Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3193

Search results for: parallel and distributed computing

3193 A New Distributed Computing Environment Based On Mobile Agents for Massively Parallel Applications

Authors: Fatéma Zahra Benchara, Mohamed Youssfi, Omar Bouattane, Hassan Ouajji, Mohamed Ouadi Bensalah


In this paper, we propose a new distributed environment for High Performance Computing (HPC) based on mobile agents. It allows us to perform parallel programs execution as distributed one over a flexible grid constituted by a cooperative mobile agent team works. The distributed program to be performed is encapsulated on team leader agent which deploys its team workers as Agent Virtual Processing Unit (AVPU). Each AVPU is asked to perform its assigned tasks and provides the computational results which make the data and team works tasks management difficult for the team leader agent and that influence the performance computing. In this work we focused on the implementation of the Mobile Provider Agent (MPA) in order to manage the distribution of data and instructions and to ensure a load balancing model. It grants also some interesting mechanisms to manage the others computing challenges thanks to the mobile agents several skills.

Keywords: image processing, distributed environment, mobile agents, parallel and distributed computing

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3192 Researching Apache Hama: A Pure BSP Computing Framework

Authors: Kamran Siddique, Yangwoo Kim, Zahid Akhtar


In recent years, the technological advancements have led to a deluge of data from distinctive domains and the need for development of solutions based on parallel and distributed computing has still long way to go. That is why, the research and development of massive computing frameworks is continuously growing. At this particular stage, highlighting a potential research area along with key insights could be an asset for researchers in the field. Therefore, this paper explores one of the emerging distributed computing frameworks, Apache Hama. It is a Top Level Project under the Apache Software Foundation, based on Bulk Synchronous Processing (BSP). We present an unbiased and critical interrogation session about Apache Hama and conclude research directions in order to assist interested researchers.

Keywords: apache hama, bulk synchronous parallel, BSP, distributed computing

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3191 Parallel Querying of Distributed Ontologies with Shared Vocabulary

Authors: Sharjeel Aslam, Vassil Vassilev, Karim Ouazzane


Ontologies and various semantic repositories became a convenient approach for implementing model-driven architectures of distributed systems on the Web. SPARQL is the standard query language for querying such. However, although SPARQL is well-established standard for querying semantic repositories in RDF and OWL format and there are commonly used APIs which supports it, like Jena for Java, its parallel option is not incorporated in them. This article presents a complete framework consisting of an object algebra for parallel RDF and an index-based implementation of the parallel query engine capable of dealing with the distributed RDF ontologies which share common vocabulary. It has been implemented in Java, and for validation of the algorithms has been applied to the problem of organizing virtual exhibitions on the Web.

Keywords: distributed ontologies, parallel querying, semantic indexing, shared vocabulary, SPARQL

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3190 A Fast Parallel and Distributed Type-2 Fuzzy Algorithm Based on Cooperative Mobile Agents Model for High Performance Image Processing

Authors: Fatéma Zahra Benchara, Mohamed Youssfi, Omar Bouattane, Hassan Ouajji, Mohamed Ouadi Bensalah


The aim of this paper is to present a distributed implementation of the Type-2 Fuzzy algorithm in a parallel and distributed computing environment based on mobile agents. The proposed algorithm is assigned to be implemented on a SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data) architecture which is based on cooperative mobile agents as AVPE (Agent Virtual Processing Element) model in order to improve the processing resources needed for performing the big data image segmentation. In this work we focused on the application of this algorithm in order to process the big data MRI (Magnetic Resonance Images) image of size (n x m). It is encapsulated on the Mobile agent team leader in order to be split into (m x n) pixels one per AVPE. Each AVPE perform and exchange the segmentation results and maintain asynchronous communication with their team leader until the convergence of this algorithm. Some interesting experimental results are obtained in terms of accuracy and efficiency analysis of the proposed implementation, thanks to the mobile agents several interesting skills introduced in this distributed computational model.

