. Each entity has a specific cultural climate that enables knowledge sharing in both functional and individual levels. The interactions between people within organization can be influenced by the culture and how the knowledge is transmitted. On the other hand, these interactions have impacts in culture modification as well. Storytelling is one of the methods in delivering the knowledge throughout the organization. This paper aims to explore the possibility in using a quasi-folklore in the family-based business. Folklore is defined as informal tradition culture that spreading through a word-of-mouth, without knowing the source of the story. In this paper, the quasi-folklore term is used to differentiate it with the original term of folklore. The story is created by somebody in the organization, not like the folklore with unknown source. However, the source is not disclosed, in order to avoid the predicted interest from the story origin. The setting of family-based business is deliberately chosen, since the kinship is considerably strong in this type of entity. Through a thorough literature review that relates to knowledge management, storytelling, and folklore, this paper determines how folklore can be an option for knowledge sharing within the organization.

Keywords: folklore, family business, organizational culture, knowledge management, storytelling

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1408 Optimum Dispatching Rule in Solar Ingot-Wafer Manufacturing System

Authors: Wheyming Song, Hung-Hsiang Lin, Scott Lian


In this research, we investigate the optimal dispatching rule for machines and manpower allocation in the solar ingot-wafer systems. The performance of the method is measured by the sales profit for each dollar paid to the operators in a one week at steady-state. The decision variables are identification-number of machines and operators when each job is required to be served in each process. We propose a rule which is a function of operator’s ability, corresponding salary, and standing location while in the factory. The rule is named ‘Multi-nominal distribution dispatch rule’. The proposed rule performs better than many traditional rules including generic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. Simulation results show that the proposed Multi-nominal distribution dispatch rule improvement on the sales profit dramatically.

Keywords: dispatching, solar ingot, simulation, flexsim

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1407 Non-Cooperative Game Theory Approach for Ensuring Community Satisfaction on Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Jason Salim, Zhouyang Lu


Private sector involvement in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects may raise public suspicion, as PPP is often mistaken as merely a partnership between private and government agencies without consideration for greater “public” (community). This public marginalization is crucial to be dealt with because undermining opinion of majority may cause problems such as protests and/ or low demand. Game theory approach applied in this paper shows that probability of public acceptance towards a project is affected by overall public’s perception on Private sectors’ possible profit accumulation from the project. On the contrary, goodwill of the government and private coalition alone is not enough to minimize the probability of public opposition towards a PPP project. Additionally, the threat of loss or damage raised from public opposition does not affect the profit-maximization behavior of Private sectors.

Keywords: community satisfaction, game theory, non-cooperative, PPP, public policy

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1406 The Role of Social Enterprise in Supporting Economic Development in Nigeria

Authors: Susan P. Teru, Jerome Nyameh


Many contemporary organizations are placing a greater emphasis on business enterprise systems as a means of generating higher levels of economic development. Many business research and literature has also concur that enterprise drive economic development, giving little or no credit to social enterprise, whose profit is reinvest to the community development compare to the business enterprise that share their profit to shareholders. Economic development includes economic policies that affect the beneficiaries of the economic entity. We suggest that producing social enterprise increments may be best achieved by orienting social enterprise entrepreneurs system to promote economic development. To this end, we describe a new approach to the social enterprise process that includes social entrepreneur and the key drivers of economic development at each stage. We present a model of social enterprise that incorporates the main ideas of the paper and suggests a new perspective for thinking about how to foster and manage social enterprise to achieve high levels of economic development.

