Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1782

Search results for: orphans and vulnerable learners

1782 Scaling Up Psychosocial Wellbeing of Orphans and Vulnerable Learners in Rural Schools in Lesotho: An Ethnopsychology Approach

Authors: Fumane Portia Khanare

Abstract:

This paper explores strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of orphans and vulnerable learners (OVLs) in rural schools in Lesotho that seem essential for their success, in anticipation of, and in the context of global education. Various strategies to improve psychosocial wellbeing are considered necessary in that they are inclusive and buffer other forms of conditions beyond traditional and Eurocentric forms in orientation. Furthermore, they bring about the local experiences and particularly of the learners and schools in rural areas – all of which constitute ethnopsychology. COVID-19 pandemic has enthused the demands for collaboration and responsive support for learners within rural and many deprived contexts in Lesotho. However, the increase of OVLs in the education sector has also sparked the debate of how many rural schools with a lack of resources, inadequate teacher training, declining unemployment and the detriment of COVID-19 throughout Lesotho affected the psychosocial wellbeing of these learners. In some cases, the pandemic has created opportunities to explore existing, forgotten or ignored resources dated back to the pre-colonial era in Lesotho, and emphasizing to have an optimistic outlook on life as a result of collaboration and appreciating local knowledge. In order to scale up the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs, there is a need to explore various strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing, in which all learners can succeed during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, thereby promoting the agency of young people from the rural areas towards building supportive learning environments. The paper draws on qualitative participatory arts-based study data generated by 30 learners in two rural secondary schools in Lesotho. Thematic analysis was employed to provide an in-depth understanding of learners' psychosocial needs and strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing. The paper is guided by ethnopsychology – a strength-based perspective, which posits that in the most difficult situations, individuals including, young people have strengths, can collaborate and find solutions that respond to their challenges. This was done by examining how various facets of their environments such as peers, teachers, schools’ environment, family and community played out in creating supportive strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs which buffer the successful completion of their secondary school education. It is recommended that ethnopsychology should recognise and be used under the realm of positive wellbeing in rural schools in Lesotho.

Keywords: arts-based research, ethnopsychology, Lesotho, orphans and vulnerable learners, psychosocial wellbeing, rural schools.

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1781 Scaling Up Psychosocial Wellbeing of Orphans and Vulnerable Learners in Rural Schools in Lesotho: An Ethnopsychology Approach

Authors: Fumane Portia Khanare

Abstract:

This paper explores strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of orphans and vulnerable learners (OVLs) in rural schools in Lesotho that seem essential for their success, in anticipation of, and in the context of global education. Various strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing are considered necessary in that they are inclusive and buffer other forms of conditions beyond traditional and Eurocentric forms in orientation. Furthermore, they bring about the local experiences and particularly of the learners and schools in rural areas – all of which constitute ethnopsychology. COVID-19 pandemic has enthused the demands for collaboration and responsive support for learners within rural and many deprived contexts in Lesotho. However, the increase of OVLs in the education sector has also sparked the debate of how much rural schools with lack of resources, inadequate teacher training, declining unemployment and the detriment of COVID-19 throughout Lesotho affected the psychosocial wellbeing of these learners. In some cases, the pandemic has created opportunities to explore existing, forgotten or ignored resources dated back to pre-colonial era in Lesotho, and emphasizing to have an optimistic outlook on life as a result of collaboration and appreciating local knowledge. In order to scale up the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs there is a need to explore various strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing, in which all learners can succeed during COVID-19 pandemic and beyond, thereby promoting agency of young people from the rural areas towards building supportive learning environments. The paper draws on a qualitative participatory arts-based study data generated by 30 learners in two rural secondary schools in Lesotho. Thematic analysis was employed to provide an in-depth understanding of learners' psychosocial needs and strategies to improve their psychosocial wellbeing. The paper is guided by ethnopsychology – a strength-based perspective, which posit that in the most difficult situations, individual including, young people have strengths, can collaborate and find solutions that respond to their challenges. This was done by examining how various facets of their environments such as peers, teachers, schools’ environment, family and community played out in creating supportive strategies to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of OVLs which buffer their successful completion of their secondary school education. It is recommended that ethnopsychology should recognised and be used under the realm of positive wellbeing in rural schools in Lesotho.

