Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1340

Search results for: pitch angle

1340 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda


In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: pitch rate, elevation angle, PID controller, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, phugoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1339 Study on Angle Measurement Interferometer around Any Axis Direction Selected by Transmissive Liquid Crystal Device

Authors: R. Furutani, G. Kikuchi


Generally, the optical interferometer system is too complicated and difficult to change the measurement items, pitch, yaw, and row, etc. In this article, the optical interferometer system using the transmissive Liquid Crystal Device (LCD) as the switch of the optical path was proposed. At first, the normal optical interferometer, Michelson interferometer, was constructed to measure the pitch angle and the yaw angle. In this optical interferometer, the ball lenses with the refractive indices of 2.0 were used as the retroreflectors. After that, the transmissive LCD was introduced as the switch to select the adequate optical path. In this article, these optical systems were constructed. Pitch measurement interferometer and yaw measurement interferometer were switched by the transmissive LCD. When the LCD was open for the yaw measurement, the yaw was sufficiently measured and optical path for the pitch measurement was blocked. On the other hand, when the LCD was open for the pitch measurement, the pitch was measured and the optical path for the yaw measurement was also blocked. In this article, the results of both of pitch measurement and yaw measurement were shown, and the result of blocked yaw measurement and pitch measurement were shown. As this measurement system was based on Michelson interferometer, the other measuring items, the deviation along the optical axis, the vertical deviation to the optical axis and row angle, could be measured by the additional ball lenses and the additional switching in future work.

Keywords: any direction angle, ball lens, laser interferometer, transmissive liquid crystal device

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1338 Dynamic Modeling of Wind Farms in the Jeju Power System

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam


In this paper, we develop a dynamic modeling of wind farms in the Jeju power system. The dynamic model of wind farms is developed to study their dynamic effects on the Jeju power system. PSS/E is used to develop the dynamic model of a wind farm composed of 1.5-MW doubly fed induction generators. The output of a wind farm is regulated based on pitch angle control, in which the two controllable parameters are speed and power references. The simulation results confirm that the pitch angle is successfully controlled, regardless of the variation in wind speed and output regulation.

Keywords: dynamic model, Jeju power system, online limitation, pitch angle control, wind farm

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1337 Power Performance Improvement of 500W Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Salient Design Parameters

Authors: Young-Tae Lee, Hee-Chang Lim


This paper presents the performance characteristics of Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with NACA airfoil blades. The performance of Darrieus-type VAWT can be characterized by torque and power. There are various parameters affecting the performance such as chord length, helical angle, pitch angle and rotor diameter. To estimate the optimum shape of Darrieustype wind turbine in accordance with various design parameters, we examined aerodynamic characteristics and separated flow occurring in the vicinity of blade, interaction between flow and blade, and torque and power characteristics derived from it. For flow analysis, flow variations were investigated based on the unsteady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) equation. Sliding mesh algorithm was employed in order to consider rotational effect of blade. To obtain more realistic results we conducted experiment and numerical analysis at the same time for three-dimensional shape. In addition, several parameters (chord length, rotor diameter, pitch angle, and helical angle) were considered to find out optimum shape design and characteristics of interaction with ambient flow. Since the NACA airfoil used in this study showed significant changes in magnitude of lift and drag depending on an angle of attack, the rotor with low drag, long cord length and short diameter shows high power coefficient in low tip speed ratio (TSR) range. On the contrary, in high TSR range, drag becomes high. Hence, the short-chord and long-diameter rotor produces high power coefficient. When a pitch angle at which airfoil directs toward inside equals to -2° and helical angle equals to 0°, Darrieus-type VAWT generates maximum power.

Keywords: darrieus wind turbine, VAWT, NACA airfoil, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
1336 Influence of High-Resolution Satellites Attitude Parameters on Image Quality

