Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1062

Search results for: oxides of nitrogen

1062 NOx Abatement by CO with the Use of Grain Catalysts with Active Coating Made of Transition Metal (Cu, Mn, Nb) Oxides Prepared by Electroless Chemical Deposition Method

Authors: Davyd Urbanas, Pranas Baltrenas


It is well-known that, despite the constant increase of alternative energy sources usage, today combustible fuels are still widely used in power engineering. As a result of fuel combustion, significant amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO is a product of incomplete combustion) are supplied to the atmosphere. Also, these pollutants are formed in industry (chemical production, refining, and metal production). In this work, the investigation of nitrogen oxides CO-selective catalytic reduction using new grain load-type catalysts was carried out. The catalysts containing the substrate and a thin active coating made of transition metal (Mn, Cu, and Nb) oxides were prepared with the use of electroless chemical deposition method. Chemical composition, chemical state, and morphology of the formed active coating were investigated using ICP-OES, EDX, SEM, and XPS techniques. The obtained results revealed that the prepared catalysts (Cu-Mn-oxide and Cu-Mn-Nb-oxide) have rough and developed surface and can be successfully used for the flue gas catalytic purification. The significant advantage of prepared catalysts is their suitability from technological application point of view, which differs this work from others dedicated to gas purification by SCR.

Keywords: flue gas, nitrogen oxides, selective catalytic reduction, transition metal oxides

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1061 Investigating of the Fuel Consumption in Construction Machinery and Ways to Reduce Fuel Consumption

Authors: Reza Bahboodian


One of the most important factors in the use of construction machinery is the fuel consumption cost of this equipment. The use of diesel engines in off-road vehicles is an important source of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter 10 in off-road vehicles (construction and mining) may be high. Due to the high cost of fuel, it is necessary to minimize fuel consumption. Factors affecting the fuel consumption of these cars are very diverse. Climate changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, humidity, fuel type selection, type of gearbox used in the car are effective in fuel consumption and pollution, and engine efficiency. In this paper, methods for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants by considering valid European and European standards are examined based on new methods such as hybridization, optimal gear change, adding hydrogen to diesel fuel, determining optimal working fluids, and using oxidation catalysts.

Keywords: improve fuel consumption, construction machinery, pollutant reduction, determining the optimal working cycle

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1060 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He


Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation

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1059 Experimental Study of Water Injection into Manifold on Engine Performance and Emissions in Compression Ignition Engine

Authors: N. Rajmohan, M. R. Swaminathan


The performance of a diesel engine depends mainly on mixing of the fuel and air in the combustion chamber. The diesel engine suffers from significant generation of nitric oxide and particulate matter emission due to incomplete combustion. As the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber in conventional diesel engines, spatial distributions of air-fuel ratio vary widely from rich to lean in combustion chamber. The NOx is formed in stoichiometric zone and smoke is generated during diffusion combustion period where the combustion rate becomes slower. One of the effective methods to reduce oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter emissions simultaneously is to reduce the intake charge temperature in diesel engines. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of water injection into intake air on performance and emission characteristic of single cylinder CI engine are carried out at different load and constant speed, with variable water to diesel ratio by mass. The water is injected into intake air by an elementary carburetor.

Keywords: engine emission control, oxides of nitrogen, diesel engine, ignition engine

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1058 Simultaneous Adsorption and Characterization of NOx and SOx Emissions from Power Generation Plant on Sliced Porous Activated Carbon Prepared by Physical Activation

Authors: Muhammad Shoaib, Hassan M. Al-Swaidan


Air pollution has been a major challenge for the scientists today, due to the release of toxic emissions from various industries like power plants, desalination plants, industrial processes and transportation vehicles. Harmful emissions into the air represent an environmental pressure that reflects negatively on human health and productivity, thus leading to a real loss in the national economy. Variety of air pollutants in the form of carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, suspended particulate material etc. are present in air due to the combustion of different types of fuels like crude oil, diesel oil and natural gas. Among various pollutants, NOx and SOx emissions are considered as highly toxic due to its carcinogenicity and its relation with various health disorders. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia electricity is generated by burning of crude, diesel or natural gas in the turbines of electricity stations. Out of these three, crude oil is used extensively for electricity generation. Due to the burning of the crude oil there are heavy contents of gaseous pollutants like sulfur dioxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), gases which are ultimately discharged in to the environment and is a serious environmental threat. The breakthrough point in case of lab studies using 1 gm of sliced activated carbon adsorbant comes after 20 and 30 minutes for NOx and SOx, respectively, whereas in case of PP8 plant breakthrough point comes in seconds. The saturation point in case of lab studies comes after 100 and 120 minutes and for actual PP8 plant it comes after 60 and 90 minutes for NOx and SOx adsorption, respectively. Surface characterization of NOx and SOx adsorption on SAC confirms the presence of peaks in the FT-IR spectrum. CHNS study verifies that the SAC is suitable for NOx and SOx along with some other C and H containing compounds coming out from stack emission stream from the turbines of a power plant.