Keywords: distributed type-2 fuzzy algorithm, image processing, mobile agents, parallel and distributed computing

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3189 Big Data Analysis with Rhipe

Authors: Byung Ho Jung, Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim


Rhipe that integrates R and Hadoop environment made it possible to process and analyze massive amounts of data using a distributed processing environment. In this paper, we implemented multiple regression analysis using Rhipe with various data sizes of actual data. Experimental results for comparing the performance of our Rhipe with stats and biglm packages available on bigmemory, showed that our Rhipe was more fast than other packages owing to paralleling processing with increasing the number of map tasks as the size of data increases. We also compared the computing speeds of pseudo-distributed and fully-distributed modes for configuring Hadoop cluster. The results showed that fully-distributed mode was faster than pseudo-distributed mode, and computing speeds of fully-distributed mode were faster as the number of data nodes increases.

Keywords: big data, Hadoop, Parallel regression analysis, R, Rhipe

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3188 A Parallel Algorithm for Solving the PFSP on the Grid

Authors: Samia Kouki


Solving NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems by exact search methods, such as Branch-and-Bound, may degenerate to complete enumeration. For that reason, exact approaches limit us to solve only small or moderate size problem instances, due to the exponential increase in CPU time when problem size increases. One of the most promising ways to reduce significantly the computational burden of sequential versions of Branch-and-Bound is to design parallel versions of these algorithms which employ several processors. This paper describes a parallel Branch-and-Bound algorithm called GALB for solving the classical permutation flowshop scheduling problem as well as its implementation on a Grid computing infrastructure. The experimental study of our distributed parallel algorithm gives promising results and shows clearly the benefit of the parallel paradigm to solve large-scale instances in moderate CPU time.

Keywords: grid computing, permutation flow shop problem, branch and bound, load balancing

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3187 Advanced Simulation and Enhancement for Distributed and Energy Efficient Scheduling for IEEE802.11s Wireless Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Networks

Authors: Fisayo G. Ojo, Shamala K. Subramaniam, Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain


As technology is advancing and wireless applications are becoming dependable sources, while the physical layer of the applications are been embedded into tiny layer, so the more the problem on energy efficiency and consumption. This paper reviews works done in recent years in wireless applications and distributed computing, we discovered that applications are becoming dependable, and resource allocation sharing with other applications in distributed computing. Applications embedded in distributed system are suffering from power stability and efficiency. In the reviews, we also prove that discrete event simulation has been left behind untouched and not been adapted into distributed system as a simulation technique in scheduling of each event that took place in the development of distributed computing applications. We shed more lights on some researcher proposed techniques and results in our reviews to prove the unsatisfactory results, and to show that more work still have to be done on issues of energy efficiency in wireless applications, and congestion in distributed computing.

Keywords: discrete event simulation (DES), distributed computing, energy efficiency (EE), internet of things (IOT), quality of service (QOS), user equipment (UE), wireless mesh network (WMN), wireless sensor network (wsn), worldwide interoperability for microwave access x (WiMAX)

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3186 Exploring MPI-Based Parallel Computing in Analyzing Very Large Sequences

Authors: Bilal Wajid, Erchin Serpedin


The health industry is aiming towards personalized medicine. If the patient’s genome needs to be sequenced it is important that the entire analysis be completed quickly. This paper explores use of parallel computing to analyze very large sequences. Two cases have been considered. In the first case, the sequence is kept constant and the effect of increasing the number of MPI-based processes is evaluated in terms of execution time, speed and efficiency. In the second case the number of MPI-based processes have been kept constant whereas, the length of the sequence was increased.

Keywords: parallel computing, alignment, genome assembly, alignment

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3185 Cloud Computing in Data Mining: A Technical Survey

Authors: Ghaemi Reza, Abdollahi Hamid, Dashti Elham


Cloud computing poses a diversity of challenges in data mining operation arising out of the dynamic structure of data distribution as against the use of typical database scenarios in conventional architecture. Due to immense number of users seeking data on daily basis, there is a serious security concerns to cloud providers as well as data providers who put their data on the cloud computing environment. Big data analytics use compute intensive data mining algorithms (Hidden markov, MapReduce parallel programming, Mahot Project, Hadoop distributed file system, K-Means and KMediod, Apriori) that require efficient high performance processors to produce timely results. Data mining algorithms to solve or optimize the model parameters. The challenges that operation has to encounter is the successful transactions to be established with the existing virtual machine environment and the databases to be kept under the control. Several factors have led to the distributed data mining from normal or centralized mining. The approach is as a SaaS which uses multi-agent systems for implementing the different tasks of system. There are still some problems of data mining based on cloud computing, including design and selection of data mining algorithms.

