Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1771

Search results for: oxide coating

1771 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie


In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation, corrosion, wear, thermal property

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1770 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri


In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, high temperature oxidation, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure

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1769 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

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1768 Fracture Strength of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Plasma Sprayed Aluminum Oxide Coating

Authors: Anup Kumar Keshri, Arvind Agarwal


Carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum oxide (Al2O3) composite coating was synthesized on the steel substrate using plasma spraying technique. Three different compositions of coating such as Al2O3, Al2O¬3-4 wt. % CNT and Al2O3-8 wt. % CNT were synthesized and the fracture strength was determined using the four point bend test. Uniform dispersion of CNTs over Al2O3 powder particle was successfully achieved. With increasing CNT content, porosity in the coating showed decreasing trend and hence contributed towards enhanced mechanical properties such as hardness (~12% increased) and elastic modulus (~34 % increased). Fracture strength of the coating was found to be increasing with the CNT additions. By reinforcement of 8 wt. % of CNT, fracture strength increased by ~2.5 times. The improvement in fracture strength of Al2O3-CNT coating was attributed to three competitive phenomena viz. (i) lower porosity (ii) higher hardness and elastic modulus (iii) CNT bridging between splats.

Keywords: aluminum oxide, carbon nanotube, fracture strength, plasma spraying

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1767 Investigation into Black Oxide Coating of 410 Grade Surgical Stainless Steel Using Alkaline Bath Treatment

Authors: K. K. Saju, A. R. Reghuraj


High reflectance of surgical instruments under bright light hinders the visual clarity during laparoscopic surgical procedures leading to loss of precision and device control and creates strain and undesired difficulties to surgeons. Majority of the surgical instruments are made of surgical grade steel. Instruments with a non reflective surface can enhance the visual clarity during precision surgeries. A conversion coating of black oxide has been successfully developed 410 grade surgical stainless steel .The characteristics of the developed coating suggests the application of this technique for developing 410 grade surgical instruments with minimal reflectance.

Keywords: conversion coatings, 410 stainless steel, black oxide, reflectance

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1766 Optimization of Bio-Based Mixture of Canarium Luzonicum and Calcium Oxide as Coating Material for Reinforcing Steel Bars

Authors: Charizza D. Montarin, Daryl Jae S. Sigue, Gilford Estores


Philippines was moderately vulnerable to corrosion and to prevent this problem, surface coating should be applied. The main objective of this research was to develop and optimize a bio-based mixture of Pili Resin and Lime as Coating Materials. There are three (3) factors to be considered in choosing the best coating material such as chemical adhesion, friction, and the bearing/shear against the steel bar-concrete interface. Fortunately, both proportions of the Bio-based coating materials (50:50 and 65:35) do not have red rust formation complying with ASTM B117 but failed in terms of ASTM D 3359. Splitting failures of concrete were observed in the Unconfined Reinforced Concrete Samples. All of the steel bars (uncoated and coated) surpassed the Minimum Bond strength (NSCP 2015) about 203% to 285%. The experiments were about 1% to 3% of the results from the ANSYS Simulations with and without Salt Spray Test. Using the bio-based and epoxy coatings, normal splitting strengths were declined. However, there has no significant difference between the results. Thus, the bio-based coating materials can be used as an alternative for the epoxy coating materials and it was highly recommended for Low – Rise Building only.

Keywords: Canarium luzonicum, calcium oxide, corrosion, finite element simulations

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1765 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal


Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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1764 Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-rubaye


A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in –situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550°C).

Keywords: fecralloy, zsm-5 zeolite, zeolite coatings, hydrothermal method

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1763 Layer by Layer Coating of Zinc Oxide/Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposite on Ceramic Support for Solvent/Solvent Separation Using Pervaporation Method

Authors: S. A. A. Nabeela Nasreen, S. Sundarrajan, S. A. Syed Nizar, Seeram Ramakrishna


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest due to its diverse pore size tunability, fascinating topologies and extensive uses in fields such as catalysis, membrane separation, chemical sensing, etc. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a class of MOF with porous crystals containing extended three-dimensional structures of tetrahedral metal ions (e.g., Zn) bridged by Imidazolate (Im). Selected ZIFs are used to separate solvent/solvent mixtures. A layer by layer formation of the nanocomposite of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and ZIF on a ceramic support using a solvothermal method was engaged and tested for target solvent/solvent separation. Metal oxide layer was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM to confirm the smooth and continuous coating for the separation process. The chemical composition of ZIF films was studied by using X-Ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The obtained ceramic tube with metal oxide and ZIF layer coating were tested for its packing density, thickness, distribution of seed layers and variation of permeation rate of solvent mixture (isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Pervaporation technique was used for the separation to achieve a high permeation rate with separation ratio of > 99.5% of the solvent mixture.

