Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6341

Search results for: power transition tower

6341 Structural Safety Assessment of Transmission Tower with High-Low Legs

Authors: Chi-Rung Jiang, Chun-Chung Chen, Sheng-Yuan Shiao, Fang-Yao Yeh

Abstract:

Transmission lines are essential for power systems which play a significant role in a city for the development of infrastructures. Once a tower on the transmission line is damaged or becomes unstable, small-scale transmission tower damage might cause a large-scale electric power failure, and consequently, the enormous economic losses will occur. This paper assesses the structural safety and considers the impact of earthquakes and winds, presents a preliminary study of transmission tower with high-low legs by building structural analysis models of towers. The result shows that the high-low legs towers do have some structural characteristics need to be considered, such as the length of the difference of high legs and low legs should be restricted and the deployment direction of legs must be carefully planned during the design of transmission towers. The outcome of this study is beneficial to power systems authorities.

Keywords: power transition tower, structural analysis, high-low legs, safety assessment

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6340 Numerical Modeling of a Molten Salt Power Tower Configuration Adaptable for Harsh Winter Climate

Authors: Huiqiang Yang, Domingo Santana

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel configuration which introduces a natural draft dry cooling tower system in a molten salt power tower. A three-dimensional numerical modeling was developed based on the novel configuration. A plan of building 20 new concentrating solar power plants has been announced by Chinese government in September 2016, and among these 20 new plants, most of them are located in regions with long winter and harsh winter climate. The innovative configuration proposed includes an external receiver concrete tower at the center, a natural draft dry cooling tower which is surrounding the external receiver concrete tower and whose shell is fixed on the external receiver concrete tower, and a power block (including a steam generation system, a steam turbine system and hot/cold molten salt tanks, and water treatment systems) is covered by the roof of the natural draft dry cooling tower. Heat exchanger bundles are vertically installed at the furthest edge of the power block. In such a way, all power block equipment operates under suitable environmental conditions through whole year operation. The monthly performance of the novel configuration is simulated as compared to a standard one. The results show that the novel configuration is much more efficient in each separate month in a typical meteorological year. Moreover, all systems inside the power block have less thermal losses at low ambient temperatures, especially in harsh winter climate. It is also worthwhile mentioning that a photovoltaic power plant can be installed on the roof of the cooling tower to reduce the parasites of the molten salt power tower.

Keywords: molten salt power tower, natural draft dry cooling, commercial scale, power block, harsh winter climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
6339 Seismic Analysis of Structurally Hybrid Wind Mill Tower

Authors: Atul K. Desai, Hemal J. Shah

Abstract:

The tall windmill towers are designed as monopole tower or lattice tower. In the present research, a 125-meter high hybrid tower which is a combination of lattice and monopole type is proposed. The response of hybrid tower is compared with conventional monopole tower. The towers were analyzed in finite element method software considering nonlinear seismic time history load. The synthetic seismic time history for different soil is derived using the SeismoARTIF software. From the present research, it is concluded that, in the hybrid tower, we are not getting resonance condition. The base shear is less in hybrid tower compared to monopole tower for different soil conditions.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, hybrid wind mill tower, resonance condition, synthetic time history

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6338 Thermo-Economic Analysis of a Natural Draft Direct Cooling System for a Molten Salt Power Tower

Authors: Huiqiang Yang, Domingo Santana

Abstract:

Reducing parasitic power consumption of concentrating solar power plants is the main challenge to increase the overall efficiency, particularly for molten salt tower technology. One of the most effective approaches to reduce the parasitic power consumption is to implement a natural draft dry cooling system instead of the standard utilized mechanical draft dry cooling system. In this paper, a thermo-economic analysis of a natural draft direct cooling system was performed based on a 100MWe commercial scale molten salt power plant. In this configuration with a natural draft direct cooling system, the exhaust steam from steam turbine flows directly to the heat exchanger bundles inside the natural draft dry cooling tower, which eliminates the power consumption of circulation pumps or fans, although the cooling tower shadows a portion of the heliostat field. The simulation results also show that compared to a mechanical draft cooling system the annual solar field efficiency is decreased by about 0.2% due to the shadow, which is equal to a reduction of approximately 13% of the solar field area. As a contrast, reducing the solar field size by 13% in purpose in a molten salt power plant with a natural draft drying cooling system actually will lead to a reduction of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) by about 4.06% without interfering the power generated.

