Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 640

Search results for: oxidation

550 Indigo Dye Wastewater Treatment by Fenton Oxidation

Authors: Anurak Khrueakham, Tassanee Chanphuthin


Indigo is a well-known natural blue dye that is used hither to even though synthetic ones are commercially available. The removal of indigo from effluents is difficult due to its resistance towards biodegradation which causes an aquatic environment effect. Fenton process is a reaction between hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and Fe2+ to generate •OH (highly reactive oxidant (E◦= 2.8 V)). Additionally, •OH is non-selective oxidant which is capable of destroying wide range of organic pollutants in water and wastewater. The aims of this research were to investigate the effect of H2O2, Fe2+ and pH on indigo wastewater oxidation by Fenton process. A liter reactor was operated in all experiments. The batch reactor was prepared by filling 1 liter of indigo wastewater. The pH was adjusted to the desired value; then, FeSO4 at predetermined amount was added. Finally, H2O2 was immediately added to start the Fenton’s reaction. The Fenton oxidation of indigo wastewater was operated for 60 minutes. Residual H2O2 was analyzed using titanium oxalate method. The Fe2+ concentration was determined by phenanthroline method. COD was determined using closed-reflux titrimetric method to indicate the removal efficiency. The results showed that at pH 2 increasing the initial ferrous concentration from 0.1 mM to 1 mM enhanced the indigo removal from 36% to 59%. Fenton reaction was rapidly due to the high generation rate of •OH. The degradation of indigo increased with increasing pH up to pH 3. This can be explained that the scavenging effect of the •OH by H+ in the condition of low pH is severe to form an oxonium ion, resulting in decrease the production of •OH and lower the decolorization efficiency of indigo. Increasing the initial H2O2 concentration from 5 mM to 20 mM could enhance the decolorization. The COD removal was increased from 35% to 65% with increasing H2O2 concentration from 5 mM to 20 mM. The generations of •OH were promoted by the increase of initial H2O2 concentration. However, the higher concentration of H2O2 resulted in the reduction of COD removal efficiency. The initial ferrous concentrations were studied in the range of 0.05-15.0 mM. The results found that the COD removals increased with increasing ferrous concentrations. The COD removals were increased from 32% to 65% when increase the ferrous concentration from 0.5 mM to 10.0 mM. However, the COD removal did not significantly change at higher 10.0 mM. This is because •OH yielding was lower level of oxidation, therefore, the COD removals were not improved. According to the studies, the Fenton’s reagents were important factors for COD removal by Fenton process. The optimum condition for COD removal of indigo dye wastewater was 10.0 mM of ferrous, 20 mM of H2O2 and at pH 3.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Advanced Oxidation Processes, fenton oxidation, indigo dye

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549 Structure and Activity Research of Hydrocarbons Refining Catalysts Based on Wastes of Ferroalloy Production

Authors: Ruslan Safarov, Zhanat Shomanova, Yuri Nosenko, Zheneta Tashmuchambetova, Alima Zharmagambetova


An effective way of utilization of ferroalloy production wastes is preparing hydrocarbon refining catalysts from them. It is possible due to accordable transition metals containing in the wastes. In the work, we are presenting the results on elemental analysis of sludge samples from Aksu ferroalloy plant (Aksu, Kazakhstan), method of catalysts preparing, results of physical-chemical analysis of obtained catalysts (X-ray analysis, electron microscopy, the BET method etc.), results of using the catalysts in some hydrocarbons refining processes such as hydrocracking of rubber waste, cracking of gasoil, oxidation of cyclohexane. The main results of catalytic activity research are: a) In hydrocracking of rubber waste 64.9% of liquid products were fuel fractions; b) In cracking of gasoil conversion was 51% and selectivity by liquid products was 99%; c) In oxidation of cyclohexane the maximal product yield 87.9% and selectivity by cyclohexanol 93.0% were achieved.

Keywords: Catalyst, cyclohexane oxidation, ferroalloy production waste, gasoil cracking

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548 Internal Stresses and Structural Evolutions in Zr Alloys during Oxidation at High Temperature and Subsequent Cooling

Authors: Raphaelle Guillou, Matthieu Le Saux, Jean-Christophe Brachet, Thomas Guilbert, Elodie Rouesne, Denis Menut, Caroline Toffolon-Masclet, Dominique Thiaudiere


In some hypothetical accidental situations, such as during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in pressurized water reactors, fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys can be exposed for a few minutes to steam at High Temperature (HT up to 1200°C) before being cooled and then quenched in water. Under LOCA-like conditions, the cladding undergoes a number of metallurgical changes (phase transformations, oxygen diffusion and growth of an oxide layer...) and is consequently submitted to internal stresses whose state evolves during the transient. These stresses can have an effect on the oxide structure and the oxidation kinetics of the material. They evolve during cooling, owing to differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the various phases and phase transformations of the metal and the oxide. These stresses may result in the failure of the cladding during quenching, once the material is embrittled by oxidation. In order to progress in the evaluation of these internal stresses, X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in-situ under synchrotron radiation during HT oxidation and subsequent cooling on Zircaloy-4 sheet samples. First, structural evolutions, such as phase transformations, have been studied as a function of temperature for both the oxide layer and the metallic substrate. Then, internal stresses generated within the material oxidized at temperatures between 700 and 900°C have been evaluated thanks to the 2θ diffraction peak position shift measured during the in-situ experiments. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was performed on the samples after cooling in order to characterize their crystallographic texture. Furthermore, macroscopic strains induced by oxidation in the conditions investigated during the in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments were measured in-situ in a dilatometer.

