Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2237

Search results for: organic residue

2237 Detoxification of Hazardous Organic/Inorganic Contaminants in Automobile Shredder Residue by Multi-Functioned Nano-Size Metallic Calcium Composite

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byoung Ho Lee, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Simion Cristian

Abstract:

In recent years, environmental nanotechnology has risen to the forefront and the new properties and enhanced reactivates offered by nanomaterial may offer a new, low-cost paradigm to solving complex environmental pollution problems. This study assessed the synthesis and application of multi-functioned nano-size metallic calcium (nMC) composite for detoxification of hazardous inorganic (heavy metals (HMs)/organic chlorinated/brominated compound (CBCs) contaminants in automobile shredder residue (ASR). ASR residues ball milled with nMC composite can achieve about 90-100% of HMs immobilization and CBCs decomposition. The results highlight the low quantity of HMs leached from ASR residues after treatment with nMC, which was found to be lower than the standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The use of nMC composite in a mechanochemical process to treat hazardous ASR (dry conditions) is a simple and innovative approach to remediate hazardous inorganic/organic cross-contaminates in ASR.

Keywords: nano-sized metallic calcium, automobile shredder residue, organic/inorganic contaminants, immobilization, detoxification

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
2236 Effect of Curing Temperature on Unconfined Compression Strength of Bagasse Ash-Calcium Carbide Residue Treated Organic Clay

Authors: John Trihatmoko, Luky Handoko

Abstract:

A series of experimental program was undertaken to study the effect of curing temperature on the unconfined compression strength of bagasse ash (BA) - calcium carbide residue (CCR) stabilized organic clay (OC). A preliminary experiment was performed to get the physical properties of OC, and to get the optimum water content (OMC), the standard compaction test was done. The stabilizing agents used in this research was (40% BA + 60% CCR) . Then to obtain the best binder proportion, unconfined compression test was undertaken for OC + 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% of binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing period. The best quantity of the binder was found on 9%. Finally, to study the effect of curing temperature, the unconfined compression test was performed on OC + 9% binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing time with 20O, 25O, 30O, 40O, and 50O C curing temperature. The result indicates that unconfined compression strength (UCS) of treated OC improve according to the increase of curing temperature at the same curing time. The improvement of UCS is probably due to the degree of cementation and pozzolanic reactions.

Keywords: curing temperature, organic clay, bagasse ash, calcium carbide residue, unconfined compression strength

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2235 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

Abstract:

Soy milk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soy milk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soy milk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soy milk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soy milk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92% protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soy milk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soy milk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
2234 Effects of Tillage and Crop Residues Management in Improving Rainfall-Use Efficiency in Dryland Crops under Sandy Soils

Authors: Cosmas Parwada, Ronald Mandumbu, Handseni Tibugari, Trust Chinyama

Abstract:

A 3-yr field experiment to evaluate effects of tillage and residue management on soil water storage (SWS), grain yield, harvest index (HI) and water use efficiency (WUE) of sorghum was done in sandy soils. Treatments were conventional (CT) and minimum (MT) tillage without residue retention and conventional (CT × RT) and minimum (MT × RT) tillage with residue retention. Change in SWS was higher under CT and MT than in CT × RT and MT × RT, especially in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Grain yield and HI were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in CT and MT than CT × RT and MT × RT. Grain yield and HI were significantly (P < 0.05) positively correlated to WUE but WUE significantly (P < 0.05) negatively correlated to sand (%) particle content. The SWS was lower in winter but higher in summer and was significantly correlated to soil organic carbon (SOC), sand (%), grain yield (t/ha), HI and WUE. The WUE linearly increasing from first to last cropping seasons in tillage with returned residues; higher in CT × RT and MT × RT that promoted SOC buildup than where crop residues were removed. Soil tillage decreased effects of residues on SWS, WUE, grain yield and HI. Minimum tillage coupled to residue retention sustainably enhanced WUE but further research to investigate the interaction effects of the tillage on WUE and soil fertility management is required. Understanding and considering the WUE in crops can be a primary condition for cropping system designs. The findings pave way for further research and crop management programmes, allowing to valorize the water in crop production.

