Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2540

Search results for: plant hormones

2390 Morphological Interaction of Porcine Oocyte and Cumulus Cells Study on in vitro Oocyte Maturation Using Electron Microscopy

Authors: M. Areekijseree, M. Pumipaiboon, T. Chuen-Im, W. Pongsawat, C. Thepsithar, S. Sengsai

Abstract:

Morphological interaction of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (pCOCs) was investigated on in vitro condition using electron microscope (SEM and TEM). The totals of 1,923 oocytes were round in shape, surrounded by zona pellucida with layer of cumulus cells ranging between 59.29-202.14 µm in size. They were classified into intact-, multi-, partial cumulus cell layer oocyte, and completely denuded oocyte, at the percentage composition of 22.80% 32.70%, 18.60%, and 25.90 % respectively. The pCOCs classified as intact- and multi cumulus cell layer oocytes were further culturing at 37°C with 5% CO2, 95% air atmosphere and high humidity for 44 h in M199 with Earle’s salts supplemented with 10% HTFCS, 2.2 mg/mL NaHCO3, 1 M Hepes, 0.25 mM pyruvate, 15 µg/mL porcine follicle-stimulating hormone, 1 µg/mL LH, 1µg/mL estradiol with ethanol, and 50 µg/mL gentamycin sulfate. On electron microscope study, cumulus cells were found to stick their processes to secrete substance from the sac-shape end into zona pellucida of the oocyte and also communicated with the neighboring cells through their microvilli on the beginning of incubation period. It is believed that the cumulus cells communicate with the oocyte by inserting the microvilli through this gap and embedded in the oocyte cytoplasm before secreting substance, through the sac-shape end of the microvilli, to inhibit primary oocyte development at the prophase I. Morphological changes of the complexes were observed after culturing for 24-44 h. One hundred percentages of the cumulus layers were expanded and cumulus cells were peeling off from the oocyte surface. In addition, the round-shape cumulus cells transformed themselves into either an elongate shape or a columnar shape, and no communication between cumulus neighboring cells. After 44 h of incubation time, diameter of oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells was larger than 0 h incubation. The effect of hormones in culture medium is exerted by their receptors present in porcine oocyte. It is likely that all morphological changes of the complexes after hormone treatment were to allow maturation of the oocyte. This study demonstrated that the association of hormones in M199 could promote porcine follicle activation in 44 h in vitro condition. This culture system should be useful for studying the regulation of early follicular growth and development, especially because these follicles represent a large source of oocytes that could be used in vitro for cell technology.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, In vitro, cumulus cells, porcine oocyte

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2389 Screening and Isolation of Lead Molecules from South Indian Plant Extracts against NDM-1 Producing Escherichia coli

Authors: B. Chandar, M. K. Ramasamy, P. Madasamy

Abstract:

The discovery and development of newer antibiotics are limited with the increase in resistance of such multi-drug resistant bacteria creating the need for alternative new therapeutic agents. The recently discovered New Delhi Metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1), which confers antibiotic resistance to most of the currently available β-lactams, except colistin and tigecycline, is a global concern. Several antibacterial drugs approved are natural products or their semisynthetic derivatives, but plant extracts remain to be explored to find molecules that are effective against NDM-1 bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility of finding new and effective antibacterial compounds against NDM-1 bacteria. In the present study, we have screened a diverse set South Indian plant species, and report most plant species as a potential source for antimicrobial compounds against NDM-1 bacteria. Ethanol extracts from the leaves of taxonomically diverse South Indian medicinal plants were screened for antibacterial activity against NDM-1 E. coli using streak plate method. Among the plant screened against NDM-1 E. coli, the ethanol extracts from many plant extracts showed minimum bactericidal concentration between 5 and 15 mg /ml and MIC between 2.54 and 5.12 mg/ml. These extracts also showed a potent synergistic effect when combined with antibiotics colistin and tetracycline. Combretum albidum that was effective was taken for further analysis. At 5mg/L concentration, these extracts inhibited the NDM-1 enzyme in vitro, and residual activity for Combretum albidum was 33.09%. Treatment of NDM-1 E. coli with the extracts disrupted the cell wall integrity and caused 89.7% cell death. The plant extract of Combretum albidum that was effective was subjected to fractionation and the fraction was further subjected to HPLC, LC-MS for identification of antibacterial compound.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Escherichia coli, combretum albidum, NDM-1

