Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5128

Search results for: peak to valley ratio

5128 Performance of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant Tunneling Diode under Uniaxial Strain

Authors: Milad Zoghi, M. Zahangir Kabir


Performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) alter if they go under strain. This may happen due to either using stretchable substrates or real working conditions such as heat generation. Therefore, it is informative to understand how mechanical deformations such as uniaxial strain can impact the performance of AGNR RTDs. In this paper, two platforms of AGNR RTD consist of width-modified AGNR RTD and electric-field modified AGNR RTD are subjected to both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain ranging from -2% to +2%. It is found that characteristics of AGNR RTD markedly change under both compressive and tensile strain. In particular, peak to valley ratio (PVR) can be totally disappeared upon strong enough strain deformation. Numerical tight binding (TB) coupled with Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) is derived for this study to calculate corresponding Hamiltonian matrices and transport properties.

Keywords: armchair graphene nanoribbon, resonant tunneling diode, uniaxial strain, peak to valley ratio

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5127 Resonant Tunnelling Diode Output Characteristics Dependence on Structural Parameters: Simulations Based on Non-Equilibrium Green Functions

Authors: Saif Alomari


The paper aims at giving physical and mathematical descriptions of how the structural parameters of a resonant tunnelling diode (RTD) affect its output characteristics. Specifically, the value of the peak voltage, peak current, peak to valley current ratio (PVCR), and the difference between peak and valley voltages and currents ΔV and ΔI. A simulation-based approach using the Non-Equilibrium Green Function (NEGF) formalism based on the Silvaco ATLAS simulator is employed to conduct a series of designed experiments. These experiments show how the doping concentration in the emitter and collector layers, their thicknesses, and the width of the barriers and the quantum well influence the above-mentioned output characteristics. Each of these parameters was systematically changed while holding others fixed in each set of experiments. Factorial experiments are outside the scope of this work and will be investigated in future. The physics involved in the operation of the device is thoroughly explained and mathematical models based on curve fitting and underlaying physical principles are deduced. The models can be used to design devices with predictable output characteristics. These models were found absent in the literature that the author acanned. Results show that the doping concentration in each region has an effect on the value of the peak voltage. It is found that increasing the carrier concentration in the collector region shifts the peak to lower values, whereas increasing it in the emitter shifts the peak to higher values. In the collector’s case, the shift is either controlled by the built-in potential resulting from the concentration gradient or the conductivity enhancement in the collector. The shift to higher voltages is found to be also related to the location of the Fermi-level. The thicknesses of these layers play a role in the location of the peak as well. It was found that increasing the thickness of each region shifts the peak to higher values until a specific characteristic length, afterwards the peak becomes independent of the thickness. Finally, it is shown that the thickness of the barriers can be optimized for a particular well width to produce the highest PVCR or the highest ΔV and ΔI. The location of the peak voltage is important in optoelectronic applications of RTDs where the operating point of the device is usually the peak voltage point. Furthermore, the PVCR, ΔV, and ΔI are of great importance for building RTD-based oscillators as they affect the frequency response and output power of the oscillator.

Keywords: peak to valley ratio, peak voltage shift, resonant tunneling diodes, structural parameters

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5126 Optimizing of the Micro EDM Parameters in Drilling of Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy for Higher Machining Accuracy-Fuzzy Modelling

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Mum Wai Yip, M. Sayuti, Lim Siew Fen


Ti6Al4V alloy is highly used in the automotive and aerospace industry due to its good machining characteristics. Micro EDM drilling is commonly used to drill micro hole on extremely hard material with very high depth to diameter ratio. In this study, the parameters of micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) in drilling of Ti6Al4V alloy is optimized for higher machining accuracy with less hole-dilation and hole taper ratio. The micro-EDM machining parameters includes, peak current and pulse on time. Fuzzy analysis was developed to evaluate the machining accuracy. The analysis shows that hole-dilation and hole-taper ratio are increased with the increasing of peak current and pulse on time. However, the surface quality deteriorates as the peak current and pulse on time increase. The combination that gives the optimum result for hole dilation is medium peak current and short pulse on time. Meanwhile, the optimum result for hole taper ratio is low peak current and short pulse on time.

Keywords: Micro EDM, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, fuzzy logic based analysis, optimization, machining accuracy

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5125 2106 kA/cm² Peak Tunneling Current Density in GaN-Based Resonant Tunneling Diode with an Intrinsic Oscillation Frequency of ~260GHz at Room Temperature

Authors: Fang Liu, JunShuai Xue, JiaJia Yao, GuanLin Wu, ZuMaoLi, XueYan Yang, HePeng Zhang, ZhiPeng Sun