Keywords: cloud computing, data mining, computing models, cloud services

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3184 A Distributed Cryptographically Generated Address Computing Algorithm for Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol in IPv6

Authors: M. Moslehpour, S. Khorsandi


Due to shortage in IPv4 addresses, transition to IPv6 has gained significant momentum in recent years. Like Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) in IPv4, Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) provides some functions like address resolution in IPv6. Besides functionality of NDP, it is vulnerable to some attacks. To mitigate these attacks, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was introduced, but it was not efficient due to its limitation. Therefore, SEND protocol is proposed to automatic protection of auto-configuration process. It is secure neighbor discovery and address resolution process. To defend against threats on NDP’s integrity and identity, Cryptographically Generated Address (CGA) and asymmetric cryptography are used by SEND. Besides advantages of SEND, its disadvantages like the computation process of CGA algorithm and sequentially of CGA generation algorithm are considerable. In this paper, we parallel this process between network resources in order to improve it. In addition, we compare the CGA generation time in self-computing and distributed-computing process. We focus on the impact of the malicious nodes on the CGA generation time in the network. According to the result, although malicious nodes participate in the generation process, CGA generation time is less than when it is computed in a one-way. By Trust Management System, detecting and insulating malicious nodes is easier.

Keywords: NDP, IPsec, SEND, CGA, modifier, malicious node, self-computing, distributed-computing

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3183 The Parallelization of Algorithm Based on Partition Principle for Association Rules Discovery

Authors: Khadidja Belbachir, Hafida Belbachir


subsequently the expansion of the physical supports storage and the needs ceaseless to accumulate several data, the sequential algorithms of associations’ rules research proved to be ineffective. Thus the introduction of the new parallel versions is imperative. We propose in this paper, a parallel version of a sequential algorithm “Partition”. This last is fundamentally different from the other sequential algorithms, because it scans the data base only twice to generate the significant association rules. By consequence, the parallel approach does not require much communication between the sites. The proposed approach was implemented for an experimental study. The obtained results, shows a great reduction in execution time compared to the sequential version and Count Distributed algorithm.

Keywords: association rules, distributed data mining, partition, parallel algorithms

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3182 A Survey on Constraint Solving Approaches Using Parallel Architectures

Authors: Nebras Gharbi, Itebeddine Ghorbel


In the latest years and with the advancements of the multicore computing world, the constraint programming community tried to benefit from the capacity of new machines and make the best use of them through several parallel schemes for constraint solving. In this paper, we propose a survey of the different proposed approaches to solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems using parallel architectures. These approaches use in a different way a parallel architecture: the problem itself could be solved differently by several solvers or could be split over solvers.

Keywords: constraint programming, parallel programming, constraint satisfaction problem, speed-up

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3181 The Primitive Code-Level Design Patterns for Distributed Programming

Authors: Bing Li


The primitive code-level design patterns (PDP) are the rudimentary programming elements to develop any distributed systems in the generic distributed programming environment, GreatFree. The PDP works with the primitive distributed application programming interfaces (PDA), the distributed modeling, and the distributed concurrency for scaling-up. They not only hide developers from underlying technical details but also support sufficient adaptability to a variety of distributed computing environments. Programming with them, the simplest distributed system, the lightweight messaging two-node client/server (TNCS) system, is constructed rapidly with straightforward and repeatable behaviors, copy-paste-replace (CPR). As any distributed systems are made up of the simplest ones, those PDAs, as well as the PDP, are generic for distributed programming.

