Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 638

Search results for: oxidation

8 Transcriptomic Analysis of Acanthamoeba castellanii Virulence Alteration by Epigenetic DNA Methylation

Authors: Stephen Ambu, Yi-Hao Wong, Li-Li Chan, Chee-Onn Leong, Joon-Wah Mak, Priyasashi Sahu

Abstract:

Background: Acanthamoeba is a genus of amoebae which lives as a free-living in nature or as a human pathogen that causes severe brain and eye infections. Virulence potential of Acanthamoeba is not constant and can change with growth conditions. DNA methylation, an epigenetic process which adds methyl groups to DNA, is used by eukaryotic cells, including several human parasites to control their gene expression. We used qPCR, siRNA gene silencing, and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to study DNA-methyltransferase gene family (DNMT) in order to indicate the possibility of its involvement in programming Acanthamoeba virulence potential. Methods: A virulence-attenuated Acanthamoeba isolate (designation: ATCC; original isolate: ATCC 50492) was subjected to mouse passages to restore its pathogenicity; a virulence-reactivated isolate (designation: AC/5) was generated. Several established factors associated with Acanthamoeba virulence phenotype were examined to confirm the succession of reactivation process. Differential gene expression of DNMT between ATCC and AC/5 isolates was performed by qPCR. Silencing on DNMT gene expression in AC/5 isolate was achieved by siRNA duplex. Total RNAs extracted from ATCC, AC/5, and siRNA-treated (designation: si-146) were subjected to RNA-Seq for comparative transcriptomic analysis in order to identify the genome-wide effect of DNMT in regulating Acanthamoeba gene expression. qPCR was performed to validate the RNA-Seq results. Results: Physiological and cytophatic assays demonstrated an increased in virulence potential of AC/5 isolate after mouse passages. DNMT gene expression was significantly higher in AC/5 compared to ATCC isolate (p ≤ 0.01) by qPCR. si-146 duplex reduced DNMT gene expression in AC/5 isolate by 30%. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified the differentially expressed genes, with 3768 genes in AC/5 vs ATCC isolate; 2102 genes in si-146 vs AC/5 isolate and 3422 genes in si-146 vs ATCC isolate, respectively (fold-change of ≥ 2 or ≤ 0.5, p-value adjusted (padj) < 0.05). Of these, 840 and 1262 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in si-146 vs AC/5 isolate. Eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments revealed a higher percentage of downregulated gene expression in si-146 compared to AC/5 isolate, were related to posttranslational modification, signal transduction and energy production. Gene Ontology (GO) terms for those downregulated genes shown were associated with transport activity, oxidation-reduction process, and metabolic process. Among these downregulated genes were putative genes encoded for heat shock proteins, transporters, ubiquitin-related proteins, proteins for vesicular trafficking (small GTPases), and oxidoreductases. Functional analysis of similar predicted proteins had been described in other parasitic protozoa for their survival and pathogenicity. Decreased expression of these genes in si146-treated isolate may account in part for Acanthamoeba reduced pathogenicity. qPCR on 6 selected genes upregulated in AC/5 compared to ATCC isolate corroborated the RNA sequencing findings, indicating a good concordance between these two analyses. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and its effects on gene expression in Acanthamoeba spp. The present data indicate that DNA methylation has substantial effect on global gene expression, allowing further dissection of the genome-wide effects of DNA-methyltransferase gene in regulating Acanthamoeba pathogenicity.

Keywords: DNA Methylation, RNA Sequencing, virulence, Acanthamoeba

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7 Degradation of Diclofenac in Water Using FeO-Based Catalytic Ozonation in a Modified Flotation Cell

Authors: Miguel A. Figueroa, José A. Lara-Ramos, Miguel A. Mueses

Abstract:

Pharmaceutical residues are a section of emerging contaminants of anthropogenic origin that are present in a myriad of waters with which human beings interact daily and are starting to affect the ecosystem directly. Conventional waste-water treatment systems are not capable of degrading these pharmaceutical effluents because their designs cannot handle the intermediate products and biological effects occurring during its treatment. That is why it is necessary to hybridize conventional waste-water systems with non-conventional processes. In the specific case of an ozonation process, its efficiency highly depends on a perfect dispersion of ozone, long times of interaction of the gas-liquid phases and the size of the ozone bubbles formed through-out the reaction system. In order to increase the efficiency of these parameters, the use of a modified flotation cell has been proposed recently as a reactive system, which is used at an industrial level to facilitate the suspension of particles and spreading gas bubbles through the reactor volume at a high rate. The objective of the present work is the development of a mathematical model that can closely predict the kinetic rates of reactions taking place in the flotation cell at an experimental scale by means of identifying proper reaction mechanisms that take into account the modified chemical and hydrodynamic factors in the FeO-catalyzed Ozonation of Diclofenac aqueous solutions in a flotation cell. The methodology is comprised of three steps: an experimental phase where a modified flotation cell reactor is used to analyze the effects of ozone concentration and loading catalyst over the degradation of Diclofenac aqueous solutions. The performance is evaluated through an index of utilized ozone, which relates the amount of ozone supplied to the system per milligram of degraded pollutant. Next, a theoretical phase where the reaction mechanisms taking place during the experiments must be identified and proposed that details the multiple direct and indirect reactions the system goes through. Finally, a kinetic model is obtained that can mathematically represent the reaction mechanisms with adjustable parameters that can be fitted to the experimental results and give the model a proper physical meaning. The expected results are a robust reaction rate law that can simulate the improved results of Diclofenac mineralization on water using the modified flotation cell reactor. By means of this methodology, the following results were obtained: A robust reaction pathways mechanism showcasing the intermediates, free-radicals and products of the reaction, Optimal values of reaction rate constants that simulated Hatta numbers lower than 3 for the system modeled, degradation percentages of 100%, TOC (Total organic carbon) removal percentage of 69.9 only requiring an optimal value of FeO catalyst of 0.3 g/L. These results showed that a flotation cell could be used as a reactor in ozonation, catalytic ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation processes, since it produces high reaction rate constants and reduces mass transfer limitations (Ha > 3) by producing microbubbles and maintaining a good catalyst distribution.

Keywords: iron oxide, advanced oxidation technologies, emergent contaminants, AOTS intensification

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6 Potential of Hyperion (EO-1) Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping Mine-Iron Oxide Pollution

Authors: Abderrazak Bannari

Abstract:

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from mine wastes and contaminations of soils and water with metals are considered as a major environmental problem in mining areas. It is produced by interactions of water, air, and sulphidic mine wastes. This environment problem results from a series of chemical and biochemical oxidation reactions of sulfide minerals e.g. pyrite and pyrrhotite. These reactions lead to acidity as well as the dissolution of toxic and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, etc.) from tailings waste rock piles, and open pits. Soil and aquatic ecosystems could be contaminated and, consequently, human health and wildlife will be affected. Furthermore, secondary minerals, typically formed during weathering of mine waste storage areas when the concentration of soluble constituents exceeds the corresponding solubility product, are also important. The most common secondary mineral compositions are hydrous iron oxide (goethite, etc.) and hydrated iron sulfate (jarosite, etc.). The objectives of this study focus on the detection and mapping of MIOP in the soil using Hyperion EO-1 (Earth Observing - 1) hyperspectral data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA) algorithm. The abandoned Kettara mine, located approximately 35 km northwest of Marrakech city (Morocco) was chosen as study area. During 44 years (from 1938 to 1981) this mine was exploited for iron oxide and iron sulphide minerals. Previous studies have shown that Kettara surrounding soils are contaminated by heavy metals (Fe, Cu, etc.) as well as by secondary minerals. To achieve our objectives, several soil samples representing different MIOP classes have been resampled and located using accurate GPS ( ≤ ± 30 cm). Then, endmembers spectra were acquired over each sample using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) covering the spectral domain from 350 to 2500 nm. Considering each soil sample separately, the average of forty spectra was resampled and convolved using Gaussian response profiles to match the bandwidths and the band centers of the Hyperion sensor. Moreover, the MIOP content in each sample was estimated by geochemical analyses in the laboratory, and a ground truth map was generated using simple Kriging in GIS environment for validation purposes. The acquired and used Hyperion data were corrected for a spatial shift between the VNIR and SWIR detectors, striping, dead column, noise, and gain and offset errors. Then, atmospherically corrected using the MODTRAN 4.2 radiative transfer code, and transformed to surface reflectance, corrected for sensor smile (1-3 nm shift in VNIR and SWIR), and post-processed to remove residual errors. Finally, geometric distortions and relief displacement effects were corrected using a digital elevation model. The MIOP fraction map was extracted using CLSMA considering the entire spectral range (427-2355 nm), and validated by reference to the ground truth map generated by Kriging. The obtained results show the promising potential of the proposed methodology for the detection and mapping of mine iron oxide pollution in the soil.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Hyperspectral, hyperion eo-1, mine iron oxide pollution, unmixing