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2388 Device for Thermo-Magnetic Depolymerisation of Plant Biomass Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device for depolymerisation of plant substrates applicable to agricultural biogas plants and closed-chamber sewage treatment plants where sludge fermentation is bolstered with plant mass. The device consists of a tank with a cover equipped with a heating system, an inlet for the substrate, and an outlet for the depolymerised substrate. Within the tank, a magnet shaft encased in a spiral casing is attached, equipped on its upper end with an internal magnetic disc. A motoreducer is mounted on an external magnetic disc located on the centre of the cover. Depolymerisation of the plant substrate allows for substrate destruction at much lower power levels than by conventional means. The temperature within the reactor can be lowered by 40% in comparison to existing designs. During the depolymerisation process, free radicals are generated within the magnetic field, oxidizing the conditioned substrate and promoting biodegradation. Thus, the fermentation time in the fermenters is reduced by approximately 20%.

Keywords: biomass, Pre-treatment, Fermentation, depolymerisation

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2387 Evaluation of Automated Analyzers of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Black Carbon in a Coke Oven Plant by Comparison with Analytical Methods

Authors: L. Angiuli, L. Trizio, R. Giua, A. Digilio, M. Tutino, P. Dambruoso, F. Mazzone, C. M. Placentino

Abstract:

In the winter of 2014 a series of measurements were performed to evaluate the behavior of real-time PAHs and black carbon analyzers in a coke oven plant located in Taranto, a city of Southern Italy. Data were collected both insides than outside the plant, at air quality monitoring sites. Contemporary measures of PM2.5 and PM1 were performed. Particle-bound PAHs were measured by two methods: (1) aerosol photoionization using an Ecochem PAS 2000 analyzer, (2) PM2.5 and PM1 quartz filter collection and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Black carbon was determined both in real-time by Magee Aethalometer AE22 analyzer than by semi-continuous Sunset Lab EC/OC instrument. Detected PM2.5 and PM1 levels were higher inside than outside the plant while PAHs real-time values were higher outside than inside. As regards PAHs, inside the plant Ecochem PAS 2000 revealed concentrations not significantly different from those determined on the filter during low polluted days, but at increasing concentrations the automated instrument underestimated PAHs levels. At the external site, Ecochem PAS 2000 real-time concentrations were steadily higher than those on the filter. In the same way, real-time black carbon values were constantly lower than EC concentrations obtained by Sunset EC/OC in the inner site, while outside the plant real-time values were comparable to Sunset EC values. Results showed that in a coke plant real-time analyzers of PAHs and black carbon in the factory configuration provide qualitative information, with no accuracy and leading to the underestimation of the concentration. A site specific calibration is needed for these instruments before their installation in high polluted sites.

Keywords: PAH, black carbon, coke oven plant, PAS, aethalometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
2386 Saving Energy at a Wastewater Treatment Plant through Electrical and Production Data Analysis

Authors: Adriano Araujo Carvalho, Arturo Alatrista Corrales

Abstract:

This paper intends to show how electrical energy consumption and production data analysis were used to find opportunities to save energy at Taboada wastewater treatment plant in Callao, Peru. In order to access the data, it was used independent data networks for both electrical and process instruments, which were taken to analyze under an ISO 50001 energy audit, which considered, thus, Energy Performance Indexes for each process and a step-by-step guide presented in this text. Due to the use of aforementioned methodology and data mining techniques applied on information gathered through electronic multimeters (conveniently placed on substation switchboards connected to a cloud network), it was possible to identify thoroughly the performance of each process and thus, evidence saving opportunities which were previously hidden before. The data analysis brought both costs and energy reduction, allowing the plant to save significant resources and to be certified under ISO 50001.

Keywords: Energy Management, energy and production data analysis, ISO 50001, wastewater treatment plant energy analysis

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2385 Value Chain Analysis and Enhancement Added Value in Palm Oil Supply Chain

Authors: Sawarni Hasibuan, Juliza Hidayati

Abstract:

PT. XYZ is a manufacturing company that produces Crude Palm Oil (CPO). The fierce competition in the global markets not only between companies but also a competition between supply chains. This research aims to analyze the supply chain and value chain of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) in the company. Data analysis method used is qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis describes supply chain and value chain, while the quantitative analysis is used to find out value added and the establishment of the value chain. Based on the analysis, the value chain of crude palm oil (CPO) in the company consists of four main actors that are suppliers of raw materials, processing, distributor, and customer. The value chain analysis consists of two actors; those are palm oil plantation and palm oil processing plant. The palm oil plantation activities include nurseries, planting, plant maintenance, harvesting, and shipping. The palm oil processing plant activities include reception, sterilizing, thressing, pressing, and oil classification. The value added of palm oil plantations was 72.42% and the palm oil processing plant was 10.13%.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Value Chain, value added, palm oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
2384 A Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of the Use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in Desalination Plants on the Kenyan Coast