Keywords: APRP, stains measurements, synchrotron diffraction, zirconium allows

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547 In-Situ Studies of Cyclohexane Oxidation Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy for the Refinement of Mechanism Based Kinetic Models

Authors: Christine Fräulin, Daniela Schurr, Hamed Shahidi Rad, Gerrit Waters, Günter Rinke, Roland Dittmeyer, Michael Nilles


The reaction mechanisms of many liquid-phase reactions in organic chemistry have not yet been sufficiently clarified. Process conditions of several hundred degrees celsius and pressures to ten megapascals complicate the sampling and the determination of kinetic data. Space resolved in-situ measurements promises new insights. A non-invasive in-situ measurement technique has the advantages that no sample preparation is necessary, there is no change in sample mixture before analysis and the sampling do no lead to interventions in the flow. Thus, the goal of our research was the development of a contact-free spatially resolved measurement technique for kinetic studies of liquid phase reaction under process conditions. Therefore we used laser Raman spectroscopy combined with an optical transparent microchannel reactor. To show the performance of the system we choose the oxidation of cyclohexane as sample reaction. Cyclohexane oxidation is an economically important process. The products are intermediates for caprolactam and adipic acid, which are starting materials for polyamide 6 and 6.6 production. To maintain high selectivities of 70 to 90 %, the reaction is performed in industry at a low conversion of about six percent. As Raman spectroscopy is usually very selective but not very sensitive the detection of the small product concentration in cyclohexane oxidation is quite challenging. To meet these requirements, an optical experimental setup was optimized to determine the concentrations by laser Raman spectroscopy with respect to good detection sensitivity. With this measurement technique space resolved kinetic studies of uncatalysed and homogeneous catalyzed cyclohexane oxidation were carried out to obtain details about the reaction mechanism.

Keywords: Chemistry, Homogeneous catalysis, in-situ laser raman spectroscopy, space resolved kinetic measurements

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546 Studies on the Spontaneous Reductive Decomposition Behavior of Permanganate in the Water

Authors: Hyun Kyu Lee, Won Zin Oh, June Hyun Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Sang June Choi, Hak Soo Kim


The oxidative dissolution of chromium oxide by manganese oxides including permanganate have been widely studied not only for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plant, but also for the environmental control of the toxic chromate caused by naturally occurring manganese dioxide. However, little attention has been made for the spontaneous reductive decomposition of permanganate in the water, which is a competing reaction with the oxidation of the chromium oxide by permanganate. The objective of this study is to investigate the spontaneous reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water, depending on the variation of acidity, temperature and concentration. Results of the experiments showed that the permanganate reductive decomposition product is manganese dioxide, and this reaction accompanies with the same molar amount of hydrogen ion consumption. Therefore, at the neutral condition (ex. potassium permanganate solution without acidic chemicals), the permanganate do not reduce by itself at any condition of temperature, concentration within the experimental range. From the results, we confirmed that the oxidation reaction for the permanganate reduction is the water oxidation that is accompanying the oxygen evolution. The experimental results on the reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water also showed that the degree and rate of permanganate reduction increases with the temperature, acidity and concentration. The spontaneous decomposition of the permanganates obtained in the studies would become a good reference to select the operational condition, such as temperature, acidity and concentration, for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants.

Keywords: Nuclear Power Plant, Acidity, temperature, Water Oxidation, permanganate reduction, spontaneous decomposition, permanganate concentration, chemical decontamination

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545 Oxidation Assessment of Mayonnaise with Headspace Single-Drop Microextarction (HS-SDME) Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) during Shelf-Life

Authors: Kooshan Nayebzadeh, Maryam Enteshari, Abdorreza Mohammadi


The oxidative stability of mayonnaise under different storage temperatures (4 and 25˚C) during 6-month shelf-life was investigated by different analytical methods. In this study, headspace single-drop microextarction (HS-SDME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a green, sensitive and rapid technique was applied to evaluate oxidative state in mayonnaise. Oxidation changes of extracted oil from mayonnaise were monitored by analytical parameters including peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-An V), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), and oxidative stability index (OSI). Hexanal and heptanal as secondary volatile oxidation compounds were determined by HS-SDME/GC-MS method in mayonnaise matrix. The rate of oxidation in mayonnaises increased during storage and it was determined greater at 25 ˚C. The values of Anisidine and TBA were gradually enhanced during 6 months, while the amount of OSI decreased. At both temperatures, the content of hexanal was higher than heptanal during all storage periods. Also significant increments in hexanal and heptanal concentrations in the second and sixth month of storage have been observed. Hexanal concentrations in mayonnaises which were stored at 25 ˚C and during storage time showed the highest values. It can be concluded that the temperature and duration of storage time are definitive parameters which affect on quality and oxidative stability of mayonnaise. Additionally, hexanal content in comparison to heptanal is a more reliable oxidative indicator and HS-SDME/GC-MS can be applied in a quick and simple manner.