Keywords: metal oxide, membrane, pervaporation, solvothermal, ZIF

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1762 Fabrication of Tin Oxide and Metal Doped Tin Oxide for Gas Sensor Application

Authors: Goban Kumar Panneer Selvam


In past years, there is lots of death caused due to harmful gases. So its very important to monitor harmful gases for human safety, and semiconductor material play important role in producing effective gas sensors.A novel solvothermal synthesis method based on sol-gel processing was prepared to deposit tin oxide thin films on glass substrate at high temperature for gas sensing application. The structure and morphology of tin oxide were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM analysis of how spheres shape in tin oxide nanoparticles. The structure characterization of tin oxide studied by X-ray diffraction shows 8.95 nm (calculated by sheers equation). The UV visible spectroscopy indicated a maximum absorption band shown at 390 nm. Further dope tin oxide with selected metals to attain maximum sensitivity using dip coating technique with different immersion and sensing characterization are measured.

Keywords: tin oxide, gas sensor, chlorine free, sensitivity, crystalline size

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1761 Cold Spray Coating and Its Application for High Temperature

Authors: T. S. Sidhu


Amongst the existing coatings methods, the cold spray is new upcoming process to deposit coatings. As from the name itself, the cold spray coating takes place at very low temperature as compare to other thermal spray coatings. In all other thermal spray coating process the partial melting of the coating powder particles takes place before deposition, but cold spray process takes place in solid state. In cold spray process, the bonding of coating power with substrate is not metallurgical as in other thermal spray processes. Due to supersonic speed and less temperature of spray particles, solid state, dense, and oxide free coatings are produced. Due to these characteristics, the cold spray coatings have been used to protect the materials against hot corrosion. In the present study, the cold spray process, cold spray fundaments, its types, and its applications for high temperatures are discussed in the light of presently available literature. In addition, the assessment of cold spray with the competitive technologies has been conferred with available literature.

Keywords: cold spray coating, hot corrosion, thermal spray coating, high-temperature materials

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1760 Electrochemical and Microstructure Properties of Chromium-Graphene and SnZn-Graphene Oxide Composite Coatings

Authors: Rekha M. Y., Punith Kumar, Anshul Kamboj, Chandan Srivastava


Coatings plays an important role in providing protection for a substrate and in improving the surface quality. Graphene/graphene oxide (GO) using in coating systems provides an environmental friendly solution towards protection against corrosion. Issues such as, lack of scale, high cost, low quality limits the practical application of graphene/GO as corrosion resistant coating material. One other way to employ these materials for corrosion protection is to incorporate them into coatings that are conventionally used for corrosion protection. Due to the extraordinary properties of graphene/GO, it has been demonstrated that the coatings containing graphene/GO are more corrosion resistant than pure metal/alloy coatings. In the present work, Cr-graphene and SnZn-GO composite coatings were investigated in enhancing the corrosion resistant property when compared to pure Cr coating and pure SnZn coating respectively. All the coatings were electrodeposited over mild-steel substrate. Graphene and GO were synthesized by electrochemical exfoliation method and modified Hummers’ method respectively. In Cr coatings, the microstructural study revealed that the addition of formic acid in the coatings reduced the number of cracks in the coatings. Further addition of graphene in Cr coating enhanced the Cr coating’s morphology. Chemically synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were also embedded in the as-deposited Cr and Cr-graphene coatings to enhance the adhesion of the coating, to improve the surface finish and to increase the corrosion resistant property of the coatings. Diffraction analysis revealed that the addition of graphene also altered the texture of the Cr coatings. In SnZn alloy coatings, the morphological and topographical characterization revealed that the relative smoothness and compactness of the coatings increased with increase in the addition of GO in the coatings. The microstructural investigation revealed large-scale segregation of Zn-rich and Sn-rich phases in the pure SnZn coating. However, in SnZn-GO composite coating the uniform distribution of Zn phase in the Sn-rich matrix was observed. This distribution caused the early and uniform formation of ZnO, which is the corrosion product, yielding better corrosion resistance for the SnZn-GO composite coatings as compared to pure SnZn coating. A significant improvement in corrosion resistance in terms of reduction in corrosion current and corrosion rate and increase in the polarization resistance was observed in Cr coating containing graphene and in SnZn coatings containing GO.