Authors: Remember Samu, Murat Fahrioglu, Kathy Mwende Kiema

Abstract:

Despite the implementation of a Feed in Tariff (FiT) for solar power plants in Kenya, the uptake and subsequent development of utility scale power plants has been slow. This paper, therefore, proposes a Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant configuration that can supply both power to the grid and operate a sea water desalination plant, thus providing an economically viable alternative to Independent Power Producers (IPPs). The largest city on the coast, Mombasa, has a chronic water shortage and authorities are looking to employ desalination plants to supply a deficit of up to 100 million cubic meters of fresh water per day. In this study the desalination plant technology was selected based on an analysis of operational costs in $/m3 of plants that are already running. The output of the proposed CSP plant, Net Present Value (NPV), plant capacity factor, thermal efficiency and quantity of CO2 emission avoided were simulated using Greenius software (Green energy system analysis tool) developed by the institute of solar research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Data on solar irradiance were derived from the Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) for Kenya.

Keywords: Desalination, feed in tariff, independent power producer, solar CSP

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2383 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu

Abstract:

The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: Deep Geological Repository, used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
2382 Control Mechanisms for Sprayer Used in Turkey

Authors: Yesim Benal Oztekin, Huseyin Duran, Kazim Kubilay Vursavus, Ilker Huseyin Celen

Abstract:

There are two main approaches to manufacturing, market and usage of plant protection machinery in Turkey. The first approach is called as ‘Product Safety Approach’ and could be summarized as minimum health and safety requirements of consumer needs on plant protection equipment and machinery products. The second approach is the practices related to the Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery Directive. Product safety approach covers the plant protection machinery product groups within the framework of a new approach directive, Machinery Safety Directive (2006/42 / AT). The new directive is in practice in our country by 03.03.2009, parallel to the revision of the EU Regulation on the Directive (03.03.2009 dated and numbered 27158 published in the Official Gazette). ‘Pesticide Application for Machines’ paragraph is added to the 2006/42 / EC Machinery Safety Directive, which is, in particular, reveals the importance of primary health care and product safety issue, explaining the safety requirements for machines used in the application of plant protection products. The Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology is the authorized organizations in our country for the publication and implementation of this regulation. There is a special regulation, carried out by Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock General Directorate of Food and Control, on the manufacture and sale of plant protection machinery. This regulation, prepared based on 5996 Veterinary Services, Plant Health, Food and Feed Law, is ‘Regulation on Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery’ (published on 02.04.2011 whit number 27893 in the Official Gazette). The purposes of this regulation are practicing healthy and reliable crop production, the preparation, implementation and dissemination of the integrated pest management programs and projects for the development of human health and environmentally friendly pest control methods. This second regulation covers: approval, manufacturing, licensing of Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery; duties and responsibilities of the dealers; principles and procedures related to supply and control of the market. There are no inspection procedures for the application of currently used plant protection machinery in Turkey. In this study, content and application principles of all regulation approaches currently used in Turkey are summarized.

Keywords: Product Safety, plant protection equipment and machinery, market surveillance, inspection procedures

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2381 Improving the Performance of Gas Turbine Power Plant by Modified Axial Turbine

Authors: Hakim T. Kadhim, Faris A. Jabbar, Aldo Rona, Audrius Bagdanaviciu

Abstract:

Computer-based optimization techniques can be employed to improve the efficiency of energy conversions processes, including reducing the aerodynamic loss in a thermal power plant turbomachine. In this paper, towards mitigating secondary flow losses, a design optimization workflow is implemented for the casing geometry of a 1.5 stage axial flow turbine that improves the turbine isentropic efficiency. The improved turbine is used in an open thermodynamic gas cycle with regeneration and cogeneration. Performance estimates are obtained by the commercial software Cycle – Tempo. Design and off design conditions are considered as well as variations in inlet air temperature. Reductions in both the natural gas specific fuel consumption and in CO2 emissions are predicted by using the gas turbine cycle fitted with the new casing design. These gains are attractive towards enhancing the competitiveness and reducing the environmental impact of thermal power plant.