Keywords: social enterprise, economic development, Nigeria, business and management

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1405 Correlates of Multiplicity of Risk Behavior among Injecting Drug Users in Three High HIV Prevalence States of India

Authors: Santosh Sharma


Background: Drug abuse, needle sharing, and risky sexual behaviour are often compounded to increase the risk of HIV transmission. Injecting Drug Users are at the duel risk of needle sharing and risky sexual Behaviour, becoming more vulnerable to STI and HIV. Thus, studying the interface of injecting drug use and risky sexual behaviour is important to curb the pace of HIV epidemic among IDUs. The aim of this study is to determine the factor associated with HIV among injecting drug users in three states of India. Materials and methods: This paper analyzes covariates of multiplicity of risk behavior among injecting drug users. Findings are based on data from Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessment (IBBA) round 2, 2010. IBBA collects the information of IDUs from the six districts. IDUs were selected on the criteria of those who were 18 years or older, who injected addictive substances/drugs for non-medical purposes at least once in past six month. A total of 1,979 in round 2 were interviewed in the IBBA. The study employs quantitative techniques using standard statistical tools to achieve the above objectives. All results presented in this paper are unweighted univariate measures. Results: Among IDUs, average duration of injecting drugs is 5.2 years. Mean duration between first drug use to first injecting drugs among younger IDUs, belongs to 18-24 years is 2.6 years Needle cleaning practices is common with above two-fifths reporting its every time cleaning. Needle sharing is quite prevalent especially among younger IDUs. Further, IDUs practicing needle sharing exhibit pervasive multi-partner behavior. Condom use with commercial partners is almost 81 %, whereas with intimate partner it is 39 %. Coexistence of needle sharing and unprotected sex enhances STI prevalence (6.8 %), which is further pronounced among divorced/separated/widowed (9.4 %). Conclusion: Working towards risk reduction for IDUs must deal with multiplicity of risk. Interventions should deal with covariates of risk, addressing youth, and risky sexual behavior.

Keywords: IDUs, HIV, STI, behaviour

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1404 Supplier Risk Management: A Multivariate Statistical Modelling and Portfolio Optimization Based Approach for Supplier Delivery Performance Development

Authors: Jiahui Yang, John Quigley, Lesley Walls


In this paper, the authors develop a stochastic model regarding the investment in supplier delivery performance development from a buyer’s perspective. The authors propose a multivariate model through a Multinomial-Dirichlet distribution within an Empirical Bayesian inference framework, representing both the epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in deliveries. A closed form solution is obtained and the lower and upper bound for both optimal investment level and expected profit under uncertainty are derived. The theoretical properties provide decision makers with useful insights regarding supplier delivery performance improvement problems where multiple delivery statuses are involved. The authors also extend the model from a single supplier investment into a supplier portfolio, using a Lagrangian method to obtain a theoretical expression for an optimal investment level and overall expected profit. The model enables a buyer to know how the marginal expected profit/investment level of each supplier changes with respect to the budget and which supplier should be invested in when additional budget is available. An application of this model is illustrated in a simulation study. Overall, the main contribution of this study is to provide an optimal investment decision making framework for supplier development, taking into account multiple delivery statuses as well as multiple projects.

Keywords: decision making, empirical bayesian, portfolio optimization, supplier development, supply chain management

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1403 Reliability Analysis of Computer Centre at Yobe State University Using LRU Algorithm

Authors: V. V. Singh, Yusuf Ibrahim Gwanda, Rajesh Prasad


In this paper, we focus on the reliability and performance analysis of Computer Centre (CC) at Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria. The CC consists of three servers: one database mail server, one redundant and one for sharing with the client computers in the CC (called as a local server). Observing the different possibilities of the functioning of the CC, the analysis has been done to evaluate the various popular measures of reliability such as availability, reliability, mean time to failure (MTTF), profit analysis due to the operation of the system. The system can ultimately fail due to the failure of router, redundant server before repairing the mail server and switch failure. The system can also partially fail when a local server fails. The failed devices have restored according to Least Recently Used (LRU) techniques. The system can also fail entirely due to a cooling failure of the server, electricity failure or some natural calamity like earthquake, fire tsunami, etc. All the failure rates are assumed to be constant and follow exponential time distribution, while the repair follows two types of distributions: i.e. general and Gumbel-Hougaard family copula distribution.