Keywords: shelf-life, oxidative stability, mayonnaise, headspace single-drop microextarction (HS-SDME)

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544 Catalytic Combustion of Methane over Co/Mo and Co/Mn Catalysts at Low Temperature

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, David W. Rooney, Jillian M. Thompson


Natural gas (the main constituent is Methane 95%) is considered as an alternative to petroleum for the production of synthetics fuels. Nowadays, methane combustion at low temperature has received much attention however; it is the most difficult hydrocarbon to be combusted. Co/Mo and (4:1 wt/wt) catalysts were prepared from a range of different precursors and used for the low temperature total methane oxidation (TMO). The catalysts were characterized by, XRD, BET and H2-TPR and tested under reaction temperatures of 250-400 °C with a GHSV= 36,000 mL g-1 h-1. It was found that the combustion temperature was dependent on the type of the precursor, and that those containing chloride led to catalysts with lower activity. The optimum catalyst was Co/Mo (4:1wt/wt) where greater than 20% methane conversion was observed at 250 °C. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability for TMO, showing no deactivation during 50 hours of time on stream.

Keywords: methane low temperature total oxidation, oxygen carrier, Co/Mo, Co/Mn

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543 Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation Synthesis of TiO2 nanotube as Perspective Electrode for the Detection of Phenyl Hydrazine

Authors: Sadia Ameen, M. Nazim, Hyumg-Kee Seo, Hyung-Shik Shin


TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays were grown on titanium (Ti) foil substrate by electrochemical anodic oxidation and utilized as working electrode to fabricate a highly sensitive and reproducible chemical sensor for the detection of harmful phenyl hydrazine chemical. The fabricated chemical sensor based on TiO2 NT arrays electrode exhibited high sensitivity of ~40.9 µ and detection limit of ~0.22 µM with short response time (10s).

Keywords: Chemical Sensor, Sensitivity, TiO2 NT, phenyl hydrazine, electrocatalytic properties

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542 Toxicological Validation during the Development of New Catalytic Systems Using Air/Liquid Interface Cell Exposure

Authors: A. Verdin, P. Shirali, D. Courcot, Y. Landkocz, S. Billet, P. J. Martin, M. Al Zallouha, J. Brunet, R. Cousin, J. M. Halket, E. Genty, S. Siffert


Toluene is one of the most used Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the industry. Amongst VOCs, Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX) emitted into the atmosphere have a major and direct impact on human health. It is, therefore, necessary to minimize emissions directly at source. Catalytic oxidation is an industrial technique which provides remediation efficiency in the treatment of these organic compounds. However, during operation, the catalysts can release some compounds, called byproducts, more toxic than the original VOCs. The catalytic oxidation of a gas stream containing 1000ppm of toluene on Pd/α-Al2O3 can release a few ppm of benzene, according to the operating temperature of the catalyst. The development of new catalysts must, therefore, include chemical and toxicological validation phases. In this project, A549 human lung cells were exposed in air/liquid interface (Vitrocell®) to gas mixtures derived from the oxidation of toluene with a catalyst of Pd/α-Al2O3. Both exposure concentrations (i.e. 10 and 100% of catalytic emission) resulted in increased gene expression of Xenobiotics Metabolising Enzymes (XME) (CYP2E1 CYP2S1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, and NQO1). Some of these XMEs are known to be induced by polycyclic organic compounds conventionally not searched during the development of catalysts for VOCs degradation. The increase in gene expression suggests the presence of undetected compounds whose toxicity must be assessed before the adoption of new catalyst. This enhances the relevance of toxicological validation of such systems before scaling-up and marketing.

Keywords: BTEX toxicity, air/liquid interface cell exposure, Vitrocell®, catalytic oxidation

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541 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Some Amino Acids by Peroxodisulphate

Authors: Abdelmahmod Saad


In this study two amino acids were chosen (DL.alanine,DL.serine) to determine their effect on dissociation of S2O8-2 ino. As the reaction was very slow, Ag+ ino was used as a catalyst. The kinetics measurement showed that the reactions in both cases were found in the first order with respect to S2O8-2, half order with respect to Ag+ and zero order with respect to substrates. Mechanisms were proposed for these reactions according to the determined orders. The energy of activation (AE) was determined for each reaction, and was found to by 30.50 k JmoI-1 in case of DL. Serine and 24.40 k JmoI-1 in case of DL.alanine.

Keywords: Amino Acids, Mechanism, Oxidation, peroxodisulphate

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540 Study of the Kinetics of Formation of Carboxylic Acids Using Ion Chromatography during Oxidation Induced by Rancimat of the Oleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Linolenic Acid, and Biodiesel

Authors: Patrícia T. Souza, Marina Ansolin, Eduardo A. C. Batista, Antonio J. A. Meirelles, Matthieu Tubino