Keywords: coatings, corrosion, electrodeposition, graphene, graphene-oxide

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1759 Optical Characterization and Surface Morphology of SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: J. O. Ajayi, S. S. Oluyamo, D. B. Agunbiade


In this work, tin oxide thin films (SnO2) were prepared using the spin coating technique. The effects of precursor concentration on the thin film properties were investigated. Tin oxide was synthesized from anhydrous Tin (II) Chloride (SnCl2) dispersed in Methanol and Acetic acid. The metallic oxide (SnO2) films deposited were characterized using the UV Spectrophotometer and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From the absorption spectra, absorption increases with decrease in precursor concentration. Absorbance in the VIS region is lower than 0 % at higher concentration. The optical transmission spectrum shows that transmission increases as the concentration of precursor decreases and the maximum transmission in visible region is about 90% for films prepared with 0.2 M. Also, there is increase in the reflectance of thin films as concentration of precursor increases. The films have high transparency (more than 85%) and low reflectance (less than 40%) in the VIS region. Investigation showed that the direct band gap value increased from 3.79eV, to 3.82eV as the precursor concentration decreased from 0.6 M to 0.2 M. Average direct bandgap energy for all the tin oxide films was estimated to be 3.80eV. The effect of precursor concentration was directly observed in crystal outgrowth and surface particle densification. They were found to increase proportionately with higher concentration.

Keywords: anhydrous TIN (II) chloride, densification, NIS- VIS region, spin coating technique

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1758 Cupric Oxide Thin Films for Optoelectronic Application

Authors: Sanjay Kumar, Dinesh Pathak, Sudhir Saralch


Copper oxide is a semiconductor that has been studied for several reasons such as the natural abundance of starting material copper (Cu); the easiness of production by Cu oxidation; their non-toxic nature and the reasonably good electrical and optical properties. Copper oxide is well-known as cuprite oxide. The cuprite is p-type semiconductors having band gap energy of 1.21 to 1.51 eV. As a p-type semiconductor, conduction arises from the presence of holes in the valence band (VB) due to doping/annealing. CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbency and a low thermal emittance. CuO is very promising candidate for solar cell applications as it is a suitable material for photovoltaic energy conversion. It has been demonstrated that the dip technique can be used to deposit CuO films in a simple manner using metallic chlorides (CuCl₂.2H₂O) as a starting material. Copper oxide films are prepared using a methanolic solution of cupric chloride (CuCl₂.2H₂O) at three baking temperatures. We made three samples, after heating which converts to black colour. XRD data confirm that the films are of CuO phases at a particular temperature. The optical band gap of the CuO films calculated from optical absorption measurements is 1.90 eV which is quite comparable to the reported value. Dip technique is a very simple and low-cost method, which requires no sophisticated specialized setup. Coating of the substrate with a large surface area can be easily obtained by this technique compared to that in physical evaporation techniques and spray pyrolysis. Another advantage of the dip technique is that it is very easy to coat both sides of the substrate instead of only one and to deposit otherwise inaccessible surfaces. This method is well suited for applying coating on the inner and outer surfaces of tubes of various diameters and shapes. The main advantage of the dip coating method lies in the fact that it is possible to deposit a variety of layers having good homogeneity and mechanical and chemical stability with a very simple setup. In this paper, the CuO thin films preparation by dip coating method and their characterization will be presented.

Keywords: absorber material, cupric oxide, dip coating, thin film

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1757 Comprehensive Microstructural and Thermal Analysis of Nano Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Structural Applications

Authors: Hammad Aziz


Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is applied on the surface of material requiring fire protection. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, zinc borate, mica, magnesium oxide, and bisphenol A BE-188 with polyamide polyamine H-4014 as curing agent. Formulations were prepared using nano size MgO and compared with control formulation i.e. without nano size MgO. Small scale hydrocarbon fire test was conducted to scrutinize the thermal performance of the coating. Char and coating were further characterized by using FESEM, FTIR, EDS, TGA and DTGA. Thus, Intumescent coatings reinforced with 2 wt. % of nano-MgO (rod shaped particles) provide superior thermal performance and uniform microstructure of char due to well dispersion of nano particles.