Keywords: reliability, availability Gumbel-Hougaard family copula, MTTF, internet data centre

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1402 Lean Thinking and E-Commerce as New Opportunities to Improve Partnership in Supply Chain of Construction Industries

Authors: Kaustav Kundu, Alberto Portioli Staudacher


Construction industry plays a vital role in the economy of the world. But due to high uncertainty and variability in the industry, its performance is not as efficient in terms of quality, lead times, productivity and costs as of other industries. Moreover, there are continuous conflicts among the different actors in the construction supply chains in terms of profit sharing. Previous studies suggested partnership as an important approach to promote cooperation among the different actors in the construction supply chains and thereby it improves the overall performance. Construction practitioners tried to focus on partnership which can enhance the performance of construction supply chains but they are not fully aware of different approaches and techniques for improving partnership. In this research, a systematic review on partnership in relation to construction supply chains is carried out to understand different elements influencing the partnership. The research development of this domain is analyzed by reviewing selected articles published from 1996 to 2015. Based on the papers, three major elements influencing partnership in construction supply chains are identified: “Lean approach”, “Relationship building” and “E-commerce applications”. This study analyses the contributions in the areas within each element and provides suggestions for future developments of partnership in construction supply chains.

Keywords: partnership, construction, lean, SCM, supply chain management

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1401 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal


In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

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1400 Optimal Selling Prices for Small Sized Poultry Farmers

Authors: Hidefumi Kawakatsu, Dong Li, Kosuke Kato


In Japan, meat-type chickens are mainly classified into three categories: (1) Broilers, (2) Branded chickens, and (3) Jidori (Free-range local traditional pedigree chickens). The Jidori chickens are certified by the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, whilst, for the Branded chickens, there is no regulation with respect to their breed (genotype) or methods for rearing them. It is, therefore, relatively easy for poultry farmers to introduce Branded than Jidori chickens. The Branded chickens are normally fed a low-calorie diet with ingredients such as herbs, which lengthens their breeding period (compared with that of the Broilers) and increases their market value. In the field of inventory management, fast-growing animals such as broilers are categorised as ameliorating items. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous studies that have explicitly considered smaller sized poultry farmers with limited breeding areas. This study develops an inventory model for a small sized poultry farmer that produces both the Broilers (Product 1) and the Branded chickens (Product 2) with different amelioration rates. The poultry farmer’s total profit per unit of time is formulated as a function of selling prices by using a price-dependent demand function. The existence of a unique optimal selling price for each product, which maximises the total profit, established. It has also been confirmed through numerical examples that, when the breeding area is fixed, the total profit could increase if the poultry farmer reduced the product quantity of Product 1 to introduce Product 2.

Keywords: amelioration, deterioration, small sized poultry farmers, optimal price

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1399 Financial Analysis of Selected Private Healthcare Organizations with Special Referance to Guwahati City, Assam

Authors: Mrigakshi Das


The private sector investments and quantum of money required in this sector critically hinges on the financial risk and returns the sector offers to providers of capital. Therefore, it becomes important to understand financial performance of hospitals. Financial Analysis is useful for decision makers in a variety of settings. Consider the small proprietary hospitals, say, Physicians Clinic. The managers of such clinic need the information that financial statements provide. Attention to Financial Statements of healthcare Organizations can provide answers to questions like: How are they doing? What is their rate of profit? What is their solvency and liquidity position? What are their sources and application of funds? What is their Operational Efficiency? The researcher has studied Financial Statements of 5 Private Healthcare Organizations in Guwahati City.

Keywords: not-for-profit organizations, financial analysis, ratio analysis, profitability analysis, liquidity analysis, operational efficiency, capital structure analysis

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1398 Accumulated Gender-Diverse Co-signing Experience, Knowledge Sharing, and Audit Quality