Keywords: Optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, axial flow turbine, gas turbine power plant

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2380 Metabolites of Polygonum L. Plants Having Antitumor Properties

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin

Abstract:

The article represents the results of research of antitumor activity of different structural types of plant flavonoids extracted by authors from Polygonum L. plants in commercial reserves at the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For the first time ever the results comparative research of antitumor activity of plant flavonoids of different structural groups and their synthetic derivatives have been represented. The results of determination of toxicity of flavonoids in single parenteral infusion conditions have been represented. Experimental substantiation of possible mechanisms of antiproliferative and cytotoxic action of flavonoids has been suggested. The perspectives of usage of plant flavonoids as medications and creation of effective dosage forms of antitumor medicines on their basis have been substantiated.

Keywords: Secondary Metabolites, Cytotoxicity, Flavonoids, antitumor activity, Polygonum L

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2379 Recommendations of Plant and Plant Composition Which Can Be Used in Visual Landscape Improvement in Urban Spaces in Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Feran Asur

Abstract:

In cities, plants; with its visual and functional effects, it helps to provide balance between human and environmental system. It is possible to develop alternative solutions to eliminate visual pollution by evaluating the potential properties of plant materials with other inanimate materials such as color, texture, form, size, etc. characteristics and other inanimate materials such as highlighter, background forming, harmonizing and concealer. In cold climates, the number of ornamental plant species that grow in warmer climates is less. For this reason, especially in the landscaping works of urban spaces, it is difficult to create the desired visuality with aesthetically qualified plants that are suitable for the ecology of the area, without creating monotony, with color variety. In this study, the importance of plant and plant compositions in the solution of visual problems in urban environments in cold climatic conditions is emphasized. The potential of ornamental plants that can be used for this purpose in preventing visual pollution is given. It has been shown how to use prominent features of these ornamental plants such as size, form, texture, vegetation periods to improve visual landscape in urban spaces in a long time. In addition to the design group disciplines that have activity on planning or application basis in the city and its surroundings, landscape architecture discipline can provide visual improvement of the studies to be carried out in detail in terms of planting design.

Keywords: Urban Space, residential landscape, planting, visual improvement

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2378 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Lavandula antineae Maire from Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Krimat, Tahar Dob, Aicha Kesouri, Hafidha Metidji, Ahmed Nouasri

Abstract:

Lavandula antineae Maire is an endemic medicinal plant of Algeria which is traditionally used for the treatment of chills, bruises, oedema and rheumatism. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory of hydromethanolic aerial parts extract of Lavandula antineae for the first time using carrageenan-paw edema and croton oil-ear odema models. The plant extract, at the dose of 200 mg/kg, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (P˂0.05) in the carrageenan induced edema test in mice, showing 80.74% reduction in the paw thikness comparable to that produced by the standard drug aspirin 83.44% at 4h. When it was applied topically at a dosage of 1 and 2 mg per ear, the percent edema reduction in treated mice was 29.45% and 74.76%, respectively. These results demonstrate that Lavandula antineae Maire extract possess remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various inflammatory and pain diseases.

Keywords: medicinal plant, anti-inflammatory activity, lavandula antineae maire, carrageenan-paw edema, croton oil-ear edema

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2377 The Potential of Fly Ash Wastes to Improve Nutrient Levels in Agricultural Soils: A Material Flow Analysis Case Study from Riau District, Indonesia

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

Abstract:

Fly ash sewage of pulp and paper industries when processed with suitable process and true management may possibly be used fertilizer agriculture purposes. The objective of works is to evaluate re-cycling possibility of fly ash waste to be applied as a fertilizer for agriculture use. Fly ash sewage was applied to maize with 28 g/plant could be increased significantly the average of dry weigh from dry weigh of seed increase from 6.7 g/plant into 10.3 g/plant, and net assimilation rates could be increased from 14.5 mg.m-2.day-1 into 35.4 mg.m-2 day-1. Therefore, production per hectare was reached 3.2 ton/ha. The chemical analyses of fly ash waste indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and molybdenum contents as heavy metal are lower than the threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. This experiment indicated that fly ash sewage in lower doses until 28 g/plant could be applied as substitution fertilizer for agriculture use and it could be eliminate the environment pollution.