Keywords: molten salt power tower, natural draft dry cooling, parasitic power consumption, commercial scale

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6337 A Numerical Studies for Improving the Performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine by a Wind Power Tower

Authors: Soo-Yong Cho, Chong-Hyun Cho, Chae-Whan Rim, Sang-Kyu Choi, Jin-Gyun Kim, Ju-Seok Nam

Abstract:

Recently, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) have been widely used to produce electricity even in urban. They have several merits such as low sound noise, easy installation of the generator and simple structure without yaw-control mechanism and so on. However, their blades are operated under the influence of the trailing vortices generated by the preceding blades. This phenomenon deteriorates its output power and makes difficulty predicting correctly its performance. In order to improve the performance of VAWT, wind power towers can be applied. Usually, the wind power tower can be constructed as a multi-story building to increase the frontal area of the wind stream. Hence, multiple sets of the VAWT can be installed within the wind power tower, and they can be operated at high elevation. Many different types of wind power tower can be used in the field. In this study, a wind power tower with circular column shape was applied, and the VAWT was installed at the center of the wind power tower. Seven guide walls were used as a strut between the floors of the wind power tower. These guide walls were utilized not only to increase the wind velocity within the wind power tower but also to adjust the wind direction for making a better working condition on the VAWT. Hence, some important design variables, such as the distance between the wind turbine and the guide wall, the outer diameter of the wind power tower, the direction of the guide wall against the wind direction, should be considered to enhance the output power on the VAWT. A numerical analysis was conducted to find the optimum dimension on design variables by using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) among many prediction methods. The CFD could be an accurate prediction method compared with the stream-tube methods. In order to obtain the accurate results in the CFD, it needs the transient analysis and the full three-dimensional (3-D) computation. However, this full 3-D CFD could be hard to be a practical tool because it requires huge computation time. Therefore, the reduced computational domain is applied as a practical method. In this study, the computations were conducted in the reduced computational domain and they were compared with the experimental results in the literature. It was examined the mechanism of the difference between the experimental results and the computational results. The computed results showed this computational method could be an effective method in the design methodology using the optimization algorithm. After validation of the numerical method, the CFD on the wind power tower was conducted with the important design variables affecting the performance of VAWT. The results showed that the output power of the VAWT obtained using the wind power tower was increased compared to them obtained without the wind power tower. In addition, they showed that the increased output power on the wind turbine depended greatly on the dimension of the guide wall.

Keywords: CFD, performance, VAWT, wind power tower

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6336 Evaluation of Progressive Collapse of Transmission Tower

Authors: Jeong-Hwan Choi, Hyo-Sang Park, Tae-Hyung Lee

Abstract:

The transmission tower is one of the crucial lifeline structures in a modern society, and it needs to be protected against extreme loading conditions. However, the transmission tower is a very complex structure and, therefore, it is very difficult to simulate the actual damage and the collapse behavior of the tower structure. In this study, the actual collapse behavior of the transmission tower due to lateral loading conditions such as wind load is evaluated through the computational simulation. For that, a progressive collapse procedure is applied to the simulation. In this procedure, after running the simulation, if a member of the tower structure fails, the failed member is removed and the simulation run again. The 154kV transmission tower is selected for this study. The simulation is performed by nonlinear static analysis procedure, namely pushover analysis, using OpenSEES, an earthquake simulation platform. Three-dimensional finite element models of those towers are developed.