Keywords: primitive APIs, primitive code-level design patterns, generic distributed programming, distributed systems, highly patterned development environment, messaging

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3180 Analyzing the Factors that Cause Parallel Performance Degradation in Parallel Graph-Based Computations Using Graph500

Authors: Mustafa Elfituri, Jonathan Cook


Recently, graph-based computations have become more important in large-scale scientific computing as they can provide a methodology to model many types of relations between independent objects. They are being actively used in fields as varied as biology, social networks, cybersecurity, and computer networks. At the same time, graph problems have some properties such as irregularity and poor locality that make their performance different than regular applications performance. Therefore, parallelizing graph algorithms is a hard and challenging task. Initial evidence is that standard computer architectures do not perform very well on graph algorithms. Little is known exactly what causes this. The Graph500 benchmark is a representative application for parallel graph-based computations, which have highly irregular data access and are driven more by traversing connected data than by computation. In this paper, we present results from analyzing the performance of various example implementations of Graph500, including a shared memory (OpenMP) version, a distributed (MPI) version, and a hybrid version. We measured and analyzed all the factors that affect its performance in order to identify possible changes that would improve its performance. Results are discussed in relation to what factors contribute to performance degradation.

Keywords: graph computation, graph500 benchmark, parallel architectures, parallel programming, workload characterization.

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3179 Collision Detection Algorithm Based on Data Parallelism

Authors: Zhen Peng, Baifeng Wu


Modern computing technology enters the era of parallel computing with the trend of sustainable and scalable parallelism. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) is an important way to go along with the trend. It is able to gather more and more computing ability by increasing the number of processor cores without the need of modifying the program. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific computing and engineering design, many computation intensive applications are facing the challenge of increasingly large amount of data. Data parallel computing will be an important way to further improve the performance of these applications. In this paper, we take the accurate collision detection in building information modeling as an example. We demonstrate a model for constructing a data parallel algorithm. According to the model, a complex object is decomposed into the sets of simple objects; collision detection among complex objects is converted into those among simple objects. The resulting algorithm is a typical SIMD algorithm, and its advantages in parallelism and scalability is unparalleled in respect to the traditional algorithms.

Keywords: data parallelism, collision detection, single instruction multiple data, building information modeling, continuous scalability

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3178 A Study on Design for Parallel Test Based on Embedded System

Authors: Zheng Sun, Weiwei Cui, Xiaodong Ma, Hongxin Jin, Dongpao Hong, Jinsong Yang, Jingyi Sun


With the improvement of the performance and complexity of modern equipment, automatic test system (ATS) becomes widely used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the conventional ATS mainly works in a serial mode, and lacks the ability of testing several equipments at the same time. That leads to low test efficiency and ATS redundancy. Especially for a large majority of equipment under test, the conventional ATS cannot meet the requirement of efficient testing. To reduce the support resource and increase test efficiency, we propose a method of design for the parallel test based on the embedded system in this paper. Firstly, we put forward the general framework of the parallel test system, and the system contains a central management system (CMS) and several distributed test subsystems (DTS). Then we give a detailed design of the system. For the hardware of the system, we use embedded architecture to design DTS. For the software of the system, we use test program set to improve the test adaption. By deploying the parallel test system, the time to test five devices is now equal to the time to test one device in the past. Compared with the conventional test system, the proposed test system reduces the size and improves testing efficiency. This is of great significance for equipment to be put into operation swiftly. Finally, we take an industrial control system as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The result shows that the method is reasonable, and the efficiency is improved up to 500%.

Keywords: parallel test, embedded system, automatic test system, automatic test system (ATS), central management system, central management system (CMS), distributed test subsystems, distributed test subsystems (DTS)

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3177 Accelerating Side Channel Analysis with Distributed and Parallelized Processing

Authors: Kyunghee Oh, Dooho Choi


Although there is no theoretical weakness in a cryptographic algorithm, Side Channel Analysis can find out some secret data from the physical implementation of a cryptosystem. The analysis is based on extra information such as timing information, power consumption, electromagnetic leaks or even sound which can be exploited to break the system. Differential Power Analysis is one of the most popular analyses, as computing the statistical correlations of the secret keys and power consumptions. It is usually necessary to calculate huge data and takes a long time. It may take several weeks for some devices with countermeasures. We suggest and evaluate the methods to shorten the time to analyze cryptosystems. Our methods include distributed computing and parallelized processing.