Keywords: Waste, fertilizer, maize, fly-ash, sludge-sewage pollutant

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2376 Enrichment of the Antioxidant Activity of Decaffeinated Assam Green Tea by Herbal Plant: A Synergistic Effect

Authors: Abhijit Das, Runu Chakraborty

Abstract:

Tea is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water; it is grown in about 30 countries with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Green tea is of growing importance with its antioxidant contents associated with its health benefits. The various extraction methods can influence the polyphenol concentrations of green tea. The purpose of the study was to quantify the polyphenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of both caffeinated and decaffeinated form of tea manufactured commercially in Assam, North Eastern part of India. The results display that phenolic/flavonoid content well correlated with antioxidant activity which was performed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay. After decaffeination there is a decrease in the polyphenols concentration which also affects the antioxidant activity of green tea. For the enrichment of antioxidant activity of decaffeinated tea a herbal plant extract is used which shows a synergistic effect between green tea and herbal plant phenolic compounds.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, plant extract, green tea, flavonoid content, decaffeination, phenolic content

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2375 Density Interaction in Determinate and Indeterminate Faba Bean Types

Authors: M. Abd El Hamid Ezzat

Abstract:

Two field trials were conducted to study the effect of plant densities i.e., 190, 222, 266, 330 and 440 10³ plants ha⁻¹ on morphological characters, physiological and yield attributes of two faba bean types viz. determinate (FLIP-87 -117 strain) and indeterminate (c.v. Giza-461). The results showed that the indeterminate plants significantly surpassed the determinate plants in plant height at 75 and 90 days from sowing, number of leaves at all growth stages and dry matter accumulation at 45 and 90 days from sowing. Determinate plants possessed greater number of side branches than that of the indeterminate plants, but it was only significant at 90 days from sowing. Greater number of flowers were produced by the indeterminate plants than that of the determinate plants at 75 and 90 days from sowing, and although shedding was obvious in both types, it was greater in the determinate plants as compared with the indeterminate one at 90 days from sowing. Increasing plant density resulted in reductions in number of leaves, branches flowers and dry matter accumulation per plant of both faba bean types. However, plant height criteria took a reversible magnitude. Moreover, under all rates of plant densities the indeterminate type plants surpassed the determinate plants in all growth characters studied except for number of branches per plant at 90 days from sowing. The indeterminate plant leaves significantly contained greater concentrations of photosynthetic pigments i.e., chl. a, b and carotenoids than those found in the determinate plant leaves. Also, the data showed significant reduction in photosynthetic pigments concentration as planting density increases. Light extinction coefficient (K) values reached their maximum level at 60 days from sowing, then it declined sharply at 75 days from sowing. The data showed that the illumination inside the determinate faba bean canopies was better than the indeterminate plants. (K) values tended to increase as planting density increases, meanwhile, significant interactions were reported between faba bean type as planting density on (K) at all growth stages. Both of determinate and indeterminate faba bean plant leaves reached their maximum expansion at 75 days from sowing reflecting the highest LAI values, then their declined in the subsequent growth stage. The indeterminate faba bean plants significantly surpassed the determinate plants in LAI up to 75 days from sowing. Growth analysis showed that NAR, RGR and CGR reached their maximum rates at (60-75 days growth stage). Faba bean types did not differ significantly in NAR at the early growth stage. The indeterminate plants were able to grow faster with significant CGR values than the determinate plants. The indeterminate faba bean plants surpassed the determinate ones in number of seeds/pod and per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant and per hectare at all rates of plant density. Seed yield increased with increasing plant densities of both types. The highest seed yield was attained for both types 440 103 plants ha⁻¹.

Keywords: determinate, indeterminate faba bean, Physiological attributes, yield attributes

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2374 Regulation of Transfer of 137cs by Polymeric Sorbents for Grow Ecologically Sound Biomass

Authors: A. H. Tadevosyan, S. K. Mayrapetyan, N. B. Tavakalyan, K. I. Pyuskyulyan, A. H. Hovsepyan, S. N. Sergeeva

Abstract:

Soil contamination with radiocesium has a long-term radiological impact due to its long physical half-life (30.1 years for 137Cs and 2 years for 134Cs) and its high biological availability. 137Cs causes the largest concerns because of its deleterious effect on agriculture and stock farming, and, thus, human life for decades. One of the important aspects of the problem of contaminated soils remediation is understand of protective actions aimed at the reduction of biological migration of radionuclides in soil-plant system. The most effective way to bind radionuclides is the use of selective sorbents. The proposed research mainly aims to achieve control on transfer of 137Cs in a system growing media–plant due to counter ions variation in the polymeric sorbents. As the research object, Japanese basil-Perilla frutescens was chosen. Productivity of plants depending on the presence (control-without presence of polymer) and type of polymer material, as well as content of 137Cs in plant material has been determined. The character of different polymers influences on the 137Cs migration in growing media–plant system as well as accumulation in the plants has been cleared up.