Keywords: transmission tower, OpenSEES, pushover, progressive collapse

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6335 Dynamic Analysis of Transmission Line Towers

Authors: L. Srikanth, D. Neelima Satyam

Abstract:

The transmission line towers are one of the important life line structures in the distribution of power from the source to the various places for several purposes. The predominant external loads which act on these towers are wind and earthquake loads. In this present study tower is analyzed using Indian Standards IS: 875:1987 (Wind Load), IS: 802:1995 (Structural Steel), IS:1893:2002 (Earthquake) and dynamic analysis of tower has been performed considering ground motion of 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (India). The dynamic analysis was performed considering a tower system consisting two towers spaced 800m apart and 35m height each. This analysis has been performed using numerical time stepping finite difference method which is central difference method were employed by a developed MATLAB program to get the normalized ground motion parameters includes acceleration, frequency, velocity which are important in designing the tower. The tower is analyzed using response spectrum analysis.

Keywords: response spectra, dynamic analysis, central difference method, transmission tower

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6334 A Case Study of Limited Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling in Low-Power Processors

Authors: Hwan Su Jung, Ahn Jun Gil, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Power management techniques are necessary to save power in the microprocessor. By changing the frequency and/or operating voltage of processor, DVFS can control power consumption. In this paper, we perform a case study to find optimal power state transition for DVFS. We propose the equation to find the optimal ratio between executions of states while taking into account the deadline of processing time and the power state transition delay overhead. The experiment is performed on the Cortex-M4 processor, and average 6.5% power saving is observed when DVFS is applied under the deadline condition.

Keywords: deadline, dynamic voltage frequency scaling, power state transition

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6333 A ZVT-ZCT-PWM DC-DC Boost Converter with Direct Power Transfer

Authors: Naim Suleyman Ting, Yakup Sahin, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

This paper presents a zero voltage transition-zero current transition (ZVT-ZCT)-PWM DC-DC boost converter with direct power transfer. In this converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT. The auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). The main diode turns on with ZVS and turns off with ZCS. Besides, the additional current or voltage stress does not occur on the main device. The converter has features as simple structure, fast dynamic response and easy control. Also, the proposed converter has direct power transfer feature as well as excellent soft switching techniques. In this study, the operating principle of the converter is presented and its operation is verified for 1 kW and 100 kHz model.

Keywords: direct power transfer, boost converter, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
6332 1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, direct power transfer, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

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6331 A Single Phase ZVT-ZCT Power Factor Correction Boost Converter

Authors: Yakup Sahin, Naim Suleyman Ting, Ismail Aksoy

Abstract:

In this paper, a single phase soft switched Zero Voltage Transition and Zero Current Transition (ZVT-ZCT) Power Factor Correction (PFC) boost converter is proposed. In the proposed PFC converter, the main switch turns on with ZVT and turns off with ZCT without any additional voltage or current stresses. Auxiliary switch turns on and off with zero current switching (ZCS). Also, the main diode turns on with zero voltage switching (ZVS) and turns off with ZCS. The proposed converter has features like low cost, simple control and structure. The output current and voltage are controlled by the proposed PFC converter in wide line and load range. The theoretical analysis of converter is clarified and the operating steps are given in detail. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 500 W and 100 kHz. It is observed that the semiconductor devices operate with soft switching (SS) perfectly. So, the switching power losses are minimum. Also, the proposed converter has 0.99 power factor with sinusoidal current shape.

Keywords: power factor correction, zero-voltage transition, zero-current transition, soft switching

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6330 Stationary Gas Turbines in Power Generation: Past, Present and Future Challenges

Authors: Michel Moliere

Abstract:

In the next decades, the thermal power generation segment will survive only if it achieves deep mutations, including drastical abatements of CO2 emissions and strong efficiency gains. In this challenging perspective, stationary gas turbines appear as serious candidates to lead the energy transition. Indeed, during the past decades, these turbomachines have made brisk technological advances in terms of efficiency, reliability, fuel flex (including the combustion of hydrogen), and the ability to hybridize with regenrables. It is, therefore, timely to summarize the progresses achieved by gas turbines in the recent past and to examine what are their assets to face the challenges of the energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition, gas turbines, decarbonization, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
6329 Develop a Software to Hydraulic Redesign a Depropanizer Column to Minimize Energy Consumption

