Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10360

Search results for: performance scoring

10360 An Information System for Strategic Performance Scoring in Municipal Management

Authors: Emin Gundogar, Aysegul Yilmaz

Abstract:

Strategic performance scoring is a significant procedure in management. There are various methods to improve this procedure. This study introduces an information system that is developed to score performance for municipal management. The application of the system is clarified by exemplifying municipal processes.

Keywords: management information system, municipal management, performance scoring

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10359 Development of a Rating Scale for Elementary EFL Writing

Authors: Mohammed S. Assiri

Abstract:

In EFL programs, rating scales used in writing assessment are often constructed by intuition. Intuition-based scales tend to provide inaccurate and divisive ratings of learners’ writing performance. Hence, following an empirical approach, this study attempted to develop a rating scale for elementary-level writing at an EFL program in Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 98 students’ essays were scored and then coded using comprehensive taxonomy of writing constructs and their measures. An automatic linear modeling was run to find out which measures would best predict essay scores. A nonparametric ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, was then used to determine which measures could best differentiate among scoring levels. Findings indicated that there were certain measures that could serve as either good predictors of essay scores or differentiators among scoring levels, or both. The main conclusion was that a rating scale can be empirically developed using predictive and discriminative statistical tests.

Keywords: analytic scoring, rating scales, writing assessment, writing constructs, writing performance

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10358 Application of Scoring Rubrics by Lecturers towards Objective Assessment of Essay Questions in the Department of Social Science Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Authors: Donald B. Enu, Clement O. Ukpor, Abigail E. Okon

Abstract:

Unreliable scoring of students’ performance by lecturers short-chains students’ assessment in terms of underequipping the school authority with facts as intended by society through the curriculum hence, the learners, the school and the society are cheated because the usefulness of testing is defeated. This study, therefore, examined lecturers’ scoring objectivity of essay items in the Department of Social Science Education, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Specifically, it assessed lecturers’ perception of the relevance of scoring rubrics and its level of application. Data were collected from all the 36 lecturers in the Department (28 members and 8 non-members adjourned to the department), through a 20-item questionnaire and checklist instruments. A case-study design was adopted. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts, weighted means, standard deviations, and percentages were used to analyze data gathered. A mean score of 2.5 and or 60 percent and above formed the acceptance or significant level in decision taking. It was found that lecturers perceived the use of scoring rubrics as a relevant practice to ensure fairness and reliable treatment of examiners scripts particularly in marking essay items and that there is a moderately high level of adherence to the application of scoring rubrics. It was also observed that some criteria necessary for the scoring objectivity of essay items were not fully put in place in the department. It was recommended strongly that students’ identities be hidden while marking and that pre-determined marking scheme should be prepared centrally and strictly adhered to during marking and recording of scores. Conference marking should be enforced in the department.

Keywords: essay items, objective scoring, scorers reliability, scoring rubrics

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10357 Rubric in Vocational Education

Authors: Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Jamil Ahmad, Ruhizan Muhammad Yasin

Abstract:

Rubric is a very important tool for teachers and students for a variety of purposes. Teachers use the rubric for evaluating student work while students use rubrics for self-assessment. Therefore, this paper was emphasized scoring rubric as a scoring tool for teachers in an environment of Competency Based Education and Training (CBET) in Malaysia Vocational College. A total of three teachers in the fields of electrical and electronics engineering were interviewed to identify how the use of rubrics practiced since vocational transformation implemented in 2012. Overall holistic rubric used to determine the performance of students in the skills area.

Keywords: rubric, vocational education, teachers, CBET

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
10356 The Impact of Task-Based Language Teaching on Iranian Female Intermediate EFL Learners’ Writing Performance

Authors: Gholam Reza Parvizi, Hossein Azad, Ali Reza Kargar

Abstract:

This article investigated the impact of task-based language teaching (TBLT) on writing performance of the Iranian intermediate EFL learners. There were two groups of forty students of the intermediate female learners studying English in Jahad-e-Daneshgahi language institute, ranging in age from thirteen to nineteen. They participated in their regular classes in the institute and were assigned to two groups including an experimental group of task-based language teaching and a control group for the purpose of homogeneity, all students in two groups took an achievement test before the treatment. As a pre-test; students were assigned to write a task at the beginning of the course. One of the classes was conducted through talking a TBLT approach on their writing, while the other class followed regular patterns of teaching, namely traditional approach for TBLT group. There were some tasks chosen from learners’ textbook. The task selection was in accordance with learning standards for ESL and TOFEL writing sections. At the end of the treatment, a post-test was administered to both experimental group and the control group. Scoring was done on the basis of scoring scale of “expository writing quality scale”. The researcher used paired samples t-test to analyze the effect of TBLT teaching approach on the writing performance of the learners. The data analysis revealed that the subjects in TBLT group performed better on the writing performance post-test than the subjects in control group. The findings of the study also demonstrated that TBLT would enhance writing performance in the group of learners. Moreover, it was indicated that TBLT has been effective in teaching writing performance to Iranian EFL learners

Keywords: task-based language teaching, task, language teaching approach, writing proficiency, EFL learners

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10355 Weighted Risk Scores Method Proposal for Occupational Safety Risk Assessment