Keywords: arts-based research, ethnopsychology, orphans and vulnerable learners, Lesotho, psychosocial wellbeing, rural schools

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1780 Prevalence and Determinants of Depression among Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Child Care Homes in Nepal

Authors: Kumari Bandana Bhatt, Navin Bhatt

Abstract:

Background: Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) are high risk of physical, mental, sexual and emotional abuse and face social stigma and discrimination which significantly increase the risk of mental and behavioral disorders such as anxiety, depression or emotional problems even they stay in well run child care homes. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression and determine the determinants among OVC in child care homes in Nepal. Methods: An institutional-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in twenty orphanages of five districts of Nepal. Six hundred two children were recruited into the study. After the informed consent form obtaining, the guardian and assent were interviewed by a semi-structured questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Logistic regression was used for detecting the association between variables at the significant level of =0.05. Results: The study revealed that 33.20% of OVC had depression. Among them 66.80% of children experienced minimal depression, 17.40% had mild depression, 11.30% had moderate depression 4.50% had severe depression. Sex, alcohol drinking, congenital problem, social support and bully were the main variables associated with depression among OVC of the child care homes in Nepal. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression was high among the orphans and vulnerable children living in child care homes especially among the female children in Nepal. Therefore, early identification and instituting of preventive measures of depression are essential to reduce this problem in this special group of children living in child care homes.

Keywords: Mental health, Depression, Orphans and vulnerable children, child care homes

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1779 Validating the Home Experiences of Children that Negatively Impact Their Right to Education in South Africa: The Case of HIV/AIDS Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) Living in the Amatole District

Authors: Tatenda Manomano, Moreblessing Memory Ndonga

Abstract:

In South Africa and the world over, despite an array of commendable policies to protect the rights of children, the situation on the ground indicates that HIV/AIDS continues to pose increasing challenges on the children’s’ right to education due to the death of their parents. This study sought to validate the home experiences of children that negatively impact on their right to education in South Africa with a case of HIV/AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) in Amatole District. The study utilized a qualitative research method in collecting the feelings, views and attitudes of these children to establish the children’s home experiences. An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used to steer the one-on-one in-depth interviews with children from Parkside Primary School, Langa-Liphumile High School and one anonymous school in East London, Eastern Cape Province. 5 learners were purposively selected from each school and subjected to a one-on-one interview with the researcher. The researcher purposively selected one teacher per school, 2 members each from 3 community based organizations (CBOs) who were also subjected to a one-on-one in-depth interview. The findings indicated these negative experiences of the OVCs in their homes such as; attendance to a school was poor; academic performance was low; enrollment in schools was very low and abuse of these children was high. These researchers recommend for psychosocial support for these children to be placed in the schools; integration of HIV/AIDS programmes to target especially the OVCs; social workers should ensure that they regularly do home visits to these OVCs to establish whether the home circumstances these children are still conducive for them. It is hoped that the findings from this paper will be an asset that other researchers, policy makers, the government and NGOs/CBOs will take into consideration for the benefit of OVCs.

Keywords: orphaned and vulnerable children (OVCs), HIV, AIDS, home experiences

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1778 A Study of Level of Happiness in Orphans of Patna District

Authors: Riya Kartikee, Uday Shankar

Abstract:

Background –.Happiness refers to a range of the balance of positive and pleasant emotions of joy, pride, contentment, gratitude, and living with ethics. Happiness is an experience combined with a sense that one’s life is good, meaningful, and worth a while, but in the context of orphans who have lost their birthgivers, their parents who play an important role in bringing necessities and comfort to them, but many terms of the above phases are missing in the life of orphan So, stress increases because of lack of love, attention, sympathy, care, they experience many kind of trauma and also in some cases their lives get worst as they face some physiological abuse, sexual abuse, they are forced to have stress at a not only mentally but physically also in the context of Patna, Bihar where many people are below poverty line, lack of resources is a normal condition for the Orphanages.AIM- The present study was intended to study the level of Happiness among the orphans of Patna District, also it was attempted to find the role of happiness in their lives as an individual.Method- The sample of 70 Orphans in the age group of 12 to 18 years were taken from the orphanages of Patna district-Apnaghar, Rainbow homes, etc. Purposive sampling was used in the study, There has been one research tool used in the study, which is Happiness scale by Dr.R.L Bhardwaj and Dr.Poonam R Das. Results- Results have revealed that Orphans have possessed a very low level of happiness and unhappiness was related due to their living conditions in the orphanage.Conclusion-It can be stated that the Level of happiness is an important missing determinant in the lives of orphans.

Keywords: happiness, orphans, patna, orphanage

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1777 Contribution of Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support in reducing vulnerability among children affected by HIV in Kapchorwa District

Authors: Vicent Lwanga

Abstract:

Background: Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support, a Community Based Organization operating in Kapchorwa with the main focus of reducing economic and social vulnerability among children affected by HIV/AIDS. The survey on reducing vulnerability targeted HIV/AIDS affected households, which included 111 adults and 185 children. The broad objective of the study was to determine how the needs of the children affected by HIV/AIDS could be appropriately met by specifically examining the situation of children affected by HIV/AIDS and establishing their needs. Methodology: The survey applied a structured questionnaire. Parents whose consent for the interview of the children had been obtained then communicated to the selected child/children. If the child consented, an arrangement for the interview was made as regards the time and place of the interview. Lessons: Adult respondents included 22.2% males and 77.8% females. Child respondents were males, 49.5%, and females 50.5%. The majority of the households are from lower economic strata. 74.1% and 63.0% of males and females, respectively, indicated that their illness had affected their income-earning activities; some of the adults have lost their jobs due to AIDS. A fair number of the children are engaged in economic activity: some of those still in school worked after school for wages and looked after their siblings. The income earned was spent mostly on household needs and school fees — one-fifth of children linked parents` inability to do more of what they desired to their ill-health. Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support secured sponsors to educate 22 girls and 16 boys in the community. Income-generating projects like piggery and skill training are given to orphans. The specific vulnerability of HIV/AIDS orphan's needs is responded to now more than ever. Community organisations interventions such as financial support to orphans introduced to moderate the impact of the disease on orphans and families.