Authors: Mahdi Goharrokhi, Rasool Shiri, Eiraj Naser

Abstract:

A depropanizer column of a particular refinery was redesigned in this work. That is, minimum reflux ratio, minimum number of trays, feed tray location and the hydraulic characteristics of the tower were calculated and compared with the actual values of the existing tower. To Design review of the tower, fundamental equations were used to develop software which its results were compared with two commercial software results. In each case PR EOS was used. Based on the total energy consumption in reboiler and condenser, feed tray location was also determined using case study definition for tower.

Keywords: column, hydraulic design, pressure drop, energy consumption

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6328 Modeling of Wind Loads on Heliostats Installed in South Algeria of Various Pylon Height

Authors: Hakim Merarda, Mounir Aksas, Toufik Arrif, Abd Elfateh Belaid, Amor Gama, Reski Khelifi

Abstract:

Knowledge of wind loads is important to develop a heliostat with good performance. These loads can be calculated by mathematical equations based on several parameters: the density, wind velocity, the aspect ratio of the mirror (height/width) and the coefficient of the height of the tower. Measurement data of the wind velocity and the density of the air are used in a numerical simulation of wind profile that was performed on heliostats with different pylon heights, with 1m^2 mirror areas and with aspect ratio of mirror equal to 1. These measurement data are taken from the meteorological station installed in Ghardaia, Algeria. The main aim of this work is to find a mathematical correlation between the wind loads and the height of the tower.

Keywords: heliostat, solar tower power, wind loads simulation, South Algeria

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6327 Central Solar Tower Model

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It is presented a model of two subsystems of Central Solar Tower to produce steam in applications to help in energy consumption. The first subsystem consists of 24 heliostats constructed of adaptive and mobile metal structures to track the apparent movement of the sun on its focus and covered by 96 layers of mirror of 150 mm at width and 220 mm at length, totaling an area of concentration of 3.2 m². Thereby obtaining optical parameters essential to reflection of sunlight by the reflector surface and absorption of this light by focus located in the light receiver, which is inserted in the second subsystem, which is at the top of a tower. The tower was built in galvanized iron able to support the absorber, and a gas cylinder to cool the equipment. The area illuminated by the sun was 9 x 10-2m2, yielding a concentration factor of 35.22. It will be shown the processes of manufacture and assembly of the Mini-Central Tower proposal, which has as main characteristics the construction and assembly facilities, in addition to reduced cost. Data of tests to produce water vapor parameters are presented and determined to diagnose the efficiency of the mini-solar central tower. It will be demonstrated the thermal, economic and material viability of the proposed system.

Keywords: solar oven, solar cooker, composite material, low cost, sustainable development

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6326 A Damage Level Assessment Model for Extra High Voltage Transmission Towers

Authors: Huan-Chieh Chiu, Hung-Shuo Wu, Chien-Hao Wang, Yu-Cheng Yang, Ching-Ya Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang

Abstract:

Power failure resulting from tower collapse due to violent seismic events might bring enormous and inestimable losses. The Chi-Chi earthquake, for example, strongly struck Taiwan and caused huge damage to the power system on September 21, 1999. Nearly 10% of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission towers were damaged in the earthquake. Therefore, seismic hazards of EHV transmission towers should be monitored and evaluated. The ultimate goal of this study is to establish a damage level assessment model for EHV transmission towers. The data of earthquakes provided by Taiwan Central Weather Bureau serve as a reference and then lay the foundation for earthquake simulations and analyses afterward. Some parameters related to the damage level of each point of an EHV tower are simulated and analyzed by the data from monitoring stations once an earthquake occurs. Through the Fourier transform, the seismic wave is then analyzed and transformed into different wave frequencies, and the data would be shown through a response spectrum. With this method, the seismic frequency which damages EHV towers the most is clearly identified. An estimation model is built to determine the damage level caused by a future seismic event. Finally, instead of relying on visual observation done by inspectors, the proposed model can provide a power company with the damage information of a transmission tower. Using the model, manpower required by visual observation can be reduced, and the accuracy of the damage level estimation can be substantially improved. Such a model is greatly useful for health and construction monitoring because of the advantages of long-term evaluation of structural characteristics and long-term damage detection.