Keywords: activated carbon, flue gases, NOx and SOx adsorption, physical activation, power plants

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1057 Effect of Nitrogen and Gibberellic Acid at Different Level and their Interaction on Calendula

Authors: Pragnyashree Mishra, Shradhanjali Mohapatra


The present investigation is carried out to know the effect of foliar feeding of nitrogen and gibberellic acid on vegetative growth, flowering behaviour and yield of calendula variety ‘Golden Emporer’. The experiment was laid out in RBD in rabi season of 2013-14. There are 16 treatments are taken at different level such as nitrogen (at 0%,1%,2%,3%) and GA3 (at 50 ppm,100ppm,150 ppm). Among them maximum height at bud initiation stage was obtained at 3% nitrogen (27.00 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (26.5 cm), fist flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(60.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (63.75 days), maximum flower stalk length was obtained at 3% nitrogen(3.50 cm) and at 150 ppm GA3 (5.42 cm),maximum duration of flowering was obtained at 3% nitrogen(46.00 days) and at 150 ppm GA3 (46.50days), maximum number of flower was obtained at 3% nitrogen (89.00per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (83.50 per plant), maximum flower weight was obtained at 3% nitrogen(1.25 gm per flower) and at 150 ppm GA3 (1.50 gm per flower), maximum yield was was obtained at 3% nitrogen (110.00 gm per plant) and at 150 ppm GA3 (105.00gm per plant) and minimum of all character was obtained when 0% nitrogen0 ppm GA3. All interaction between nitrogen and GA3 was found in significant except the yield .

Keywords: calendula, golden emporer, GA3, nitrogen and gibberellic acid

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1056 Estimation of Foliar Nitrogen in Selected Vegetation Communities of Uttrakhand Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Satellite Remote Sensing

Authors: Yogita Mishra, Arijit Roy, Dhruval Bhavsar


The study estimates the nitrogen concentration in selected vegetation community’s i.e. chir pine (pinusroxburghii) by using hyperspectral satellite data and also identified the appropriate spectral bands and nitrogen indices. The Short Wave InfraRed reflectance spectrum at 1790 nm and 1680 nm shows the maximum possible absorption by nitrogen in selected species. Among the nitrogen indices, log normalized nitrogen index performed positively and negatively too. The strong positive correlation is taken out from 1510 nm and 760 nm for the pinusroxburghii for leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf nitrogen mass while using NDNI. The regression value of R² developed by using linear equation achieved maximum at 0.7525 for the analysis of satellite image data and R² is maximum at 0.547 for ground truth data for pinusroxburghii respectively.

Keywords: hyperspectral, NDNI, nitrogen concentration, regression value

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1055 Current Status of Nitrogen Saturation in the Upper Reaches of the Kanna River, Japan

Authors: Sakura Yoshii, Masakazu Abe, Akihiro Iijima


Nitrogen saturation has become one of the serious issues in the field of forest environment. The watershed protection forests located in the downwind hinterland of Tokyo Metropolitan Area are believed to be facing nitrogen saturation. In this study, we carefully focus on the balance of nitrogen between load and runoff. Annual nitrogen load via atmospheric deposition was estimated to 461.1 t-N/year in the upper reaches of the Kanna River. Annual nitrogen runoff to the forested headwater stream of the Kanna River was determined to 184.9 t-N/year, corresponding to 40.1% of the total nitrogen load. Clear seasonal change in NO3-N concentration was still observed. Therefore, watershed protection forest of the Kanna River is most likely to be in Stage-1 on the status of nitrogen saturation.

Keywords: atmospheric deposition, nitrogen accumulation, denitrification, forest ecosystems

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1054 Mineral Nitrogen Retention, Nitrogen Availability and Plant Growth in the Soil Influenced by Addition of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers: Lysimetric Experiment

Authors: Lukáš Plošek, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jaroslav Záhora, Jakub Elbl, Antonín Kintl, Ivana Charousová, Silvia Kovácsová


Compost can influence soil fertility and plant health. At the same time compost can play an important role in the nitrogen cycle and it can influence leaching of mineral nitrogen from soil to underground water. This paper deals with the influence of compost addition and mineral nitrogen fertilizer on leaching of mineral nitrogen, nitrogen availability in microbial biomass and plant biomass production in the lysimetric experiment. Twenty-one lysimeters were filed with topsoil and subsoil collected in the area of protection zone of underground source of drinking water - Březová nad Svitavou. The highest leaching of mineral nitrogen was detected in the variant fertilized only mineral nitrogen fertilizer (624.58 mg m-2), the lowest leaching was recorded in the variant with high addition of compost (315.51 mg m-2). On the other hand, losses of mineral nitrogen are not in connection with the losses of available form of nitrogen in microbial biomass. Because loss of mineral nitrogen was detected in variant with the least change in the availability of N in microbial biomass. The leaching of mineral nitrogen, yields as well as the results concerning nitrogen availability from the first year of long term experiment suggest that compost can positive influence the leaching of nitrogen into underground water.