Keywords: aids, children, needs, vulnerability

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1776 A Systematic Review Regarding Caregiving Relationships of Adolescents Orphaned by AIDS and Primary Caregivers

Authors: Petunia Tsweleng

Abstract:

Research and aid organisations report that children and adolescents orphaned due to HIV and AIDS are particularly vulnerable as they are often exposed to negative effects of both HIV and AIDS, and orphanhood. Without much needed parental love, care and support, these children and adolescents are at risk of poor developmental outcomes. A cursory look at the available literature on AIDS-orphaned adolescents, and the quality of caregiving relationships with caregivers, shows that this is a relatively under-researched terrain. This article is a review of literature on caregiving relationships of adolescents orphaned due to AIDS and their current primary caregivers. It aims to inform community programmes and policymakers by providing insight into the qualities of these relationships. A comprehensive search of both peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed literature was conducted through EBSCOhost, SpringLINK, PsycINFO, SAGE, PubMed, Elsevier ScienceDirect, JSTOR, Wiley Online Library databases, and Google Scholar. The search followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Both qualitative and quantitative research studies were reviewed. However, only qualitative studies were selected in the end -as they presented more profound findings concerning orphan-caregiver relationships. The search resulted in a total of 2090 titles, of which 750 were duplicates, and therefore subtracted. The researcher reviewed all the titles and abstracts of the remaining 1340 articles. 329 articles were identified as relevant, and full texts were reviewed. Following the review of the full texts, 313 studies were excluded for relevance and 4 for methodology. Twelve articles representing 11 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were selected. These studies, representing different countries across the globe, reported similar forms of hardships experienced by caregivers economically, psychosocially, and healthwise. However, the studies also show that the majority of caregivers found contentment in caring for orphans, particularly grandmother carers, and were thus enabled to provide love, care and support despite the hardships. This resulted in positive caregiving relationships -as orphans fared well emotionally and psychosocially. Some relationships, however, were found negative due to unhealed emotional wounds suffered by both caregivers and orphans, and others due to the caregiver’s lack of interest in providing care. These findings were based on self-report data from both orphans and caregivers. Furthermore, the findings suggest that intervention efforts need to be intensified to (a) alleviate poverty in households that are affected by HIV and AIDS pandemic, (b) strengthen the community psychosocial support programmes for orphans and their caregivers, (b) integrate clinical services with community programmes for the healing of emotional and psychological wounds. The study obtained ethics clearance from the Humanities and Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee of the University of the Western Cape.

Keywords: systematic review, caregiving relationships, orphans and primary caregivers, AIDS

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1775 Incidence of Orphans Neonatal Puppies Attend in Veterinary Hospital – Causes, Consequences and Mortality

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Orphaned is a risk factor for mortality in newborns since it is a condition with total or partial absence of maternal care that is essential for neonatal survival, including nursing (nutrition, the transference of passive immunity and hydration), warmth, urination, and defecation stimuli, and protection. The most common causes of mortality in orphans are related to lack of assistance, handling mistakes and infections. This study aims to describe the orphans rates in neonatal puppies, the main causes, and the mortality rates. The study included 735 neonates admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. The orphans rate was 43.4% (319/735) of all neonates included, and the main causes for orphaned were related to maternal agalactia/hypogalactia (23.5%, 75/319); numerous litter (15.7%, 50/319), toxic milk syndrome due to maternal mastitis (14.4%, 46/319), absence of suction/weak neonate (12.2%, 39/319), maternal disease (9.4%, 30/319), cleft palate/lip (6.3%, 20/319), maternal death (5.9%, 19/319), prematurity (5.3%, 17/319), rejection/failure in maternal instinct (3.8%, 12/319) and abandonment by the owner/separation of mother and neonate (3.5%, 11/319). The main consequences of orphaned observed in the admitted neonates were hypoglycemia, hypothermia, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, wasting syndrome, failure in the transference of passive immunity, infections and sepsis, which happened due to failure of identifying the problem early, lack of adequate assistance, negligence and handling mistakes by the owner. The total neonatal mortality rate was 8% (59/735) and the neonatal mortality rate among orphans was 18.5% (59/319). The orphaned and mortality rates were considered high, but even higher rates may be observed in locations without adequate neonatal assistance and owner orientation. The survival of these patients is related to constant monitoring of the litter, early diagnosis and assistance, and the implementation of effective handling for orphans. Understanding the correct handling for neonates and instructing the owners regarding proper handling are essential to minimize the consequences of orphaned and the mortality rates.