Keywords: Polymer, radioceaseum, Japanese basil, soil-plant system

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2373 The Introduction of Medicine Plants in Bogor Agricultural University: A Case Study in Cikabayan and Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory

Authors: Eki Devung, Eka Tyastutik, Indha Annisa, Digdaya Anoraga, Jamaluddin Arsyad

Abstract:

Plant medicine is a whole species of plants are known to have medicinal properties. Bogor Agricultural University has high biodiversity, one of which flora potential as a drug. This study was conducted from 19 September to 10 October 2016 at Bogor Agricultural University using literature study and field observation. There are 85 species of medicinal plants which include a medicinal plant cultivation and wild plants. Family herbs most commonly found in Cikabayan that while the Euphorbiaceae, family which is found in the Tropical Medicinal Plant Conservation Laboratory is the family of Achantaceae. Species of medicinal plants is dominated by herbs and shrubs. Part herbs most widely used are the leaves. The diversity of diseases that can be treated with medicine plants include digestive system diseases and metabolic disorder.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Medicinal Plants, benefits, Bogor Agricultural University

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2372 Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

Authors: D. Visuwan, B. Phruksaphanrat

Abstract:

In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It is found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout.

Keywords: Computer Simulation, layout, electronic manufacturing service plant, cellular manufacturing system

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
2371 Growth of Albizia in vitro: Endophytic Fungi as Plant Growth Promote of Albizia

Authors: Rosa Suryantini, Reine Suci Wulandari

Abstract:

Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) is a woody plant species that has a high economic value and multifunctional. Albizia is important timber, medicinal plants and can also be used as a plant to rehabilitate critical lands. The demand value of Albizia is increased so that the large quantities and high quality of seeds are required. In vitro propagation techniques are seed propagation that can produce more seeds and quality in a short time. In vitro cultures require growth regulators that can be obtained from biological agents such as endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are micro fungi that colonize live plant tissue without producing symptoms or other negative effects on host plants and increase plant growth. The purposes of this research were to isolate and identify endophytic fungi isolated from the root of Albizia and to study the effect of endophytic fungus on the growth of Albizia in vitro. The methods were root isolation, endophytic fungal identification, and inoculation of endophytic fungi to Albizia plants in vitro. Endophytic fungus isolates were grown on PDA media before being inoculated with Albizia sprouts. Incubation is done for 4 (four) weeks. The observed growth parameters were live explant percentage, percentage of explant shoot, and percentage of explant rooted. The results of the research showed that 6 (six) endophytic fungal isolates obtained from the root of Albizia, namely Aspergillus sp., Verticillium sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., and Acremonium sp. Statistical analysis found that Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium sp. affect in vitro growth of Albizia. Endophytic fungi from the results of this research were potential as plant growth promoting. It can be applied to increase productivity either through increased plant growth and increased endurance of Albizia seedlings to pests and diseases.

Keywords: In vitro, propagation, endophytic fungi, Albizia

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2370 Effect of Abiotic Factors on Population of Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus Koenigii F. (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) and Its Impact on Cotton Boll Disease

Authors: Saghir Ahmad, Haider Karar, Amjad Ali, Ibrar Ul Haq

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan to study the impact of weather factors and red cotton bug (RCB) on cotton boll disease yielded yellowish lint during 2012. The population on RCB along with abiotic factors was recorded during three consecutive years i.e. 2012, 2013, and 2014. Along with population of RCB and abiotic factors, the number of unopened/opened cotton bolls (UOB), percent yellowish lint (YL) and whitish lint (WL) were also recorded. The data revealed that the population per plant of RCB remain 0.50 and 0.34 during years 2012, 2013 but increased during 2014 i.e. 3.21 per plant. The number of UOB were more i.e. 13.43% in 2012 with YL 76.30 and WL 23.70% when average maximum temperature 34.73◦C, minimum temperature 22.83◦C, RH 77.43% and 11.08 mm rainfall. Similarly in 2013 the number of UOB were less i.e. 0.34 per plant with YL 1.48 and WL 99.53 per plant when average maximum temperature 34.60◦C, minimum temperature 23.37◦C, RH 73.01% and 9.95 mm rainfall. During 2014 RCB population per plant was 3.22 with no UOB and YL was 0.00% and WL was 100% when average maximum temperature 23.70◦C, minimum temperature 23.18◦C, RH 71.67% and 4.55 mm rainfall. So it is concluded that the cotton bolls disease was more during 2012 due to more rainfall and more percent RH. The RCB may be the carrier of boll rot disease pathogen during more rainfall.