Keywords: nitrogen, compost, biomass production, lysimeter

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1053 Impact of Ozone Produced by Vehicular Emission on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors: Mohd Kamil Vakil


Air Pollution is caused by the introduction of chemicals in the biosphere. Primary pollutants on reaction with the components of the earth produce Secondary Pollutants like Smog. Ozone is the main ingredient of Smog. The ground level ozone is created by the chemical reactions between Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of Sunlight. This ozone can enter inside and call as indoor ozone. The automobile emissions in both moving and idling conditions contribute to the indoor ozone formation. During engine ignition and shutdown, motor vehicles emit the ozone forming pollutants like NOx and VOCs, and the phenomena are called Cold Start and Hot-Soak respectively. Subjects like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma associated with chronic respiratory diseases are susceptible to the harmful effects of Indoor Ozone. The most common cause of COPD other than smoking is the long-term contract with harmful pollutants like ground-level ozone. It is estimated by WHO that COPD will become the third leading cause of all deaths worldwide by 2030. In this paper, the cold-start and hot-soak vehicle emissions are studied in the context of accumulation of oxides of nitrogen at the outer walls of the building which may cause COPD. The titanium oxide coated building material is further discussed as an absorber of NOx when applied to the walls and roof.

Keywords: indoor air quality, cold start emission, hot-soak, ozone

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1052 Reduction of Nitrogen Monoxide with Carbon Monoxide from Gas Streams by 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/Activated Carbon

Authors: K. L. Pan, M. B. Chang


Nitrogen oxides (NOₓ) is regarded as one of the most important air pollutants. It not only causes adverse environmental effects but also harms human lungs and respiratory system. As a post-combustion treatment, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) possess the highest NO removal efficiency ( ≥ 85%), which is considered as the most effective technique for removing NO from gas streams. However, injection of reducing agent such as NH₃ is requested, and it is costly and may cause secondary pollution. Reduction of NO with carbon monoxide (CO) as reducing agent has been previously investigated. In this process, the key step involves the NO adsorption and dissociation. Also, the high performance mainly relies on the amounts of oxygen vacancy on catalyst surface and redox ability of catalyst, because oxygen vacancy can activate the N-O bond to promote its dissociation. Additionally, perfect redox ability can promote the adsorption of NO and oxidation of CO. Typically, noble metals such as iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), and palladium (Pd) are used as catalyst for the reduction of NO with CO; however, high cost has limited their applications. Recently, transition metal oxides have been investigated for the reduction of NO with CO, especially CuₓOy, CoₓOy, Fe₂O₃, and MnOₓ are considered as effective catalysts. However, deactivation is inevitable as oxygen (O₂) exists in the gas streams because active sites (oxygen vacancies) of catalyst are occupied by O₂. In this study, Cu-Ce-Fe-Co is prepared and supported on activated carbon by impregnation method to form 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon catalyst. Generally, addition of activated carbon on catalyst can bring several advantages: (1) NO can be effectively adsorbed by interaction between catalyst and activated carbon, resulting in the improvement of NO removal, (2) direct NO decomposition may be achieved over carbon associated with catalyst, and (3) reduction of NO could be enhanced by a reducing agent over carbon-supported catalyst. Therefore, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon may have better performance for reduction of NO with CO. Experimental results indicate that NO conversion achieved with 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon reaches 83% at 150°C with 300 ppm NO and 10,000 ppm CO. As temperature is further increased to 200°C, 100% NO conversion could be achieved, implying that 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon prepared has good activity for the reduction of NO with CO. In order to investigate the effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO, 1-5% O₂ are introduced into the system. The results indicate that NO conversions still maintain at ≥ 90% with 1-5% O₂ conditions at 200°C. It is worth noting that effect of O₂ on reduction of NO with CO could be significantly improved as carbon is used as support. It is inferred that carbon support can react with O₂ to produce CO₂ as O₂ exists in the gas streams. Overall, 10% wt. Cu-Ce-Fe-Co/activated carbon is demonstrated with good potential for reduction of NO with CO, and possible mechanisms will be elucidated in this paper.

Keywords: nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), carbon monoxide (CO), reduction of NO with CO, carbon material, catalysis

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1051 Developing a Roadmap by Integrating of Environmental Indicators with the Nitrogen Footprint in an Agriculture Region, Hualien, Taiwan