Keywords: DPA, distributed computing, parallelized processing, side channel analysis

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3176 Improving Fault Tolerance and Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Grid Computing Using Fractal Transform

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Adel A. El-Zoghabi, Moustafa F. Ashry


The popularity of the Internet and the availability of powerful computers and high-speed networks as low-cost commodity components are changing the way we use computers today. These technical opportunities have led to the possibility of using geographically distributed and multi-owner resources to solve large-scale problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Recent research on these topics has led to the emergence of a new paradigm known as Grid computing. To achieve the promising potentials of tremendous distributed resources, effective and efficient load balancing algorithms are fundamentally important. Unfortunately, load balancing algorithms in traditional parallel and distributed systems, which usually run on homogeneous and dedicated resources, cannot work well in the new circumstances. In this paper, the concept of a fast fractal transform in heterogeneous grid computing based on R-tree and the domain-range entropy is proposed to improve fault tolerance and load balancing algorithm by improve connectivity, communication delay, network bandwidth, resource availability, and resource unpredictability. A novel two-dimension figure of merit is suggested to describe the network effects on load balance and fault tolerance estimation. Fault tolerance is enhanced by adaptively decrease replication time and message cost while load balance is enhanced by adaptively decrease mean job response time. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields superior performance over other methods.

Keywords: Grid computing, load balancing, fault tolerance, R-tree, heterogeneous systems

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3175 Cloud Computing Architecture Based on SOA

Authors: Negin Mohammadrezaee Larki


Cloud Computing is a popular solution that has been used in recent years to cooperate and collaborate among distributed applications over networks. Moving successfully into cloud computing requires an architecture that will support the new cloud capabilities. Many business leaders and analysts agree that moving to cloud requires having a solid, service-oriented architecture to provide the infrastructure needed for successful cloud implementation.

Keywords: Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Service Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture (SOCCA), cloud computing, cloud computing architecture

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3174 The Effective Use of the Network in the Distributed Storage

Authors: Mamouni Mohammed Dhiya Eddine


This work aims at studying the exploitation of high-speed networks of clusters for distributed storage. Parallel applications running on clusters require both high-performance communications between nodes and efficient access to the storage system. Many studies on network technologies led to the design of dedicated architectures for clusters with very fast communications between computing nodes. Efficient distributed storage in clusters has been essentially developed by adding parallelization mechanisms so that the server(s) may sustain an increased workload. In this work, we propose to improve the performance of distributed storage systems in clusters by efficiently using the underlying high-performance network to access distant storage systems. The main question we are addressing is: do high-speed networks of clusters fit the requirements of a transparent, efficient and high-performance access to remote storage? We show that storage requirements are very different from those of parallel computation. High-speed networks of clusters were designed to optimize communications between different nodes of a parallel application. We study their utilization in a very different context, storage in clusters, where client-server models are generally used to access remote storage (for instance NFS, PVFS or LUSTRE). Our experimental study based on the usage of the GM programming interface of MYRINET high-speed networks for distributed storage raised several interesting problems. Firstly, the specific memory utilization in the storage access system layers does not easily fit the traditional memory model of high-speed networks. Secondly, client-server models that are used for distributed storage have specific requirements on message control and event processing, which are not handled by existing interfaces. We propose different solutions to solve communication control problems at the filesystem level. We show that a modification of the network programming interface is required. Data transfer issues need an adaptation of the operating system. We detail several propositions for network programming interfaces which make their utilization easier in the context of distributed storage. The integration of a flexible processing of data transfer in the new programming interface MYRINET/MX is finally presented. Performance evaluations show that its usage in the context of both storage and other types of applications is easy and efficient.

Keywords: distributed storage, remote file access, cluster, high-speed network, MYRINET, zero-copy, memory registration, communication control, event notification, application programming interface

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3173 Parallel Computation of the Covariance-Matrix

Authors: Claude Tadonki


We address the issues related to the computation of the covariance matrix. This matrix is likely to be ill conditioned following its canonical expression, thus consequently raises serious numerical issues. The underlying linear system, which therefore should be solved by means of iterative approaches, becomes computationally challenging. A huge number of iterations is expected in order to reach an acceptable level of convergence, necessary to meet the required accuracy of the computation. In addition, this linear system needs to be solved at each iteration following the general form of the covariance matrix. Putting all together, its comes that we need to compute as fast as possible the associated matrix-vector product. This is our purpose in the work, where we consider and discuss skillful formulations of the problem, then propose a parallel implementation of the matrix-vector product involved. Numerical and performance oriented discussions are provided based on experimental evaluations.