Lipid oxidation is a major cause of the deterioration of the quality of the biodiesel, because the waste generated damages the engines. Among the main undesirable effects are the increase of viscosity and acidity, leading to the formation of insoluble gums and sediments which cause the blockage of fuel filters. The auto-oxidation is defined as the spontaneous reaction of atmospheric oxygen with lipids. Unsaturated fatty acids are usually the components affected by such reactions. They are present as free fatty acids, fatty esters and glycerides. To determine the oxidative stability of biodiesels, through the induction period, IP, the Rancimat method is used, which allows continuous monitoring of the induced oxidation process of the samples. During the oxidation of the lipids, volatile organic acids are produced as byproducts, in addition, other byproducts, including alcohols and carbonyl compounds, may be further oxidized to carboxylic acids. By the methodology developed in this work using ion chromatography, IC, analyzing the water contained in the conductimetric vessel, were quantified organic anions of carboxylic acids in samples subjected to oxidation induced by Rancimat. The optimized chromatographic conditions were: eluent water:acetone (80:20 v/v) with 0.5 mM sulfuric acid; flow rate 0.4 mL min-1; injection volume 20 µL; eluent suppressor 20 mM LiCl; analytical curve from 1 to 400 ppm. The samples studied were methyl biodiesel from soybean oil and unsaturated fatty acids standards: oleic, linoleic and linolenic. The induced oxidation kinetics curves were constructed by analyzing the water contained in the conductimetric vessels which were removed, each one, from the Rancimat apparatus at prefixed intervals of time. About 3 g of sample were used under the conditions of 110 °C and air flow rate of 10 L h-1. The water of each conductimetric Rancimat measuring vessel, where the volatile compounds were collected, was filtered through a 0.45 µm filter and analyzed by IC. Through the kinetic data of the formation of the organic anions of carboxylic acids, the formation rates of the same were calculated. The observed order of the rates of formation of the anions was: formate >>> acetate > hexanoate > valerate for the oleic acid; formate > hexanoate > acetate > valerate for the linoleic acid; formate >>> valerate > acetate > propionate > butyrate for the linolenic acid. It is possible to suppose that propionate and butyrate are obtained mainly from linolenic acid and that hexanoate is originated from oleic and linoleic acid. For the methyl biodiesel the order of formation of anions was: formate >>> acetate > valerate > hexanoate > propionate. According to the total rate of formation these anions produced during the induced degradation of the fatty acids can be assigned the order of reactivity: linolenic acid > linoleic acid >>> oleic acid.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Oxidation, anions of carboxylic acids, ion chromatography

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539 Kinetics and Specificity of Drosophila melanogaster Molybdo-Flavoenzymes towards Their Substrates

Authors: Khaled S. Al Salhen


Aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyze the oxidation of many different N-heterocyclic compounds as well as aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding lactam and carboxylic acids respectively. The present study examines the oxidation of dimethylamino-cinnamaldehyde (DMAC), vanillin and phenanthridine by AO and xanthine by XOR from Drosophila cytosol. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study showed the DMAC, vanillin and phenanthridine substrates used were found to be good substrates of Drosophila AO and xanthine is the preferred substrate for Drosophila XOR. Km values of AO substrates were observed with DMAC (50±5.4 µM), phenanthridine (80±9.1 µM) and vanillin (303±11.7 µM) respectively for Drosophila cytosol. The Km values for DMAC and phenanthridine were ~6 and ~4 fold lower than that for vanillin as a substrate. The Km for XOR with xanthine using NAD+ as an electron acceptor was 27±4.1 µM. Relatively low Vmax values were obtained with phenanthridine (1.78±0.38 nmol/min/mg protein) and DMAC (1.80±0.35 nmol/min/mg protein). The highest Vmax was obtained from Drosophila cytosol with vanillin (7.58±2.11 nmol/min/mg protein). It is concluded these results that AO and XOR in Drosophila were able to catalyse the biotransformation of numerous substrates of the well-characterised mammalian AO and XOR. The kinetic parameters have indicated that the activity of AO of Drosophila may be a significant factor the oxidation of aromatic aldehyde compounds.

Keywords: aldehyde oxidase, phenanthridine, Xanthine oxidoreductase, vanillin, dimethylamino-cinnamaldehyde, Drosophila melanogaster

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538 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Sumaeth Chavadej, Krittiya Pornmai


The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: Natural Gas, Plasma Technology, reforming process, gliding arc discharge

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537 The Effect of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coated Piston Crown on Engine Characteristics in a Spark Ignited Engine

Authors: A.Velavan, C. G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, E. James Gunasekaran


In present investigation, experiments were carried out to compare the effect of the ceramic coated piston crown and uncoated piston on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port injected Spark Ignited engine. The piston crown was coated with aluminium alloy in the form ceramic oxide layer of thickness 500 µm using micro-arc oxidation technique. This ceramic coating will act as a thermal barrier which reduces in-cylinder heat rejection and increases the durability of the piston by withstanding high temperature and pressure produced during combustion. Flame visualization inside the combustion chamber was carried out using AVL Visioscope combustion analyzer to predict the type of combustion occurs at different load condition. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the coated piston shows an improved thermal efficiency when compared to uncoated piston. This is because more heat presents in the combustion chamber which helps efficient combustion of the fuel. The CO and HC emissions were found to be reduced due to better combustion of the fuel whereas NOx emission was increased due to increase in combustion temperature for ceramic coated piston.

Keywords: Thermal Efficiency, thermal barrier, coated piston, micro-arc oxidation, visioscope

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536 S-S Coupling of Thiols to Disulfides Using Ionic Liquid in the Presence of Free Nano Fe2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Askar Sabet, Abdolrasoul Fakhraee, Motahahre Ramezanpour, Noorallah Alipour


An efficient and green method for oxidation of thiols to the corresponding disulfides is reported using ionic liquid [HSO3N(C2H4OSO3H)3] in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 at 60°C. Ionic liquid is selective oxidant for S-S Coupling variety aliphatic and aromatic of thiols to corresponding disulfide in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 as recoverable catalyst. Reaction has been performed in methanol as an inexpensive solvent. This reaction is clean and easy work-up with no side reaction.

Keywords: Oxidation, thiol, disulfide, coupling, ionic liquid, free nano-Fe2O3

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535 Optochemical and Electrochemical Method to Study of Vegetable Oil Deterioration

Authors: A. V. Shelke, P. S. More


This research aimed to study the kinetic reaction of reused cooking oil and to find the optimum condition of its process. The feedstock was collected from the street sellers and also prepared at laboratory. From this research, it is found that the kinetic reaction of reused sunflower oil (auto-oxidation) is obtained in terms of variation of the absorption coefficient of unexposed sunflower oil as 0.05 which is very close to that of exposed sunflower oil 0.075. At room temperature, the optimum intensity obtained from optical absorption spectroscopy study is 0.267 for unexposed sunflower oil and 0.194 for exposed sunflower oil. However, results indicated that FTIR spectroscopy is accurate and precise enough for such determination. Free Fatty Acid (FFA% = 026), acid ~53% and safonication ~%192 get reduce in exposed oil was investigated.