Authors: Ming-Chien Su, Yi-Zih Chen, Nien-Hsin Kao, Hideaki Shibata


The major component of the atmosphere is nitrogen, yet atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use. Human activities have produced different types of nitrogen related compounds such as nitrogen oxides from combustion, nitrogen fertilizers from farming, and the nitrogen compounds from waste and wastewater, all of which have impacted the environment. Many studies have indicated the N-footprint is dominated by food, followed by housing, transportation, and goods and services sectors. To solve the impact issues from agricultural land, nitrogen cycle research is one of the key solutions. The study site is located in Hualien County, Taiwan, a major rice and food production area of Taiwan. Importantly, environmentally friendly farming has been promoted for years, and an environmental indicator system has been established by previous authors based on the concept of resilience capacity index (RCI) and environmental performance index (EPI). Nitrogen management is required for food production, as excess N causes environmental pollution. Therefore it is very important to develop a roadmap of the nitrogen footprint, and to integrate it with environmental indicators. The key focus of the study thus addresses (1) understanding the environmental impact caused by the nitrogen cycle of food products and (2) uncovering the trend of the N-footprint of agricultural products in Hualien, Taiwan. The N-footprint model was applied, which included both crops and energy consumption in the area. All data were adapted from government statistics databases and crosschecked for consistency before modeling. The actions involved with agricultural production were evaluated and analyzed for nitrogen loss to the environment, as well as measuring the impacts to humans and the environment. The results showed that rice makes up the largest share of agricultural production by weight, at 80%. The dominant meat production is pork (52%) and poultry (40%); fish and seafood were at similar levels to pork production. The average per capita food consumption in Taiwan is 2643.38 kcal capita−1 d−1, primarily from rice (430.58 kcal), meats (184.93 kcal) and wheat (ca. 356.44 kcal). The average protein uptake is 87.34 g capita−1 d−1, and 51% is mainly from meat, milk, and eggs. The preliminary results showed that the nitrogen footprint of food production is 34 kg N per capita per year, congruent with the results of Shibata et al. (2014) for Japan. These results provide a better understanding of the nitrogen demand and loss in the environment, and the roadmap can furthermore support the establishment of nitrogen policy and strategy. Additionally, the results serve to develop a roadmap of the nitrogen cycle of an environmentally friendly farming area, thus illuminating the nitrogen demand and loss of such areas.

Keywords: agriculture productions, energy consumption, environmental indicator, nitrogen footprint

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1050 Flotation of Rare Earth Oxides from Iron-Oxide Silicate Rich Tailings Using Fatty Acids

Authors: George B. Abaka-Wood, Massimiliano Zanin, Jonas Addai-Mensah, William Skinner


The versatility of froth flotation has made it vital in the beneficiation of rare earth elements minerals from either high or low-grade ores. There has been a significant increase in the quantity of iron oxide silicate-rich tailings generated from the extraction of primary commodities such as copper and gold in Australia, which have been identified to contain very low-grade rare earth oxides (≤ 1%). There is a vast knowledge gap in the beneficiation of rare earth oxides from such tailings. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using fatty acids as collectors for the flotation recovery and upgrade of rare earth oxides from selected iron-oxide silicate-rich tailings. Two forms of fatty acid collectors (oleic acid and sodium oleate) were tested in this investigation. Flotation tests were carried out using a 1.2 L Denver D-12 cell. The effects of pulp pH, fatty acid dosage, particle size distribution (-150 +75 µm, -75 +38 µm and -38 µm) and conventional depressants (sodium silicate and starch) dosage on flotation recovery of rare earth oxides were investigated. A comparison of the flotation results indicated that sodium oleate was the more efficient fatty acid for rare earth oxides flotation at all the pulp pH investigated. The flotation performance was found to be particle size-dependent. Both sodium silicate and starch were unselective in decreasing the recovery of iron oxides and silicate minerals, respectively with the corresponding decrease in rare earth oxides recovery. Generally, iron oxides and silicate minerals formed the substantial fraction of the flotation concentrates obtained, both in the absence and presence of depressants, resulting in a generally low rare earth oxides upgrade, even though rare earth oxides recoveries were high. The flotation tests carried out on the tailings sample suggest the feasibility of rare earth oxides recovery using fatty acids, although particle size distribution and minerals liberation are key limiting factors in achieving selective rare earth oxides upgrade.

Keywords: depressants, flotation, oleic acid, sodium oleate

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1049 Use of Chlorophyll Meters to Assess In-Season Wheat Nitrogen Fertilizer Requirements in the Southern San Joaquin Valley

Authors: Brian Marsh


Nitrogen fertilizer is the most used and often the most mismanaged nutrient input. Nitrogen management has tremendous implications on crop productivity, quality and environmental stewardship. Sufficient nitrogen is needed to optimum yield and quality. Soil and in-season plant tissue testing for nitrogen status are a time consuming and expensive process. Real time sensing of plant nitrogen status can be a useful tool in managing nitrogen inputs. The objectives of this project were to assess the reliability of remotely sensed non-destructive plant nitrogen measurements compared to wet chemistry data from sampled plant tissue, develop in-season nitrogen recommendations based on remotely sensed data for improved nitrogen use efficiency and assess the potential for determining yield and quality from remotely sensed data. Very good correlations were observed between early-season remotely sensed crop nitrogen status and plant nitrogen concentrations and subsequent in-season fertilizer recommendations. The transmittance/absorbance type meters gave the most accurate readings. Early in-season fertilizer recommendation would be to apply 40 kg nitrogen per hectare plus 16 kg nitrogen per hectare for each unit difference measured with the SPAD meter between the crop and reference area or 25 kg plus 13 kg per hectare for each unit difference measured with the CCM 200. Once the crop was sufficiently fertilized meter readings became inconclusive and were of no benefit for determining nitrogen status, silage yield and quality and grain yield and protein.