Authors: Walid Wahballah, Taher Bazan, Fawzy Eltohamy


One of the important functions of the satellite attitude control system is to provide the required pointing accuracy and attitude stability for optical remote sensing satellites to achieve good image quality. Although offering noise reduction and increased sensitivity, time delay and integration (TDI) charge coupled devices (CCDs) utilized in high-resolution satellites (HRS) are prone to introduce large amounts of pixel smear due to the instability of the line of sight. During on-orbit imaging, as a result of the Earth’s rotation and the satellite platform instability, the moving direction of the TDI-CCD linear array and the imaging direction of the camera become different. The speed of the image moving on the image plane (focal plane) represents the image motion velocity whereas the angle between the two directions is known as the drift angle (β). The drift angle occurs due to the rotation of the earth around its axis during satellite imaging; affecting the geometric accuracy and, consequently, causing image quality degradation. Therefore, the image motion velocity vector and the drift angle are two important factors used in the assessment of the image quality of TDI-CCD based optical remote sensing satellites. A model for estimating the image motion velocity and the drift angle in HRS is derived. The six satellite attitude control parameters represented in the derived model are the (roll angle φ, pitch angle θ, yaw angle ψ, roll angular velocity φ֗, pitch angular velocity θ֗ and yaw angular velocity ψ֗ ). The influence of these attitude parameters on the image quality is analyzed by establishing a relationship between the image motion velocity vector, drift angle and the six satellite attitude parameters. The influence of the satellite attitude parameters on the image quality is assessed by the presented model in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) in both cross- and along-track directions. Three different cases representing the effect of pointing accuracy (φ, θ, ψ) bias are considered using four different sets of pointing accuracy typical values, while the satellite attitude stability parameters are ideal. In the same manner, the influence of satellite attitude stability (φ֗, θ֗, ψ֗) on image quality is also analysed for ideal pointing accuracy parameters. The results reveal that cross-track image quality is influenced seriously by the yaw angle bias and the roll angular velocity bias, while along-track image quality is influenced only by the pitch angular velocity bias.

Keywords: high-resolution satellites, pointing accuracy, attitude stability, TDI-CCD, smear, MTF

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
1335 Improved Pitch Detection Using Fourier Approximation Method

Authors: Balachandra Kumaraswamy, P. G. Poonacha


Automatic Music Information Retrieval has been one of the challenging topics of research for a few decades now with several interesting approaches reported in the literature. In this paper we have developed a pitch extraction method based on a finite Fourier series approximation to the given window of samples. We then estimate pitch as the fundamental period of the finite Fourier series approximation to the given window of samples. This method uses analysis of the strength of harmonics present in the signal to reduce octave as well as harmonic errors. The performance of our method is compared with three best known methods for pitch extraction, namely, Yin, Windowed Special Normalization of the Auto-Correlation Function and Harmonic Product Spectrum methods of pitch extraction. Our study with artificially created signals as well as music files show that Fourier Approximation method gives much better estimate of pitch with less octave and harmonic errors.

Keywords: pitch, fourier series, yin, normalization of the auto- correlation function, harmonic product, mean square error

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1334 Statistical Modeling of Mandarin Tone Sandhi: Neutralization of Underlying Pitch Targets

Authors: Si Chen, Caroline Wiltshire, Bin Li


This study statistically models the surface f0 contour and the underlying pitch target of a well-studied third sandhi tone of Mandarin Chinese. Although the growth curve analysis on the surface f0 contours indicates non-neutralization of this sandhi tone (T3) and the base T2, their underlying pitch targets do show neutralization. These results in Mandarin are also consistent with the perception of native speakers, where they cannot distinguish the third T3 from the base T2, compensating contextual variation. It is possible to use the proposed statistical procedure of testing underlying pitch targets to verify tone sandhi processes in other tonal languages.

Keywords: growth curve analysis, Mandarin Chinese, tone sandhi, underlying pitch target

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1333 A Cross-Gender Statistical Analysis of Tuvinian Intonation Features in Comparison With Uzbek and Azerbaijani

Authors: Daria Beziakina, Elena Bulgakova


The paper deals with cross-gender and cross-linguistic comparison of pitch characteristics for Tuvinian with two other Turkic languages - Uzbek and Azerbaijani, based on the results of statistical analysis of pitch parameter values and intonation patterns used by male and female speakers. The main goal of our work is to obtain the ranges of pitch parameter values typical for Tuvinian speakers for the purpose of automatic language identification. We also propose a cross-gender analysis of declarative intonation in the poorly studied Tuvinian language. The ranges of pitch parameter values were obtained by means of specially developed software that deals with the distribution of pitch values and allows us to obtain statistical language-specific pitch intervals.