Keywords: orphans, neonatal care, puppies, newborn dogs

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1774 Survey of Rate and Causes of Literacy Preservation in Adult Newly Learners

Authors: Mohammad Narimani, Zahra Rostamoghli

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is the survey of rate and causes of literacy preservation in adult newly learners. Statistical sample consists of 384 adults who are newly learners of literacy, at 2002, who were selected by stratified sampling method. This is a correlation cross-sectional survey research, in which authors-constructed measures were used for data collection. Results of survey showed that learners' literacy preservation rate after two years was 70%, 61% and 57%, in reading, dictation and mathematic tests, respectively.Following can be noted as factors correlated with literacy preservation; repetition of subjects and learners' subjective review, access to and using the library and publications, feeling of need to and interest in educated matters, socio cultural class of learners, and literacy level of learners' family.

Keywords: literacy preservation, new learner, literacy improvement movement, mathematic test

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1773 Teachers' Emphatic Concern for Their Learners

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

The focus of this exploratory study is on whether teachers demonstrate emphatic concern for their learners in planning, implementing and assessing learning outcomes in their regular classrooms. Empathy must be shown to all learners equally and not only for high-risk learners at the expense of other ability learners. Empathy demonstrated by teachers allows them to build a stronger bond with all their learners. This bond based on trust leads to positive outcomes for learners to be able to excel in their work. Empathic teachers must make every effort to simplify the subject matter for high risk learners so that these learners not only enjoy their learning activities but are also successful like their more able peers. A total of 87.5% of the participants agreed that empathy allows teachers to demonstrate humanistic values in their choice of learning materials for learners of different abilities. It is therefore important for teachers to select content and instructional materials that will contribute to the learners’ success in the mainstream of education. It is also imperative for teachers to demonstrate empathic skills and consequently, to be attuned to the emotions and emotional needs of their learners. Schools need to be reformed, not by simply lengthening the school day or by simply adding more content in the curriculum, but by making school more satisfying to learners. This must be consistent with their diverse learning needs and interests so that they gain a sense of power, fulfillment, and importance in their regular classrooms. Hence, teacher - pupil relationships based on empathic concern for the latter’s educational needs lays the foundation for quality education to be offered.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, empathy, learners’ emotional needs, teachers’ empathic skills

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1772 The Design and Implementation of Interactive Storybook Reading to Develop the Reading Comprehension of ESL Learners

Authors: A. van Staden, A. A. van Rhyn

Abstract:

The numerous challenges South African, ESL learners experience were highlighted by the results of several literacy surveys and tests, which demonstrated that our learners’ literacy abilities are far below standard and very weak compared to other international countries. This study developed and implemented an interactive storybook intervention program to support the reading development of ESL learners. The researchers utilized an experimental pre-test/post-test research design, whereby 80 ESL learners from five participating schools, were purposively sampled to take part in this study. This paper, inter alia, discusses the key features of this intervention program whilst also reporting the results of the experimental investigation. Results are promising and show a significant improvement in the mean scores of the learners in the experimental group. Moreover, the results show the value of interactive storybook reading in creating responsive literacy environments to develop the literacy skills of ESL learners.

Keywords: ESL learners, reading comprehension, Interactive story book reading, South Africa

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1771 L2 Acquisition of Tense and Aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL Learners of Different Proficiency Levels

Authors: Mable Chan

Abstract:

The present study about the acquisition of tense and aspect by Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners aims to investigate the relationship between knowledge, the role that classroom input plays in the development of that knowledge, and learners' use of the L2 knowledge they acquire (i.e. their performance). Chinese has been argued as a tenseless language and Chinese ESL learners have to acquire the property from scratch. The study of acquisition of tense and aspect is a very fruitful research area in second language acquisition for a number of reasons. First, tense and aspect are notorious for being difficult for Chinese ESL learners. Second, to our knowledge, no studies have been done to compare Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners and age effects in one single study. Data are now being collected and the findings from this comparison study of tense-aspect acquisition will shed light on both theoretical and pedagogical issues in second language acquisition, and contribute to a better understanding of both theoretical aspect concerning L2 acquisition of tense and aspect, and pedagogy of tense for L2 Chinese ESL learners.