Keywords: intumescent coating, char, SEM, TGA

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1756 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver/Graphene Oxide Co-Decorated TiO2 Nanotubular Arrays for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Alireza Rafieerad, Bushroa Abd Razak, Bahman Nasiri Tabrizi, Jamunarani Vadivelu


Recently, reports on the fabrication of nanotubular arrays have generated considerable scientific interest, owing to the broad range of applications of the oxide nanotubes in solar cells, orthopedic and dental implants, photocatalytic devices as well as lithium-ion batteries. A more attractive approach for the fabrication of oxide nanotubes with controllable morphology is the electrochemical anodization of substrate in a fluoride-containing electrolyte. Consequently, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) have been highly considered as an applicable material particularly in the district of artificial implants. In addition, regarding long-term efficacy and reasons of failing and infection after surgery of currently used dental implants required to enhance the cytocompatibility properties of Ti-based bone-like tissue. As well, graphene oxide (GO) with relevant biocompatibility features in tissue sites, osseointegration and drug delivery functionalization was fully understood. Besides, the boasting antibacterial ability of silver (Ag) remarkably provided for implantable devices without infection symptoms. Here, surface modification of Ti–6Al–7Nb implants (Ti67IMP) by the development of Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs was examined. Initially, the anodic TiO2 nanotubes obtained at a constant potential of 60 V were annealed at 600 degree centigrade for 2 h to improve the adhesion of the coating. Afterward, the Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs were developed by spin coating on Ti67IM. The microstructural features, phase composition and wettability behavior of the nanostructured coating were characterized comparably. In a nutshell, the results of the present study may contribute to the development of the nanostructured Ti67IMP with improved surface properties.

Keywords: anodic tio2 nanotube, biomedical applications, graphene oxide, silver, spin coating

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1755 Surface Coating of Polyester Fabrics by Sol Gel Synthesized ZnO Particles

Authors: Merve Küçük, M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu


Zinc oxide particles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and dip coated on polyester fabric. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a single crystal phase of ZnO particles. Chemical characteristics of the polyester fabric surface were investigated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Morphology of ZnO coated fabric was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After particle analysis, the aqueous ZnO solution resulted in a narrow size distribution at submicron levels. The deposit of ZnO on polyester fabrics yielded a homogeneous spread of spherical particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results also affirmed the presence of ZnO particles on the polyester fabrics.

Keywords: dip coating, polyester fabrics, sol gel, zinc oxide

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1754 A Study on Prediction Model for Thermally Grown Oxide Layer in Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Yongseok Kim, Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok


Thermal barrier coating(TBC) is applied for gas turbine components to protect the components from extremely high temperature condition. Since metallic substrate cannot endure such severe condition of gas turbines, delamination of TBC can cause failure of the system. Thus, delamination life of TBC is one of the most important issues for designing the components operating at high temperature condition. Thermal stress caused by thermally grown oxide(TGO) layer is known as one of the major failure mechanisms of TBC. Thermal stress by TGO mainly occurs at the interface between TGO layer and ceramic top coat layer, and it is strongly influenced by the thickness and shape of TGO layer. In this study, Isothermal oxidation is conducted on coin-type TBC specimens prepared by APS(air plasma spray) method. After the isothermal oxidation at various temperature and time condition, the thickness and shape(rumpling shape) of the TGO is investigated, and the test data is processed by numerical analysis. Finally, the test data is arranged into a mathematical prediction model with two variables(temperature and exposure time) which can predict the thickness and rumpling shape of TGO.

Keywords: thermal barrier coating, thermally grown oxide, thermal stress, isothermal oxidation, numerical analysis

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1753 Thin Films of Copper Oxide Deposited by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method: Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties

Authors: Touka Nassim, Tabli Dalila


In this study, CuO thin films synthesized via simple sol-gel method, have been deposited on glass substrates by the spin coating technique and annealed at various temperatures. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The structural characterization by XRD reveals that the as prepared films were tenorite phase and have a high level of purity and crystallinity. The crystallite size of the CuO films was affected by the annealing temperature and was estimated in the range 20-31.5 nm. SEM images show a homogeneous distribution of spherical nanoparticles over the surface of the annealed films at 350 and 450 °C. Vibrational Spectroscopy revealed vibration modes specific to CuO with monolithic structure on the Raman spectra at 289 cm−1 and on FT-IR spectra around 430-580 cm−1. Electronic investigation performed by UV–Visible spectroscopy showed that the films have high absorbance in the visible region and their optical band gap increases from 2.40 to 2.66 eV (blue shift) with increasing annealing temperature from 350 to 550 °C.