Keywords: damage level monitoring, drift ratio, fragility curve, smart grid, transmission tower

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6325 Alternative Biocides to Reduce Algal Fouling in Seawater Industrial Cooling Towers

Authors: Mohammed Al-Bloushi, Sanghyun Jeong, Torove Leiknes

Abstract:

Biofouling in the open recirculating cooling water systems may cause biological corrosion, which can reduce the performance, increase the energy consummation and lower heat exchange efficiencies of the cooling tower. Seawater cooling towers are prone to biofouling due to the presences of organic and inorganic compounds in the seawater. The availability of organic and inorganic nutrients, along with sunlight and continuous aeration of the cooling tower contributes to an environment that is ideal for microbial growth. Various microorganisms (algae, fungi, and bacteria) can grow in a cooling tower system under certain environmental conditions. The most commonly being used method to control the biofouling in the cooling tower is the addition of biocides such as chlorination. In this study, algae containing diatom and green algae were added to the cooling tower basin, and its viability was monitored in the recirculating cooling seawater loop as well as in the cooling tower basin. Continuous addition of biocides was employed in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers, and it was operated continuously for 2 months. Three different types of oxidizing biocides, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone, were tested. The results showed that all biocides were effective in keeping the biological growth to the minimum regardless of algal addition. Amongst the biocides, ozone could reduce 99% of total live cells of bacteria and algae, followed by chlorine dioxide at 97%, while the conventional chlorine showed only 89% reduction in the bioactivities.

Keywords: algae, biocide, biofouling, seawater cooling tower

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
6324 Tower Crane Selection and Positioning on Construction Sites

Authors: Dirk Briskorn, Michael Dienstknecht

Abstract:

Cranes are a key element in construction projects as they are the primary lifting equipment and among the most expensive construction equipment. Thus, selecting cranes and locating them on-site is an important factor for a project's profitability. We focus on a site with supply and demand areas that have to be connected by tower cranes. There are several types of tower cranes differing in certain specifications such as costs or operating radius. The objective is to select cranes and determine their locations such that each demand area is connected to its supply area at minimum cost. We detail the problem setting and show how to obtain a discrete set of candidate locations for each crane type without losing optimality. This discretization allows us to reduce our problem to the classic set cover problem. Despite its NP-hardness, we achieve good results employing a standard solver and a greedy heuristic, respectively.

Keywords: positioning, selection, standard solver, tower cranes

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6323 Experimental Study for the Development of a Wireless Communication System in a Solar Central Tower Facility

Authors: Victor H. Benitez, Ramon V. Armas-Flores, Jesus H. Pacheco-Ramirez

Abstract:

Systems transforming solar energy into electrical power have emerged as a viable source of clean, renewable energy. Solar power tower technology is a good example of this type of system, which consists of several mobile mirrors, called heliostats, which reflect the sun's radiation to the same point, located on top of a tower at the center of heliostat field, for collection or transformation into another type of energy. The so-called Hermosillo’s Solar Platform (Plataforma Solar de Hermosillo, PSH, in Spanish) is a facility constituted with several heliostats, its aim and scope is for research purposes. In this paper, the implementation of a wireless communication system based on intelligent nodes is proposed in order to allow the communication and control of the heliostats in PSH. Intelligent nodes transmit information from one point to another, and can perform other actions that allow them to adapt to the conditions and limitations of a field of heliostats, thus achieving effective communication system. After deployment of the nodes in the heliostats, tests were conducted to measure the effectiveness of the communication, and determine the feasibility of using the proposed technologies. The test results were always positive, exceeding expectations held for its operation in the field of heliostats. Therefore, it was possible to validate the efficiency of the wireless communication system to be implemented in PSH, allowing communication and control of the heliostats.