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5 Laboratory and Numerical Hydraulic Modelling of Annular Pipe Electrocoagulation Reactors

Authors: Alejandra Martin-Dominguez, Javier Canto-Rios, Velitchko Tzatchkov

Abstract:

Electrocoagulation is a water treatment technology that consists of generating coagulant species in situ by electrolytic oxidation of sacrificial anode materials triggered by electric current. It removes suspended solids, heavy metals, emulsified oils, bacteria, colloidal solids and particles, soluble inorganic pollutants and other contaminants from water, offering an alternative to the use of metal salts or polymers and polyelectrolyte addition for breaking stable emulsions and suspensions. The method essentially consists of passing the water being treated through pairs of consumable conductive metal plates in parallel, which act as monopolar electrodes, commonly known as ‘sacrificial electrodes’. Physicochemical, electrochemical and hydraulic processes are involved in the efficiency of this type of treatment. While the physicochemical and electrochemical aspects of the technology have been extensively studied, little is known about the influence of the hydraulics. However, the hydraulic process is fundamental for the reactions that take place at the electrode boundary layers and for the coagulant mixing. Electrocoagulation reactors can be open (with free water surface) and closed (pressurized). Independently of the type of rector, hydraulic head loss is an important factor for its design. The present work focuses on the study of the total hydraulic head loss and flow velocity and pressure distribution in electrocoagulation reactors with single or multiple concentric annular cross sections. An analysis of the head loss produced by hydraulic wall shear friction and accessories (minor head losses) is presented, and compared to the head loss measured on a semi-pilot scale laboratory model for different flow rates through the reactor. The tests included laminar, transitional and turbulent flow. The observed head loss was compared also to the head loss predicted by several known conceptual theoretical and empirical equations, specific for flow in concentric annular pipes. Four single concentric annular cross section and one multiple concentric annular cross section reactor configuration were studied. The theoretical head loss resulted higher than the observed in the laboratory model in some of the tests, and lower in others of them, depending also on the assumed value for the wall roughness. Most of the theoretical models assume that the fluid elements in all annular sections have the same velocity, and that flow is steady, uniform and one-dimensional, with the same pressure and velocity profiles in all reactor sections. To check the validity of such assumptions, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the concentric annular pipe reactor was implemented using the ANSYS Fluent software, demonstrating that pressure and flow velocity distribution inside the reactor actually is not uniform. Based on the analysis, the equations that predict better the head loss in single and multiple annular sections were obtained. Other factors that may impact the head loss, such as the generation of coagulants and gases during the electrochemical reaction, the accumulation of hydroxides inside the reactor, and the change of the electrode material with time, are also discussed. The results can be used as tools for design and scale-up of electrocoagulation reactors, to be integrated into new or existing water treatment plants.