Keywords: Oxidation, vegetable oils, friction, sunflower oil

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534 Electrochemical Response Transductions of Graphenated-Polyaniline Nanosensor for Environmental Anthracene

Authors: R. F. Ajayi, O. Tovide, E. I. Iwuoha, N. Jahed, N. Mohammed, C. E. Sunday, H. R. Makelane, K. M. Molapo, A. Tsegaye, M. Masikini, S. Mailu, A. Baleg, T. Waryo, P. G. Baker


A graphenated–polyaniline (GR-PANI) nanocomposite sensor was constructed and used for the determination of anthracene. The direct electro-oxidation behavior of anthracene on the GR-PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used as the sensing principle. The results indicate thatthe response profile of the oxidation of anthracene on GR-PANI-modified GCE provides for the construction of sensor systems based onamperometric and potentiometric signal transductions. A dynamic linear range of 0.12- 100 µM anthracene and a detection limit of 0.044 µM anthracene were established for the sensor system.

Keywords: Electrochemical sensors, environmental pollutants, graphenated-polymers, polyaromatic hydrocarbon

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533 Dairy Wastewater Remediation Using Electrochemical Oxidation on Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

Authors: Arwa Abdelhay, Inshad Jum’h, Abeer Albsoul, Khalideh Alrawashdeh, Dina Al Tarazi


Treated wastewater reuse has been considered recently as one of the successful management strategies to overcome water shortage in countries suffering from water scarcity. The non-readily biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater cannot be destructed by conventional treatment methods. This paper deals with the electrochemical treatment of dairy wastewater using a promising non-conventional Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) anode. During the electrochemical process, different operating parameters were investigated, such as electrolysis time, current density, supporting electrolyte, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity as well as absorbance/color. The experimental work revealed that electrochemical oxidation carried out with no added electrolyte has significantly reduced the COD, turbidity, and color (absorbance) by 72%, 76%, and 78% respectively. Results also showed that raising the current density from 5.1 mA/cm² to 7.7 mA/cm² has boosted COD, and color removal to 82.5%, and 83% respectively. However, the current density did not show any significant effect on the turbidity. Interestingly, it was observed that adding Na₂SO₄ and FeCl₃ as supporting electrolytes brought the COD removal to 91% and 97% respectively. Likewise, turbidity and color removal has been enhanced by the addition of the same supporting electrolytes.

Keywords: Electrochemical Oxidation, boron doped-diamond anode, dairy wastewater, supporting electrolytes

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532 Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

Authors: P. Acosta-Santamaría, A. Ibatá-Soto, A. López-Vásquez


Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.

Keywords: photocatalysis, Reduction, Oxidation, methyl orange, black sand mineral

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531 Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Improvement of the Performances of Lead–Acid Batteries

Authors: Malika Foudia, Larbi Zerroual


The objective of this work is to improve the electrical proprieties of lead-acid battery with the addition of additives in electrolyte and in the cured plates before oxidation. The results showed that the addition of surfactant in sulfuric acid and 3% mineral additive in the cured plates change the morphology and the crystallite size of PAM after oxidation. The discharge capacity increases with the decrease of the crystallite size and the resistance of the active mass. This shows that the addition of mineral additive and the surfactant additive to the PAM, the electrical performance and the cycle life of lead- acid battery are significantly increases.

Keywords: Additives, Lead-Acid Battery, positive plate, impedance (EIS)

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530 Exercise in Extreme Conditions: Leg Cooling and Fat/Carbohydrate Utilization

Authors: Anastasios Rodis


Background: Case studies of walkers, climbers, and campers exposed to cold and wet conditions without limb water/windproof protection revealed experiences of muscle weakness and fatigue. It is reasonable to assume that a part of the fatigue could occur due to an alteration in substrate utilization, since reduction of performance in extreme cold conditions, may partially be explained by higher anaerobic glycolysis, reflecting higher carbohydrate oxidation and an increase accumulation rate of blood lactate. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pre-exercise lower limb cooling on substrate utilization rate during sub-maximal exercise. Method: Six male university students (mean (SD): age, 21.3 (1.0) yr; maximal oxygen uptake (V0₂ max), 49.6 (3.6) ml.min⁻¹; and percentage of body fat, 13.6 (2.5) % were examined in random order after either 30min cold water (12°C) immersion utilized as the cooling strategy up to the gluteal fold, or under control conditions (no precooling), with tests separated by minimum of 7 days. Exercise consisted of 60min cycling at 50% V0₂ max, in a thermoneutral environment of 20°C. Subjects were also required to record a diet diary over the 24hrs prior to the each trial. Means (SD) for the three macronutrients during the 1 day prior to each trial (expressed as a percentage of total energy) 52 (3) % carbohydrate, 31 (4) % fat, and 17 (± 2) % protein. Results: The following responses to lower limb cooling relative to control trial during exercise were: 1) Carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, and blood lactate (Bₗₐc) concentration were significantly higher (P < 0.05); 2) rectal temperature (Tᵣₑc) was significantly higher (P < 0.05), but skin temperature was significantly lower (P < 0.05); no significant differences were found in blood glucose (Bg), heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V0₂). Discussion: These data suggested that lower limb cooling prior to submaximal exercise will shift metabolic processes from Fat oxidation to CHO oxidation. This shift from Fat to CHO oxidation will probably have important implications in the surviving scenario, since people facing accidental localized cooling of their limbs either through wading/falling in cold water or snow even if they do not perform high intensity activity, they have to rely on CHO availability.