Authors: Anxuan Xie, Chun-Chan Yu


Survey evidence provides support that auditors can gain professional knowledge not only from client firms but also from teammates they work with. Furthermore, given that knowledge is accumulated in nature, along with the reality that auditors today must work in an environment of increased diversity, whether the attributes of teammates will influence the effects of knowledge sharing and accumulation and ultimately influence an audit partner’s audit quality should be interesting research issues. We test whether the gender of co-signers will moderate the effect of a lead partner’s cooperative experiences on financial restatements. Furthermore, if the answer is “yes”, we further investigate the underlying reasons. We use data from Taiwan because, according to Taiwan’s law, engagement partners, who are basically two certificate public accountants from the same audit firm, are required to disclose (i.e., sign) their names in the audit report of public companies since 1983. Therefore, we can trace each engagement partner’s historic direct cooperative (co-signing) records and get large-sample data. We find that the benefits of knowledge sharing manifest primarily via co-signing audit reports with audit partners of different gender from the lead engagement partners, supporting the argument that in an audit setting, accumulated gender-diverse working relationship is positively associated with knowledge sharing, and therefore improve lead engagements’ audit quality. This study contributes to the extant literature in the following ways. First, we provide evidence that in the auditing setting, the experiences accumulated from cooperating with teammates of a different gender from the lead partner can improve audit quality. Given that most studies find evidence of negative effects of surface-level diversity on team performance, the results of this study support the prior literature that the association between diversity and knowledge sharing actually hinges on the context (e.g., organizational culture, task complexity) and “bridge” (a pre-existing commonality among team members that can smooth the process of diversity toward favorable results) among diversity team members. Second, this study also provides practical insights with respect to the audit firms’ policy of knowledge sharing and deployment of engagement partners. For example, for audit firms that appreciate the merits of knowledge sharing, the deployment of auditors of different gender within an audit team can help auditors accumulate audit-related knowledge, which will further benefit the future performance of those audit firms. Moreover, nowadays, client firms also attach importance to the diversity of their engagement partners. As their policy goals, lawmakers and regulators also continue to promote a gender-diverse working environment. The findings of this study indicate that for audit firms, gender diversity will not be just a means to cater to those groups. Third, for audit committees or other stakeholders, they can evaluate the quality of existing (or potential) lead partners by tracking their co-signing experiences, especially whether they have gender-diverse co-signing experiences.

Keywords: co-signing experiences, audit quality, knowledge sharing, gender diversity

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1397 Cross-border Data Transfers to and from South Africa

Authors: Amy Gooden, Meshandren Naidoo


Genetic research and transfers of big data are not confined to a particular jurisdiction, but there is a lack of clarity regarding the legal requirements for importing and exporting such data. Using direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) as an example, this research assesses the status of data sharing into and out of South Africa (SA). While SA laws cover the sending of genetic data out of SA, prohibiting such transfer unless a legal ground exists, the position where genetic data comes into the country depends on the laws of the country from where it is sent – making the legal position less clear.

Keywords: cross-border, data, genetic testing, law, regulation, research, sharing, South Africa

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1396 Implementation of the Recursive Formula for Evaluation of the Strength of Daniels' Bundle

Authors: Vaclav Sadilek, Miroslav Vorechovsky


The paper deals with the classical fiber bundle model of equal load sharing, sometimes referred to as the Daniels' bundle or the democratic bundle. Daniels formulated a multidimensional integral and also a recursive formula for evaluation of the strength cumulative distribution function. This paper describes three algorithms for evaluation of the recursive formula and also their implementations with source codes in high-level programming language Python. A comparison of the algorithms are provided with respect to execution time. Analysis of orders of magnitudes of addends in the recursion is also provided.

Keywords: equal load sharing, mpmath, python, strength of Daniels' bundle

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1395 Performance Assessment of Three Unit Redundant System with Environmental and Human Failure Using Copula Approach

Authors: V. V. Singh


We have studied the reliability measures of a system, which consists of two subsystems i.e. subsystem-1 and subsystem-2 in series configuration under different types of failure. The subsystem-1 has three identical units in parallel configuration and operating under 2-out-of-3: G policy and connected to subsystem-2 in series configuration. Each subsystem has different types of failure and repair rates. An important cause for failure of system is unsuitability of the environmental conditions, like overheating, weather conditions, heavy rainfall, storm etc. The environmental failure is taken into account in the proposed repairable system. Supplementary variable technique is used to study of system and some traditional measures such as; availability, reliability, MTTF and profit function are obtained for different values of parameters. In the proposed model, some particular cases of failure rates are explicitly studied.