Authors: Ulas Cinar, Omer Faruk Ugurlu, Selcuk Cebi

Abstract:

Occupational safety risk management is the most important element of a safe working environment. Effective risk management can only be possible with accurate analysis and evaluations. Scoring-based risk assessment methods offer considerable ease of application as they convert linguistic expressions into numerical results. It can also be easily adapted to any field. Contrary to all these advantages, important problems in scoring-based methods are frequently discussed. Effective measurability is one of the most critical problems. Existing methods allow experts to choose a score equivalent to each parameter. Therefore, experts prefer the score of the most likely outcome for risk. However, all other possible consequences are neglected. Assessments of the existing methods express the most probable level of risk, not the real risk of the enterprises. In this study, it is aimed to develop a method that will present a more comprehensive evaluation compared to the existing methods by evaluating the probability and severity scores, all sub-parameters, and potential results, and a new scoring-based method is proposed in the literature.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, risk assessment, scoring based risk assessment method, underground mining, weighted risk scores

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10354 A Medical Vulnerability Scoring System Incorporating Health and Data Sensitivity Metrics

Authors: Nadir A. Carreon, Christa Sonderer, Aakarsh Rao, Roman Lysecky

Abstract:

With the advent of complex software and increased connectivity, the security of life-critical medical devices is becoming an increasing concern, particularly with their direct impact on human safety. Security is essential, but it is impossible to develop completely secure and impenetrable systems at design time. Therefore, it is important to assess the potential impact on the security and safety of exploiting a vulnerability in such critical medical systems. The common vulnerability scoring system (CVSS) calculates the severity of exploitable vulnerabilities. However, for medical devices it does not consider the unique challenges of impacts to human health and privacy. Thus, the scoring of a medical device on which human life depends (e.g., pacemakers, insulin pumps) can score very low, while a system on which human life does not depend (e.g., hospital archiving systems) might score very high. In this paper, we propose a medical vulnerability scoring system (MVSS) that extends CVSS to address the health and privacy concerns of medical devices. We propose incorporating two new parameters, namely health impact, and sensitivity impact. Sensitivity refers to the type of information that can be stolen from the device, and health represents the impact on the safety of the patient if the vulnerability is exploited (e.g., potential harm, life-threatening). We evaluate fifteen different known vulnerabilities in medical devices and compare MVSS against two state-of-the-art medical device-oriented vulnerability scoring systems and the foundational CVSS.

Keywords: common vulnerability system, medical devices, medical device security, vulnerabilities

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10353 The Backlift Technique among South African Cricket Players

Authors: Habib Noorbhai

Abstract:

This study primarily aimed to investigate the batting backlift technique (BBT) among semi-professional, professional and current international cricket players. A key question was to investigate if the lateral batting backlift technique (LBBT) is more common at the highest levels of the game. The participants in this study sample (n = 130) were South African semi-professional players (SP) (n = 69) and professional players (P) (n = 49) and South African international professional players (SAI) (n = 12). Biomechanical and video analysis were performed on all participant groups. Classifiers were utilised to identify the batting backlift technique type (BBTT) employed by all batsmen. All statistics and wagon wheels (scoring areas of the batsmen on a cricket field) were sourced online. This study found that a LBBT is more common at the highest levels of cricket batsmanship with batsmen at the various levels of cricket having percentages of the LBBT as follows: SP = 37.7%; P = 38.8%; SAI = 75%; p = 0.001. This study also found that SAI batsmen who used the LBBT were more proficient at scoring runs in various areas around the cricket field (according to the wagon wheel analysis). This study found that a LBBT is more common at the highest levels of cricket batsmanship. Cricket coaches should also pay attention to the direction of the backlift with players, especially when correlating the backlift to various scoring areas on the cricket field. Further in-depth research is required to fully investigate the change in batting backlift techniques among cricket players over a long-term period.

Keywords: cricket batting, biomechanical analysis, backlift, performance

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10352 Labyrinthine Venous Vasculature Ablation for the Treatment of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Two Case Reports

Authors: Kritin K. Verma, Bailey Duhon, Patrick W. Slater

Abstract:

Objective: To introduce the possible etiological role that the Labyrinthine Venous Vasculature (LVV) has in venous congestion of the cochlear system in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) patients. Patients: Two patients (62-year-old female, 50-year-old male) presented within twenty-four hours of onset of SSNHL. Intervention: Following failed conservative and salvage techniques, the patients underwent ablation of the labyrinthine venous vasculature ipsilateral to the side of the loss. Main Outcome Measures: Improvement of sudden SSNHL based on an improvement of pure-tone audiometric (PTA) low-tone scoring averages at 250, 500, and 1000 Hz. Word recognition scoring using the NU-6 word list was used to assess quality of life. Results: Case 1 experienced a 51.7 dB increase in low-tone PTA and an increased word recognition scoring of 90%. Case 2 experienced a 33.4 dB increase in low-tone PTA and 60% increase in word recognition score. No major complications noted. Conclusion: Two patients experienced significant improvement in their low-tone PTA and word recognition scoring following the labyrinthine venous vasculature ablation.