Keywords: wheat, nitrogen fertilization, chlorophyll meter

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1048 Plasma-Assisted Nitrogen Fixation for the Elevation of Seed Germination and Plant Growth

Authors: Pradeep Lamichhane


Plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation is a process by which atomic nitrogen generated by plasma is converted into ammonia (NH₃) or related nitrogenous compounds. Nitrogen fixation is essential to plant because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required to them for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds, such as amino acids and proteins, nucleoside triphosphates and nucleic acid. Most of our atmosphere is composed of nitrogen; however, the plant cannot absorb it directly from the air ambient. As a portion of the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen fixation fundamental for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer. In this study, plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation was performed by exposing a non-thermal atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma generated a sinusoidal power supply (with an applied voltage of 10 kV and frequency of 33 kHz) on a water surface. Besides this, UV excitation of water molecules at the water interface was also done in order to disassociate water. Hydrogen and hydroxyl radical obtained from this UV photolysis electrochemically combine with nitrogen atom obtained from plasma. As a result of this, nitrogen fixation on plasma-activated water (PAW) significantly enhanced. The amount of nitrogen-based products like NOₓ and ammonia (NH₃) synthesized by this combined process of UV and plasma are 1.4 and 2.8 times higher than those obtained by plasma alone. In every 48 hours, 20 ml of plasma-activated water (pH≈3.15) for 10 minutes with moderate concentrations of NOₓ, NH₃ and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was irrigated on each corn plant (Zea Mays). It was found that the PAW has shown a significant impact on seeds germination rate and improved seedling growth. The result obtained from this experiment suggested that crop yield could increase in a short duration. In the future, this experiment could open boundless opportunities in plasma agriculture to mobilize nitrogen because nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia are more suitable for plant uptake.

Keywords: plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation, nitrogen plasma, UV excitation of water, ammonia synthesis

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1047 Estimating Directional Shadow Prices of Air Pollutant Emissions by Transportation Modes

Authors: Huey-Kuo Chen


This paper applies directional marginal productivity model to study the shadow price of emissions by transportation modes in the years of 2011 and 2013 with the aim to provide a reference for policy makers to improve the emission of pollutants. One input variable (i.e., energy consumption), one desirable output variable (i.e., vehicle kilometers traveled) and three undesirable output variables (i.e., carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides) generated by road transportation modes were used to evaluate directional marginal productivity and directional shadow price for 18 transportation modes. The results show that the directional shadow price (DSP) of SOx is much higher than CO2 and NOx. Nevertheless, the emission of CO2 is the largest among the three kinds of pollutants. To improve the air quality, the government should pay more attention to the emission of CO2 and apply the alternative solution such as promoting public transportation and subsidizing electric vehicles to reduce the use of private vehicles.

Keywords: marginal productivity, road transportation modes, shadow price, undesirable outputs

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1046 Molecular Simulation of NO, NH3 Adsorption in MFI and H-ZSM5

Authors: Z. Jamalzadeh, A. Niaei, H. Erfannia, S. G. Hosseini, A. S. Razmgir


Due to developing the industries, the emission of pollutants such as NOx, SOx, and CO2 are rapidly increased. Generally, NOx is attributed to the mono nitrogen oxides of NO and NO2 that is one of the most important atmospheric contaminants. Hence, controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides is urgent environmentally. Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx is one of the most common techniques for NOx removal in which Zeolites have wide application due to their high performance. In zeolitic processes, the catalytic reaction occurs mostly in the pores. Therefore, investigation the adsorption phenomena of the molecules in order to gain an insight and understand the catalytic cycle is of important. Hence, in current study, molecular simulations is applied for studying the adsorption phenomena in nanocatalysts applied for SCR of NOx process. The effect of cation addition to the support in the catalysts’ behavior through adsorption step was explored by Mont Carlo (MC). Simulation time of 1 Ns accompanying 1 fs time step, COMPASS27 Force Field and the cut off radios of 12.5 Ȧ was applied for performed runs. It was observed that the adsorption capacity increases in the presence of cations. The sorption isotherms demonstrated the behavior of type I isotherm categories and sorption capacity diminished with increase in temperature whereas an increase was observed at high pressures. Besides, NO sorption showed higher sorption capacity than NH3 in H–ZSM5. In this respect, the Energy distributions signified that the molecules could adsorb in just one sorption site at the catalyst and the sorption energy of NO was stronger than the NH3 in H-ZSM5. Furthermore, the isosteric heat of sorption data showed nearly same values for the molecules; however, it indicated stronger interactions of NO molecules with H-ZSM5 Zeolite compared to the isosteric heat of NH3 which was low in value.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, adsorption, NOx, ZSM5

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1045 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

Authors: Mandana Tayefe, Ebrahim Amiri, Azin Nasrollah Zade


Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: rice, nitrogen, nitrogen uptake, dry matter

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1044 The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency in Corn Yield and Yield Components in Cultivars KSC 704

Authors: Elham Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Fadaee, Rouhollah Keykhosravi


In order to survey the nitrogen use efficiency in corn, the experimental plot in a randomized complete block design 2014 agricultural farm was Islamic Azad University of Karaj. The main factor was four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (respectively control, 150, 200 and 250 kg nitrogen fertilizer) and subplots consisted two levels of superabsorbent polymer Stockosorb (use, do not use). Analysis of variance is showed that different nitrogen levels and different superabsorbent of levels statistically significant. Comparisons average also showed there is a significant difference between use and non-use of superabsorbent. The results showed the interactions nitrogen and SAP by one percent level has a significant and effect on Fresh weight per plant, plant dry weight, biological yield, harvest index, cob diameter, cob dry weight, leaf width, leaf area were at the level of five percent statistical significant effect on Ear weight and grain yield.