Keywords: Cotton, red cotton bug, weather factors, years

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2369 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

Abstract:

An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: Plants, Survey, ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa

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2368 A Real Time Expert System for Decision Support in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Andressa dos Santos Nicolau, João P. da S.C Algusto, Claudio Márcio do N. A. Pereira, Roberto Schirru

Abstract:

In case of abnormal situations, the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators must follow written procedures to check the condition of the plant and to classify the type of emergency. In this paper, we proposed a Real Time Expert System in order to improve operator’s performance in case of transient or accident with reactor shutdown. The expert system’s knowledge is based on the sequence of events (SoE) of known accident and two emergency procedures of the Brazilian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPP and uses two kinds of knowledge representation: rule and logic trees. The results show that the system was able to classify the response of the automatic protection systems, as well as to evaluate the conditions of the plant, diagnosing the type of occurrence, recovery procedure to be followed, indicating the shutdown root cause, and classifying the emergency level.

Keywords: Expert System, emergence procedure, operator support, PWR nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2367 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova, Nguyen Cao Nguyen

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.

Keywords: zinc, foliar fertilizer, Phyllanthus amarus, Micro and macro elements

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2366 Effects of Poultry Manure Rates on Some Growth and Yield Attributes of Cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Pearl Poly-Mbah, Evelyn Obioma, Juliet Amajuoyi

Abstract:

The investigation here reported examined growth and yield responses of Cucumber to manure rates in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria. Fruit vegetables are widely cultivated and produced in Northern Nigeria but greatly consumed in Southern Nigeria where cucumbers command high demand and price but are minimally cultivated. Unfortunately, farmers in northern Nigeria incur lots of losses because cucumber is a perishable vegetable and is transported all the way from the northern Nigeria where cucumbers are produced to Southern Nigeria where cucumbers are consumed, hence the high cost of cucumber fruits in Southern Nigeria. There is a need, therefore, to evolve packages that will enhance cucumber production in Southern Nigeria. The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of poultry manure rates on the growth and yield of cucumber in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. Specifically, this study was designed to assess the effect of poultry manure rates on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length/plant, leaf area per plant and the number of leaves produced per plant. The design used for the experiment was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three blocks (replications). Treatment consisted of four rates of well-decomposed poultry manure at the rate of 0 tons/ha, 2 tons/ha, 4 tons/ha and 6 tons/ha. Data were collected on number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant at two weeks interval, leaf number per plant at two weeks interval, leaf area per plant at two weeks interval, number of fruits produced per plant, and fresh weight of fruits per plant at harvest. Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were highly significant effects (P=0.05) of poultry manure on growth and yield parameters studied which include number of days to 50% seedling emergence, vine length per plant, leaf number per plant, leaf area per plant, fruit number and fruit weight per plant such that increase in poultry manure rates lead to increase in growth and yield parameters studied. Therefore, the null hypothesis (Ho) was rejected, while the alternative hypothesis was accepted. Farmers should be made to know that growing cucumber with poultry manure in southeastern Nigeria agro ecology is a successful enterprise

Keywords: Manure, effects, cucumber, growth and yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2365 In Vitro Propagation in Barleria prionitis L. Via Callus Organogenesis

Authors: Neelu Joshi, Rashmi Ranade

Abstract:

Barleria prionitis L. is a well explored Indian medicinal plant valued for its stem and leaf which forms an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic formulations. It is used for the treatment of various disorders like toothache, bleeding gums, strengthening gums, whooping cough, inflammation, arthritis, enlargement of scrotum and sciatica etc. The plant is propagated vegetatively through stem cuttings. Frequent harvesting of this plant has led to the shortage of planting material, and it has acquired the status of vulnerable plant species. Plant tissue culture technology offers a very good alternative for propagation and conservation of such plant species. The present investigation was undertaken to develop in vitro regeneration protocol for B. prionitis L. via callus organogenesis pathway. Stem and leaf explants were used for this purpose. Different media and plant growth regulators were optimized to develop the protocol. The problem of phenol secretion and browning and in vitro cultures at the establishment phase was successfully curbed with the usage of antibrowning agents such as ascorbic acid and activated charcoal. Optimum shoot multiplication was achieved by the use of liquid media and incorporation of silver nitrate and TIBA (triiodobenzoic acid) into the media. High percent rooting (76%) was observed on WPM media supplemented with IBA (2.0 mg/l), IAA (0.5 mg/l), GA3(0.5) and activated charcoal(500 mg/l). The rooted plantlets were subjected to in vitro hardening on sterile potting mix (soil:farmyard manure:compost; 1:2:1) and acclimatized under greenhouse conditions. Around 85% survival of plantlets was recorded upon acclimatization. This lab scale protocol would be tested for in vitro scaling up production of B. prionitis L.