Keywords: heliostat, intelligent node, solar energy, wireless communication

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6322 Effect of Integrity of the Earthing System on the Rise of Earth Potential

Authors: N. Ullah, A. Haddad, F. Van Der Linde

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of breaks in bonds, breaks in the earthing system and breaks in earth wire on the rise of the earth potential (EPR) in a substation and at the transmission tower bases using various models of an L6 tower. Different approaches were adopted to examine the integrity of the earthing system and the terminal towers. These effects were investigated to see the associated difference in the EPR magnitudes with respect to a healthy system at various locations. Comparisons of the computed EPR magnitudes were then made between the healthy and unhealthy system to detect any difference. The studies were conducted at power frequency for a uniform soil with different soil resistivities. It was found that full breaks in the double bond of the terminal towers increase the EPR significantly at the fault location, while they reduce EPR at the terminal tower bases. A fault on the isolated section of the grid can result in EPR values up to 8 times of those on a healthy system at higher soil resistivities, provided that the extended earthing system stays connected to the grid.

Keywords: bonding, earthing, EPR, integrity, system

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6321 A Comparative Study of Global Power Grids and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Using GIS Technology

Authors: Wenhao Wang, Xinzhi Xu, Limin Feng, Wei Cong

Abstract:

This paper comprehensively investigates current development status of global power grids and fossil energy pipelines (oil and natural gas), proposes a standard visual platform of global power and fossil energy based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. In this visual platform, a series of systematic visual models is proposed with global spatial data, systematic energy and power parameters. Under this visual platform, the current Global Power Grids Map and Global Fossil Energy Pipelines Map are plotted within more than 140 countries and regions across the world. Using the multi-scale fusion data processing and modeling methods, the world’s global fossil energy pipelines and power grids information system basic database is established, which provides important data supporting global fossil energy and electricity research. Finally, through the systematic and comparative study of global fossil energy pipelines and global power grids, the general status of global fossil energy and electricity development are reviewed, and energy transition in key areas are evaluated and analyzed. Through the comparison analysis of fossil energy and clean energy, the direction of relevant research is pointed out for clean development and energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition, geographic information system, fossil energy, power systems

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6320 Numerical Simulations of the Transition Flow of Model Propellers for Predicting Open Water Performance

Authors: Huilan Yao, Huaixin Zhang

Abstract:

Simulations of the transition flow of model propellers are important for predicting hydrodynamic performance and studying scale effects. In this paper, the transition flow of a model propeller under different loadings are simulated using a transition model provided by STAR-CCM+, and the influence of turbulence intensity (TI) on the transition, especially friction and pressure components of propeller performance, was studied. Before that, the transition model was applied to simulate the transition flow of a flat plate and an airfoil. Predicted transitions agree well with experimental results. Then, the transition model was applied for propeller simulations in open water, and the influence of TI was studied. Under the heavy and moderate loadings, thrust and torque of the propeller predicted by the transition model (different TI) and two turbulence models are very close and agree well with measurements. However, under the light loading, only the transition model with low TI predicts the most accurate results. Above all, the friction components of propeller performance predicted by the transition model with different TI have obvious difference.

Keywords: transition flow, model propellers, hydrodynamic performance, numerical simulation

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6319 Transition Economies, Typology, and Models: The Case of Libya

Authors: Abderahman Efhialelbum

Abstract:

The period since the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, and the collapse of the former Soviet Union in December 1985 has seen a major change in the economies and labour markets of Eastern Europe. The events also had reverberating effects across Asia and South America and parts of Africa, including Libya. This article examines the typologies and the models of transition economies. Also, it sheds light on the Libyan transition in particular and the impact of Qadhafi’s regime on the transition process. Finally, it illustrates how the Libyan transition process followed the trajectory of other countries using economic indicators such as free trade, property rights, and inflation.