Keywords: exercise in wet conditions, leg cooling, outdoors exercise, substrate utilization

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529 Sulfate Radicals Applied to the Elimination of Selected Pollutants in Water Matrices

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Juan L. Acero, Francisco J. Real, Elena Rodriguez


Five selected pollutants which are frequently present in waters and wastewaters have been degraded by the advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation activated with the additional presence of persulfate (UV/PS). These pollutants were 1H-benzotriazole (BZ), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET (DT), chlorophene (CP), 3-methylindole (ML), and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NH).While UV radiation alone almost not degraded these substances, the addition of PS generated the very reactive and oxidizing sulfate radical SO₄⁻. The kinetic study provided the second order rate constants for the reaction between this radical and each pollutant. An increasing dose of PS led to an increase in the degradation rate, being the highest results obtained at near neutral pH. Several water matrices were tested, and the presence of bicarbonate showed different effects: a decrease in the elimination of DT, BZ, and NH; and an increase in the oxidation of CP and ML. The additional presence of humic acids (AH) decreased this degradation, because of several effects: light screening and radical scavenging. The presence of several natural substances in waters (both types, inorganic and organic matter) usually diminishes the oxidation rates of organic pollutants, but this combination UV/PS process seems to be an efficient solution for the removal of the selected contaminants when are present in contaminated waters.

Keywords: Water Purification, kinetic study, UV activated persulfate, sulfate radicals

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528 Electrochemical Oxidation of Nitrogen-Rich Industrial Wastewater

Authors: Julia Ciarlini, Alejandro Montoya


This work investigated the electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (35990 mg O₂·L⁻¹), ammonia (1538 mg N·L⁻¹), and organic nitrogen (2943 mg N·L⁻¹) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode and stainless steel as cathode. Organics in solution included refractory N-heterocyclic compounds, e.g. pyrazines, that impart toxicity to the water and cannot be treated by conventional biological methods. The wastewater also contained phosphate, sulphate, and chloride, among other ions. Detailed studies of the fate of nitrogen during the electrochemical oxidation of wastewater with such a complex composition are still scarce in the literature but are of utmost importance to design efficient electrochemical processes for water pollution mitigation. The performance of the electro-oxidation was compared between the current densities of 30 and 50 mA·cm⁻² without the addition of extra chemicals or pH adjustment. The main physicochemical properties of the water, including COD, nitrogen species concentration, pH, and colour, were measured throughout the electrolysis, as well as the cell voltage. The process resulted in high COD and colour removal and mineralization of organic nitrogen into mainly ammonia and nitrate, besides inducing the precipitation of phosphates and carbonates on the cathode surface. The mineralization rates in terms of charge consumed were higher at 30 mA·cm⁻², when the electrolysis eliminated up to 99% of the COD and 82% of the organic nitrogen content, in addition to 96% removal of colour. Nitrogen predominantly remained in solution as ammonia and nitrate, with only 7 to 11% total nitrogen removal. The evolution of nitrogen speciation was sensitive to the current density and is discussed in detail in this work. Experimental studies with model organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds were also performed to elucidate the observed behaviour. The electrochemical oxidation with BDD anode and stainless steel cathode proved to be remarkably effective for the decomposition of refractory N-heterocyclic compounds into bioavailable nitrogen forms. Moreover, this occurs simultaneously to COD and colour removal and possible phosphate recovery, opening an opportunity for designing a one-pot solution to complex water contamination.

Keywords: Electrochemical Oxidation, boron-doped diamond, nitrogen-rich wastewater, refractory pollutants

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527 Temperature Dependent Tribological Properties of Graphite

Authors: Niranjan Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Das, Prasun Chakraborti


Temperature dependent tribologiocal properties of nuclear grade turbostatic graphite were studied using 100Cr6 steel counterbody. High value of friction coefficient (0.25) and high wear loss was observed at room temperature and this value decreased to 0.1 at 150oC. Consequently, wear loss is also decreased. Such behavior is explained by oxidation/vaporization of graphite and water molecules. At room temperature, the adsorbed water in graphite does not decompose and effect of passivation mechanism does not work. However, at 150oC, the water decomposed into OH, atomic hydrogen and oxygen which efficiently passivates the carbon dangling bonds. This effect is known to decrease the energy of the contact and protect against abrasive wear.

Keywords: Oxidation, Wear, high temperature tribology, turbostratic graphite

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526 Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation as a Pretreatment Option for Biodegradability Enhancement of Industrial Effluent

Authors: Sushma Yadav, Anil K. Saroha


Complex industrial effluent generated from chemical industry is contaminated with toxic and hazardous organic compounds and not amenable to direct biological treatment. To effectively remove many toxic organic pollutants has made it evident that new, compact and more efficient systems are needed. Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) is a promising treatment technology for the abatement of organic pollutants in wastewater. A lot of information is available on using CWAO for the treatment of synthetic solution containing single organic pollutant. But the real industrial effluents containing multi-component mixture of organic compounds were less studied. The main objective of this study is to use the CWAO process for converting the organics into compounds more amenable to biological treatment; complete oxidation may be too expensive. Therefore efforts were made in the present study to explore the potential of alumina based Platinum (Pt) catalyst for the treatment of industrial organic raffinate containing toxic constituents like ammoniacal nitrogen, pyridine etc. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) surface area. CWAO experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and (30 °C - 70 °C) temperature conditions and the results were evaluated in terms of COD removal efficiency. The biodegradability test was performed by BOD/COD ratio for checking the toxicity of the industrial wastewater as well as for the treated water. The BOD/COD ratio of treated water was significantly increased and signified that the toxicity of the organics was decreased while the biodegradability was increased, indicating the more amenability towards biological treatment.