Terahertz spectra is in great demand since last two decades for many photonic and electronic applications. III-Nitride resonant tunneling diode is one of the promising candidates for portable and compact THz sources. Room temperature microwave oscillator based on GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diode was reported in this work. The devices, grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on free-standing c-plane GaN substrates, exhibit highly repeatable and robust negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics at room temperature. To improve the interface quality at the active region in RTD, indium surfactant assisted growth is adopted to enhance the surface mobility of metal atoms on growing film front. Thanks to the lowered valley current associated with the suppression of threading dislocation scattering on low dislocation GaN substrate, a positive peak current density of record-high 2.1 MA/cm2 in conjunction with a peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) of 1.2 are obtained, which is the best results reported in nitride-based RTDs up to now considering the peak current density and PVCR values simultaneously. When biased within the NDR region, microwave oscillations are measured with a fundamental frequency of 0.31 GHz, yielding an output power of 5.37 µW. Impedance mismatch results in the limited output power and oscillation frequency described above. The actual measured intrinsic capacitance is only 30fF. Using a small-signal equivalent circuit model, the maximum intrinsic frequency of oscillation for these diodes is estimated to be ~260GHz. This work demonstrates a microwave oscillator based on resonant tunneling effect, which can meet the demands of terahertz spectral devices, more importantly providing guidance for the fabrication of the complex nitride terahertz and quantum effect devices.

Keywords: GaN resonant tunneling diode, peak current density, microwave oscillation, intrinsic capacitance

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5124 Optimization of the Rain Harvest Using Multi-Purpose Valley Tanks

Authors: Ahmad Hashad


Valley tanks are a kind of rain harvest which is used as ground water storage to overcome drought seasons in some countries. This research displays the rain harvest evolution and introduces some ideas to develop the valley tanks to be more than water storage. These ideas developed the current valley tanks design to become an integrated renaissance project. The suggested design has some changes making it different than the traditional design of valley tanks. These changes allow for the new design to be more flexible for adding additional capacity, water purification units and water pumping units. The suggested valley tanks project will be designed based on studying the rainfall and evaporation rates, as well as land topography and designed agricultural map linked to seasons of rain and drought.

Keywords: valley tanks, rain harvest, volatile nature, integrated renaissance project

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5123 Two-Dimensional Material-Based Negative Differential Resistance Device with High Peak-to- Valley Current Ratio for Multi-Valued Logic Circuits

Authors: Kwan-Ho Kim, Jin-Hong Park


The multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits, which can handle more than two logic states, are one of the promising solutions to overcome the bit density limitations of conventional binary logic systems. Recently, tunneling devices such as Esaki diode and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) have been extensively explored to construct the MVL circuits. These tunneling devices present a negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon in which a current decreases as a voltage increases in a specific applied voltage region. Due to this non-monotonic current behavior, the tunneling devices have more than two threshold voltages, consequently enabling construction of MVL circuits. Recently, the emergence of two dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) crystals has opened up the possibility to fabricate such tunneling devices easily. Owing to the defect-free surface of the 2D crystals, a very abrupt junction interface could be formed through a simple stacking process, which subsequently allowed the implementation of a high-performance tunneling device. Here, we report a vdW heterostructure based tunneling device with multiple threshold voltages, which was fabricated with black phosphorus (BP) and hafnium diselenide (HfSe₂). First, we exfoliated BP on the SiO₂ substrate and then transferred HfSe₂ on BP using dry transfer method. The BP and HfSe₂ form type-Ⅲ heterojunction so that the highly doped n+/p+ interface can be easily implemented without additional electrical or chemical doping process. Owing to high natural doping at the junction, record high peak to valley ratio (PVCR) of 16 was observed to the best our knowledge in 2D materials based NDR device. Furthermore, based on this, we first demonstrate the feasibility of the ternary latch by connecting two multi-threshold voltage devices in series.

Keywords: two dimensional van der Waals crystal, multi-valued logic, negative differential resistnace, tunneling device

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5122 Morphotectonic Analysis of Burkh Anticline, North of Bastak, Zagros

Authors: A. Afroogh, R. Ramazani omali, N. Hafezi Moghaddas, A. Nohegar


The Burkh anticline with a length of 50 km and a width of 9 km is located 40 km to the north of Bastak in internal Fars zone in folded-trusted belt of Zagros. In order to assess the active tectonics in the area of study, morphometrical indexes such as V indexes (V), ratio of valley floor to valley width (Vf), the stream length-gradient ratio (Sl), channel sinuosity indexes (S), mountain front faceting indexes (F%) and mountain front sinuosity(Smf) have been studied. These investigations show that the activity is not equal in various sections of the length of Burkh anticline. The central part of this anticline is the most active one.