Keywords: Micropropagation, liquid culture, shoot multiplication, explant browning, phenolic secretion

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
2364 Plant Genetic Diversity in Home Gardens and Its Contribution to Household Economy in Western Part of Ethiopia

Authors: Bedilu Tafesse

Abstract:

Home gardens are important social and cultural spaces where knowledge related to agricultural practice is transmitted and through which households may improve their income and livelihood. High levels of inter- and intra-specific plant genetic diversity are preserved in home gardens. Plant diversity is threatened by rapid and unplanned urbanization, which increases environmental problems such as heating, pollution, loss of habitats and ecosystem disruption. Tropical home gardens have played a significant role in conserving plant diversity while providing substantial benefits to households. This research aimed to understand the relationship between household characteristics and plant diversity in western Ethiopia home gardens and the contributions of plants to the household economy. Plant diversity and different uses of plants were studied in a random sample of 111 suburban home gardens in the Ilu Ababora, Jima and Wellega suburban area, western Ethiopia, based on complete garden inventories followed by household surveys on socio-economic status during 2012. A total of 261 species of plants were observed, of which 41% were ornamental plants, 36% food plants, and 22% medicinal plants. Of these 16% were sold commercially to produce income. Avocado, bananas, and other fruits produced in excess. Home gardens contributed the equivalent of 7% of total annual household income in terms of food and commercial sales. Multiple regression analysis showed that education, time spent in gardening, land for cultivation, household expenses, primary conservation practices, and uses of special techniques explained 56% of the total plant diversity. Food, medicinal and commercial plant species had significant positive relationships with time spent gardening and land area for gardening. Education and conservation practices significantly affected food and medicinal plant diversity. Special techniques used in gardening showed significant positive relations with ornamental and commercial plants. Reassessments in different suburban and urban home gardens and proper documentation using same methodology is essential to build a firm policy for enhancing plant diversity and related values to households and surroundings.

Keywords: Urbanization, Ethiopia, plant genetic diversity, suburban home gardens

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2363 Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones of growth under mild and severe drought stress were tested. According to results, the value of the water balance of the plant cells may reflect the ability of plants to adapt to drought stress. It can be assumed that the turgor allows evaluating the number of received dissolved substance in cell.

Keywords: Plant Growth, drought stress, turgor, Armenian Zea Maize Semidentata

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2362 Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Microbes and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Wheat Growth in the Saline Soil

Authors: Ahmed Elgharably, Nivien Nafady

Abstract:

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting microbes (PGPM) can promote plant growth under saline conditions. This study investigated how AMF and PGPM affected the growth and grain yield of wheat at different soil salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl). AMF colonization percentage, grain yield and dry weights and lengths of shoot and root, N, P K, Na, malondialdehyde, chlorophyll and proline contents and shoot relative permeability were determined. Salinity reduced NPK uptake and malondialdehyde and chlorophyll contents, and increased shoot Na concentration, relative permeability, and proline content, and thus declined plant growth. PGPM inoculation enhanced AMF colonization, P uptake, and K/Na ratio, but alone had no significant effect on plant growth and grain yield. AMF inoculation significantly enhanced NPK uptake, increased chlorophyll content and decreased shoot relative permeability, proline and Na contents, and thus promoted the plant growth. The inoculation of PGPM significantly enhanced the positive effects of AMF in controlling Na uptake and in increasing chlorophyll and NPK contents. Compared to AMF inoculation alone, dual inoculation with AMF and PGPM resulted in approximately 10, 25 and 25% higher grain yield at 0, 75 and 150 mM NaCl, respectively. The results provide that PGPM inoculation can maximize the effects of AMF inoculation in alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl salts on wheat growth.

Keywords: Wheat, Salinity, sodium, mycorrhizal fungi

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
2361 The Concentration Analysis of CO2 Using ALOHA Code for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. Chiang, H. C. Chen, S. W. Chen, W. S. Hsu, J. H. Yang

Abstract:

Not only radiation materials, but also the normal chemical material stored in the power plant can cause a risk to the residents. In this research, the ALOHA code was used to perform the concentration analysis under the CO2 storage burst or leakage conditions for Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and data were used in this study. Additionally, the analysis results of ALOHA code were compared with the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria in order to confirm the control room habitability. The comparison results show that the ALOHA result for burst case was 0.923 g/m3 which was below the criteria. However, the ALOHA results for leakage case was 11.3 g/m3.

Keywords: BWR, habitability, Kuosheng, ALOHA

Procedia PDF Downloads 145