Keywords: evapotranspiration, infiltration rate, organic mulch, sand, water use efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
2233 Determination of Carbofuran Residue in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and Soil of Brinjal Field

Authors: R. Islam, M. A. Haque, K. H. Kabir

Abstract:

A supervised trail was set with brinjal at research field, Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur, Gazipur to determine the residue of Carbofuran in soil and fruit samples at different days after application (DAA) of Furadan 5 G @ 2 kg AI/ ha. Field collected samples were analyzed by GCMS-EI. Results of the experiment indicated the presence of Carbofuran residue up to 60 DAA in soil samples and 25 DAA in brinjal fruit samples. In case of soil samples, the detected residues were 7.04, 2.78, 0.79, 0.43, 0.12, 0.06 and 0.05 ppm at 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 DAA respectively. On the other hand, in brinjal fruit samples Carbofuran residues were 0.005 ppm, 0.095 ppm, 0.084 ppm, 0.065 ppm, 0.063 ppm, 0.056 ppm, 0.050 ppm, 0.030 ppm and 0.016 ppm at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 25-DAA, respectively. None of this amount was above the recommended MRL (0.1 mg / kg crop) of Carborufan for agricultural crops.

Keywords: brinjal, carbofuran, MRL, residue

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2232 Generalized Model Estimating Strength of Bauxite Residue-Lime Mix

Authors: Sujeet Kumar, Arun Prasad

Abstract:

The present work investigates the effect of multiple parameters on the unconfined compressive strength of the bauxite residue-lime mix. A number of unconfined compressive strength tests considering various curing time, lime content, dry density and moisture content were carried out. The results show that an empirical correlation may be successfully developed using volumetric lime content, porosity, moisture content, curing time unconfined compressive strength for the range of the bauxite residue-lime mix studied. The proposed empirical correlations efficiently predict the strength of bauxite residue-lime mix, and it can be used as a generalized empirical equation to estimate unconfined compressive strength.

Keywords: bauxite residue, curing time, porosity/volumetric lime ratio, unconfined compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2231 Fractional Residue Number System

Authors: Parisa Khoshvaght, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

During the past few years, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been receiving considerable interest due to its parallel and fault-tolerant properties. This system is a useful tool for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) since it can support parallel, carry-free, high-speed and low power arithmetic. One of the drawbacks of Residue Number System is the fractional numbers, that is, the corresponding circuit is very hard to realize in conventional CMOS technology. In this paper, we propose a method in which the numbers of transistors are significantly reduced. The related delay is extremely diminished, in the first glance we use this method to solve concerning problem of one decimal functional number some how this proposition can be extended to generalize the idea. Another advantage of this method is the independency on the kind of moduli.

Keywords: computer arithmetic, residue number system, number system, one-Hot, VLSI

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2230 Iranian Refinery Vacuum Residue Upgrading Using Microwave Irradiation: Effects of Catalyst Type and Amount

Authors: Zarrin Nasri

Abstract:

Microwave irradiation is an innovative technology in the petroleum industry. This kind of energy has been considered to convert vacuum residue of oil refineries into useful products. The advantages of microwaves energy are short time, fast heating, high energy efficiency, and precise process control. In this paper, the effects of catalyst type and amount have been investigated on upgrading of vacuum residue using microwave irradiation. The vacuum residue used in this research is from Tehran oil refinery, Iran. Additives include different catalysts, active carbon as sensitizer, and sodium borohydride as a solid hydrogen donor. Various catalysts contain iron, nickel, molybdenum disulfide, iron oxide and copper. The amount of catalysts in two cases of presence and absence of sodium borohydride have been evaluated. The objective parameters include temperature, asphaltene, viscosity, and API. The specifications of vacuum residue are API, 8.79, viscosity, 16391 cSt (60°C), asphaltene, 13.3 wt %. The results show that there is a significant difference between the effects of catalysts. Among the used catalysts, Fe powder is the best catalyst for upgrading vacuum residue using microwave irradiation and resulted in asphaltene reduction, 31.3 %; viscosity reduction, 76.43 %; and 23.43 % in API increase.