Keywords: anticline, internal fars zone, tectonic, morohometrical indexes, folded-trusted belt

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5121 High Altitude Glacier Surface Mapping in Dhauliganga Basin of Himalayan Environment Using Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Aayushi Pandey, Manoj Kumar Pandey, Ashutosh Tiwari, Kireet Kumar


Glaciers play an important role in climate change and are sensitive phenomena of global climate change scenario. Glaciers in Himalayas are unique as they are predominantly valley type and are located in tropical, high altitude regions. These glaciers are often covered with debris which greatly affects ablation rate of glaciers and work as a sensitive indicator of glacier health. The aim of this study is to map high altitude Glacier surface with a focus on glacial lake and debris estimation using different techniques in Nagling glacier of dhauliganga basin in Himalayan region. Different Image Classification techniques i.e. thresholding on different band ratios and supervised classification using maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) have been used on high resolution sentinel 2A level 1c satellite imagery of 14 October 2017.Here Near Infrared (NIR)/Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) ratio image was used to extract the glaciated classes (Snow, Ice, Ice Mixed Debris) from other non-glaciated terrain classes. SWIR/BLUE Ratio Image was used to map valley rock and Debris while Green/NIR ratio image was found most suitable for mapping Glacial Lake. Accuracy assessment was performed using high resolution (3 meters) Planetscope Imagery using 60 stratified random points. The overall accuracy of MLC was 85 % while the accuracy of Band Ratios was 96.66 %. According to Band Ratio technique total areal extent of glaciated classes (Snow, Ice ,IMD) in Nagling glacier was 10.70 km2 nearly 38.07% of study area comprising of 30.87 % Snow covered area, 3.93% Ice and 3.27 % IMD covered area. Non-glaciated classes (vegetation, glacial lake, debris and valley rock) covered 61.93 % of the total area out of which valley rock is dominant with 33.83% coverage followed by debris covering 27.7 % of the area in nagling glacier. Glacial lake and Debris were accurately mapped using Band ratio technique Hence, Band Ratio approach appears to be useful for the mapping of debris covered glacier in Himalayan Region.

Keywords: band ratio, Dhauliganga basin, glacier mapping, Himalayan region, maximum likelihood classifier (MLC), Sentinel-2 satellite image

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5120 New Efficient Method for Coding Color Images

Authors: Walaa M.Abd-Elhafiez, Wajeb Gharibi


In this paper a novel color image compression technique for efficient storage and delivery of data is proposed. The proposed compression technique started by RGB to YCbCr color transformation process. Secondly, the canny edge detection method is used to classify the blocks into edge and non-edge blocks. Each color component Y, Cb, and Cr compressed by discrete cosine transform (DCT) process, quantizing and coding step by step using adaptive arithmetic coding. Our technique is concerned with the compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio, and produce better results than JPEG and more recent published schemes (like, CBDCT-CABS and MHC). The provided experimental results illustrate the proposed technique which is efficient and feasible in terms of compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio.

Keywords: image compression, color image, q-coder, quantization, edge-detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
5119 Investigation on Correlation of Earthquake Intensity Parameters with Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Semra Sirin Kiris


Nonlinear dynamic analysis is permitted to be used for structures without any restrictions. The important issue is the selection of the design earthquake to conduct the analyses since quite different response may be obtained using ground motion records at the same general area even resulting from the same earthquake. In seismic design codes, the method requires scaling earthquake records based on site response spectrum to a specified hazard level. Many researches have indicated that this limitation about selection can cause a large scatter in response and other charecteristics of ground motion obtained in different manner may demonstrate better correlation with peak seismic response. For this reason influence of eleven different ground motion parameters on the peak displacement of reinforced concrete systems is examined in this paper. From conducting 7020 nonlinear time history analyses for single degree of freedom systems, the most effective earthquake parameters are given for the range of the initial periods and strength ratios of the structures. In this study, a hysteresis model for reinforced concrete called Q-hyst is used not taken into account strength and stiffness degradation. The post-yielding to elastic stiffness ratio is considered as 0.15. The range of initial period, T is from 0.1s to 0.9s with 0.1s time interval and three different strength ratios for structures are used. The magnitude of 260 earthquake records selected is higher than earthquake magnitude, M=6. The earthquake parameters related to the energy content, duration or peak values of ground motion records are PGA(Peak Ground Acceleration), PGV (Peak Ground Velocity), PGD (Peak Ground Displacement), MIV (Maximum Increamental Velocity), EPA(Effective Peak Acceleration), EPV (Effective Peak Velocity), teff (Effective Duration), A95 (Arias Intensity-based Parameter), SPGA (Significant Peak Ground Acceleration), ID (Damage Factor) and Sa (Spectral Response Spectrum).Observing the correlation coefficients between the ground motion parameters and the peak displacement of structures, different earthquake parameters play role in peak displacement demand related to the ranges formed by the different periods and the strength ratio of a reinforced concrete systems. The influence of the Sa tends to decrease for the high values of strength ratio and T=0.3s-0.6s. The ID and PGD is not evaluated as a measure of earthquake effect since high correlation with displacement demand is not observed. The influence of the A95 is high for T=0.1 but low related to the higher values of T and strength ratio. The correlation of PGA, EPA and SPGA shows the highest correlation for T=0.1s but their effectiveness decreases with high T. Considering all range of structural parameters, the MIV is the most effective parameter.