Keywords: speech analysis, statistical analysis, speaker recognition, identification of person

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1332 Implementation and Modeling of a Quadrotor

Authors: Ersan Aktas, Eren Turanoğuz


In this study, the quad-electrical rotor driven unmanned aerial vehicle system is designed and modeled using fundamental dynamic equations. After that, mechanical, electronical and control system of the air vehicle are designed and implemented. Brushless motor speeds are altered via electronic speed controllers in order to achieve desired controllability. The vehicle's fundamental Euler angles (i.e., roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle) are obtained via AHRS sensor. These angles are provided as an input to the control algorithm that run on soft the processor on the electronic card. The vehicle control algorithm is implemented in the electronic card. Controller is designed and improved for each Euler angles. Finally, flight tests have been performed to observe and improve the flight characteristics.

Keywords: quadrotor, UAS applications, control architectures, PID

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
1331 Aerodynamic Investigation of Baseline-IV Bird-Inspired BWB Aircraft Design: Improvements over Baseline-III BWB

Authors: C. M. Nur Syazwani, M. K. Ahmad Imran, Rizal E. M. Nasir


The study on BWB UV begins in UiTM since 2005 and three designs have been studied and published. The latest designs are Baseline-III and inspired by birds that have features and aerodynamics behaviour of cruising birds without flapping capability. The aircraft featuring planform and configuration are similar to the bird. Baseline-III has major flaws particularly in its low lift-to-drag ratio, stability and issues regarding limited controllability. New design known as Baseline-IV replaces straight, swept wing to delta wing and have a broader tail compares to the Baseline-III’s. The objective of the study is to investigate aerodynamics of Baseline-IV bird-inspired BWB aircraft. This will be achieved by theoretical calculation and wind tunnel experiments. The result shows that both theoretical and wind tunnel experiments of Baseline-IV graph of CL and CD versus alpha are quite similar to each other in term of pattern of graph slopes and values. Baseline-IV has higher lift coefficient values at wide range of angle of attack compares to Baseline-III. Baseline-IV also has higher maximum lift coefficient, higher maximum lift-to-drag and lower parasite drag. It has stable pitch moment versus lift slope but negative moment at zero lift for zero angle-of-attack tail setting. At high angle of attack, Baseline-IV does not have stability reversal as shown in Baseline-III. Baseline-IV is proven to have improvements over Baseline-III in terms of lift, lift-to-drag ratio and pitch moment stability at high angle-of-attack.

Keywords: blended wing-body, bird-inspired blended wing-body, aerodynamic, stability

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1330 Numerical Study of 5kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using DOE Method

Authors: Yan-Ting Lin, Wei-Nian Su


The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the design of 5kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) using DOE method. The NACA0015 airfoil was implemented for the design and 3D simulation. The critical design parameters are chord length, tip speed ratio (TSR), aspect ratio (AR) and pitch angle in this investigation. The RNG k-ε turbulent model and the sliding mesh method are adopted in the CFD simulation. The results show that the model with zero pitch, 0.3 m in chord length, TSR of 3, and AR of 10 demonstrated the optimum aerodynamic power under the uniform 10m/s inlet velocity. The aerodynamic power is 3.61kW and 3.89kW under TSR of 3 and 4 respectively. The aerodynamic power decreased dramatically while TSR increased to 5.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, CFD, DOE, VAWT

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
1329 Design and Implementation of Control System in Underwater Glider of Ganeshblue

Authors: Imam Taufiqurrahman, Anugrah Adiwilaga, Egi Hidayat, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono


Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider is one of the renewal of underwater vehicles. This vehicle is one of the autonomous underwater vehicles that are being developed in Indonesia. Glide ability is obtained by controlling the buoyancy and attitude of the vehicle using the movers within the vehicle. The glider motion mechanism is expected to provide energy resistance from autonomous underwater vehicles so as to increase the cruising range of rides while performing missions. The control system on the vehicle consists of three parts: controlling the attitude of the pitch, the buoyancy engine controller and the yaw controller. The buoyancy and pitch controls on the vehicle are sequentially referring to the finite state machine with pitch angle and depth of diving inputs to obtain a gliding cycle. While the yaw control is done through the rudder for the needs of the guide system. This research is focused on design and implementation of control system of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider based on PID anti-windup. The control system is implemented on an ARM TS-7250-V2 device along with a mathematical model of the vehicle in MATLAB using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method. The TS-7250-V2 is chosen because it complies industry standards, has high computing capability, minimal power consumption. The results show that the control system in HILS process can form glide cycle with depth and angle of operation as desired. In the implementation using half control and full control mode, from the experiment can be concluded in full control mode more precision when tracking the reference. While half control mode is considered more efficient in carrying out the mission.