Keywords: Sol-gel, Spin coating method, Copper oxide, Thin films

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1752 Fabrication of Titanium Diboride-Based High Emissive Paint Coating Using Economical Dip Coating Method for High Temperature Applications

Authors: Atasi Dan, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Bikramjit Basu


A cost-effective titanium diboride (TiB2) paint coating has been developed on stainless steel substrate using commercially available polyvinylpyrrolidone as a binder by convenient dip-coating technique. The emittance of the coating has been explored by tailoring various process parameters to obtain highest thermal radiation. The optimized coating has achieved a high thermal emittance of 0.85. In addition, the coating exhibited an excellent thermal stability while heat-treated at 500 °C in air. Along with the emittance, the structural and physical properties of the As-deposited and heat-treated coatings have been investigated systematically. The high temperature annealing has not affected the emittance, chemical composition and morphology of the coating significantly. Hence, the fabricated paint coating is expected to open up new possibilities for using it as a low-cost, thermally stable emitter in high temperature applications.

Keywords: titanium diboride, emittance, paint coating, thermal stability

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1751 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu


In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SS

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1750 Cold Spray Fabrication of Coating for Highly Corrosive Environment

Authors: Harminder Singh


Cold spray is a novel and emerging technology for the fabrication of coating. In this study, coating is successfully developed by this process on superalloy surface. The selected coating composition is already proved as corrosion resistant. The microstructure of the newly developed coating is examined by various characterization techniques, for testing its suitability for high temperature corrosive conditions of waste incinerator. The energy producing waste incinerators are still running at low efficiency, mainly due to their chlorine based highly corrosive conditions. The characterization results show that the developed cold sprayed coating structure is suitable for its further testing in highly aggressive conditions.

Keywords: coating, cold spray, corrosion, microstructure

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1749 Synthesis of Y2O3 Films by Spray Coating with Milled EDTA ・Y・H Complexes

Authors: Keiji Komatsu,Tetsuo Sekiya, Ayumu Toyama, Atsushi Nakamura, Ikumi Toda, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Hidetoshi Saitoh


Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films have been successfully deposited with yttrium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA・Y・H) complexes prepared by various milling techniques. The effects of the properties of the EDTA・Y・H complex on the properties of the deposited Y2O3 films have been analyzed. Seven different types of the raw EDTA・Y・H complexes were prepared by various commercial milling techniques such as ball milling, hammer milling, commercial milling, and mortar milling. The milled EDTA・Y・H complexes exhibited various particle sizes and distributions, depending on the milling method. Furthermore, we analyzed the crystal structure, morphology and elemental distribution profile of the metal oxide films deposited on stainless steel substrate with the milled EDTA・Y・H complexes. Depending on the milling technique, the flow properties of the raw powders differed. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples revealed the formation of Y2O3 crystalline phase, irrespective of the milling technique. Of all the different milling techniques, the hammer milling technique is considered suitable for fabricating dense Y2O3 films.

Keywords: powder sizes and distributions, flame spray coating techniques, Yttrium oxide

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1748 NOx Abatement by CO with the Use of Grain Catalysts with Active Coating Made of Transition Metal (Cu, Mn, Nb) Oxides Prepared by Electroless Chemical Deposition Method

Authors: Davyd Urbanas, Pranas Baltrenas


It is well-known that, despite the constant increase of alternative energy sources usage, today combustible fuels are still widely used in power engineering. As a result of fuel combustion, significant amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO is a product of incomplete combustion) are supplied to the atmosphere. Also, these pollutants are formed in industry (chemical production, refining, and metal production). In this work, the investigation of nitrogen oxides CO-selective catalytic reduction using new grain load-type catalysts was carried out. The catalysts containing the substrate and a thin active coating made of transition metal (Mn, Cu, and Nb) oxides were prepared with the use of electroless chemical deposition method. Chemical composition, chemical state, and morphology of the formed active coating were investigated using ICP-OES, EDX, SEM, and XPS techniques. The obtained results revealed that the prepared catalysts (Cu-Mn-oxide and Cu-Mn-Nb-oxide) have rough and developed surface and can be successfully used for the flue gas catalytic purification. The significant advantage of prepared catalysts is their suitability from technological application point of view, which differs this work from others dedicated to gas purification by SCR.