Keywords: electrocoagulation reactors, hydraulic head loss, concentric annular pipes, computational fluid dynamics model

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4 Synthesis of Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Poly (Trimethylsilyloxyethyl Methacrylate) Nano-Grafts

Authors: Miroslav Mrlik, Martin Cvek, Michal Sedlacik, Tomas Plachy

Abstract:

Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are multi-phase composite materials containing micron-sized ferromagnetic particles dispersed in an elastomeric matrix. Their properties such as modulus, damping, magneto-striction, and electrical conductivity can be controlled by an external magnetic field and/or pressure. These features of the MREs are used in the development of damping devices, shock attenuators, artificial muscles, sensors or active elements of electric circuits. However, imperfections on the particle/matrix interfaces result in the lower performance of the MREs when compared with theoretical values. Moreover, magnetic particles are susceptible to corrosion agents such as acid rains or sea humidity. Therefore, the modification of particles is an effective tool for the improvement of MRE performance due to enhanced compatibility between particles and matrix as well as improvements of their thermo-oxidation and chemical stability. In this study, the carbonyl iron (CI) particles were controllably modified with poly(trimethylsilyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMATMS) nano-grafts to develop magnetic core–shell structures exhibiting proper wetting with various elastomeric matrices resulting in improved performance within a frame of rheological, magneto-piezoresistance, pressure-piezoresistance, or radio-absorbing properties. The desired molecular weight of PHEMATMS nano-grafts was precisely tailored using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The CI particles were firstly functionalized using a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane agent, followed by esterification reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The ATRP was performed in the anisole medium using ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate as a macroinitiator, N, N´, N´´, N´´-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine as a ligand, and copper bromide as an initiator. To explore the effect PHEMATMS molecular weights on final properties, two variants of core-shell structures with different nano-graft lengths were synthesized, while the reaction kinetics were designed through proper reactant feed ratios and polymerization times. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography proving information to their monomer conversions, molecular chain lengths, and low polydispersity indexes (1.28 and 1.35) as the results of the executed ATRP. The successful modifications were confirmed via Fourier transform infrared- and energy-dispersive spectroscopies while expected wavenumber outputs and element presences, respectively, of constituted PHEMATMS nano-grafts, were occurring in the spectra. The surface morphology of bare CI and their PHEMATMS-grafted analogues was further studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the thicknesses of grafted polymeric layers were directly observed by transmission electron microscopy. The contact angles as a measure of particle/matrix compatibility were investigated employing the static sessile drop method. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts enhanced compatibility of hydrophilic CI with low-surface-energy hydrophobic polymer matrix in terms of their wettability and dispersibility in an elastomeric matrix. Thus, the presence of possible defects at the particle/matrix interface is reduced, and higher performance of modified MREs is expected.

Keywords: Particle Modification, Wettability, core-shell, atom transfer radical polymerization

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3 Biodegradation of Chlorophenol Derivatives Using Macroporous Material

Authors: Andrew Cundy, Irina Savina, Jonathan L. Caplin, Dmitriy Berillo, Areej K. A. Al-Jwaid

Abstract:

Chlorophenols (CPs) are used as a precursor in the production of higher CPs and dyestuffs, and as a preservative. Contamination by CPs of the ground water is located in the range from 0.15-100mg/L. The EU has set maximum concentration limits for pesticides and their degradation products of 0.1μg/L and 0.5μg/L, respectively. People working in industries which produce textiles, leather products, domestic preservatives, and petrochemicals are most heavily exposed to CPs. The International Agency for Research on Cancers categorized CPs as potential human carcinogens. Existing multistep water purification processes for CPs such as hydrogenation, ion exchange, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption by activated carbon, forward and inverse osmosis, electrolysis, sonochemistry, UV irradiation, and chemical oxidation are not always cost effective and can cause the formation of even more toxic or mutagenic derivatives. Bioremediation of CPs derivatives utilizing microorganisms results in 60 to 100% decontamination efficiency and the process is more environmentally-friendly compared with existing physico-chemical methods. Microorganisms immobilized onto a substrate show many advantages over free bacteria systems, such as higher biomass density, higher metabolic activity, and resistance to toxic chemicals. They also enable continuous operation, avoiding the requirement for biomass-liquid separation. The immobilized bacteria can be reused several times, which opens the opportunity for developing cost-effective processes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we develop a bioremediation system for CPs based on macroporous materials, which can be efficiently used for wastewater treatment. Conditions for the preparation of the macroporous material from specific bacterial strains (Pseudomonas mendocina and Rhodococus koreensis) were optimized. The concentration of bacterial cells was kept constant; the difference was only the type of cross-linking agents used e.g. glutaraldehyde, novel polymers, which were utilized at concentrations of 0.5 to 1.5%. SEM images and rheology analysis of the material indicated a monolithic macroporous structure. Phenol was chosen as a model system to optimize the function of the cryogel material and to estimate its enzymatic activity, since it is relatively less toxic and harmful compared to CPs. Several types of macroporous systems comprising live bacteria were prepared. The viability of the cross-linked bacteria was checked using Live/Dead BacLight kit and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy, which revealed the presence of viable bacteria with the novel cross-linkers, whereas the control material cross-linked with glutaraldehyde(GA), contained mostly dead cells. The bioreactors based on bacteria were used for phenol degradation in batch mode at an initial concentration of 50mg/L, pH 7.5 and a temperature of 30°C. Bacterial strains cross-linked with GA showed insignificant ability to degrade phenol and for one week only, but a combination of cross-linking agents illustrated higher stability, viability and the possibility to be reused for at least five weeks. Furthermore, conditions for CPs degradation will be optimized, and the chlorophenol degradation rates will be compared to those for phenol. This is a cutting-edge bioremediation approach, which allows the purification of waste water from sustainable compounds without a separation step to remove free planktonic bacteria. Acknowledgments: Dr. Berillo D. A. is very grateful to Individual Fellowship Marie Curie Program for funding of the research.

Keywords: Bioremediation, cross-linking agents, cross-linked microbial cell, chlorophenol degradation

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2 Al2O3-Dielectric AlGaN/GaN Enhancement-Mode MOS-HEMTs by Using Ozone Water Oxidization Technique

Authors: Ching-Sung Lee, Wei-Chou Hsu, Han-Yin Liu, Hung-Hsi Huang, Si-Fu Chen, Yun-Jung Yang, Bo-Chun Chiang, Yu-Chuang Chen, Shen-Tin Yang

Abstract:

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic advantages of high breakdown electric field, high electron saturation velocity, and excellent chemical stability. They are also suitable for ultra-violet (UV) photodetection due to the corresponding wavelengths of GaN bandgap. To improve the optical responsivity by decreasing the dark current due to gate leakage problems and limited Schottky barrier heights in GaN-based HEMT devices, various metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) have been devised by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase deposition (LPD), and RF sputtering. The gate dielectrics include MgO, HfO2, Al2O3, La2O3, and TiO2. In order to provide complementary circuit operation, enhancement-mode (E-mode) devices have been lately studied using techniques of fluorine treatment, p-type capper, piezoneutralization layer, and MOS-gate structure. This work reports an Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMT design by using a cost-effective ozone water oxidization technique. The present ozone oxidization method advantages of low cost processing facility, processing simplicity, compatibility to device fabrication, and room-temperature operation under atmospheric pressure. It can further reduce the gate-to-channel distance and improve the transocnductance (gm) gain for a specific oxide thickness, since the formation of the Al2O3 will consume part of the AlGaN barrier at the same time. The epitaxial structure of the studied devices was grown by using the MOCVD technique. On a Si substrate, the layer structures include a 3.9 m C-doped GaN buffer, a 300 nm GaN channel layer, and a 5 nm Al0.25Ga0.75N barrier layer. Mesa etching was performed to provide electrical isolation by using an inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Ti/Al/Au were thermally evaporated and annealed to form the source and drain ohmic contacts. The device was immersed into the H2O2 solution pumped with ozone gas generated by using an OW-K2 ozone generator. Ni/Au were deposited as the gate electrode to complete device fabrication of MOS-HEMT. The formed Al2O3 oxide thickness 7 nm and the remained AlGaN barrier thickness is 2 nm. A reference HEMT device has also been fabricated in comparison on the same epitaxial structure. The gate dimensions are 1.2 × 100 µm 2 with a source-to-drain spacing of 5 μm for both devices. The dielectric constant (k) of Al2O3 was characterized to be 9.2 by using C-V measurement. Reduced interface state density after oxidization has been verified by the low-frequency noise spectra, Hooge coefficients, and pulse I-V measurement. Improved device characteristics at temperatures of 300 K-450 K have been achieved for the present MOS-HEMT design. Consequently, Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMTs by using the ozone water oxidization method are reported. In comparison with a conventional Schottky-gate HEMT, the MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated excellent enhancements of 138% (176%) in gm, max, 118% (139%) in IDS, max, 53% (62%) in BVGD, 3 (2)-order reduction in IG leakage at VGD = -60 V at 300 (450) K. This work is promising for millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) and three-terminal active UV photodetector applications.