Keywords: asphaltene, microwave, upgrading, vacuum residue, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2229 Utilization of Logging Residue to Reduce Soil Disturbance of Timber Harvesting

Authors: Juang R. Matangaran, Qi Adlan

Abstract:

Industrial plantation forest in Indonesia was developed in 1983, and since then, several companies have been successfully planted a total area of concessionaire approximately 10 million hectares. Currently, these plantation forests have their annual harvesting period. In the timber harvesting process, amount part of the trees generally become logging residue. Tree parts such as branches, twigs, defected stem and leaves are unused section of tree on the ground after timber harvesting. The use of heavy machines in timber harvesting area has caused damage to the forest soil. The negative impact of such machines includes loss of topsoil, soil erosion, and soil compaction. Forest soil compaction caused reduction of forest water infiltration, increase runoff and causes difficulty for root penetration. In this study, we used logging residue as soil covers on the passages passed by skidding machines in order to observe the reduction soil compaction. Bulk density of soil was measured and analyzed after several times of skidding machines passage on skid trail. The objective of the research was to analyze the effect of logging residue on reducing soil compaction. The research was taken place at one of the industrial plantation forest area of South Sumatra Indonesia. The result of the study showed that percentage increase of soil compaction bare soil was larger than soil surface covered by logging residue. The maximum soil compaction occurred after 4 to 5 passes on soil without logging residue or bare soil and after 7 to 8 passes on soil cover by logging residue. The use of logging residue coverings could reduce soil compaction from 45% to 60%. The logging residue was effective in decreasing soil disturbance of timber harvesting at the plantation forest area.

Keywords: bulk density, logging residue, plantation forest, soil compaction, timber harvesting

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2228 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı

Abstract:

The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: endosulfan, biodegradation, Nocardia sp. soil, organochlorine pesticide

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2227 Mechanical Properties Analysis of Masonry Residue Mortar as Cement Replacement

Authors: Camila Parodi, Viviana Letelier, Giacomo Moriconi

Abstract:

The cement industry is responsible for around a 5% of the CO2 emissions worldwide and considering that concrete is one of the most used materials in construction its total effect is important. An alternative to reduce the environmental impact of concrete production is to incorporate certain amount of residues in the dosing, limiting the replacement percentages to avoid significant losses in the mechanical properties of the final material. Previous researches demonstrate the feasibility of using brick and rust residues, separately, as a cement replacement. This study analyses the variation in the mechanical properties of mortars by incorporating masonry residue composed of clay bricks and cement mortar. In order to improve the mechanical properties of masonry residue, this was subjected to a heat treatment of 650 ° C for four hours and its effect is analyzed in this study. Masonry residue was obtained from a demolition of masonry perimetral walls. The residues were crushed and sieved and the maximum size of particles used was 75 microns. The percentages of cement replaced by masonry residue were 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The effect of masonry residue addition and its heat treatment in the mechanical properties of mortars is evaluated through compressive and flexural strength tests after 7, 14 and 28 curing days. Results show that increasing the amount of masonry residue used increases the losses in compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the use of up to a 20% of masonry residue, when a heat treatment is applied, allows obtaining mortars with similar compressive strength to the control mortar. Masonry residues mortars without a heat treatment show losses in compressive strengths between 15% and 27% with respect to masonry residues with heat treatment, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the heat treatment. From this analysis it can be conclude that it is possible to use up to 20% of masonry residue with heat treatment as cement replacement without significant losses in mortars mechanical properties, reducing considerably the environmental impact of the final material.

Keywords: cement replacement, environmental impact, masonry residue, mechanical properties of recycled mortars

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2226 Impact of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility and Microbial Activity

Authors: Menuka Maharjan

Abstract:

In the name of food security, agriculture intensification through conventional farming is being implemented in Nepal. Government focus on increasing agriculture production completely ignores soil as well human health. This leads to create serious soil degradation, i.e., reduction of soil fertility and microbial activity and health hazard in the country. On this note, organic farming is sustainable agriculture approach which can address challenge of sustaining food security while protecting the environment. This creates a win-win situation both for people and the environment. However, people have limited knowledge on significance of organic farming for environment conservation and food security especially developing countries like Nepal. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the impacts of organic farming on soil fertility and microbial activity compared to conventional farming and forest in Chitwan, Nepal. Total soil organic carbon (C) was highest in organic farming (24 mg C g⁻¹ soil) followed by conventional farming (15 mg C g⁻¹ soil) and forest (9 mg C g⁻¹ soil) in the topsoil layer (0-10 cm depth). A similar trend was found for total nitrogen (N) content in all three land uses with organic farming soil possessing the highest total N content in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. Microbial biomass C and N were also highest under organic farming, especially in the topsoil layer (350 and 46 mg g⁻¹ soil, respectively). Similarly, microbial biomass phosphorus (P) was higher (3.6 and 1.0 mg P kg⁻¹ at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively) in organic farming compared to conventional farming and forest at both depths. However, conventional farming and forest soils had similar microbial biomass (C, N, and P) content. After conversion of forest, the P stock significantly increased by 373% and 170% in soil under organic farming at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively. In conventional farming, the P stock increased by 64% and 36% at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively, compared to forest. Overall, organic farming practices, i.e., crop rotation, residue input and farmyard manure application, significantly alters soil fertility and microbial activity. Organic farming system is emerging as a sustainable land use system which can address the issues of food security and environment conservation by increasing sustainable agriculture production and carbon sequestration, respectively, supporting to achieve goals of sustainable development.

Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility, micobial biomas, food security

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2225 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

Abstract:

In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Also for the same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study was conducted in 2012 and 2013. Sample residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
2224 Conservation Agriculture and Precision Water Management in Alkaline Soils under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: Effect on Wheat Productivity and Irrigation Water Use-a Case Study from India

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, H. S. Jat, Manish Kakraliya, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

Abstract:

The biggest challenge in agriculture is to produce more food for the continually increasing world population with in the limited land and water resources. Serious water deficits and reducing natural resources are some of the major threats to the agricultural sustainability in many regions of South Asia. Food and water security may be gained by bringing improvement in the crop water productivity and the amount produced per unit of water consumed. Improvement in the crop water productivity may be achieved by pursuing alternative modern agronomics approaches, which are more friendly and efficient in utilizing natural resources. Therefore, a research trial on conservation agriculture (CA) and precision water management (PWM) was conducted in 2018-19 at Karnal, India to evaluate the effect on crop productivity and irrigation in sodic soils under rice-wheat (RW) systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Eight scenarios were compared varied in the tillage, crop establishment, residue and irrigarion management i.e., {First four scenarios irrigated with flood irrigation method;Sc1-Conventional tillage (CT) without residue, Sc2-CT with residue, Sc3- Zero tillage (ZT) without residue, Sc4-ZT with residue}, and {last four scenarios irrigated with sub-surface drip irrigation method; Sc5-ZT without residue, Sc6- ZT with residue, Sc7-ZT inclusion legume without residue and Sc8- ZT inclusion legume with residue}. Results revealed that CA-flood irrigation (S3, Sc4) and CA-PWM system (Sc5, Sc6, Sc7 and Sc8) recorded about ~5% and ~15% higher wheat yield, respectively compared to Sc1. Similar, CA-PWM saved ~40% irrigation water compared to Sc1. Rice yield was not different under different scenarios in the first year (kharif 2019) but almost half irrigation water saved under CA-PWM system. Therefore, results of our study on modern agronomic practices including CA and precision water management (subsurface drip irrigation) for RW rotation would be addressed the existing and future challenges in the RW system.

Keywords: Sub-surface drip, Crop residue, Crop yield , Zero tillage

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2223 Pesticide Residue Determination on Cumin Plant (Nigella orientalis L.) Grown through Agricultural Practices with LC-MS/MS and GC-MS

Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Sevinç Şener, Ayşe Yalçın Elidemir, Ebru Evcil, Ergün Döğen

Abstract:

In this study, pesticide residues were investigated in black cumin (Nigella orientalis L.) seeds which grown in Turkey. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analytical instruments are used in high precision, when determining residue limits. A total of 100 pesticide active ingredients in LC-MS/MS devices have been performed in Nigella orientalis L. seeds samples. Moreover, for same aim, 103 pesticide active ingredients were analyzed in GC-MS. This study conducted in 2012 and 2013. Samples residues were not found in detectable levels for two years.

Keywords: pesticide, residue, black cumin, Nigella orientalis L.

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2222 Utilization of Bauxite Residue in Construction Materials: An Experimental Study

Authors: Ryan Masoodi, Hossein Rostami

Abstract:

Aluminum has been credited for the massive advancement of many industrial products, from aerospace and automotive to electronics and even household appliances. These developments have come with a cost, which is a toxic by-product. The rise of aluminum production has been accompanied by the rise of a waste material called Bauxite Residue or Red Mud. This toxic material has been proved to be harmful to the environment, yet, there is no proper way to dispose or recycle it. Herewith, a new experimental method to utilize this waste in the building material is proposed. A method to mix red mud, fly ash, and some other ingredients is explored to create a new construction material that can satisfy the minimum required strength for bricks. It concludes that it is possible to produce bricks with enough strength that is suitable for constriction in environments with low to moderate weather conditions.