Keywords: earthquake parameters, earthquake resistant design, nonlinear analysis, reinforced concrete

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5118 Distribution of Traffic Volume at Fuel Station during Peak Hour Period on Arterial Road

Authors: Surachai Ampawasuvan, Supornchai Utainarumol


Most of fuel station’ customers, who drive on the major arterial road wants to use the stations to fill fuel to their vehicle during their journey to destinations. According to the survey of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, or questionnaires, it was found that most users prefer to use fuel stations on holiday rather than on working day. They also prefer to use fuel stations in the morning rather than in the evening. When comparing the ratio of the distribution pattern of traffic volume of the vehicle using fuel stations by video cameras, automatic counting tools, there is no significant difference. However, when comparing the ratio of peak hour (peak hour rate) of the results from questionnaires at 13 to 14 percent with the results obtained by using the methods of the Institute of Transportation Engineering (ITE), it is found that the value is similar. However, it is different from a survey by video camera and automatic traffic counting at 6 to 7 percent of about half. So, this study suggests that in order to forecast trip generation of vehicle using fuel stations on major arterial road which is mostly characterized by Though Traffic, it is recommended to use the value of half of peak hour rate, which would make the forecast for trips generation to be more precise and accurate and compatible to surrounding environment.

Keywords: peak rate, trips generation, fuel station, arterial road

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5117 Peak Floor Response for Buildings with Flexible Base

Authors: Luciano Roberto Fernandez-Sola, Cesar Augusto Arredondo-Velez, Miguel Angel Jaimes-Tellez


This paper explores the modifications on peak acceleration, velocity and displacement profiles over the structure due to dynamic soil-structure interaction (DSSI). A shear beam model is used for the structure. Soil-foundation flexibility (inertial interaction) is considered by a set of springs and dashpots at the structure base. Kinematic interaction is considered using transfer functions. Impedance functions are computed using simplified expressions for rigid foundations. The research studies the influence of the slenderness ratio on the value of the peak floor response. It is shown that the modifications of peak floor responses are not the same for acceleration, velocity and displacement. This is opposite to the hypothesis used by methods included in several building codes. Results show that modifications produced by DSSI on different response quantities are not equal.

Keywords: peak floor intensities, dynamic soil-structure interaction, buildings with flexible base, kinematic and inertial interaction

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5116 Usage of Channel Coding Techniques for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Visible Light Communications Systems

Authors: P. L. D. N. M. de Silva, S. G. Edirisinghe, R. Weerasuriya


High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is a concern of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based visible light communication (VLC) systems. Discrete Fourier Transform spread (DFT-s) OFDM is an alternative single carrier modulation scheme which would address this concern. Employing channel coding techniques is another mechanism to reduce the PAPR. Previous research has been conducted to study the impact of these techniques separately. However, to the best of the knowledge of the authors, no study has been done so far to identify the improvement which can be harnessed by hybridizing these two techniques for VLC systems. Therefore, this is a novel study area under this research. In addition, channel coding techniques such as Polar codes and Turbo codes have been tested in the VLC domain. However, other efficient techniques such as Hamming coding and Convolutional coding have not been studied too. Therefore, the authors present the impact of the hybrid of DFT-s OFDM and Channel coding (Hamming coding and Convolutional coding) on PAPR in VLC systems using Matlab simulations.

Keywords: convolutional coding, discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, hamming coding, peak-to-average power ratio, visible light communications

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5115 Highly Realistic Facial Expressions of Anthropomorphic Social Agent as a Factor in Solving the 'Uncanny Valley' Problem

Authors: Daniia Nigmatullina, Vlada Kugurakova, Maxim Talanov


We present a methodology and our plans of anthropomorphic social agent visualization. That includes creation of three-dimensional model of the virtual companion's head and its facial expressions. Talking Head is a cross-disciplinary project of developing of the human-machine interface with cognitive functions. During the creation of a realistic humanoid robot or a character, there might be the ‘uncanny valley’ problem. We think about this phenomenon and its possible causes. We are going to overcome the ‘uncanny valley’ by increasing of realism. This article discusses issues that should be considered when creating highly realistic characters (particularly the head), their facial expressions and speech visualization.

Keywords: anthropomorphic social agent, facial animation, uncanny valley, visualization, 3D modeling

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5114 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Trunk Muscle Balance in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Amira A. A. Abdallah, Amir A. Beltagi


Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle balance and optimizing performance in healthy and unhealthy individuals. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginner’s core stability exercises on trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio and trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques. Methods: Thirty five healthy individuals participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups; experimental “group I, n=20” and control “group II, n=15”. Their mean age, weight and height were 20.7±2.4 vs. 20.3±0.61 years, 66.5±12.1 vs. 68.57±12.2 kg and 166.7±7.8 vs. 164.28 ±7.59 cm. for group I vs. group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The 2x2 Mixed Design ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio between the pre-test and post-test conditions for either group. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p>0.025) in the trunk flexion/extension ratios between both groups at either condition. However, the 2x2 Mixed Design MANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I with no significant differences (p>0.025) in group II. Moreover, there was a significant increase (p<0.025) in the trunk flexors’ peak torque only in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition with no significant differences in the other conditions. Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in muscle performance indicated by the increase in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve muscle performance.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk muscles, muscle balance

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5113 Design and Performance Analysis of Advanced B-Spline Algorithm for Image Resolution Enhancement

Authors: M. Z. Kurian, M. V. Chidananda Murthy, H. S. Guruprasad


An approach to super-resolve the low-resolution (LR) image is presented in this paper which is very useful in multimedia communication, medical image enhancement and satellite image enhancement to have a clear view of the information in the image. The proposed Advanced B-Spline method generates a high-resolution (HR) image from single LR image and tries to retain the higher frequency components such as edges in the image. This method uses B-Spline technique and Crispening. This work is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The method is also suitable for real-time applications. Different combinations of decimation and super-resolution algorithms in the presence of different noise and noise factors are tested.