Keywords: covariance-matrix, multicore, numerical computing, parallel computing

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3172 Private Coded Computation of Matrix Multiplication

Authors: Malihe Aliasgari, Yousef Nejatbakhsh


The era of Big Data and the immensity of real-life datasets compels computation tasks to be performed in a distributed fashion, where the data is dispersed among many servers that operate in parallel. However, massive parallelization leads to computational bottlenecks due to faulty servers and stragglers. Stragglers refer to a few slow or delay-prone processors that can bottleneck the entire computation because one has to wait for all the parallel nodes to finish. The problem of straggling processors, has been well studied in the context of distributed computing. Recently, it has been pointed out that, for the important case of linear functions, it is possible to improve over repetition strategies in terms of the tradeoff between performance and latency by carrying out linear precoding of the data prior to processing. The key idea is that, by employing suitable linear codes operating over fractions of the original data, a function may be completed as soon as enough number of processors, depending on the minimum distance of the code, have completed their operations. The problem of matrix-matrix multiplication in the presence of practically big sized of data sets faced with computational and memory related difficulties, which makes such operations are carried out using distributed computing platforms. In this work, we study the problem of distributed matrix-matrix multiplication W = XY under storage constraints, i.e., when each server is allowed to store a fixed fraction of each of the matrices X and Y, which is a fundamental building of many science and engineering fields such as machine learning, image and signal processing, wireless communication, optimization. Non-secure and secure matrix multiplication are studied. We want to study the setup, in which the identity of the matrix of interest should be kept private from the workers and then obtain the recovery threshold of the colluding model, that is, the number of workers that need to complete their task before the master server can recover the product W. The problem of secure and private distributed matrix multiplication W = XY which the matrix X is confidential, while matrix Y is selected in a private manner from a library of public matrices. We present the best currently known trade-off between communication load and recovery threshold. On the other words, we design an achievable PSGPD scheme for any arbitrary privacy level by trivially concatenating a robust PIR scheme for arbitrary colluding workers and private databases and the proposed SGPD code that provides a smaller computational complexity at the workers.

Keywords: coded distributed computation, private information retrieval, secret sharing, stragglers

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3171 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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3170 Performance Evaluation of Parallel Surface Modeling and Generation on Actual and Virtual Multicore Systems

Authors: Nyeng P. Gyang


Even though past, current and future trends suggest that multicore and cloud computing systems are increasingly prevalent/ubiquitous, this class of parallel systems is nonetheless underutilized, in general, and barely used for research on employing parallel Delaunay triangulation for parallel surface modeling and generation, in particular. The performances, of actual/physical and virtual/cloud multicore systems/machines, at executing various algorithms, which implement various parallelization strategies of the incremental insertion technique of the Delaunay triangulation algorithm, were evaluated. T-tests were run on the data collected, in order to determine whether various performance metrics differences (including execution time, speedup and efficiency) were statistically significant. Results show that the actual machine is approximately twice faster than the virtual machine at executing the same programs for the various parallelization strategies. Results, which furnish the scalability behaviors of the various parallelization strategies, also show that some of the differences between the performances of these systems, during different runs of the algorithms on the systems, were statistically significant. A few pseudo superlinear speedup results, which were computed from the raw data collected, are not true superlinear speedup values. These pseudo superlinear speedup values, which arise as a result of one way of computing speedups, disappear and give way to asymmetric speedups, which are the accurate kind of speedups that occur in the experiments performed.

Keywords: cloud computing systems, multicore systems, parallel Delaunay triangulation, parallel surface modeling and generation

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3169 DNA Multiplier: A Design Architecture of a Multiplier Circuit Using DNA Molecules

Authors: Hafiz Md. Hasan Babu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Nitish Biswas, Sarreha Tasmin Rikta, Nuzmul Hossain Nahid


Nanomedicine and bioengineering use biological systems that can perform computing operations. In a biocomputational circuit, different types of biomolecules and DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) are used as active components. DNA computing has the capability of performing parallel processing and a large storage capacity that makes it diverse from other computing systems. In most processors, the multiplier is treated as a core hardware block, and multiplication is one of the time-consuming and lengthy tasks. In this paper, cost-effective DNA multipliers are designed using algorithms of molecular DNA operations with respect to conventional ones. The speed and storage capacity of a DNA multiplier are also much higher than a traditional silicon-based multiplier.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA multiplier, large storage, parallel processing