Keywords: alumina based pt catalyst, BOD/COD ratio, catalytic wet air oxidation, COD removal efficiency, industrial organic raffinate

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525 Influence of a Cationic Membrane in a Double Compartment Filter-Press Reactor on the Atenolol Electro-Oxidation

Authors: Valentín Pérez-Herranz, Andrea M. Bernardes, Alan N. A. Heberle, Salatiel W. Da Silva


Contaminants of emerging concern are substances widely used, such as pharmaceutical products. These compounds represent risk for both wild and human life since they are not completely removed from wastewater by conventional wastewater treatment plants. In the environment, they can be harm even in low concentration (µ or ng/L), causing bacterial resistance, endocrine disruption, cancer, among other harmful effects. One of the most common taken medicine to treat cardiocirculatory diseases is the Atenolol (ATL), a β-Blocker, which is toxic to aquatic life. In this way, it is necessary to implement a methodology, which is capable to promote the degradation of the ATL, to avoid the environmental detriment. A very promising technology is the advanced electrochemical oxidation (AEO), which mechanisms are based on the electrogeneration of reactive radicals (mediated oxidation) and/or on the direct substance discharge by electron transfer from contaminant to electrode surface (direct oxidation). The hydroxyl (HO•) and sulfate (SO₄•⁻) radicals can be generated, depending on the reactional medium. Besides that, at some condition, the peroxydisulfate (S₂O₈²⁻) ion is also generated from the SO₄• reaction in pairs. Both radicals, ion, and the direct contaminant discharge can break down the molecule, resulting in the degradation and/or mineralization. However, ATL molecule and byproducts can still remain in the treated solution. On this wise, some efforts can be done to implement the AEO process, being one of them the use of a cationic membrane to separate the cathodic (reduction) from the anodic (oxidation) reactor compartment. The aim of this study is investigate the influence of the implementation of a cationic membrane (Nafion®-117) to separate both cathodic and anodic, AEO reactor compartments. The studied reactor was a filter-press, with bath recirculation mode, flow 60 L/h. The anode was an Nb/BDD2500 and the cathode a stainless steel, both bidimensional, geometric surface area 100 cm². The solution feeding the anodic compartment was prepared with ATL 100 mg/L using Na₂SO₄ 4 g/L as support electrolyte. In the cathodic compartment, it was used a solution containing Na₂SO₄ 71 g/L. Between both solutions was placed the membrane. The applied currents densities (iₐₚₚ) of 5, 20 and 40 mA/cm² were studied over 240 minutes treatment time. Besides that, the ATL decay was analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV/Vis). The mineralization was determined performing total organic carbon (TOC) in TOC-L CPH Shimadzu. In the cases without membrane, the iₐₚₚ 5, 20 and 40 mA/cm² resulted in 55, 87 and 98 % ATL degradation at the end of treatment time, respectively. However, with membrane, the degradation, for the same iₐₚₚ, was 90, 100 and 100 %, spending 240, 120, 40 min for the maximum degradation, respectively. The mineralization, without membrane, for the same studied iₐₚₚ, was 40, 55 and 72 %, respectively at 240 min, but with membrane, all tested iₐₚₚ reached 80 % of mineralization, differing only in the time spent, 240, 150 and 120 min, for the maximum mineralization, respectively. The membrane increased the ATL oxidation, probably due to avoid oxidant ions (S₂O₈²⁻) reduction on the cathode surface.

Keywords: Atenolol, contaminants of emerging concern, advanced electrochemical oxidation, cationic membrane, double compartment reactor

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524 A Fast Method for Graphene-Supported Pd-Co Nanostructures as Catalyst toward Ethanol Oxidation in Alkaline Media

Authors: Amir Shafiee Kisomi, Mehrdad Mofidi


Nowadays, fuel cells as a promising alternative for power source have been widely studied owing to their security, high energy density, low operation temperatures, renewable capability and low environmental pollutant emission. The nanoparticles of core-shell type could be widely described in a combination of a shell (outer layer material) and a core (inner material), and their characteristics are greatly conditional on dimensions and composition of the core and shell. In addition, the change in the constituting materials or the ratio of core to the shell can create their special noble characteristics. In this study, a fast technique for the fabrication of a Pd-Co/G/GCE modified electrode is offered. Thermal decomposition reaction of cobalt (II) formate salt over the surface of graphene/glassy carbon electrode (G/GCE) is utilized for the synthesis of Co nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of Pd-Co decorated on the graphene are created based on the following method: (1) Thermal decomposition reaction of cobalt (II) formate salt and (2) the galvanic replacement process Co by Pd2+. The physical and electrochemical performances of the as-prepared Pd-Co/G electrocatalyst are studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Chronoamperometry (CHA). Galvanic replacement method is utilized as a facile and spontaneous approach for growth of Pd nanostructures. The Pd-Co/G is used as an anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The Pd-Co/G not only delivered much higher current density (262.3 mAcm-2) compared to the Pd/C (32.1 mAcm-2) catalyst, but also demonstrated a negative shift of the onset oxidation potential (-0.480 vs -0.460 mV) in the forward sweep. Moreover, the novel Pd-Co/G electrocatalyst represents large electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), lower apparent activation energy (Ea), higher levels of durability and poisoning tolerance compared to the Pd/C catalyst. The paper demonstrates that the catalytic activity and stability of Pd-Co/G electrocatalyst are higher than those of the Pd/C electrocatalyst toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Thermal decomposition, electrocatalyst, ethanol oxidation, galvanic replacement, alkaline media