Keywords: bauxite residue, brick, red mud, recycling

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2221 Factors Influencing the Resistance of the Purchase of Organic Food and Market Education Process in Indonesia

Authors: Fety Nurlia Muzayanah, Arif Imam Suroso, Mukhamad Najib

Abstract:

The market share of organic food in Indonesia just reaches 0.5-2 percents from the entire of agricultural products. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation of gender, work, age and final education toward the buying interest of organic food, to identify the factors influencing the resistance of the purchase of organic food, and to identify the market education process. The analysis result of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows the factors causing the resistance of the purchase of organic food are the negative attitude toward organic food, the lack of affordable in range for organic food product and the lack of awareness toward organic food, while the subjective norms have no significant effect toward the buying interest. The market education process which can be done is the education about the use of the health of organic food, the organic certification and the economic value.

Keywords: market education, organic food, consumer behavior, structural equation modeling

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2220 Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Based Detection of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A in Raw Milk in Punjab, India

Authors: Pallavi Moudgil, J. S. Bedi, R. S. Aulakh, J. P. S. Gill

Abstract:

Mycotoxins in milk are of major public health concern. The present study was envisaged with an aim to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in Punjab (India). A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using competitive ELISA kits. Out of these, 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for aflatoxin M1 with the mean concentration of 0.006-0.13 ng/ml and 2 (1.2%) samples exceeded the established maximum residue limit of 0.05 ng/ml established by the European Union. For ochratoxin A, 2 (0.1%) samples were found positive with the mean concentration of 0.61-0.83 ng/ml with both the samples below the established maximum residue limit of 2 ng/ml. The results showed that the milk of dairy cattle is safe with respect to ochratoxin A contamination but occurrence of aflatoxin M1 above maximum residue limit suggested that feed contaminated with mycotoxins might have been offered to dairy cattle that can pose serious health risks to consumers.

Keywords: Aflatoxin M1, health risks, maximum residue limit, milk, Ochratoxin A

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2219 Consumer Attitude and Purchase Intention towards Organic Food: Insights from Pakistan

Authors: Muneshia Maheshwar, Kanwal Gul, Shakira Fareed, Ume-Amama Areeb Gul

Abstract:

Organic food is commonly known for its healthier content without the use of pesticides, herbicides, inorganic fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of health consciousness, environmental concern and organic food knowledge on both the intention to buy organic foods and the attitude towards organic foods and the effect of attitude towards organic foods on the intention to buy organic foods in Pakistan. Primary data was used which was collected through adopted questionnaire from previous research. Non- probability convenience sampling was used to select sample size of 200 consumers based on Karachi. The data was analyzed through Descriptive statistics and Multi regression method. The findings of the study showed that the attitude and the intention to buy organic food were affected by health consciousness, environmental concern, and organic food knowledge. The results also revealed that attitude also affects the intention to buy organic food.

Keywords: health consciousness, attitude, intention to purchase, environmental concern, organic food knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2218 Plasma-Assisted Decomposition of Cyclohexane in a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Authors: Usman Dahiru, Faisal Saleem, Kui Zhang, Adam Harvey