Keywords: transition, economy, typology, model, Libya

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
6318 Double Layer Security Model for Identification Friend or Foe

Authors: Buse T. Aydın, Enver Ozdemir

Abstract:

In this study, a double layer authentication scheme between the aircraft and the Air Traffic Control (ATC) tower is designed to prevent any unauthorized aircraft from introducing themselves as friends. The method is a combination of classical cryptographic methods and new generation physical layers. The first layer has employed the embedded key of the aircraft. The embedded key is assumed to installed during the construction of the utility. The other layer is a physical attribute (flight path, distance, etc.) between the aircraft and the ATC tower. We create a mathematical model so that two layers’ information is employed and an aircraft is authenticated as a friend or foe according to the accuracy of the results of the model. The results of the aircraft are compared with the results of the ATC tower and if the values found by the aircraft and ATC tower match within a certain error margin, we mark the aircraft as a friend. In this method, even if embedded key is captured by the enemy aircraft, without the information of the second layer, the enemy can easily be determined. Overall, in this work, we present a more reliable system by adding a physical layer in the authentication process.

Keywords: ADS-B, communication with physical layer security, cryptography, identification friend or foe

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6317 Settlement Network Supplying Energy

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár

Abstract:

Few people now doubt the future of the global energy transition. The only question is whether the pace of renewables' penetration will be sufficient to compete with the rate of warming. Dynamic changes are also taking place in the Hungarian electricity system. In addition to nuclear power, which provides the basic electricity supply, the most dynamic is solar power, which is largely small-scale and residential. The emergence of solar power is outlining the emergence of energy production and supply fabric of municipalities. This creates the potential for over-producing municipalities to supply the electricity needs of neighboring settlements with lower production beyond renewables. By taking advantage of this energy sharing, electricity supply based on pure renewables can be achieved more quickly.

Keywords: renewable energy, energy geography, self-sufficiency, energy transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
6316 Road Transition Design on Freeway Tunnel Entrance and Exit Based on Traffic Capacity

Authors: Han Bai, Tong Zhang, Lemei Yu, Doudou Xie, Liang Zhao

Abstract:

Road transition design on freeway tunnel entrance and exit is one vital factor in realizing smooth transition and improving traveling safety for vehicles. The goal of this research is to develop a horizontal road transition design tool that considers the transition technology of traffic capacity consistency to explore its accommodation mechanism. The influencing factors of capacity are synthesized and a modified capacity calculation model focusing on the influence of road width and lateral clearance is developed based on the VISSIM simulation to calculate the width of road transition sections. To keep the traffic capacity consistency, the right side of the transition section of the tunnel entrance and exit is divided into three parts: front arc, an intermediate transition section, and end arc; an optimization design on each transition part is conducted to improve the capacity stability and horizontal alignment transition. A case study on the Panlong Tunnel in Ji-Qing freeway illustrates the application of the tool.

Keywords: traffic safety, road transition, freeway tunnel, traffic capacity

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6315 Revised Tower Earthing Design in High-Voltage Transmission Network for High-Frequency Lightning Condition

Authors: Azwadi Mohamad, Pauzi Yahaya, Nadiah Hudi

Abstract:

Earthing system for high-voltage transmission tower is designed to protect the working personnel and equipments, and to maintain the quality of supply during fault. The existing earthing system for transmission towers in TNB’s system is purposely designed for normal power frequency (low-frequency) fault conditions that take into account the step and touch voltages. This earthing design is found to be inapt for lightning (transient) condition to a certain extent, which involves a high-frequency domain. The current earthing practice of laying the electrodes radially in straight 60 m horizontal lines under the ground, in order to achieve the specified impedance value of less than 10 Ω, was deemed ineffective in reducing the high-frequency impedance. This paper introduces a new earthing design that produces low impedance value at the high-frequency domain, without compromising the performance of low-frequency impedance. The performances of this new earthing design, as well as the existing design, are simulated for various soil resistivity values at varying frequency. The proposed concentrated earthing design is found to possess low TFR value at both low and high-frequency. A good earthing design should have a fine balance between compact and radial electrodes under the ground.