Keywords: flue gas, nitrogen oxides, selective catalytic reduction, transition metal oxides

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1747 Deposition and Properties of PEO Coatings on Zinc-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Linlin Wang, Guangdong Bian, Jifeng Shen, Jingzhu Zeng


Zinc-aluminum alloys have been applied as alternatives to bronze, aluminum alloys, and cast iron due to their distinguishing features such as high as-cast strength, excellent bearing properties, as well as low energy requirements for melting. In this study, oxide coatings were produced on ZA27 zinc-aluminum alloy by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Three coatings were deposited by using three various electrolytes, i.e. silicate, aluminate and aluminate/borate composite solutions. The current density is set at 0.1A/cm2, deposition time is 40 mins for all the deposition processes. The surface morphology and phase structure of the three coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pin-on-disc sliding wear tests were conducted to test the tribological properties of coatings. The results indicated that the coating produced using the aluminate/borate composite electrolyte had the highest deposition rate and best wear resistance among the three coatings.

Keywords: oxide coating, PEO, tribological properties, ZA27

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1746 Copper Doped P-Type Nickel Oxide Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Kai Huang, Assamen Ayalew Ejigu, Mu-Jie Lin, Liang-Chiun Chao


Nickel oxide and copper-nickel oxide thin films have been successfully deposited by reactive ion beam sputter deposition. Experimental results show that nickel oxide deposited at 300°C is single phase NiO while best crystalline quality is achieved with an O_pf of 0.5. XRD analysis of nickel-copper oxide deposited at 300°C shows a Ni2O3 like crystalline structure at low O_pf while changes to NiO like crystalline structure at high O_pf. EDS analysis shows that nickel-copper oxide deposited at low O_pf is CuxNi2-xO3 with x = 1, while nickel-copper oxide deposited at high O_pf is CuxNi1-xO with x = 0.5, which is supported by Raman analysis. The bandgap of NiO is ~ 3.5 eV regardless of O_pf while the band gap of nickel-copper oxide decreases from 3.2 to 2.3 eV as Opf reaches 1.0.

Keywords: copper, ion beam, NiO, oxide, resistivity, transparent

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1745 Elaboration and Characterization of MEH-PPV/PCBM Composite Film Doped with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photovoltaic Application

Authors: Wided Zerguine, Farid Habelhames


The performance of photovoltaic devices with a light absorber consisting of a single-type conjugated polymer is poor, due to a low photo-generation yield of charge carriers, strong radiative recombination’s and low mobility of charge carriers. Recently, it has been shown that ultra-fast photoinduced charge transfer can also occur between a conjugated polymer and a metal oxide semiconductor such as SnO2, TiO2, ZnO, Nb2O5, etc. This has led to the fabrication of photovoltaic devices based on composites of oxide semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a conjugated polymer matrix. In this work, Poly [2-methoxy-5-(20-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), (6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (n-type) were dissolved, mixed and deposited by physical methods (spin-coating) on indium tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. The incorporation of the titanium dioxide nanoparticles changed the morphology and increased the roughness of polymers film (MEH-PPV/PCBM), and the photocurrent density of the composite (MEH-PPV/PCBM +n-TiO2) was higher than that of single MEHPPV/ PCBM film. The study showed that the presence of n-TiO2 particles in the polymeric film improves the photoelectrochemical properties of MEH-PPV/PCBM composite.

Keywords: photocurrent density, organic nanostructures, hybrid coating, conducting polymer, titanium dioxide

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1744 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Jana Petrů, Tomáš Zlámal, Robert Čep, Lenka Čepová


This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials -cermets- is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: coating, aerospace, plasma, grinding

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1743 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif


The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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1742 Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Papaya (Carica papaya)

Authors: Basharat Yousuf, Abhaya K. Srivastava


Psyllium gum alone and in combination with sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya. Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples, refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil. Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore, minimizing the weight loss.

Keywords: coating, fresh-cut, gum, papaya, psylllium

Procedia PDF Downloads 431