Keywords: advanced b-spline, image super-resolution, mean square error (MSE), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), resolution down converter

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5112 Optimization of Sequential Thermophilic Bio-Hydrogen/Methane Production from Mono-Ethylene Glycol via Anaerobic Digestion: Impact of Inoculum to Substrate Ratio and N/P Ratio

Authors: Ahmed Elreedy, Ahmed Tawfik


This investigation aims to assess the effect of inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR) and nitrogen to phosphorous balance on simultaneous biohydrogen and methane production from anaerobic decomposition of mono-ethylene glycol (MEG). Different ISRs were applied in the range between 2.65 and 13.23 gVSS/gCOD, whereas the tested N/P ratios were changed from 4.6 to 8.5; both under thermophilic conditions (55°C). The maximum obtained methane and hydrogen yields (MY and HY) of 151.86±10.8 and 22.27±1.1 mL/gCODinitial were recorded at ISRs of 5.29 and 3.78 gVSS/gCOD, respectively. Unlikely, the ammonification process, in terms of net ammonia produced, was found to be ISR and COD/N ratio dependent, reaching its peak value of 515.5±31.05 mgNH4-N/L at ISR and COD/N ratio of 13.23 gVSS/gCOD and 11.56. The optimum HY was enhanced by more than 1.45-fold with declining N/P ratio from 8.5 to 4.6; whereas, the MY was improved (1.6-fold), while increasing N/P ratio from 4.6 to 5.5 with no significant impact at N/P ratio of 8.5. The results obtained revealed that the methane production was strongly influenced by initial ammonia, compared to initial phosphate. Likewise, the generation of ammonia was markedly deteriorated from 535.25±41.5 to 238.33±17.6 mgNH4-N/L with increasing N/P ratio from 4.6 to 8.5. The kinetic study using Modified Gompertz equation was successfully fitted to the experimental outputs (R2 > 0.9761).

Keywords: mono-ethylene glycol, biohydrogen and methane, inoculum to substrate ratio, nitrogen to phosphorous balance, ammonification

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5111 PAPR Reduction of FBMC Using Sliding Window Tone Reservation Active Constellation Extension Technique

Authors: S. Anuradha, V. Sandeep Kumar


The high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAR) in Filter Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (FBMC-OQAM) can significantly reduce power efficiency and performance. In this paper, we address the problem of PAPR reduction for FBMC-OQAM systems using Tone Reservation (TR) technique. Due to the overlapping structure of FBMCOQAM signals, directly applying TR schemes of OFDM systems to FBMC-OQAM systems is not effective. We improve the tone reservation (TR) technique by employing sliding window with Active Constellation Extension for the PAPR reduction of FBMC-OQAM signals, called sliding window tone reservation Active Constellation Extension (SW-TRACE) technique. The proposed SW-TRACE technique uses the peak reduction tones (PRTs) of several consecutive data blocks to cancel the peaks of the FBMC-OQAM signal inside a window, with dynamically extending outer constellation points in active(data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints, in order to minimize the peak magnitude. Analysis and simulation results compared to the existing Tone Reservation (TR) technique for FBMC/OQAM system. The proposed method SW-TRACE has better PAPR performance and lower computational complexity.

Keywords: FBMC-OQAM, peak-to-average power ratio, sliding window, tone reservation Active Constellation Extension

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5110 Analyzing Sun Valley Music Pavilion Idaho, USA, 2008 in Relation Flexibility and Adaptability

Authors: Ola Haj Saleh


This study of a contemporary building attempts to identify how a building can reflect its presence within its community. The example of the pavilion is discussed here with references to adaptability and flexibility theories. The analytical methodology of the Sun Valley Pavilion discovers to what extent a public space can be flexible and adaptable to several conditions. Furthermore, redefine an existing public building in an urban landscape context, becomes more than an important place for its community as a music pavilion for the arts, it is even for the interactivity wedding parties. Thus, the Sun Valley Pavilion can have an obvious role in a community gathering place in a result that flexibility and adaptability are more economical in the long term.