Keywords: control system, PID, underwater glider, marine robotics

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1328 Design and Numerical Study on Aerodynamics Performance for F16 Leading Edge Extension

Authors: San-Yih Lin, Hsien-Hao Teng


In this research, we use commercial software, ANSYS CFX, to carry on the simulation the F16 aerodynamics performance flow field. The flight with a modified Leading Edge Extension (LEX) is proposed to increase the lift/drag ratio. The Shear Stress Transport turbulent model is used. The unstructured grid system is generated by the ICEM CFD. The prism grid around the wall surface is generated to simulate boundary layer viscosity flow field and Tetrahedron Mesh is used for the other computation domain. The lift, drag, and pitch moment are computed. The strong vortex structures upper the wing and vortex bursts under different sweep angle of LEX are investigated.

Keywords: LEX, lift/drag ratio, pitch moment, vortex burst

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1327 Emulation of a Wind Turbine Using Induction Motor Driven by Field Oriented Control

Authors: L. Benaaouinate, M. Khafallah, A. Martinez, A. Mesbahi, T. Bouragba


This paper concerns with the modeling, simulation, and emulation of a wind turbine emulator for standalone wind energy conversion systems. By using emulation system, we aim to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine torque on the generator shaft: it provides the testing facilities to optimize generator control strategies in a controlled environment, without reliance on natural resources. The aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical models have been detailed as well as the control of pitch angle using Fuzzy Logic for horizontal axis wind turbines. The wind turbine emulator consists mainly of an induction motor with AC power drive with torque control. The control of the induction motor and the mathematical models of the wind turbine are designed with MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the induction motor control system and the functionality of the wind turbine emulator for providing all necessary parameters of the wind turbine system such as wind speed, output torque, power coefficient and tip speed ratio. The findings are of direct practical relevance.

Keywords: electrical generator, induction motor drive, modeling, pitch angle control, real time control, renewable energy, wind turbine, wind turbine emulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
1326 Performance Comparisons between PID and Adaptive PID Controllers for Travel Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter

Authors: H. Mansor, S. B. Mohd-Noor, T. S. Gunawan, S. Khan, N. I. Othman, N. Tazali, R. B. Islam


This paper provides a comparative study on the performances of standard PID and adaptive PID controllers tested on travel angle of a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) Quanser bench-top helicopter. Quanser, a well-known manufacturer of educational bench-top helicopter has developed Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) controller with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for all travel, pitch and yaw angle of the bench-top helicopter. The performance of the PID controller is relatively good; however its performance could also be improved if the controller is combined with adaptive element. The objective of this research is to design adaptive PID controller and then compare the performances of the adaptive PID with the standard PID. The controller design and test is focused on travel angle control only. Adaptive method used in this project is self-tuning controller, which controller’s parameters are updated online. Two adaptive algorithms those are pole-placement and deadbeat have been chosen as the method to achieve optimal controller’s parameters. Performance comparisons have shown that the adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller has produced more desirable performance compared to standard PID and adaptive (pole-placement). The adaptive (deadbeat) PID controller attained very fast settling time (5 seconds) and very small percentage of overshoot (5% to 7.5%) for 10° to 30° step change of travel angle.

Keywords: adaptive control, deadbeat, pole-placement, bench-top helicopter, self-tuning control

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1325 Aural Skills Pedagogy for Students with Absolute Pitch

Authors: Rika Uchida


In teaching sophomore level aural skills, I have dealt with students with absolute pitch do poorly in my courses, particularly in harmonic dictation. They can identify triads; however, identifying quality of seventh chords or chromatic chords poses serious challenges. Most often, they need to spell all the pitches before identifying the chord qualities and Roman Numerals. Growing up in a country where acquiring absolute pitch is considered essential, I started my early music training with fixed do system at age three and learned all my music with solfege. When I was assigned as a TA in aural skills courses at graduate school in US, I had to learn relative pitch quickly. My survival method was listening to music with absolute pitch first, then quickly "translate" to relative pitch. In teaching my courses, I have been using chord progressions (5-8 chords total), in which students are asked to sing chord arpeggiation with movable do solfege. I use same progressions for harmonic dictation; I hoped that students learn to incorporate singing and listening skills by overlapping same materials. This method has proven to be successful for most students; in particular, it has helped students with absolute pitch to hear chord quality and function. Although original progressions are written in C as a tonic, they can identify chords in harmonic dictation in other keys as well. In short, I believe singing chord progression with movable do arpeggiation helps students with absolute pitch to improve hearing function and quality of chords in harmonic dictation.