Keywords: aspect, second language acquisition, tense, universal grammar

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1770 The Use of Authentic Videos to Change Learners’ Negative Attitudes and Perceptions toward Grammar Learning

Authors: Khaldi Youcef

Abstract:

This investigation seeks to inquire into the effectiveness of using authentic videos for grammar teaching purposes. In this investigation, an English animated situation, Hercules, was used as a type of authentic multimedia to teach a particular grammatical structure, namely conditional sentences. This study also aims at investigating the EFL learners’ attitudes toward grammar learning after being exposed to such an authentic video. To reach that purpose, 56 EFL learners were required ultimately to respond to a questionnaire with an aim to reveal their attitudes towards grammar as a language entity and as a subject for being learned. Then, as a second stage of the investigation, the EFL learners were divided into a control group and an experimental group with 28 learners in each. The first group was taught grammar -conditional sentences- using a deductive-inductive approach, while the second group was exposed to an authentic video to learn conditional sentences. There was a post-lesson stage that included a questionnaire to be answered by learners of each group. The aim of this stage is to capture any change in learners' attitudes shown in the pre-lesson questionnaire. The findings of the first stage revealed learners' negative attitudes towards grammar learning. And the third stage results showed the effectiveness of authentic videos in entirely turning learners' attitudes toward grammar learning to be significantly positive. Also, the utility of authentic videos in highly motivating EFL learners can be deduced. The findings of this survey asserted the need for incorporation and integration of authentic videos in EFL classrooms as they resulted in rising effectively learners’ awareness of grammar and looking at it from a communicative perspective.

Keywords: multimedia, authentic videos, negative attitudes, grammar learning, EFL learners

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1769 Listening Anxiety in Iranian EFL learners

Authors: Samaneh serraj

Abstract:

Listening anxiety has a detrimental effect on language learners. Through a qualitative study on Iranian EFL learners several factors were identified as having influence on their listening anxiety. These factors were divided into three categories, i.e. individual factors (nerves and emotionality, using inappropriate strategies and lack of practice), input factors (lack of time to process, lack of visual support, nature of speech and level of difficulty) and environmental factors (instructors, peers and class environment).

Keywords: listening Comprehension, Listening Anxiety, Foreign language learners

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1768 Human Resource Development and Social Entrepreneurship: A Pan-African Perspective

Authors: Leon C. Prieto, Simone T. A. Phipps

Abstract:

There is a need to promote social entrepreneurship in order to solve some of the complex problems facing various countries in Africa (poverty, unemployment, crime, HIV, etc.). For example, one possible consequence of the HIV/AIDS crisis in Zimbabwe and elsewhere is a deterioration in the educational opportunities for orphans and other vulnerable children. Given that high returns are associated with education, the loss of education for a large segment of the population would likely worsen the already dire economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS crisis. Using a systems approach, this paper argues that social entrepreneurship can be used as a vehicle to promote national human resource development, which will assist in the alleviation of societal ills on the national level as well as throughout Africa.

Keywords: human resource development, pan-african, social entrepreneurship, social enterprise

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1767 Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States

Authors: Sheryl Bernardo-Hinesley

Abstract:

Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.

Keywords: heritage language learners, language acquisition, linguistic attitudes, Spanish in the US

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1766 Error Analysis of the Pronunciation of English Consonants and Arabic Consonants by Egyptian Learners

Authors: Marwa A. Nasser

Abstract:

This is an empirical study that provides an investigation of the most significant errors of Egyptian learners in producing English consonants and Arabic consonants, and advice on how these can be remedied. The study adopts a descriptive approach and the analysis is based on audio recordings of two groups of people. The first group includes six volunteers of Egyptian learners belonging to the English Department at Faculty of Women who learn English as a foreign language. The other group includes six Egyptian learners who are studying Tajweed (how to recite Quran correctly). The audio recordings were examined, and sounds were analyzed in an attempt to highlight the most common error done by the learners while reading English or reading (or reciting) Quran. Results show that the two groups of learners have problems with certain phonemic contrasts. Both groups share common errors although both languages are different and not related (e.g. pre-aspiration of fortis stops, incorrect articulation of consonants and velarization of certain sounds).

Keywords: consonant articulations, Egyptian learners of English, Egyptian learners of Quran, empirical study, error analysis, pronunciation problems

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1765 Acquisition of the Attributive Adjectives and the Noun Adjuncts by the L3 Learners of French and German: Further Evidence for the Typological Proximity Model

Authors: Ali Akbar Jabbari

Abstract:

This study investigates the role of the prior acquired languages, Persian and English, concerning the acquisition of the third language (L3) French and German at the initial stages. The data were collected from two groups of L3 learners: 28 learners of L3 French and 21 learners of L3 German, in order to test the placement of the attributive adjectives and the noun adjuncts through a grammaticality judgment task and an element rearrangement task. The aim of the study was to investigate whether any of the models proposed in the L3 acquisition could account for the case of the present study. The results of the analysis revealed that the learners of L3 German and French were both affected by the typological similarity of the previous languages. The outperformance of the German learners is an indication of the facilitative effect of L2 English (which is typologically more similar to the German than that of French). English had also a non-facilitative role in the acquisition of French and this is proved in the lower performance of the French learners. This study provided evidence for the TPM as the most accepted model of L3 acquisition.