Keywords: case report, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, venous congestion, vascular ablation

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10351 Review and Comparison of Iran`s Sixteenth Topic of the Building with the Ranking System of the Water Sector Lead to Improve the Criteria of the Sixteenth Topic

Authors: o. fatemi

Abstract:

Considering growing building construction industry in developing countries and sustainable development concept, as well as the importance of taking care of the future generations, codifying buildings scoring system based on environmental criteria, has always been a subject for discussion. The existing systems cannot be used for all the regions due to several reasons, including but not limited to variety in regional variables. In this article, the most important common LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) common and Global environmental scoring systems, used in UK, USA, and Japan, respectively, have been discussed and compared with a special focus on CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency), to credit assigning field (weighing and scores systems) as well as sustainable development criteria in each system. Then, converging and distinct fields of the foregoing systems are examined considering National Iranian Building Code. Furthermore, the common credits in the said systems not mentioned in National Iranian Building Code have been identified. These credits, which are generally included in well-known fundamental principles in sustainable development, may be considered as offered options for the Iranian building environmental scoring system. It is suggested that one of the globally and commonly accepted systems is chosen considering national priorities in order to offer an effective method for buildings environmental scoring, and then, a part of credits is added and/or removed, or a certain credit score is changed, and eventually, a new scoring system with a new title is developed for the country. Evidently, building construction industry highly affects the environment, economy, efficiency, and health of the relevant occupants. Considering the growing trend of cities and construction, achieving building scoring systems based on environmental criteria has always been a matter of discussion. The existing systems cannot be used for all the regions due to several reasons, including but not limited to variety in regional variables.

Keywords: scoring system, sustainability assessment, water efficiency, national Iranian building code

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10350 Cleaning of Scientific References in Large Patent Databases Using Rule-Based Scoring and Clustering

Authors: Emiel Caron

Abstract:

Patent databases contain patent related data, organized in a relational data model, and are used to produce various patent statistics. These databases store raw data about scientific references cited by patents. For example, Patstat holds references to tens of millions of scientific journal publications and conference proceedings. These references might be used to connect patent databases with bibliographic databases, e.g. to study to the relation between science, technology, and innovation in various domains. Problematic in such studies is the low data quality of the references, i.e. they are often ambiguous, unstructured, and incomplete. Moreover, a complete bibliographic reference is stored in only one attribute. Therefore, a computerized cleaning and disambiguation method for large patent databases is developed in this work. The method uses rule-based scoring and clustering. The rules are based on bibliographic metadata, retrieved from the raw data by regular expressions, and are transparent and adaptable. The rules in combination with string similarity measures are used to detect pairs of records that are potential duplicates. Due to the scoring, different rules can be combined, to join scientific references, i.e. the rules reinforce each other. The scores are based on expert knowledge and initial method evaluation. After the scoring, pairs of scientific references that are above a certain threshold, are clustered by means of single-linkage clustering algorithm to form connected components. The method is designed to disambiguate all the scientific references in the Patstat database. The performance evaluation of the clustering method, on a large golden set with highly cited papers, shows on average a 99% precision and a 95% recall. The method is therefore accurate but careful, i.e. it weighs precision over recall. Consequently, separate clusters of high precision are sometimes formed, when there is not enough evidence for connecting scientific references, e.g. in the case of missing year and journal information for a reference. The clusters produced by the method can be used to directly link the Patstat database with bibliographic databases as the Web of Science or Scopus.

Keywords: clustering, data cleaning, data disambiguation, data mining, patent analysis, scientometrics

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10349 Corporate Governance and Share Prices: Firm Level Review in Turkey

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Ahmet Diken, Erkan Kara

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance rating and stock prices of 26 Turkish firms listed in Turkish stock exchange (Borsa Istanbul) by using panel data analysis over five-year period. The paper also investigates the stock performance of firms with governance rating with regards to the market portfolio (i.e. BIST 100 Index) both prior and after governance scoring began. The empirical results show that there is no relation between corporate governance rating and stock prices when using panel data for annual variation in both rating score and stock prices. Further analysis indicates surprising results that while the selected firms outperform the market significantly prior to rating, the same performance does not continue afterwards.

Keywords: corporate governance, stock price, performance, panel data analysis

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10348 Syntax and Words as Evolutionary Characters in Comparative Linguistics

Authors: Nancy Retzlaff, Sarah J. Berkemer, Trudie Strauss

Abstract:

In the last couple of decades, the advent of digitalization of any kind of data was probably one of the major advances in all fields of study. This paves the way for also analysing these data even though they might come from disciplines where there was no initial computational necessity to do so. Especially in linguistics, one can find a rather manual tradition. Still when considering studies that involve the history of language families it is hard to overlook the striking similarities to bioinformatics (phylogenetic) approaches. Alignments of words are such a fairly well studied example of an application of bioinformatics methods to historical linguistics. In this paper we will not only consider alignments of strings, i.e., words in this case, but also alignments of syntax trees of selected Indo-European languages. Based on initial, crude alignments, a sophisticated scoring model is trained on both letters and syntactic features. The aim is to gain a better understanding on which features in two languages are related, i.e., most likely to have the same root. Initially, all words in two languages are pre-aligned with a basic scoring model that primarily selects consonants and adjusts them before fitting in the vowels. Mixture models are subsequently used to filter ‘good’ alignments depending on the alignment length and the number of inserted gaps. Using these selected word alignments it is possible to perform tree alignments of the given syntax trees and consequently find sentences that correspond rather well to each other across languages. The syntax alignments are then filtered for meaningful scores—’good’ scores contain evolutionary information and are therefore used to train the sophisticated scoring model. Further iterations of alignments and training steps are performed until the scoring model saturates, i.e., barely changes anymore. A better evaluation of the trained scoring model and its function in containing evolutionary meaningful information will be given. An assessment of sentence alignment compared to possible phrase structure will also be provided. The method described here may have its flaws because of limited prior information. This, however, may offer a good starting point to study languages where only little prior knowledge is available and a detailed, unbiased study is needed.