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3168 Parallel PRBS Generation and Parallel BER Tester for 8-Gbps On-chip Interconnection Testing

Authors: Zhao Bin, Yan Dan Lei


In this paper, a multi-pattern parallel PRBS generator and a dedicated parallel BER tester is proposed for the 8-Gbps On-chip interconnection testing. A unique full-parallel PRBS checker is also proposed. The proposed design, together with the custom-designed high-speed parallel-to-serial and the serial-to-parallel circuit, will be used to test different on-chip interconnection transceivers. The design is implemented in TSMC 28nm CMOS technology with working voltage at 1.0 V. The serial to parallel ratio is 8:1 so the parallel PRBS generation and BER Tester can be run at lower speed.

Keywords: PRBS, BER, high speed, generator

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3167 Grid Computing for Multi-Objective Optimization Problems

Authors: Aouaouche Elmaouhab, Hassina Beggar


Solving multi-objective discrete optimization applications has always been limited by the resources of one machine: By computing power or by memory, most often both. To speed up the calculations, the grid computing represents a primary solution for the treatment of these applications through the parallelization of these resolution methods. In this work, we are interested in the study of some methods for solving multiple objective integer linear programming problem based on Branch-and-Bound and the study of grid computing technology. This study allowed us to propose an implementation of the method of Abbas and Al on the grid by reducing the execution time. To enhance our contribution, the main results are presented.

Keywords: multi-objective optimization, integer linear programming, grid computing, parallel computing

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3166 Load Balancing Technique for Energy - Efficiency in Cloud Computing

Authors: Rani Danavath, V. B. Narsimha


Cloud computing is emerging as a new paradigm of large scale distributed computing. Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., three service models, and four deployment networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics models. Load balancing is one of the main challenges in cloud computing, which is required to distribute the dynamic workload across multiple nodes, to ensure that no single node is overloaded. It helps in optimal utilization of resources, enhancing the performance of the system. The goal of the load balancing is to minimize the resource consumption and carbon emission rate, that is the direct need of cloud computing. This determined the need of new metrics energy consumption and carbon emission for energy-efficiency load balancing techniques in cloud computing. Existing load balancing techniques mainly focuses on reducing overhead, services, response time and improving performance etc. In this paper we introduced a Technique for energy-efficiency, but none of the techniques have considered the energy consumption and carbon emission. Therefore, our proposed work will go towards energy – efficiency. So this energy-efficiency load balancing technique can be used to improve the performance of cloud computing by balancing the workload across all the nodes in the cloud with the minimum resource utilization, in turn, reducing energy consumption, and carbon emission to an extent, which will help to achieve green computing.

Keywords: cloud computing, distributed computing, energy efficiency, green computing, load balancing, energy consumption, carbon emission

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3165 A Genetic Algorithm for the Load Balance of Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics Computation with Multi-Block Structured Mesh

Authors: Chunye Gong, Ming Tie, Jie Liu, Weimin Bao, Xinbiao Gan, Shengguo Li, Bo Yang, Xuguang Chen, Tiaojie Xiao, Yang Sun


Large-scale CFD simulation relies on high-performance parallel computing, and the load balance is the key role which affects the parallel efficiency. This paper focuses on the load-balancing problem of parallel CFD simulation with structured mesh. A mathematical model for this load-balancing problem is presented. The genetic algorithm, fitness computing, two-level code are designed. Optimal selector, robust operator, and local optimization operator are designed. The properties of the presented genetic algorithm are discussed in-depth. The effects of optimal selector, robust operator, and local optimization operator are proved by experiments. The experimental results of different test sets, DLR-F4, and aircraft design applications show the presented load-balancing algorithm is robust, quickly converged, and is useful in real engineering problems.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, load-balancing algorithm, optimal variation, local optimization

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3164 Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data

Authors: Arman S. Kussainov, Altynbek K. Beisekov


This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.

Keywords: density of states, Monte Carlo, parallel algorithm, Wang Landau algorithm

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