Keywords: cross-linguistic influence, multilingualism, third language acquisition, transfer

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1764 Iranian EFL Learners' Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseiniun, Ghasem Ghorbanirostam

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to investigate the Iranian EFL learners’ attitudes toward the use of computer technology in language classes as a method of improving English learning. To this end, 120 male and female Iranian learners participated in the study. Instrumentation included a 20-item questionnaire. The analysis of the data revealed that the majority of learners had a positive attitude towards the application of CALL in language classes. Moreover, independent samples t-tests indicated that male participants had a significantly more positive attitude compared with that of the female participants. Finally, the results obtained through ANOVA revealed that the youngest age group had a significantly more positive attitude toward the use of technology in language classes compared to the other age groups.

Keywords: EFL learners, Iranian learners, CALL, language learning

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1763 Anxiety Caused by the Single Mode of Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: The Case of African Language Learners

Authors: Stanle Madonsela

Abstract:

For learning to take place effectively, learners have to use language. Language becomes a critical tool by which to communicate, to express feelings, desires and thoughts, and most of all to learn. However, each individual’s capacity to use language is unique. In multilingual countries, classrooms usually comprise learners from different language backgrounds, and therefore the language used for teaching and learning requires rethinking. Interaction in the classroom, if done in a language that is understood by the learners, could maximise the outcomes of learning. This paper explores the extent to which the use of a single code becomes a source of anxiety to learners in multilingual classrooms in South African schools. It contends that a multilingual approach in the learning process should be explored in order to promote learner autonomy in the learning process.

Keywords: anxiety, classroom, foreign language teaching, multilingual

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1762 A Conundrum of Teachability and Learnability of Deaf Adult English as Second Language Learners in Pakistani Mainstream Classrooms: Integration or Elimination

Authors: Amnah Moghees, Saima Abbas Dar, Muniba Saeed

Abstract:

Teaching a second language to deaf learners has always been a challenge in Pakistan. Different approaches and strategies have been followed, but they have been resulted into partial or complete failure. The study aims to investigate the language problems faced by adult deaf learners of English as second language in mainstream classrooms. Moreover, the study also determines the factors which are very much involved in language teaching and learning in mainstream classes. To investigate the language problems, data will be collected through writing samples of ten deaf adult learners and ten normal ESL learners of the same class; whereas, observation in inclusive language teaching classrooms and interviews from five ESL teachers in inclusive classes will be conducted to know the factors which are directly or indirectly involved in inclusive language education. Keeping in view this study, qualitative research paradigm will be applied to analyse the corpus. The study figures out that deaf ESL learners face severe language issues such as; odd sentence structures, subject and verb agreement violation, misappropriation of verb forms and tenses as compared to normal ESL learners. The study also predicts that in mainstream classrooms there are multiple factors which are affecting the smoothness of teaching and learning procedure; role of mediator, level of deaf learners, empathy of normal learners towards deaf learners and language teacher’s training.

Keywords: deaf English language learner, empathy, mainstream classrooms, previous language knowledge of learners, role of mediator, language teachers' training

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1761 Absence of Developmental Change in Epenthetic Vowel Duration in Japanese Speakers’ English

Authors: Takayuki Konishi, Kakeru Yazawa, Mariko Kondo

Abstract:

This study examines developmental change in the production of epenthetic vowels by Japanese learners of English in relation to acquisition of L2 English speech rhythm. Seventy-two Japanese learners of English in the J-AESOP corpus were divided into lower- and higher-level learners according to their proficiency score and the frequency of vowel epenthesis. Three learners were excluded because no vowel epenthesis was observed in their utterances. The analysis of their read English speech data showed no statistical difference between lower- and higher-level learners, implying the absence of any developmental change in durations of epenthetic vowels. This result, together with the findings of previous studies, will be discussed in relation to the transfer of L1 phonology and manifestation of L2 English rhythm.

Keywords: vowel epenthesis, Japanese learners of English, L2 speech corpus, speech rhythm

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1760 The Effect of Using LDOCE on Iranian EFL Learners’ Pronunciation Accuracy

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi, Elahe Saedpanah

Abstract:

Since pronunciation is among those factors that can have strong effects on EFL learners’ successful communication, instructional programs with accurate pronunciation purposes seem to be a necessity in any L2 teaching context. The widespread use of smart mobile phones brings with itself various educational applications, which can assist foreign language learners in learning and speaking another language other than their L1. In line with this supportive innovation, the present study investigated the role of LDOCE (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English), a mobile application, on improving Iranian EFL learners’ pronunciation accuracy. To this aim, 40 EFL learners studying English at the intermediate level participated in the current study. This was an experimental research with two groups of 20 students in an experimental and a control group. The data were collected through the administration of a pronunciation pretest before the instruction and a post-test after the treatment. In addition, the assessment was based on the pupils’ recorded voices while reading the selected words. The results of the independent samples t-test indicated that using LDOCE significantly affected Iranian EFL learners' pronunciation accuracy with those in the experimental group outperforming their control group counterparts.