Keywords: alignments, bioinformatics, comparative linguistics, historical linguistics, statistical methods

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10347 Porul: Option Generation and Selection and Scoring Algorithms for a Tamil Flash Card Game

Authors: Anitha Narasimhan, Aarthy Anandan, Madhan Karky, C. N. Subalalitha

Abstract:

Games can be the excellent tools for teaching a language. There are few e-learning games in Indian languages like word scrabble, cross word, quiz games etc., which were developed mainly for educational purposes. This paper proposes a Tamil word game called, “Porul”, which focuses on education as well as on players’ thinking and decision-making skills. Porul is a multiple choice based quiz game, in which the players attempt to answer questions correctly from the given multiple options that are generated using a unique algorithm called the Option Selection algorithm which explores the semantics of the question in various dimensions namely, synonym, rhyme and Universal Networking Language semantic category. This kind of semantic exploration of the question not only increases the complexity of the game but also makes it more interesting. The paper also proposes a Scoring Algorithm which allots a score based on the popularity score of the question word. The proposed game has been tested using 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Porul game, Tamil word game, option selection, flash card, scoring, algorithm

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10346 Automated Human Balance Assessment Using Contactless Sensors

Authors: Justin Tang

Abstract:

Balance tests are frequently used to diagnose concussions on the sidelines of sporting events. Manual scoring, however, is labor intensive and subjective, and many concussions go undetected. This study institutes a novel approach to conducting the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) more quantitatively using Microsoft’s gaming system Kinect, which uses a contactless sensor and several cameras to receive data and estimate body limb positions. Using a machine learning approach, Visual Gesture Builder, and a deterministic approach, MATLAB, we tested whether the Kinect can differentiate between “correct” and erroneous stances of the BESS. We created the two separate solutions by recording test videos to teach the Kinect correct stances and by developing a code using Java. Twenty-two subjects were asked to perform a series of BESS tests while the Kinect was collecting data. The Kinect recorded the subjects and mapped key joints onto their bodies to obtain angles and measurements that are interpreted by the software. Through VGB and MATLAB, the videos are analyzed to enumerate the number of errors committed during testing. The resulting statistics demonstrate a high correlation between manual scoring and the Kinect approaches, indicating the viability of the use of remote tracking devices in conducting concussion tests.

Keywords: automated, concussion detection, contactless sensors, microsoft kinect

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10345 A Copula-Based Approach for the Assessment of Severity of Illness and Probability of Mortality: An Exploratory Study Applied to Intensive Care Patients

Authors: Ainura Tursunalieva, Irene Hudson

Abstract:

Continuous improvement of both the quality and safety of health care is an important goal in Australia and internationally. The intensive care unit (ICU) receives patients with a wide variety of and severity of illnesses. Accurately identifying patients at risk of developing complications or dying is crucial to increasing healthcare efficiency. Thus, it is essential for clinicians and researchers to have a robust framework capable of evaluating the risk profile of a patient. ICU scoring systems provide such a framework. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are ICU scoring systems frequently used for assessing the severity of acute illness. These scoring systems collect multiple risk factors for each patient including physiological measurements then render the assessment outcomes of individual risk factors into a single numerical value. A higher score is related to a more severe patient condition. Furthermore, the Mortality Probability Model II uses logistic regression based on independent risk factors to predict a patient’s probability of mortality. An important overlooked limitation of SAPS II and MPM II is that they do not, to date, include interaction terms between a patient’s vital signs. This is a prominent oversight as it is likely there is an interplay among vital signs. The co-existence of certain conditions may pose a greater health risk than when these conditions exist independently. One barrier to including such interaction terms in predictive models is the dimensionality issue as it becomes difficult to use variable selection. We propose an innovative scoring system which takes into account a dependence structure among patient’s vital signs, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, pulse interval, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Copulas will capture the dependence among normally distributed and skewed variables as some of the vital sign distributions are skewed. The estimated dependence parameter will then be incorporated into the traditional scoring systems to adjust the points allocated for the individual vital sign measurements. The same dependence parameter will also be used to create an alternative copula-based model for predicting a patient’s probability of mortality. The new copula-based approach will accommodate not only a patient’s trajectories of vital signs but also the joint dependence probabilities among the vital signs. We hypothesise that this approach will produce more stable assessments and lead to more time efficient and accurate predictions. We will use two data sets: (1) 250 ICU patients admitted once to the Chui Regional Hospital (Kyrgyzstan) and (2) 37 ICU patients’ agitation-sedation profiles collected by the Hunter Medical Research Institute (Australia). Both the traditional scoring approach and our copula-based approach will be evaluated using the Brier score to indicate overall model performance, the concordance (or c) statistic to indicate the discriminative ability (or area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve), and goodness-of-fit statistics for calibration. We will also report discrimination and calibration values and establish visualization of the copulas and high dimensional regions of risk interrelating two or three vital signs in so-called higher dimensional ROCs.