Keywords: aural skills pedagogy, music theory, absolute pitch, harmonic dictation

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1324 Starting Torque Study of Darrieus Wind Turbine

Authors: M. Douak, Z. Aouachria


The aim of our study is to project an optimized wind turbine of Darrieus type. This type of wind turbine is characterized by a low starting torque in comparison with the Savonius rotor allowing them to operate for a period greater than wind speed. This led us to reconsider the Darrieus rotor to optimize a design which will increase its starting torque. The study of a system of monitoring and control of the angle of attack of blade profile, which allows an auto start to wind speeds as low as possible is presented for the straight blade of Darrieus turbine. The study continues to extend to other configurations namely those of parabolic type.

Keywords: Darrieus turbine, pitch angle, self stating, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1323 Numerical Investigations on Dynamic Stall of a Pitching-Plunging Helicopter Blade Airfoil

Authors: Xie Kai, Laith K. Abbas, Chen Dongyang, Yang Fufeng, Rui Xiaoting


Effect of plunging motion on the pitch oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A simulation model based on overset grid technology and k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is established, and the numerical simulation results are compared with available experimental data and other simulations. Two cases of phase angle φ = 0, μ which represents the phase difference between the pitching and plunging motions of an airfoil are performed. Airfoil vortex generation, moving, and shedding are discussed in detail. Good agreements have been achieved with the available literature. The upward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack less than the actual one during pitching analysis. It is observed that the formation of the stall vortex is suppressed, resulting in a decrease in the lift coefficient and a delay of the stall angle. However, the downward plunging motion made the equivalent angle of attack higher the actual one.

Keywords: dynamic stall, pitching-plunging, computational fluid dynamics, helicopter blade rotor, airfoil

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1322 A Short-Baseline Dual-Antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU Integrated Navigation System

Authors: Tijing Cai, Qimeng Xu, Daijin Zhou


This paper puts forward a short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation, constructs the carrier phase double difference model of BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), and presents a 2-position initial orientation method on BDS. The Extended Kalman-filter has been introduced for the integrated navigation system. The differences between MEMS-IMU and BDS position, velocity and carrier phase indications are used as measurements. To show the performance of the short-baseline dual-antenna BDS/MEMS-IMU integrated navigation system, the experiment results show that the position error is less than 1m, the pitch angle error and roll angle error are less than 0.1°, and the heading angle error is about 1°.

Keywords: MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit), BDS (BeiDou Navigation Satellite System), dual-antenna, integrated navigation

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1321 Biotransformation of Glycerine Pitch as Renewable Carbon Resource into P(3HB-co-4HB) Biopolymer

Authors: Amirul Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Hema Ramachandran, Iszatty Ismail


Oleochemical industry in Malaysia has been diversifying significantly due to the abundant supply of both palm and kernel oils as raw materials as well as the high demand for downstream products such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols and glycerine. However, environmental awareness is growing rapidly in Malaysia because oleochemical industry is one of the palm-oil based industries that possess risk to the environment. Glycerine pitch is one of the scheduled wastes generated from the fatty acid plants in Malaysia and its discharge may cause a serious environmental problem. Therefore, it is imperative to find alternative applications for this waste glycerine. Consequently, the aim of this research is to explore the application of glycerine pitch as direct fermentation substrate in the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer, aiming to contribute toward the sustainable production of biopolymer in the world. Utilization of glycerine pitch (10 g/l) together with 1,4-butanediol (5 g/l) had resulted in the achievement of 40 mol% 4HB monomer with the highest PHA concentration of 2.91 g/l. Synthesis of yellow pigment which exhibited antimicrobial properties occurred simultaneously with the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) through the use of glycerine pitch as renewable carbon resource. Utilization of glycerine pitch in the biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) will not only contribute to reducing society’s dependence on non-renewable resources but also will promote the development of cost efficiency microbial fermentation towards biosustainability and green technology.