Keywords: LDOCE, EFL learners, pronunciation accuracy, CALL, MALL

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1759 Interaction Tasks of CUE Model in Virtual Language Learning in Travel English for Taiwanese College EFL Learners

Authors: Kuei-Hao Li, Eden Huang

Abstract:

Motivation suggests the willingness one person has towards taking action. Learners’ motivation has frequently been regarded as the most crucial factor in successful language acquisition. Without sufficient motivation, learners cannot achieve long-term learning goals despite remarkable abilities. Therefore, the study aims to investigate motivation of interaction tasks designed by the researchers for college EFL learners in Travel English class in virtual reality environment, integrating CUE model, Cognition, Usage and Expansion in the course. Thirty college learners were asked to join the virtual language learning website designed by the researchers. Data was collected via feedback questionnaire, interview, and learner interactions. The findings indicated that the course in the CUE model in language learning website of virtual reality environment was effective at motivating EFL learners and improving their oral communication and social interactions in the learning process. Some pedagogical implications are also provided in helping both language instructors and EFL learners in virtual reality environment.

Keywords: motivation, virtual reality, virtual language learning, second language acquisition

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1758 Frequency of the English Phrasal Verbs Used by Iranian Learners as a Reference to the Style of Writing Adopted by the Learners

Authors: Hamzeh Mazaherylaghab, Mehrangiz Vahabian, Seyyedeh Zahra Asghari

Abstract:

The present study initially focused on the frequency of phrasal verbs used by Iranian learners of English. The results then needed to be compared to the findings from native speaker corpora. After the extraction of phrasal verbs from learner and native-speaker corpora the findings were analysed. The results showed that Iranian learners avoided using phrasal verbs in many cases. Some of the findings proved to be significant. It was also found that the learners used the single-word counterparts of the avoided phrasal verbs to compensate for their lack of knowledge in many cases. Semantic complexity and Lack of L1 counterpart may have been the main reasons for avoidance, but despite the avoidance phenomenon, the learners displayed a tendency to use many other phrasal verbs which may have been due to the increase in the number of multi-word verbs in Persian. The overall scores confirmed the fact that the language produced by the learners illustrates signs of more formal style in comparison with the native speakers of English by using less phrasal verbs and more formal single word verbs instead.

Keywords: corpus, corpora, LOCNESS, phrasal verbs, single-word verb

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1757 Efficacy of Clickers in L2 Interaction

Authors: Ryoo Hye Jin Agnes

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the efficacy of clickers in fostering L2 class interaction. In an L2 classroom, active learner-to-learner interactions and learner-to-teacher interactions play an important role in language acquisition. In light of this, introducing learning tools that promote such interactions would benefit L2 classroom by fostering interaction. This is because the anonymity of clickers allows learners to express their needs without the social risks associated with speaking up in the class. clickers therefore efficiently help learners express their level of understanding during the process of learning itself. This allows for an evaluative feedback loop where both learners and teachers understand the level of progress of the learners, better enabling classrooms to adapt to the learners’ needs. Eventually this tool promotes participation from learners. This, in turn, is believed to be effective in fostering classroom interaction, allowing learning to take place in a more comfortable yet vibrant way. This study is finalized by presenting the result of an experiment conducted to verify the effectiveness of this approach when teaching pragmatic aspect of Korean expressions with similar semantic functions. The learning achievement of learners in the experimental group was found higher than the learners’ in a control group. A survey was distributed to the learners, questioning them regarding the efficacy of clickers, and how it contributed to their learning in areas such as motivation, self-assessment, increasing participation, as well as giving feedback to teachers. Analyzing the data collected from the questionnaire given to the learners, the study presented data suggesting that this approach increased the scope of interactivity in the classroom, thus not only increasing participation but enhancing the type of classroom participation among learners. This participation in turn led to a marked improvement in their communicative abilities.

Keywords: second language acquisition, interaction, clickers, learner response system, output from learners, learner’s cognitive process

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1756 A Corpus Study of English Verbs in Chinese EFL Learners’ Academic Writing Abstracts

Authors: Shuaili Ji

Abstract:

The correct use of verbs is an important element of high-quality research articles, and thus for Chinese EFL learners, it is significant to master characteristics of verbs and to precisely use verbs. However, some researches have shown that there are differences in using verbs between learners and native speakers and learners have difficulty in using English verbs. This corpus-based quantitative research can enhance learners’ knowledge of English verbs and promote the quality of research article abstracts even of the whole academic writing. The aim of this study is to find the differences between learners’ and native speakers’ use of verbs and to study the factors that contribute to those differences. To this end, the research question is as follows: What are the differences between most frequently used verbs by learners and those by native speakers? The research question is answered through a study that uses corpus-based data-driven approach to analyze the verbs used by learners in their abstract writings in terms of collocation, colligation and semantic prosody. The results show that: (1) EFL learners obviously overused ‘be, can, find, make’ and underused ‘investigate, examine, may’. As to modal verbs, learners obviously overused ‘can’ while underused ‘may’. (2) Learners obviously overused ‘we find + object clauses’ while underused ‘nouns (results, findings, data) + suggest/indicate/reveal + object clauses’ when expressing research results. (3) Learners tended to transfer the collocation, colligation and semantic prosody of shǐ and zuò to make. (4) Learners obviously overused ‘BE+V-ed’ and used BE as the main verb. They also obviously overused the basic forms of BE such as be, is, are, while obviously underused its inflections (was, were). These results manifested learners’ lack of accuracy and idiomatic property in verb usage. Due to the influence of the concept transfer of Chinese, the verbs in learners’ abstracts showed obvious transfer of mother language. In addition, learners have not fully mastered the use of verbs, avoiding using complex colligations to prevent errors. Based on these findings, the present study has implications for English teaching, seeking to have implications for English academic abstract writing in China. Further research could be undertaken to study the use of verbs in the whole dissertation to find out whether the characteristic of the verbs in abstracts can apply in the whole dissertation or not.

Keywords: academic writing abstracts, Chinese EFL learners, corpus-based, data-driven, verbs

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1755 Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization: An Efficient Method for Chinese as a Second Language

Authors: Qi Wang

Abstract:

In the classroom, teachers have been trained to complete the target task within the limited lecture time, meanwhile learners need to receive a lot of new knowledge, however, most of the time the learners come without the proper pre-class preparation to efficiently take in the contents taught in class. Under this circumstance, teachers do have no time to check whether the learners fully understand the content or not, how the learners communicate in the different contexts, until teachers see the results when the learners are tested. In the past decade, the teaching of Chinese has taken a trend. Teaching focuses less on the use of proper grammatical terms/punctuation and is now placing a heavier focus on the materials from real life contexts. As a result, it has become a greater challenge to teachers, as this requires teachers to fully understand/prepare what they teach and explain the content with simple and understandable words to learners. On the other hand, the same challenge also applies to the learners, who come from different countries. As they have to use what they learnt, based on their personal understanding of the material to effectively communicate with others in the classroom, even in the contexts of a day to day communication. To reach this win-win stage, Feynman’s Technique plays a very important role. This practical report presents you how the Feynman’s Technique is applied into Chinese courses, both writing & oral, to motivate the learners to practice more on writing, reading and speaking in the past few years. Part 1, analysis of different teaching styles and different types of learners, to find the most efficient way to both teachers and learners. Part 2, based on the theory of Feynman’s Technique, how to let learners build the knowledge from knowing the name of something to knowing something, via different designed target tasks. Part 3. The outcomes show that Feynman’s Technique is the interaction of learning style and teaching style, the double-edged sword of Teaching & Learning Chinese as a Second Language.

Keywords: Chinese, Feynman’s technique, learners, teachers

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1754 Teaching Young Learners How to Work Together: Pedagogical Ideas for Language Teachers

Authors: Tomas Kos

Abstract:

An increasing body of research has explored patterns of interaction and peer support among young learners. Although some studies suggest that young learners can collaborate and support each other, other studies indicate that young learners may lack the ability to work together and support one another when interacting on classroom tasks. Moreover, despite the claims that peer collaboration is conducive to learning, studies have not paid enough attention to the “how” to enhance peer collaboration on classroom tasks. To fill this gap, this “how-to” article proposes that teaching young learners how to work together is a powerful pedagogical tool that can greatly improve collaborative behavior and a sense of mutuality among young learners. This article will pay particular attention to primary schools and the context of English as a foreign language. It will first review literature related to patterns of interaction and peer support conducted in the cognitive and sociocultural framework. It will then address what it actually means to collaborate. At the heart of the article, it will discuss some practical pedagogical ideas for language teachers, which entail teaching collaborative principles and strategies that will help their students to support each other and engage in communication with each other.

Keywords: young learners, peer collaboration, peer interaction, peer support, patterns of interaction

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1753 An Analysis of Learners’ Reports for Measuring Co-Creational Education

Authors: Takatoshi Ishii, Koji Kimita, Keiichi Muramatsu, Yoshiki Shimomura

Abstract:

To increase the quality of learning, teacher and learner need mutual effort for realization of educational value. For this purpose, we need to manage the co-creational education among teacher and learners. In this research, we try to find a feature of co-creational education. To be more precise, we analyzed learners’ reports by natural language processing, and extract some features that describe the state of the co-creational education.

Keywords: co-creational education, e-portfolios, ICT integration, latent dirichlet allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 497