Keywords: corn, nitrogen, comparison, biological yield

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1043 Adsorption of NO and NH3 in MFI and H-ZSM5: Monte Carlo Simulation

Authors: Z. Jamalzadeh, A. Niaei, H. Erfannia


Due to developing industries, the emission of pollutants such as NOx, SOx, and CO2 are rapidly increased. Generally, NOx is attributed to the mono nitrogen oxides of NO and NO2 that is one of the most important atmospheric contaminants. Hence, controlling the emission of nitrogen oxides is environmentally urgent. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx is one of the most common techniques for NOx removal in which zeolites have wide application due to their high performance. In zeolitic processes, the catalytic reaction occurs mostly in the pores. Therefore, investigation of the adsorption phenomena of the molecules in order to gain an insight and understand the catalytic cycle is of important. Hence, in current study, benefiting from molecular simulations, the adsorption phenomena in the nanocatalysts of SCR of NOx process was investigated in order to get a good insight of the catalysts’ behavior. The effect of cation addition to the support in the catalysts’ behavior through adsorption step was explored by Mont Carlo (MC) using Materials Studio Package. Simulation time of 1 Ns accompanying 1 fs time step, COMPASS27 Force Field and the cut off radios of 12.5 Ȧ was applied for performed runs. It was observed that the adsorption capacity increases in the presence of cations. The sorption isotherms demonstrated the behavior of type I isotherm categories and sorption capacity diminished with increase in temperature whereas an increase was observed at high pressures. Besides, NO sorption showed higher sorption capacity than NH3 in H–ZSM5. In this respect, the energy distributions signified that the molecules could adsorb in just one sorption site at the catalyst and the sorption energy of NO was stronger than the NH3 in H-ZSM5. Furthermore, the isosteric heat of sorption data showed nearly same values for the molecules; however, it indicated stronger interactions of NO molecules with H-ZSM5 zeolite compared to the isosteric heat of NH3 which was low in value.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, adsorption, NOx, ZSM5

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1042 Effects of Chemical and Biological Fertilizer on, Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Harvest Index of Rice

Authors: Azin Nasrollah Zadeh


A factorial experiment was applied to evaluate the effect of chemical and biological fertilizer on yield, total nitrogen uptake and NHI of rice. Four biological treatments including:(M1:no fertilizer),( M2:10 ton/ha cow dung ),(M3:20 ton/ha cow dung) and (M4:5 ton/ha azolla compost) and four chemical fertilizer treatments including: (S1: no fertilizer),(S2:40 kg N /ha),(S3:60 kg N /ha) and ( S4:80 kg N /ha ) were compared. Results showed that highest rate of yield (3387 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (81.4 kg/ha) were reached the highest value at M4. Among the chemical fertilizers the highest grain yield (3373 kg/ha) and total nitrogen uptake (87.7) belonged to highest nitrogen level (S4).Also biological and chemical fertilizers were no significant on Harvest index (NHI). Interaction effect of chemical × biological fertilizers didn't show significant difference between all parameters except of yield, as the most grain yield were obtained in M4S4. So it can be concluded that using of bioilogical fertilizers at appropriate rate and type, considering plant requirement, may improve grain yield, nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in rice.

Keywords: azolla, fertilizer, nitrogen uptake, rice, yield

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1041 Nitrogen-Doped Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Composite Films Prepared by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition

Authors: Abdelrahman Zkria, Tsuyoshi Yoshitake


Diamond is one of the most interesting semiconducting carbon materials owing to its unique physical and chemical properties, yet its application in electronic devices is limited due to the difficulty of realizing n-type conduction by nitrogen doping. In contrast Ultrananocrystalline diamond with diamond grains of about 3–5 nm in diameter have attracted much attention for device-oriented applications because they may enable the realization of n-type doping with nitrogen. In this study, nitrogen-doped Ultra-Nanocrystalline diamond films were prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) method, the nitrogen content was estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The electrical conductivity increased with increasing nitrogen contents. Heterojunction diodes with p-type Si were fabricated and evaluated based on current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics measured in dark at room temperature.

Keywords: heterojunction diodes, hopping conduction mechanism, nitrogen-doping, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond

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1040 Divalent Iron Oxidative Process for Degradation of Carbon and Nitrogen Based Pollutants from Dye Intermediate Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Nibedita Pani, Vishnu Tejani, T. S. Anantha Singh