Keywords: copula, intensive unit scoring system, ROC curves, vital sign dependence

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10344 The Attentional Focus Impact on the Decision Making in Three-Game Situations in Tennis

Authors: Marina Tsetseli, Eleni Zetou, Maria Michalopoulou, Nikos Vernadakis

Abstract:

Game performance, besides the accuracy and the quality skills execution, depends heavily on where the athletes will focus their attention while performing a skill. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effect of internal and external focus of attention instructions on the decision making in tennis at players 8-9 years old (M=8.4, SD=0.49). The participants (N=40) were divided into two groups and followed an intervention training program that lasted 4 weeks; first group (N=20) under internal focus of attention instructions and the second group (N=20) under external focus of attention instructions. Three measurements took place (pre-test, post-test, and retention test) in which the participants were video recorded while playing matches in real scoring conditions. GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument) was used to evaluate decision making in three game situations; service, return of the service, baseline game. ANOVA repeated measures (2 groups x 3 measurements) revealed a significant interaction between groups and measurements. Specifically, the data analysis showed superiority of the group that was instructed to focus externally. The high scores of the external attention group were maintained at the same level at the third measurement as well, which indicates that the impact was concerning not only performance but also learning. Thus, cues that lead to an external focus of attention enhance the decision-making skill and therefore the game performance of the young tennis players.

Keywords: decision making, evaluation, focus of attention, game performance, tennis

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10343 Robust Noisy Speech Identification Using Frame Classifier Derived Features

Authors: Punnoose A. K.

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for identifying noisy speech recording using a multi-layer perception (MLP) trained to predict phonemes from acoustic features. Characteristics of the MLP posteriors are explored for clean speech and noisy speech at the frame level. Appropriate density functions are used to fit the softmax probability of the clean and noisy speech. A function that takes into account the ratio of the softmax probability density of noisy speech to clean speech is formulated. These phoneme independent scoring is weighted using a phoneme-specific weightage to make the scoring more robust. Simple thresholding is used to identify the noisy speech recording from the clean speech recordings. The approach is benchmarked on standard databases, with a focus on precision.

Keywords: noisy speech identification, speech pre-processing, noise robustness, feature engineering

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10342 Supply Chain and Performance Measurement: An Alignment With Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Miriam Corrado, Roberta Ciccola, Maria Serena Chiucchi

Abstract:

SDGs represent the last edge in the sustainability corporate practices, including the supply chain management. Supply chains are becoming more global and complex, can create more inclusive markets and make contribution to the advance of the sustainable development. In corporate practices, the presence of sustainability criteria in supply chain management could offer an opportunity to increase competitiveness and to meet stakeholders’ expectations in terms of sustainability and corporate accountability. The research aims to understand how focal companies can integrate SDGs in their supply chain and how they can measure and assess their impacts on SDGs. The study adopts a multiple case study methodology based on four case studies referred to companies committed in measuring SDGs’ performance in their supply chains. Preliminary findings demonstrate the willingness and the need of companies to commit under a supply-chain perspective for the achievement of SDGs. Companies recognize their role in impacting the SDGs through their procurement choices by defining and implementing an SDGs scoring system. The contribution of the study is twofold: first, given the lack of research and studies addressing the integration of SDGs in the supply chain and in the performance measurement systems, the research provides a contribution to the current academic literature in relation to these emerging gaps; second, the research provides a practical guidance to implement a sustainable supply chain and advance towards the achievement of SDGs.

Keywords: sustainable supply chains, sustainable development goals, performance measurement, performance management

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10341 Leveraging Remote Assessments and Central Raters to Optimize Data Quality in Rare Neurodevelopmental Disorders Clinical Trials

Authors: Pamela Ventola, Laurel Bales, Sara Florczyk

Abstract:

Background: Fully remote or hybrid administration of clinical outcome measures in rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials is increasing due to the ongoing pandemic and recognition that remote assessments reduce the burden on families. Many assessments in rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials are complex; however, remote/hybrid trials readily allow for the use of centralized raters to administer and score the scales. The use of centralized raters has many benefits, including reducing site burden; however, a specific impact on data quality has not yet been determined. Purpose: The current study has two aims: a) evaluate differences in data quality between administration of a standardized clinical interview completed by centralized raters compared to those completed by site raters and b) evaluate improvement in accuracy of scoring standardized developmental assessments when scored centrally compared to when scored by site raters. Methods: For aim 1, the Vineland-3, a widely used measure of adaptive functioning, was administered by site raters (n= 52) participating in one of four rare disease trials. The measure was also administered as part of two additional trials that utilized central raters (n=7). Each rater completed a comprehensive training program on the assessment. Following completion of the training, each clinician completed a Vineland-3 with a mock caregiver. Administrations were recorded and reviewed by a neuropsychologist for administration and scoring accuracy. Raters were able to certify for the trials after demonstrating an accurate administration of the scale. For site raters, 25% of each rater’s in-study administrations were reviewed by a neuropsychologist for accuracy of administration and scoring. For central raters, the first two administrations and every 10th administration were reviewed. Aim 2 evaluated the added benefit of centralized scoring on the accuracy of scoring of the Bayley-3, a comprehensive developmental assessment widely used in rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials. Bayley-3 administrations across four rare disease trials were centrally scored. For all administrations, the site rater who administered the Bayley-3 scored the scale, and a centralized rater reviewed the video recordings of the administrations and also scored the scales to confirm accuracy. Results: For aim 1, site raters completed 138 Vineland-3 administrations. Of the138 administrations, 53 administrations were reviewed by a neuropsychologist. Four of the administrations had errors that compromised the validity of the assessment. The central raters completed 180 Vineland-3 administrations, 38 administrations were reviewed, and none had significant errors. For aim 2, 68 administrations of the Bayley-3 were reviewed and scored by both a site rater and a centralized rater. Of these administrations, 25 had errors in scoring that were corrected by the central rater. Conclusion: In rare neurodevelopmental disorders trials, sample sizes are often small, so data quality is critical. The use of central raters inherently decreases site burden, but it also decreases rater variance, as illustrated by the small team of central raters (n=7) needed to conduct all of the assessments (n=180) in these trials compared to the number of site raters (n=53) required for even fewer assessments (n=138). In addition, the use of central raters dramatically improves the quality of scoring the assessments.

Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders, clinical trials, rare disease, central raters, remote trials, decentralized trials

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10340 An Analysis of the Differences between Three Levels Water Polo Players Based on Indicators of Efficiency

Authors: Mladen Hraste, Igor Jelaska, Ivan Granic

Abstract:

The scope of this research is the identification and explanation of differences of three levels of water polo players in some parameters of effectiveness. The sample for this study was 132 matches of the Adriatic Water Polo League in the 2013/14 competition season. Using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple comparisons of mean ranks for all groups at the significance level of α=0, 05, the hypothesis that there are significant differences between groups of respondents in ten of the seventeen variables of effectiveness was confirmed. There is a reasonable possibility that the differences are caused by the degree of learned and implemented tactical knowledge, the degree of scoring ability and the best selection for certain roles in the team. The results of this study can be applied to selection of teams and players, for the selection of the appropriate match concept and for organizing training process.

Keywords: scoring abilities, selection, tactical knowledge, water polo effectiveness

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10339 Scoring Approach to Identify High-Risk Corridors for Winter Safety Measures ‎in the Iranian Roads Network

Authors: M. Mokhber, J. Hedayati

Abstract:

From the managerial perspective, it is important to devise an operational plan based on top priorities due to limited resources, diversity of measures and high costs needed to improve safety in infrastructure. Dealing with the high-risk corridors across Iran, this study prioritized the corridors according to statistical data on accidents involving fatalities, injury or damage over three consecutive years. In collaboration with the Iranian Police Department, data were collected and modified. Then, the prioritization criteria were specified based on the expertise opinions and international standards. In this study, the prioritization criteria included accident severity and accident density. Finally, the criteria were standardized and weighted (equal weights) to score each high-risk corridor. The prioritization phase involved the scoring and weighting procedure. The high-risk corridors were divided into twelve groups out of 50. The results of data analysis for a three-year span suggested that the first three groups (150 corridors) along with a quarter of Iranian road network length account for nearly 60% of traffic accidents. In the next step, according to variables including weather conditions particular roads for the purpose of winter safety measures were extracted from the abovementioned categories. According to the results ranking, ‎‏9‏‎ roads with the overall ‎length of about ‎‎‏1000‏‎ Km of high-risk corridors are considered as preferences of ‎safety measures‎.

Keywords: high-risk corridors, HRCs, road safety rating, road scoring, winter safety measures

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10338 Automatic Classification for the Degree of Disc Narrowing from X-Ray Images Using CNN

Authors: Kwangmin Joo

Abstract:

Automatic detection of lumbar vertebrae and classification method is proposed for evaluating the degree of disc narrowing. Prior to classification, deep learning based segmentation is applied to detect individual lumbar vertebra. M-net is applied to segment five lumbar vertebrae and fine-tuning segmentation is employed to improve the accuracy of segmentation. Using the features extracted from previous step, clustering technique, k-means clustering, is applied to estimate the degree of disc space narrowing under four grade scoring system. As preliminary study, techniques proposed in this research could help building an automatic scoring system to diagnose the severity of disc narrowing from X-ray images.