Keywords: environmental failure, human failure, availability, MTTF, reliability, profit analysis, Gumbel-Hougaard family copula

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1394 Facilitating Conditions Mediating SME’s Intention to Use Social Media for Knowledge Sharing

Authors: Stevens Phaphadi Mamorobela


The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the use of social media in SMEs to stay abreast with information about the latest news and developments and to predict the future world of business. The national shutdown regulations for curbing the spread of the Covid-19 virus resulted in SMEs having to distribute large volumes of information through social media platforms to collaborate and conduct business remotely. How much of the information shared on social media is used by SMEs as significant knowledge for economic rent is yet to be known. This study aims to investigate the facilitating conditions that enable SMEs’ intention to use social media as a knowledge-sharing platform to create economic rent and to cope with the Covid-19 challenges. A qualitative research approach was applied where semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 SME owners located in the Gauteng province in South Africa to identify and explain the facilitating conditions of SMEs towards their intention to use social media as a knowledge-sharing tool in the Covid-19 era. The study discovered that the national lockdown regulations towards curbing the spread of the Covid-19 pandemic had compelled SMEs to adopt digital technologies that enabled them to quickly transform their business processes to cope with the challenges of the pandemic. The facilitating conditions, like access to high bandwidth internet coverage in the Gauteng region, enable SMEs to have strong intentions to use social media to distribute content and to reach out to their target market. However, the content is shared informally using diverse social media platforms without any guidelines for transforming content into rent-yielding knowledge.

Keywords: facilitating conditions, knowledge sharing, social media, intention to use, SME

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1393 An Assessment of Redevelopment of Cessed Properties in the Island City of Mumbai, India

Authors: Palak Patel


Mumbai is one of the largest cities of the country with a population of 12.44 million over 437, and it is known as financial hub of India. In early 20th century, with the expansion of industrialization and growth of port, a huge demand for housing was created. In response to this, government enacted rent controls. Over a period of time, due to rent controls, the existing rental housing stock has deteriorated. Therefore, in last 25 years, government has been focusing on redevelopment of these rental buildings, also called ‘Cessed buildings’, in order to provide better standard of living to the tenants and also, to supply new housing units in the market. In India, developers are the main players in the housing market as they are the supplier of maximum dwelling units in the market. Hence, government attempts are inclined toward facilitating developers for the cessed building redevelopment projects by incentivizing them through making special provisions in the development control regulations. This research focuses on the entire process of redevelopment by the developers and issues faced by the related stakeholders in the same to reduce the stress on housing. It also highlights the loopholes in the current system and inefficient functioning of the process. The research was carried out by interviewing various developers, tenants and landlords in the island city who have already gone through redevelopment. From the case studies, it is very evident that redevelopment is undoubtedly a huge profit making business. In some cases, developers make profit of almost double the amount of the investment. But yet, satisfactory results are not seen on ground. It clearly indicates that there are some issues faced by developers which have not been addressed. Some of these issues include cumbersome legal procedures, negotiations with landlords and tenants, congestion and narrow roads, small size of the plots, informal practicing of ‘Pagdi system’ and financial viability of the project. This research recommends the up gradation of the existing cessed buildings by sharing the repairing and maintenance cost between landlords and tenants and also, income levels of tenants can be traced and housing vouchers or incentives can be provided to those who actual need it so that landlord does not have to subsidize the tenants. For redevelopment, the current interventions are generalized in nature as it does not take on ground issues into the consideration. There is need to identify local issues and give area specific solutions. And also, government should play a role of mediator to ensure all the stakeholders are satisfied and project gets completed on time.