Keywords: biopolymer, glycerine pitch, natural pigment, P(3HB-co-4HB)

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1320 Self-Tuning Dead-Beat PD Controller for Pitch Angle Control of a Bench-Top Helicopter

Authors: H. Mansor, S.B. Mohd-Noor, N. I. Othman, N. Tazali, R. I. Boby


This paper presents an improved robust Proportional Derivative controller for a 3-Degree-of-Freedom (3-DOF) bench-top helicopter by using adaptive methodology. Bench-top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter used for experimental purposes which is widely used in teaching laboratory and research. Proportional Derivative controller has been developed for a 3-DOF bench-top helicopter by Quanser. Experiments showed that the transient response of designed PD controller has very large steady state error i.e., 50%, which is very serious. The objective of this research is to improve the performance of existing pitch angle control of PD controller on the bench-top helicopter by integration of PD controller with adaptive controller. Usually standard adaptive controller will produce zero steady state error; however response time to reach desired set point is large. Therefore, this paper proposed an adaptive with deadbeat algorithm to overcome the limitations. The output response that is fast, robust and updated online is expected. Performance comparisons have been performed between the proposed self-tuning deadbeat PD controller and standard PD controller. The efficiency of the self-tuning dead beat controller has been proven from the tests results in terms of faster settling time, zero steady state error and capability of the controller to be updated online.

Keywords: adaptive control, deadbeat control, bench-top helicopter, self-tuning control

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1319 Leadership Effectiveness Compared among Three Cultures Using Voice Pitches

Authors: Asena Biber, Ates Gul Ergun, Seda Bulut


Based on the literature, there are large numbers of studies investigating the relationship between culture and leadership effectiveness. Although giving effective speeches is vital characteristic for a leader to be perceived as effective, to our knowledge, there is no research study the determinants of perceived effective leader speech. The aim of this study is to find the effects of both culture and voice pitch on perceptions of leader's speech effectiveness. Our hypothesis is that people from high power distance countries will perceive leaders' speech effective when the leader's voice pitch is high, comparing with people from relatively low power distance countries. The participants of the study were 36 undergraduate students (12 Pakistanis, 12 Nigerians, and 12 Turks) who are studying in Turkey. National power distance scores of Nigerians ranked as first, Turks ranked as second and Pakistanis ranked as third. There are two independent variables in this study; three nationality groups that representing three levels of power distance and voice pitch of the leader which is manipulated as high and low levels. Researchers prepared an audio to manipulate high and low conditions of voice pitch. A professional whose native language is English read the predetermined speech in high and low voice pitch conditions. Voice pitch was measured using Hertz (Hz) and Decibel (dB). Each nationality group (Pakistan, Nigeria, and Turkey) were divided into groups of six students who listened to either the low or high pitch conditions in the cubicles of the laboratory. It was expected from participants to listen to the audio and fill in the questionnaire which was measuring the leadership effectiveness on a response scale ranging from 1 to 5. To determine the effects of nationality and voice pitch on perceived effectiveness of leader' voice pitch, 3 (Pakistani, Nigerian, and Turk) x 2 (low voice pitch and high voice pitch) two way between subjects analysis of variances was carried out. The results indicated that there was no significant main effect of voice pitch and interaction effect on perceived effectiveness of the leader’s voice pitch. However, there was a significant main effect of nationality on perceived effectiveness of the leader's voice pitch. Based on the results of Turkey’s HSD post-hoc test, only the perceived effectiveness of the leader's speech difference between Pakistanis and Nigerians was statistically significant. The results show that the hypothesis of this study was not supported. As limitations of the study, it is of importance to mention that the sample size should be bigger. Also, the language of the questionnaire and speech should be in the participant’s native language in further studies.

Keywords: culture, leadership effectiveness, power distance, voice pitch

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1318 The Pitch Diameter of Pipe Taper Thread Measurement and Uncertainty Using Three-Wire Probe

Authors: J. Kloypayan, W. Pimpakan


The pipe taper thread measurement and uncertainty normally used the four-wire probe according to the JIS B 0262. Besides, according to the EA-10/10 standard, the pipe thread could be measured using the three-wire probe. This research proposed to use the three-wire probe measuring the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread. The measuring accessory component was designed and made, then, assembled to one side of the ULM 828 CiM machine. Therefore, this machine could be used to measure and calibrate both the pipe thread and the pipe taper thread. The equations and the expanded uncertainty for pitch diameter measurement were formulated. After the experiment, the results showed that the pipe taper thread had the pitch diameter equal to 19.165 mm and the expanded uncertainty equal to 1.88µm. Then, the experiment results were compared to the results from the National Institute of Metrology Thailand. The equivalence ratio from the comparison showed that both results were related. Thus, the proposed method of using the three-wire probe measured the pitch diameter of the pipe taper thread was acceptable.