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523 Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Lipid Metabolism and Increased Fat around the Muscle Durability by Reducing the Oxidation Process

Authors: Hamidreza Khodaei, Ali Daryabeigi Zand


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of isomers of linoleic acid. Despite the fact that 28 different isomers of CLA have already been identified, but the main isomer found in natural diets more than ninety percent CLA on intake of food constitutes demonstrates. CLA is known to be a substance that readily available by rumen microorganisms in some ruminants such as cattle and sheep would likely be made. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of CLA on lipid metabolism and enhanced fat around the muscle durability by reducing the process of oxidation. In order to implement this research, 80 female mice of the Balb/C, with 55 days of age were employed in the experiment. Treatments include various levels of CLA. Over the course of this study blood samples was also taken from the tail vein of the studied mice. Some other relevant parameters such as serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and liver enzymes were also determined. The oxidative stability of fats TBARS technique was investigated at different intervals. The findings of the research were analyzed by statistical software of SAS 98. The results, CLA had no significant effect on liver enzymes (P > 0.05). However, it showed a statistically significant impact on triglycerides and total cholesterol. Ratio of LDL to HDL declined remarkably. Histological studies demonstrated reduced accumulation of fat in the tissues surrounding muscles.

Keywords: Conjugated Linoleic Acid, oxidation process, fat metabolism, fat retention

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522 Oxidation and Reduction Kinetics of Ni-Based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping Combustion

Authors: J. H. Park, R. H. Hwang, K. B. Yi


Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the important technology to reduce the CO₂ emission from large stationary sources such as a power plant. Among the carbon technologies for power plants, chemical looping combustion (CLC) has attracted much attention due to a higher thermal efficiency and a lower cost of electricity. A CLC process is consists of a fuel reactor and an air reactor which are interconnected fluidized bed reactor. In the fuel reactor, an oxygen carrier (OC) is reduced by fuel gas such as CH₄, H₂, CO. And the OC is send to air reactor and oxidized by air or O₂ gas. The oxidation and reduction reaction of OC occurs between the two reactors repeatedly. In the CLC system, high concentration of CO₂ can be easily obtained by steam condensation only from the fuel reactor. It is very important to understand the oxidation and reduction characteristics of oxygen carrier in the CLC system to determine the solids circulation rate between the air and fuel reactors, and the amount of solid bed materials. In this study, we have conducted the experiment and interpreted oxidation and reduction reaction characteristics via observing weight change of Ni-based oxygen carrier using the TGA with varying as concentration and temperature. Characterizations of the oxygen carrier were carried out with BET, SEM. The reaction rate increased with increasing the temperature and increasing the inlet gas concentration. We also compared experimental results and adapted basic reaction kinetic model (JMA model). JAM model is one of the nucleation and nuclei growth models, and this model can explain the delay time at the early part of reaction. As a result, the model data and experimental data agree over the arranged conversion and time with overall variance (R²) greater than 98%. Also, we calculated activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order through the Arrhenius plot and compared with previous Ni-based oxygen carriers.

Keywords: kinetic, oxygen carrier, chemical looping combustion, nickel-based, spray drying method

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521 UV Light-Activated Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of Imidacloprid in Synthetic Wastewater

Authors: Yao-Hui Huang, Yi-An Liao, Lu-Wei Kuo, Yu-Jen Shih


Abstract—Imidacloprid (IMI, a widely used pesticide, iImidacloprid (IMI), a widely used pesticide, is known to affect the bee populations. A sulfate radical-based oxidation method was utilized to remove the commercial pesticide consisted of IMI, dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and methanol (TOC0 = 497 ppm). The experimental results evidenced that sulfate radicals created by UV activation (254nm, 6.4 mW/cm2) of S2O82- could remove 97% of total organic carbon (TOC) from the synthetic wastewater in 4 h using 120 mM of oxidant dosage. The dose of oxidant, temperature and the light flux were the key factors to further improve the mineralization efficiency, while the ferrous ions decreased the efficacy of UV/S2O82- reaction due to the competition of UV-adsorption by complex formation of FeSO4+.s known to affect the bee populations. A sulfate radical-based oxidation method was utilized to remove the commercial pesticide consisted of IMI, dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and methanol (TOC0 = 497 ppm). The experimental results evidenced that sulfate radicals created by UV activation (254nm, 6.4 mW/cm2) of S2O82- could remove 97% of total organic carbon (TOC) from the synthetic wastewater in 4 h using 120 mM of oxidant dosage. The dose of oxidant, temperature and the light flux were the key factors to further improve the mineralization efficiency, while the ferrous ions decreased the efficacy of UV/S2O82- reaction due to the competition of UV-adsorption by complex formation of FeSO4+.

Keywords: Mineralization, organic nitrogen, photochemical oxidation, imidacloprid, UV-persulfate

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