Keywords: earthing design, high-frequency, lightning, tower footing impedance

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6314 Analysis the Trajectory of the Spacecraft during the Transition to the Planet's Orbit Using Aerobraking in the Atmosphere of the Planet

Authors: Zaw Min Tun

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the spacecraft’s trajectory transition from interplanetary hyperbolic orbit to the planet’s orbit using the aerobraking in the atmosphere of the planet. A considerable mass of fuel is consumed during the spacecraft transition from the planet’s gravitation assist trajectory into the planet’s satellite orbit. To reduce the fuel consumption in this transition need to slow down the spacecraft’s velocity in the planet’s atmosphere and reduce its orbital transition time. The paper is devoted to the use of the planet’s atmosphere for slowing down the spacecraft during its transition into the satellite orbit with uncertain atmospheric parameters. To reduce the orbital transition time of the spacecraft is controlled by the change of attack angles’ values at the aerodynamic deceleration path and adjusting the minimum flight altitude of the spacecraft at the pericenter of the planet’s upper atmosphere.

Keywords: aerobraking, atmosphere of the planet, orbital transition time, Spacecraft’s trajectory

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
6313 Improving Tower Grounding and Insulation Level vs. Line Surge Arresters for Protection of Subtransmission Lines

Authors: Navid Eghtedarpour, Mohammad Reza Hasani

Abstract:

Since renewable wind power plants are usually installed in mountain regions and high-level lands, they are often prone to lightning strikes and their hazardous effects. Although the transmission line is protected using guard wires in order to prevent the lightning surges to strike the phase conductors, the back-flashover may also occur due to tower footing resistance. A combination of back-flashover corrective methods, tower-footing resistance reduction, insulation level improvement, and line arrester installation, are analyzed in this paper for back-flashover rate reduction of a double-circuit 63 kV line in the south region of Fars province. The line crosses a mountain region in some sections with a moderate keraunic level, whereas tower-footing resistance is substantially high at some towers. Consequently, an exceptionally high back-flashover rate is recorded. A new method for insulation improvement is studied and employed in the current study. The method consists of using a composite-type creepage extender in the string. The effectiveness of this method for insulation improvement of the string is evaluated through the experimental test. Simulation results besides monitoring the one-year operation of the 63-kV line show that due to technical, practical, and economic restrictions in operated sub-transmission lines, a combination of corrective methods can lead to an effective solution for the protection of transmission lines against lightning.

Keywords: lightning protection, BF rate, grounding system, insulation level, line surge arrester

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6312 Promotion of Renewable Marines Energies in Morocco: Perspectives and Strategies

Authors: Nachtane Mourad, Tarfaoui Mostapha, Saifaoui Dennoun, El Moumen Ahmed

Abstract:

The current energy policy recommends the subject of energy efficiency and to phase out fossil energy as a master question for the prospective years. The kingdom requires restructuring its power equipment by improving the percentage of renewable energy supply and optimizing power systems and storage. Developing energy efficiency, therefore, obliges as a consubstantial objection to reducing energy consumption. The objective of this work is to show the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies, in particular, to show the great potential of renewable marine energies in Morocco, This goes back to the advantages of cost and non-pollution in addition to that of the independence of fossil energies. Bearing in mind the necessity of the balance of the Moroccan energy mix, hydraulic and thermal power plants have also been installed which will be added to the power stations already established as a prospect for a balanced network that is flexible to fluctuate demand.

Keywords: renewable marine energy, energy transition, efficiency energy, renewable energy

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