Keywords: Disc space narrowing, Degenerative disc disorders, Deep learning based segmentation, Clustering technique

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10337 Corporate Social Responsibility a Comparison between European and Latin American Companies

Authors: Eva Wagner, Lucely Vargas

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plays an important role in (large-scale) enterprises’ business strategy in developed and emerging countries. This article approaches CSR in international comparison by examining the CSR reporting of 116 leading companies in Austria, Germany, Colombia and Chile from 2006 to 2010. We have used an independently developed scoring model which analyzes reported CSR-activities using seven dimensions to efficiently assess CSR. The study reveals that there are significant differences in CSR-commitment among countries and regions: German companies, as expected, lead most of the investigated CSR dimensions revealing stronger commitment to CSR than their Austrian, Colombian and Chilean counterparts. Even if Latin American companies lag behind their European counterparts, they exhibit high CSR-performance in the social dimension: corporate giving and philanthropic activities are firmly anchored in the tradition of Latin American companies. This indicates that particular CSR-emphases reflect the political and social circumstances of each individual country.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, corporate social performance, international comparison

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
10336 Feeding Cost, Growth Performance, Meat and some Carcass Characteristics for Algerian “Hamra” Lambs

Authors: Kaddour Ziani, Méghit Boumédiène Khaled

Abstract:

Forty Hamra single non-castrated male lambs were included in the present study. Traits analyzed were weighted at birth (BW) every 20 days. At 99.15±1.07 days old, the animals were weaned, then divided in two identical groups: control and experimental lambs (n=20) according to their live weight; 24.63±0.47 and 24.35±0.64 Kg respectively. During 59 days, two varieties of feed were given to assess the growth performance. The feeding system consisted of supplying a commercial concentrate (corn based) for control lambs. However, a similar amount of experimental concentrate (barley based) was given to the experimental ones. Both diets were supplemented with 200g straw of barley/animal/ration. 10 lambs fed with experimental concentrate were slaughtered at 37.85±0.78 Kg live weight. The growth performance, the diet cost, and some of the carcass and meat characteristics were evaluated. Chemical analysis of both given diets showed an elevated crude fibre content in the commercial concentrate. However, the experimental concentrate contained higher amounts of calcium. Both groups grew at a similar rate (p > 0.05) and showed the same final body weight. Concerning the cost of the given diet, a significant difference has been found (p ≤ 0.001), between both diets. This could affect the price of the produced meat. The dressing percentage was 46.65%, with 2.49% of carcass shrink. Furthermore, an interesting percentage of total muscle was obtained (63.73%) with a good carcass conformation scoring 9.56. Compared to other breed sheep, “Hamra” carcass could be considered as the most valuable economically.

Keywords: Carcass characteristics, feeding cost, growth performance, Hamra lamb, meat

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10335 Assessment on the Conduct of Arnis Competition in Pasuc National Olympics 2015: Basis for Improvement of Rules in Competition

Authors: Paulo O. Motita

Abstract:

The Philippine Association of State Colleges and University (PASUC) is an association of State owned and operated higher learning institutions in the Philippines, it is the association that spearhead the conduct of the Annual National Athletic competitions for State Colleges and Universities and Arnis is one of the regular sports. In 2009, Republic Act 9850 also known as declared Arnis as the National Sports and Martial arts of the Philippines. Arnis an ancient Filipino Martial Arts is the major sports in the Annual Palarong Pambansa and other school based sports events. The researcher as a Filipino Martial Arts master and a former athlete desired to determine the extent of acceptability of the arnis rules in competition which serves as the basis for the development of arnis rules. The study aimed to assess the conduct of Arnis competition in PASUC Olympics 2015 in Tugegarao City, Cagayan, Philippines.the rules and conduct itself as perceived by Officiating officials, Coaches and Athletes during the competition last February 7-15, 2015. The descriptive method of research was used, the survey questionnaire as the data gathering instrument was validated. The respondents were composed of 12 Officiating officials, 19 coaches and 138 athletes representing the different regions. Their responses were treated using the Mean, Percentage and One-way Analysis of Variance. The study revealed that the conduct of Arnis competition in PASUC Olympics 2015 was at the low extent to moderate extent as perceived by the three groups of respondents in terms of officiating, scoring and giving violations. Furthermore there is no significant difference in the assessment of the three groups of respondents in the assessment of Anyo and Labanan. Considering the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1). There is a need to identify the criteria for judging in Anyo and a tedious scrutiny on the rules of the game for labanan. 2) The three groups of respondents have similar views towards the assessment on the overall competitions for anyo that there were no clear technical guidelines for judging the performance of anyo event. 3). The three groups of respondents have similar views towards the assessment on the overall competitions for labanan that there were no clear technical guidelines for majority rule of giving scores in labanan. 4) The Anyo performance should be rated according to effectiveness of techniques and performance of weapon/s that are being used. 5) On other issues and concern towards the rules of competitions, labanan should be addressed in improving rules of competitions, focus on the applications of majority rules for scoring, players shall be given rest interval, a clear guidelines and set a standard qualifications for officiating officials.