Keywords: pipe taper thread, three-wire probe, measure and calibration, the universal length measuring machine

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1317 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
1316 Tonal Pitch Structure as a Tool of Social Consolidation

Authors: Piotr Podlipniak


Social consolidation has often been indicated as an adaptive function of music which led to the evolution of music faculty. According to many scholars this function is possible thanks to musical rhythm that enables sensorimotor synchronization to a musical beat. The ability to synchronize to music allows performing music collectively which enhances social cohesion. However, the collective performance of music consists also in spectral synchronization that depends on musical pitch structure. Similarly to rhythmic synchronization, spectral synchronization is a result of ‘brain states alignment’ between people who collectively listen to or perform music. In order to successfully synchronize pitches performers have to adequately expect the pitch structure. The most common form of music which predominates among all human societies is tonal music. In fact tonality understood in the broadest sense as such an organization of musical pitches in which some pitch is more important than others is the only kind of musical pitch structure that has been observed in all currently known musical cultures. The perception of such a musical pitch structure elicits specific emotional reactions which are often described as tensions and relaxations. These facts provoke some important questions. What is the evolutionary reason that people use pitch structure as a form of vocal communication? Why different pitch structures elicit different emotional states independent of extra-musical context? It is proposed in the current presentation that in the course of evolution pitch structure became a human specific tool of communication the function of which is to induce emotional states such as uncertainty and cohesion. By the means of eliciting these emotions during collective music performance people are able to unconsciously give cues concerning social acceptance. This is probably one of the reasons why in all cultures people collectively perform tonal music. It is also suggested that tonal pitch structure had been invented socially before it became an evolutionary innovation of Homo sapiens. It means that a predisposition to tonally organize pitches evolved by the means of ‘Baldwin effect’ – a process in which natural selection transforms the learned response of an organism into the instinctive response. The hypothetical evolutionary scenario of the emergence of tonal pitch structure will be proposed. In this scenario social forces such as a need for closer cooperation play the crucial role.

Keywords: emotion, evolution, tonality, social consolidation

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1315 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan


This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Ahemd vehicle , backlight angle, finite element method

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1314 Definition of Service Angle of Android’S Robot Hand by Method of Small Movements of Gripper’S Axis Synthesis by Speed Vector

Authors: Valeriy Nebritov


The paper presents a generalized method for determining the service solid angle based on the assigned gripper axis orientation with a stationary grip center. Motion synthesis in this work is carried out in the vector of velocities. As an example, a solid angle of the android robot arm is determined, this angle being formed by the longitudinal axis of a gripper. The nature of the method is based on the study of sets of configuration positions, defining the end point positions of the unit radius sphere sweep, which specifies the service solid angle. From this the spherical curve specifying the shape of the desired solid angle was determined. The results of the research can be used in the development of control systems of autonomous android robots.

Keywords: android robot, control systems, motion synthesis, service angle

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1313 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

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1312 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu


This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

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1311 Measurement of the Quadriceps Angle with Respect to Various Body Parameters in Arab Countries

Authors: Ramada R. Khasawneh, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Ejlal Abu-El Rub


The quadriceps angle (Q angle), formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon, is considered clinically as a very important parameter which displays the biomechanical effect of the quadriceps muscle on the knee, and it is also regarded as a crucial factor for the proper posture and movement of the knee patella. This study had been conducted to measure the normal Q angle values range in the Arab nationalities and determine the correlation between Q angle values and several body parameters, including gender, height, weight, dominant side, and the condylar distance of the femur. The study includes 500 healthy Arab students from Yarmouk University and Jordan University of Science and Technology. The Q angle of those volunteers was measured using a universal manual Goniometer with the subjects in the upright weight-bearing position. It was found that the Q angle was greater in women than in men. The analysis of the data revealed an insignificant increase in the dominant side of the Q angle. In addition, the Q was significantly higher in the taller people of both sexes. However, the Q angle did not present any considerable correlation with weight in the study population; conversely, it was observed that there was a link with the condylar distance of the femur in both sexes. It was also noticed that the Q angle increased remarkably when there was an increase in the condylar distance. Consequently, it turned out that the gender, height, and the condylar distance were momentous factors that had an impact on the Q angle in our study samples. However, weight and dominance factors did not show to have any influence on the values in our study.

Keywords: Q angle, Jordanian, anatomy, condylar distance

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