Keywords: passivation, AlGaN/GaN, MOS-HEMT, enhancement mode, ozone water oxidation, gate leakage

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1 Pisolite Type Azurite/Malachite Ore in Sandstones at the Base of the Miocene in Northern Sardinia: The Authigenic Hypothesis

Authors: S. Fadda, M. Fiori, C. Matzuzzi

Abstract:

Mineralized formations in the bottom sediments of a Miocene transgression have been discovered in Sardinia. The mineral assemblage consists of copper sulphides and oxidates suggesting fluctuations of redox conditions in neutral to high-pH restricted shallow-water coastal basins. Azurite/malachite has been observed as authigenic and occurs as loose spheroidal crystalline particles associated with the transitional-littoral horizon forming the bottom of the marine transgression. Many field observations are consistent with a supergenic circulation of metals involving terrestrial groundwater-seawater mixing. Both clastic materials and metals come from Tertiary volcanic edifices while the main precipitating anions, carbonates, and sulphides species are of both continental and marine origin. Formation of Cu carbonates as a supergene secondary 'oxide' assemblage, does not agree with field evidences, petrographic observations along with textural evidences in the host-rock types. Samples were collected along the sedimentary sequence for different analyses: the majority of elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence and plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Mineral identification was obtained by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microprobe. Thin sections of the samples were examined in microscopy while porosity measurements were made using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. Cu-carbonates deposited at a temperature below 100 C° which is consistent with the clay minerals in the matrix of the host rock dominated by illite and montmorillonite. Azurite nodules grew during the early diagenetic stage through reaction of cupriferous solutions with CO₂ imported from the overlying groundwater and circulating through the sandstones during shallow burial. Decomposition of organic matter in the bottom anoxic waters released additional carbon dioxide to pore fluids for azurite stability. In this manner localized reducing environments were also generated in which Cu was fixed as Cu-sulphide and sulphosalts. Microscopic examinations of textural features of azurite nodules give evidence of primary malachite/azurite deposition rather than supergene oxidation in place of primary sulfides. Photomicrographs show nuclei of azurite and malachite surrounded by newly formed microcrystalline carbonates which constitute the matrix. The typical pleochroism of crystals can be observed also when this mineral fills microscopic fissures or cracks. Sedimentological evidence of transgression and regression indicates that the pore water would have been a variable mixture of marine water and groundwaters with a possible meteoric component in an alternatively exposed and subaqueous environment owing to water-level fluctuation. Salinity data of the pore fluids, assessed at random intervals along the mineralised strata confirmed the values between about 7000 and 30,000 ppm measured in coeval sediments at the base of Miocene falling in the range of a more or less diluted sea water. This suggests a variation in mean pore-fluids pH between 5.5 and 8.5, compatible with the oxidized and reduced mineral paragenesis described in this work. The results of stable isotopes studies reflect the marine transgressive-regressive cyclicity of events and are compatibile with carbon derivation from sea water. During the last oxidative stage of diagenesis, under surface conditions of higher activity of H₂O and O₂, CO₂ partial pressure decreased, and malachite becomes the stable Cu mineral. The potential for these small but high grade deposits does exist.

Keywords: sedimentary, tertiary, Cu-carbonates, authigenic, Sardinia

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