Keywords: adaptability, flexibility, pavilion, tensile

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5109 Dry Season Rice Production along Hadejia Valley Irrigation Scheme in Auyo Local Government Area in Jigawa State

Authors: Saifullahi Umar, Baba Mamman Yarima, Mohammed Bello Usman, Hassan Mohammed


This study was conducted along with the Hadejia valley project irrigation under the Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HRBDA) in Jigawa State. The multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 72 rice farmers operating along with the Hadejia Valley Irrigation Project. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed for the study were descriptive statistics and Farm budget technique. The result shows that 55% of the farmers were between 31-40 years of age, 66.01% were male, and the result also revealed that the total cost of cultivation of an acre of land for rice production during the dry season was N73,900 with input cost accounting for 63.59% of the total cost of production. The gross return was N332,500, with a net return of N258,600 per acre. The estimated benefit-cost ratio of 3.449 indicates the strong performance of the dry season rice production. The leading constraints to dry season rice production were low access to quality extension services, low access to finance, poor quality fertilizers, and poor prices. The study, therefore, concludes that dry season rice production is a profitable enterprise in the study area hence, to productivity the farmers should be linked to effective extension service delivery institutions, expanding their access to productive sources of finances, the government should strengthen fertilizer quality control measures and comprehensive market linkages for the farmers.

Keywords: Auyo, dry season, Hadejia Valley, rice

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5108 Joint Discrete Hartley Transform-Clipping for Peak to Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System

Authors: Selcuk Comlekci, Mohammed Aboajmaa


Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is promising technique for the modern wireless communications systems due to its robustness against multipath environment. The high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal is one of the major drawbacks of OFDM system, PAPR degrade the performance of bit error rate (BER) and effect on the linear characteristics of high power amplifier (HPA). In this paper, we proposed DHT-Clipping reduction technique to reduce the high PAPR by the combination between discrete Hartley transform (DHT) and Clipping techniques. From the simulation results, we notified that DHT-Clipping technique offers better PAPR reduction than DHT and Clipping, as well as DHT-Clipping introduce improved BER performance better than clipping.

Keywords: ISI, cyclic prefix, BER, PAPR, HPA, DHT, subcarrier

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5107 Assessment of Five Photoplethysmographic Methods for Estimating Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Akshay B. Pawar, Rohit Y. Parasnis


Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a widely used indicator of the regulation between the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the cardiovascular system. Besides being non-invasive, it also has the potential to predict mortality in cases involving critical injuries. The gold standard method for determining HRV is based on the analysis of RR interval time series extracted from ECG signals. However, because it is much more convenient to obtain photoplethysmogramic (PPG) signals as compared to ECG signals (which require the attachment of several electrodes to the body), many researchers have used pulse cycle intervals instead of RR intervals to estimate HRV. They have also compared this method with the gold standard technique. Though most of their observations indicate a strong correlation between the two methods, recent studies show that in healthy subjects, except for a few parameters, the pulse-based method cannot be a surrogate for the standard RR interval- based method. Moreover, the former tends to overestimate short-term variability in heart rate. This calls for improvements in or alternatives to the pulse-cycle interval method. In this study, besides the systolic peak-peak interval method (PP method) that has been studied several times, four recent PPG-based techniques, namely the first derivative peak-peak interval method (P1D method), the second derivative peak-peak interval method (P2D method), the valley-valley interval method (VV method) and the tangent-intersection interval method (TI method) were compared with the gold standard technique. ECG and PPG signals were obtained from 10 young and healthy adults (consisting of both males and females) seated in the armchair position. In order to de-noise these signals and eliminate baseline drift, they were passed through certain digital filters. After filtering, the following HRV parameters were computed from PPG using each of the five methods and also from ECG using the gold standard method: time domain parameters (SDNN, pNN50 and RMSSD), frequency domain parameters (Very low-frequency power (VLF), Low-frequency power (LF), High-frequency power (HF) and Total power or “TP”). Besides, Poincaré plots were also plotted and their SD1/SD2 ratios determined. The resulting sets of parameters were compared with those yielded by the standard method using measures of statistical correlation (correlation coefficient) as well as statistical agreement (Bland-Altman plots). From the viewpoint of correlation, our results show that the best PPG-based methods for the determination of most parameters and Poincaré plots are the P2D method (shows more than 93% correlation with the standard method) and the PP method (mean correlation: 88%) whereas the TI, VV and P1D methods perform poorly (<70% correlation in most cases). However, our evaluation of statistical agreement using Bland-Altman plots shows that none of the five techniques agrees satisfactorily well with the gold standard method as far as time-domain parameters are concerned. In conclusion, excellent statistical correlation implies that certain PPG-based methods provide a good amount of information on the pattern of heart rate variation, whereas poor statistical agreement implies that PPG cannot completely replace ECG in the determination of HRV.

Keywords: photoplethysmography, heart rate variability, correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plot

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5106 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Balance between Trunk Muscles in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Amir A. Beltagi, Ahmed R. Abdelbaki


Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for optimizing performance and improving muscle balance for healthy and unhealthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of beginner’s core stability exercises on the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio and trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques. Methods: Thirty five healthy individuals, randomly assigned into two groups; experimental (group I) and control (group II), participated in the study. Group I involved 20 participants (10 male & 10 female) with mean ±SD age, weight, and height of 20.7±2.4 years, 66.5±12.1 kg and 166.7±7.8 cm respectively. Group II involved 15 participants (6 male & 9 female) with mean ±SD age, weight, and height of 20.3±0.61 years, 68.57±12.2 kg and 164.28 ±7.59 cm respectively. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which the experimental group performed a core stability training program. Findings: Statistical analysis using the 2x2 Mixed Design ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ peak torque ratio between the ‘pre’ and ‘post’ tests for either group (p > 0.025). Moreover, there were no significant differences in the trunk flexors’/extensors’ ratios between both groups at either test (p > 0.025). Meanwhile, the 2x2 Mixed Design MANOVA revealed that there were significant differences in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques between the ‘pre’ and ‘post’ tests for group I (p < 0.025), while there were no significant differences inbetween for group II (p > 0.025). Moreover, there were no significant differences between both groups for the tested muscles’ peak torques at either test except for that of the trunk flexors at the ‘post’ test only (p < 0.025). Interpretation: The improvement in muscle performance indicated by the increase in the trunk flexors’ and extensors’ peak torques in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve muscle performance.

Keywords: core stability, isokinetic, trunk muscles, muscle balance

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5105 Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Forest Cover Change with Special Reference to Anthropogenic Activities in Kullu Valley, North-Western Indian Himalayan Region

Authors: Krisala Joshi, Sayanta Ghosh, Renu Lata, Jagdish C. Kuniyal


Throughout the world, monitoring and estimating the changing pattern of forests across diverse landscapes through remote sensing is instrumental in understanding the interactions of human activities and the ecological environment with the changing climate. Forest change detection using satellite imageries has emerged as an important means to gather information on a regional scale. Kullu valley in Himachal Pradesh, India is situated in a transitional zone between the lesser and the greater Himalayas. Thus, it presents a typical rugged mountainous terrain with moderate to high altitude which varies from 1200 meters to over 6000 meters. Due to changes in agricultural cropping patterns, urbanization, industrialization, hydropower generation, climate change, tourism, and anthropogenic forest fire, it has undergone a tremendous transformation in forest cover in the past three decades. The loss and degradation of forest cover results in soil erosion, loss of biodiversity including damage to wildlife habitats, and degradation of watershed areas, and deterioration of the overall quality of nature and life. The supervised classification of LANDSAT satellite data was performed to assess the changes in forest cover in Kullu valley over the years 2000 to 2020. Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) was calculated to discriminate between burned and unburned areas of the forest. Our study reveals that in Kullu valley, the increasing number of forest fire incidents specifically, those due to anthropogenic activities has been on a rise, each subsequent year. The main objective of the present study is, therefore, to estimate the change in the forest cover of Kullu valley and to address the various social aspects responsible for the anthropogenic forest fires. Also, to assess its impact on the significant changes in the regional climatic factors, specifically, temperature, humidity, and precipitation over three decades, with the help of satellite imageries and ground data. The main outcome of the paper, we believe, will be helpful for the administration for making a quantitative assessment of the forest cover area changes due to anthropogenic activities and devising long-term measures for creating awareness among the local people of the area.

Keywords: Anthropogenic Activities, Forest Change Detection, Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Supervised Classification

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5104 Mineral Chemistry of Barium and Titanium-Bearing Biotite in Alkaline Trachyte from Upper Benue Valley (Northern Cameroon)

Authors: Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouota, Isaac Bertrand Gbambié Mbowoub, Ismaila Ngounounob


Barium and titanium bearing biotite from alkaline trachyte of Upper Benue valley, Northern Cameroon is studied. The iron enrichment index of mica (average I.E.=0.40) is intermediate between annite and phlogopite. The biotite phenocrysts contain up to 6.2 wt. % BaO and 9.8 wt. % TiO2. The BaO content of electron-microprobe mica is positively correlated with the Al2O3, TiO2, and FeO contents, and negatively correlated with the SiO2, K2O, and MgO contents. Ba and Ti rich micas are generally found in in SiO2 deficient rocks, whereas Ba and Ti bearing mica in this study occur in silica-saturated rocks. Most of the phenocrysts analysed have deficiencies in their octahedral and interlayer sites. Deficiencies in the octahedral sites may arise from the Ti vacancy and partly the Ti tschermakite substitution. On the other hand, deficiencies in the interlayer-site are due to the replacement of K by Ba. The substitution mechanism in the Upper Benue valley mica is characterized by Ba + 2Ti + 3Al =(K + Na + Ca) + 3(Mg + Fe + Mn) + 3Si, with an excellent correlation coefficient. Biotite compositions from the Upper Benue valley area fall between the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) and nickel-nickel-oxide (NNO) oxygen fugacity buffers. All these show that Upper Benue valley mica with high Ba and Ti contents may be formed from magmas rich in these elements.

Keywords: Benue valley, trachyte, biotite, mineral chemistry, enrichment

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5103 Perfomance of PAPR Reduction in OFDM System for Wireless Communications

Authors: Alcardo Alex Barakabitze, Saddam Aziz, Muhammad Zubair


The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a special form of multicarrier transmission that splits the total transmission bandwidth into a number of orthogonal and non-overlapping subcarriers and transmit the collection of bits called symbols in parallel using these subcarriers. In this paper, we explore the Peak to Average Power Reduction (PAPR) problem in OFDM systems. We provide the performance analysis of CCDF and BER through MATLAB simulations.