Water pollution resulting from discharge of partial/not treated textile wastewater containing high carbon and nitrogen pollutants pose a huge threat to the environment, ecosystem, and human health. It is essential to remove carbon- and nitrogen-based organic pollutants more effectively from industrial wastewater before discharging. The present study focuses on removal of carbon-based pollutant in particular COD (chemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen-based pollutants, in particular, ammoniacal nitrogen by Fenton oxidation process using Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂ as reagents. The study was carried out with high strength wastewater containing initial COD 5632 mg/L and NH⁴⁺-N 1372 mg/L. The major operating condition like pH was varied between 1.0 to 4.0. The maximum degradation was obtained at pH 3.0 taking the molar ratio of Fe²⁺/H₂O₂ as 1:1. At this pH, the removal efficiencies of COD and ammoniacal nitrogen were found to be 77.27% and 74.9%, respectively. The Fenton process can be the best alternative for the simultaneous removal of COD and NH4+-N from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: ammoniacal nitrogen, COD, Fenton oxidation, industrial wastewater

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1039 WO₃-SnO₂ Sensors for Selective Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arpan Kumar Nayak, Debabrata Pradhan


A simple, single-step and one-pot hydrothermal method was employed to synthesize WO₃-SnO₂ mixed nanostructured metal oxides at 200°C in 12h. The SnO₂ nanoparticles were found to be uniformly decorated on the WO₃ nanoplates. Though it is widely known that noble metals such as Pt, Pd doping or decoration on metal oxides improve the sensing response and sensitivity, we varied the SnO₂ concentration in the WO₃-SnO₂ mixed oxide and demonstrated their performance in ammonia, ethanol and acetone sensing. The sensing performance of WO₃-(x)SnO₂ [x = 0.27, 0.54, 1.08] mixed nanostructured oxides was found to be not only superior to that of pristine oxides but also higher/better than that of reported noble metal-based sensors. The sensing properties (selectivity, limit of detection, response and recovery times) are measured as a function of operating temperature (150-350°C). In particular, the gas selectivity is found to be highly temperature-dependent with optimum performance obtained at 200°C, 300°C and 350°C for ammonia, ethanol, and acetone, respectively. The present results on cost effective WO₃-SnO₂ sensors can find potential application in human breath analysis by noninvasive detection.

Keywords: gas sensing, mixed oxides, nanoplates, ammonia, ethanol, acetone

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1038 Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Industrial Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effects of React Time

Authors: Ali W. Alattabi, Khalid S. Hashim, Hassnen M. Jafer, Ali Alzeyadi


This study was performed to optimise the react time (RT) and study its effects on the removal rates of nitrogen compounds in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating synthetic industrial wastewater. The results showed that increasing the RT from 4 h to 10, 16 and 22 h significantly improved the nitrogen compounds’ removal efficiency, it was increased from 69.5% to 95%, 75.7 to 97% and from 54.2 to 80.1% for NH3-N, NO3-N and NO2-N respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the RT of 22 h was the optimum for nitrogen compounds removal efficiency.

Keywords: ammonia-nitrogen, retention time, nitrate, nitrite, sequencing batch reactor, sludge characteristics

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1037 Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nitrogen Spray Equipment for Space Environmental Simulation Facility

Authors: He Chao, Zhang Lei, Liu Ran, Li Ang


Temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen is of importance to the space environment simulator, which keep the shrouds in the temperature range from -150℃ to +150℃. Liquid nitrogen spray equipment is one of the most critical parts in the temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen. Y type jet atomizer and internal mixing atomizer of the liquid nitrogen spray equipment are studied in this paper, 2D/3D atomizer model was established and grid division was conducted respectively by the software of Catia and ICEM. Based on the above preparation, numerical simulation on the spraying process of the atomizer by FLUENT is performed. Using air and water as the medium, comparison between the tests and numerical simulation was conducted and the results of two ways match well. Hence, it can be conclude that this atomizer model can be applied in the numerical simulation of liquid nitrogen spray equipment.

Keywords: space environmental simulator, liquid nitrogen spray, Y type jet atomizer, internal mixing atomizer, numerical simulation, fluent

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1036 Effect of Chemical, Organic and Biological Nitrogen on Yield and Yield Components of Soybean Cultivars

Authors: Hamid Hatami


This experiment was included two cultivars i.e. Habbit and L17 (Main factor) with six fertilizer treatments i.e. control, seed inoculated with rhyzobium, base nitrogen + top-dress urea at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed inoculated with rhyzobium + top-dress nitrogen at R2 stage, seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage, base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax at R2 stage (sub factors ), as split-plot on the basis of RCBD with 3 replications at 2014. Treatment fertilizer of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top- dress humax at R2 stage and base nitrogen + top-dress urea in R2 stage had a significant superiority than the other fertilizer treatment in biological yield. L17 and Habbit with base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and yield economical 5600 and 5767 kg/ha respectively, showed the most economical yield and Habbit cultivar with control and economical yield 3085 kg/ha showed the least economical yield among all the treatments. Results showed that fertilizer treatment of base nitrogen + seed treated with humax + top-dress humax in R2 stage and Habbit variety were suitable in this study.