Keywords: PASUC Olympics 2015, Arnis rules of competition, Anyo, Labanan, officiating

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
10334 Improving Detection of Illegitimate Scores and Assessment in Most Advantageous Tenders

Authors: Hao-Hsi Tseng, Hsin-Yun Lee

Abstract:

The Most Advantageous Tender (MAT) has been criticized for its susceptibility to dictatorial situations and for its processing of same score, same rank issues. This study applies the four criteria from Arrow's Impossibility Theorem to construct a mechanism for revealing illegitimate scores in scoring methods. While commonly be used to improve on problems resulting from extreme scores, ranking methods hide significant defects, adversely affecting selection fairness. To address these shortcomings, this study relies mainly on the overall evaluated score method, using standardized scores plus normal cumulative distribution function conversion to calculate the evaluation of vender preference. This allows for free score evaluations, which reduces the influence of dictatorial behavior and avoiding same score, same rank issues. Large-scale simulations confirm that this method outperforms currently used methods using the Impossibility Theorem.

Keywords: Arrow’s impossibility theorem, cumulative normal distribution function, most advantageous tender, scoring method

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
10333 Callous-Unemotional Traits in Preschoolers: Distinct Associations with Empathy Subcomponents

Authors: E. Stylianopoulou, A. K. Fanti

Abstract:

Object: Children scoring high on Callous-Unemotional traits (CU traits) exhibit lack of empathy. More specifically, children scoring high on CU traits appear to exhibit deficits on affective empathy or deficits in other constructs. However, little is known about cognitive empathy, and it's relation with CU traits in preschoolers. Despite the fact that empathy is measurable at a very young age, relatively less study has focused on empathy in preschoolers than older children with CU traits. The present study examines the cognitive and affective empathy in preschoolers with CU traits. The aim was to examine the differences between cognitive and affective empathy in those individuals. Based on previous research in children with CU traits, it was hypothesized that preschoolers scoring high in CU traits will show deficits in both cognitive and affective empathy; however, more deficits will be detected in affective empathy rather than cognitive empathy. Method: The sample size was 209 children, of which 109 were male, and 100 were female between the ages of 3 and 7 (M=4.73, SD=0.71). From those participants, only 175 completed all the items. The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits was used to measure CU traits. Moreover, the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Affective Scale and the Griffith Empathy Measure (GEM) Cognitive Scale was used to measure Affective and Cognitive empathy, respectively. Results: Linear Regression was applied to examine the preceding hypotheses. The results showed that generally, there was a moderate negative association between CU traits and empathy, which was significant. More specifically, it has been found that there was a significant and negative moderate relation between CU traits and cognitive empathy. Surprisingly, results indicated that there was no significant relation between CU traits and affective empathy. Conclusion: The current findings support that preschoolers show deficits in understanding others emotions, indicating a significant association between CU traits and cognitive empathy. However, such a relation was not found between CU traits and affective empathy. The current results raised the importance that there is a need for focusing more on cognitive empathy in preschoolers with CU traits, a component that seems to be underestimated till now.

Keywords: affective empathy, callous-unemotional traits, cognitive empathy, preschoolers

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10332 Comparison of Radiation Dosage and Image Quality: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis vs. Full-Field Digital Mammography

Authors: Okhee Woo

Abstract:

Purpose: With increasing concern of individual radiation exposure doses, studies analyzing radiation dosage in breast imaging modalities are required. Aim of this study is to compare radiation dosage and image quality between digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Methods and Materials: 303 patients (mean age 52.1 years) who studied DBT and FFDM were retrospectively reviewed. Radiation dosage data were obtained by radiation dosage scoring and monitoring program: Radimetrics (Bayer HealthCare, Whippany, NJ). Entrance dose and mean glandular doses in each breast were obtained in both imaging modalities. To compare the image quality of DBT with two-dimensional synthesized mammogram (2DSM) and FFDM, 5-point scoring of lesion clarity was assessed and the better modality between the two was selected. Interobserver performance was compared with kappa values and diagnostic accuracy was compared using McNemar test. The parameters of radiation dosages (entrance dose, mean glandular dose) and image quality were compared between two modalities by using paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: For entrance dose and mean glandular doses for each breasts, DBT had lower values compared with FFDM (p-value < 0.0001). Diagnostic accuracy did not have statistical difference, but lesion clarity score was higher in DBT with 2DSM and DBT was chosen as a better modality compared with FFDM. Conclusion: DBT showed lower radiation entrance dose and also lower mean glandular doses to both breasts compared with FFDM. Also, DBT with 2DSM had better image quality than FFDM with similar diagnostic accuracy, suggesting that DBT may have a potential to be performed as an alternative to FFDM.

Keywords: radiation dose, DBT, digital mammography, image quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
10331 Pudhaiyal: A Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game for Tamil Words

Authors: Aarthy Anandan, Anitha Narasimhan, Madhan Karky

Abstract:

Word-based games are popular in helping people to improve their vocabulary skills. Games like ‘word search’ and crosswords provide a smart way of increasing vocabulary skills. Word search games are fun to play, but also educational which actually helps to learn a language. Finding the words from word search puzzle helps the player to remember words in an easier way, and it also helps to learn the spellings of words. In this paper, we present a tile distribution algorithm for a Maze-Based Treasure Hunt Game 'Pudhaiyal’ for Tamil words, which describes how words can be distributed horizontally, vertically or diagonally in a 10 x 10 grid. Along with the tile distribution algorithm, we also present an algorithm for the scoring model of the game. The proposed game has been tested with 20,000 Tamil words.

Keywords: Pudhaiyal, Tamil word game, word search, scoring, maze, algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 291