Keywords: bit error ratio (BER), OFDM, peak to average power reduction (PAPR), sub-carriers

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5102 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo


This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x=10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra displays the largest eddies generated by the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR.

Keywords: plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio

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5101 Liquefaction Phenomenon in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Earthquake of Nepal

Authors: Kalpana Adhikari, Mandip Subedi, Keshab Sharma, Indra P. Acharya


The Gorkha Nepal earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 struck the central region of Nepal on April 25, 2015 with the epicenter about 77 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley . Peak ground acceleration observed during the earthquake was 0.18g. This motion induced several geotechnical effects such as landslides, foundation failures liquefaction, lateral spreading and settlement, and local amplification. An aftershock of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.3 hit northeast of Kathmandu on May 12 after 17 days of main shock caused additional damages. Kathmandu is the largest city in Nepal, have a population over four million. As the Kathmandu Valley deposits are composed mainly of sand, silt and clay layers with a shallow ground water table, liquefaction is highly anticipated. Extensive liquefaction was also observed in Kathmandu Valley during the 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake. Field investigations were carried out in Kathmandu Valley immediately after Mw 7.8, April 25 main shock and Mw 7.3, May 12 aftershock. Geotechnical investigation of both liquefied and non-liquefied sites were conducted after the earthquake. This paper presents observations of liquefaction and liquefaction induced damage, and the liquefaction potential assessment based on Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) for liquefied and non-liquefied sites. SPT based semi-empirical approach has been used for evaluating liquefaction potential of the soil and Liquefaction Potential Index (LPI) has been used to determine liquefaction probability. Recorded ground motions from the event are presented. Geological aspect of Kathmandu Valley and local site effect on the occurrence of liquefaction is described briefly. Observed liquefaction case studies are described briefly. Typically, these are sand boils formed by freshly ejected sand forced out of over-pressurized sub-strata. At most site, sand was ejected to agricultural fields forming deposits that varied from millimetres to a few centimeters thick. Liquefaction-induced damage to structures in these areas was not significant except buildings on some places tilted slightly. Boiled soils at liquefied sites were collected and the particle size distributions of ejected soils were analyzed. SPT blow counts and the soil profiles at ten liquefied and non-liquefied sites were obtained. The factors of safety against liquefaction with depth and liquefaction potential index of the ten sites were estimated and compared with observed liquefaction after 2015 Gorkha earthquake. The liquefaction potential indices obtained from the analysis were found to be consistent with the field observation. The field observations along with results from liquefaction assessment were compared with the existing liquefaction hazard map. It was found that the existing hazard maps are unrepresentative and underestimate the liquefaction susceptibility in Kathmandu Valley. The lessons learned from the liquefaction during this earthquake are also summarized in this paper. Some recommendations are also made to the seismic liquefaction mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley.

Keywords: factor of safety, geotechnical investigation, liquefaction, Nepal earthquake

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5100 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla


Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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5099 Mechanical Responses to Hip Versus Knee Induced Muscle Fatigue in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Authors: Eman Ahmed Ahmed, Ghada Abdelmoneim Mohamed, Hamada Ahmed Hamada, Nagui Sobhi Nassif


Impaired skeletal muscle endurance may be an important causal factor in the development of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). However, there is lack of information regarding the effect of hip versus knee muscle fatigue on isokinetic parameters, and myoelectric activity of hip and knee muscles in these patients. Purpose: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of hip abductors versus knee extensors fatigue protocol on knee proprioception, hip and knee muscle strength and their myoelectric activity in patients with PFPS. Methods: Fifteen female patients with PFPS participated in the study. They were tested randomly under two fatiguing conditions; hip abductors and knee extensors fatigue protocols. Isolated muscle fatigue of two muscles was induced isokinetically on the affected side in a two separate sessions with a rest interval of at least three days. After determining peak torque, patients performed continuous maximal concentric-eccentric contraction of the selected muscle until the torque output dropped below 50% of peak torque value for 3 consecutive repetitions. Knee proprioception, eccentric hip abductors' peak torque, eccentric knee extensors' peak torque, EMG ratio of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) / vastus lateralis (VL), and EMG activity of gluteus medius (GM) muscle, were recorded before and immediately after each fatigue protocol using the Biodex Isokinetic system and EMG Myosystem. Results: Two-way within subject MANOVA revealed that eccentric knee extensors’ peak torque decreased significantly after hip abductors fatigue protocol compared to pre fatigue condition (p<0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in the eccentric hip abductors’ peak torque after admitting knee extensors fatigue protocol (p > 0.05). Moreover, no significant difference was found in knee proprioception, EMG ratio of VMO/VL, and EMG activity of GM muscle, after either hip or knee fatigue protocol (p>0.05). Conclusion: A hip focused rehabilitation program may be beneficial in improving knee function through correcting faulty kinematics and hence decrease knee loading in patients with PFPS.

Keywords: electromyography, knee proprioception, mechanical responses, muscle fatigue, patellofemoral pain syndrome

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