Keywords: cessed buildings, developers, government’s interventions, redevelopment, rent controls, tenants

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1392 Infrastructure Sharing Synergies: Optimal Capacity Oversizing and Pricing

Authors: Robin Molinier


Industrial symbiosis (I.S) deals with both substitution synergies (exchange of waste materials, fatal energy and utilities as resources for production) and infrastructure/service sharing synergies. The latter is based on the intensification of use of an asset and thus requires to balance capital costs increments with snowball effects (network externalities) for its implementation. Initial investors must specify ex-ante arrangements (cost sharing and pricing schedule) to commit toward investments in capacities and transactions. Our model investigate the decision of 2 actors trying to choose cooperatively a level of infrastructure capacity oversizing to set a plug-and-play offer to a potential entrant whose capacity requirement is randomly distributed while satisficing their own requirements. Capacity cost exhibits sub-additive property so that there is room for profitable overcapacity setting in the first period. The entrant’s willingness-to-pay for the access to the infrastructure is dependent upon its standalone cost and the capacity gap that it must complete in case the available capacity is insufficient ex-post (the complement cost). Since initial capacity choices are driven by ex-ante (expected) yield extractible from the entrant we derive the expected complement cost function which helps us defining the investors’ objective function. We first show that this curve is decreasing and convex in the capacity increments and that it is shaped by the distribution function of the potential entrant’s requirements. We then derive the general form of solutions and solve the model for uniform and triangular distributions. Depending on requirements volumes and cost assumptions different equilibria occurs. We finally analyze the effect of a per-unit subsidy a public actor would apply to foster such sharing synergies.

Keywords: capacity, cooperation, industrial symbiosis, pricing

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1391 A Model Suggestion on Competitiveness and Sustainability of SMEs in Developing Countries

Authors: Ahmet Diken, Tahsin Karabulut


The factor which developing countries are in need is capital. Such countries make an effort to increase their income in order to meet their expenses for employment, infrastructure, superstructure investments, education, health and defense. The sole income of the countries is taxes collected from businesses. The businesses should drive profit and return in order to be able to toll. In a world where competition exists, different strategies may be followed by business in developing countries and they must specify their target markets. İn order to minimize cost and maximize profit, SMEs have to concentrate on target markets and select cost oriented strategy. In this study, a theoretical model is suggested that SME firms have to act as cluster between each other, and also must be optimal provider for large scale firms. SMEs’ policy must be supported by public. This relationship can benefit large scale firms to have brand over the world, and this organization increases value added for developing countries.

Keywords: competitiveness, countries, SMEs developing, sustainability

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1390 Electric Vehicles Charging Stations: Strategies and Algorithms Integrated in a Power-Sharing Model

Authors: Riccardo Loggia, Francesca Pizzimenti, Francesco Lelli, Luigi Martirano


Recent air emission regulations point toward the complete electrification of road vehicles. An increasing number of users are beginning to prefer full electric or hybrid, plug-in vehicle solutions, incentivized by government subsidies and the lower cost of electricity compared to gasoline or diesel. However, it is necessary to optimize charging stations so that they can simultaneously satisfy as many users as possible. The purpose of this paper is to present optimization algorithms that enable simultaneous charging of multiple electric vehicles while ensuring maximum performance in relation to the type of charging station.

Keywords: electric vehicles, charging stations, sharing model, fast charging, car park, power profiles

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1389 Improving Axial-Attention Network via Cross-Channel Weight Sharing

Authors: Nazmul Shahadat, Anthony S. Maida


In recent years, hypercomplex inspired neural networks improved deep CNN architectures due to their ability to share weights across input channels and thus improve cohesiveness of representations within the layers. The work described herein studies the effect of replacing existing layers in an Axial Attention ResNet with their quaternion variants that use cross-channel weight sharing to assess the effect on image classification. We expect the quaternion enhancements to produce improved feature maps with more interlinked representations. We experiment with the stem of the network, the bottleneck layer, and the fully connected backend by replacing them with quaternion versions. These modifications lead to novel architectures which yield improved accuracy performance on the ImageNet300k classification dataset. Our baseline networks for comparison were the original real-valued ResNet, the original quaternion-valued ResNet, and the Axial Attention ResNet. Since improvement was observed regardless of which part of the network was modified, there is a promise that this technique may be generally useful in improving classification accuracy for a large class of networks.

Keywords: axial attention, representational networks, weight sharing, cross-channel correlations, quaternion-enhanced axial attention, deep networks

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