Keywords: soybean, humax, rhyzobium, habbit

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1035 Assessment of the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean Sown in Different Types of Moroccan Soils

Authors: F. Z. Aliyat, B. Ben Messaoud, L. Nassiri, E. Bouiamrine, J. Ibijbijen


The present study aims to assess the biological nitrogen fixation in the soybean tested in different Moroccan soils combined with the rhizobial inoculation. These effects were evaluated by the plant growth mainly by the aerial biomass production, total nitrogen content and the proportion of the nitrogen fixed. This assessment clearly shows that the inoculation with bacteria increases the growth of soybean. Five different soils and a control (peat) were used. The rhizobial inoculation was performed by applying the peat that contained a mixture of 2 strains Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 and Bradyrhizobium. The biomass, the total nitrogen content and the proportion of nitrogen fixed were evaluated under different treatments. The essay was realized at the greenhouse the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University. The soybean has shown a great response for the parameters assessed. Moreover, the best response was reported by the inoculated plants compared to non- inoculated and to the absolute control. Finally, good production and the best biological nitrogen fixation present an important ecological technology to improve the sustainable production of soybean and to ensure the increase of the fertility of soils.

Keywords: biological nitrogen fixation, inoculation, rhizobium, soybean

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1034 Effects of Nitrogen and Arsenic on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Photosynthetic Pigments in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mostafa Heidari


Nitrogen fertilization has played a significant role in increasing crop yield, and solving problems of hunger and malnutrition worldwide. However, excessive of heavy metals such as arsenic can interfere on growth and reduced grain yield. In order to investigate the effects of different concentrations of arsenic and nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzyme activities in safflower (cv. Goldasht), a factorial plot experiment as randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted in university of Zabol. Arsenic treatment included: A1= control or 0, A2=30, A3=60 and A4=90 mg. kg-1 soil from the Na2HASO4 source and three nitrogen levels including W1=75, W2=150 and W3=225 kg.ha-1 from urea source. Results showed that, arsenic had a significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. By increasing arsenic levels from A1 to A4, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gayacol peroxidase (GPX) increased and catalase (CAT) was decreased. In this study, arsenic had no significant on chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid content. Nitrogen and interaction between arsenic and nitrogen treatment, except APX, had significant effect on CAT and GPX. The highest GPX activity was obtained at A4N3 treatment. Nitrogen increased the content of chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid.

Keywords: arsenic, physiological parameters, oxidative enzymes, nitrogen

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1033 Production of Nanocomposite Electrical Contact Materials Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C in Thermal Plasma

Authors: A. V. Samokhin, A. A. Fadeev, M. A. Sinaiskii, N. V. Alekseev, A. V. Kolesnikov


Composite materials where metal matrix is reinforced by ceramic or metal particles are of great interest for use in the manufacturing of electrical contacts. Significant improvement of the composite physical and mechanical properties as well as increase of the performance parameters of composite-based products can be achieved if the nanoscale structure in the composite materials is obtained by using nanosized powders as starting components. The results of nanosized composite powders synthesis (Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C) in the DC thermal plasma flows are presented in this paper. The investigations included the following processes: - Recondensation of micron powder mixture Ag + SnO2 in a nitrogen plasma; - The reduction of the oxide powders mixture (WO3 + CuO) in a hydrogen-nitrogen plasma; - Decomposition of the copper formate and copper acetate powders in nitrogen plasma. The calculations of equilibrium compositions of multicomponent systems Ag-Sn-O-N, W-Cu-O-H-N and Cu-O-C-H-N in the temperature range of 400-5000 K were carried to estimate basic process characteristics. Experimental studies of the processes were performed using a plasma reactor with a confined jet flow. The plasma jet net power was in the range of 2 - 13 kW, and the feedstock flow rate was up to 0.35 kg/h. The obtained powders were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, SEM, EDS, ED-XRF, XRD, BET and QEA methods. Nanocomposite Ag-SnO2 (12 wt. %). Processing of the initial powder mixture (Ag-SnO2) in nitrogen thermal plasma stream allowed to produce nanopowders with a specific surface area up to 24 m2/g, consisting predominantly of particles with size less than 100 nm. According to XRD results, tin was present in the obtained products as SnO2 phase, and also as intermetallic phases AgxSn. Nanocomposite W-Cu (20 wt .%). Reduction of (WO3+CuO) mixture in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma provides W-Cu nanopowder with particle sizes in the range of 10-150 nm. The particles have mainly spherical shape and structure tungsten core - copper shell. The thickness of the shell is about several nanometers, the shell is composed of copper and its oxides (Cu2O, CuO). The nanopowders had 1.5 wt. % oxygen impurity. Heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere allows to reduce the oxygen content to less than 0.1 wt. %. Nanocomposite Cu-C. Copper nanopowders were found as products of the starting copper compounds decomposition. The nanopowders primarily had a spherical shape with a particle size of less than 100 nm. The main phase was copper, with small amount of Cu2O and CuO oxides. Copper formate decomposition products had a specific surface area 2.5-7 m2/g and contained 0.15 - 4 wt. % carbon; and copper acetate decomposition products had the specific surface area 5-35 m2/g, and carbon content of 0.3 - 5 wt. %. Compacting of nanocomposites (sintering in hydrogen for Ag-SnO2 and electric spark sintering (SPS) for W-Cu) showed that the samples having a relative density of 97-98 % can be obtained with a submicron structure. The studies indicate the possibility of using high-intensity plasma processes to create new technologies to produce nanocomposite materials for electric contacts.

Keywords: electrical contact, material, nanocomposite, plasma, synthesis

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