Abstract:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are atmospheric contaminants predominantly derived from petroleum spills, solvent usage, agricultural processes, automobile, and chemical processing industries, which can be detrimental to the environment and human health. Environmental problems such as the formation of photochemical smog, organic aerosols, and global warming are associated with VOC emissions. Research showed a clear relationship between VOC emissions and cancer. In recent years, stricter emission regulations, especially in industrialized countries, have been put in place around the world to restrict VOC emissions. Non-thermal plasmas (NTPs) are a promising technology for reducing VOC emissions by converting them into less toxic/environmentally friendly species. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is of interest due to its flexibility, moderate capital cost, and ease of operation under ambient conditions. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the decomposition of cyclohexane (as a VOC model compound) using nitrogen, dry, and humidified air carrier gases. The effect of specific input energy (1.2-3.0 kJ/L), residence time (1.2-2.3 s) and concentration (220-520 ppm) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency of cyclohexane increased with increasing plasma power and residence time. The removal of cyclohexane decreased with increasing cyclohexane inlet concentration at fixed plasma power and residence time. The decomposition products included H₂, CO₂, H₂O, lower hydrocarbons (C₁-C₅) and solid residue. The highest removal efficiency (98.2%) was observed at specific input energy of 3.0 kJ/L and a residence time of 2.3 s in humidified air plasma. The effect of humidity was investigated to determine whether it could reduce the formation of solid residue in the DBD reactor. It was observed that the solid residue completely disappeared in humidified air plasma. Furthermore, the presence of OH radicals due to humidification not only increased the removal efficiency of cyclohexane but also improves product selectivity. This work demonstrates that cyclohexane can be converted to smaller molecules by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma reactor by varying plasma power (SIE), residence time, reactor configuration, and carrier gas.

Keywords: cyclohexane, dielectric barrier discharge reactor, non-thermal plasma, removal efficiency

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2217 Computational Investigation of V599 Mutations of BRAF Protein and Its Control over the Therapeutic Outcome under the Malignant Condition

Authors: Mayank, Navneet Kaur, Narinder Singh

Abstract:

The V599 mutations in the BRAF protein are extremely oncogenic, responsible for countless of malignant conditions. Along with wild type, V599E, V599D, and V599R are the important mutated variants of the BRAF proteins. The BRAF inhibitory anticancer agents are continuously developing, and sorafenib is a BRAF inhibitor that is under clinical use. The crystal structure of sorafenib bounded to wild type, and V599 is known, showing a similar interaction pattern in both the case. The mutated 599th residue, in both the case, is also found not interacting directly with the co-crystallized sorafenib molecule. However, the IC50 value of sorafenib was found extremely different in both the case, i.e., 22 nmol/L for wild and 38 nmol/L for V599E protein. Molecular docking study and MMGBSA binding energy results also revealed a significant difference in the binding pattern of sorafenib in both the case. Therefore, to explore the role of distinctively situated 599th residue, we have further conducted comprehensive computational studies. The molecular dynamics simulation, residue interaction network (RIN) analysis, and residue correlation study results revealed the importance of the 599th residue on the therapeutic outcome and overall dynamic of the BRAF protein. Therefore, although the position of 599th residue is very much distinctive from the ligand-binding cavity of BRAF, still it has exceptional control over the overall functional outcome of the protein. The insight obtained here may seem extremely important and guide us while designing ideal BRAF inhibitory anticancer molecules.

Keywords: BRAF, oncogenic, sorafenib, computational studies

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2216 Comparative Assessment of Organo-Chlorine Pesticides Residue in Fruits and Fruit Juices

Authors: Saidu Garba Okereafor Stella

Abstract:

The presence of 15 organochlorine pesticides residue was assessed from 29 different fruits and fruit juice samples from selected farms in Kaduna and Niger States using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence of varying concentrations of ten (10) organochlorine pesticide residues in all the samples with Endrin ketone showing the highest concentration in 3 samples from Kaduna (guava juice 1 and 2 0.099 to 0.145 mg/kg) and Niger States (orange juice J19 0.102 mg/kg). The heptachlor was detected at high concentration in 11 samples, 7 samples from Kaduna State (mango juice 0.011 mg/kg, Washington orange 0.014 mg/kg, Valencia orange fruit 0.020 mg/kg, orange juice 0.011, white guava fruit 0.024 mg/kg, guava juice 0.023 mg/kg, guava juice 2 0.024 mg/kg) and 4 samples from (mango juice 1 0.015 mg/kg, pineapple juice 1 0.0120 mg/kg pineapple juice 2 011 mg/kg and mix juice 2 0.012 mg/kg) from Niger State. Dieldrine and endosulfansulfate were detected at high levels in one sample each from Niger (guava fruit 0.019 mg/kg and mixed juice1 0.011mg/kg), respectively. However, all were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by WHO/FAO which suggest that people consuming these type of contaminated fruits and fruits juices may contact diseases associated with those organochlorine pesticides residue. Minute concentrations of other organochlorines (α- BHC, δ- BHC, β- BHC, Lindane, and p’p DDT) ranged from 0.003 to 0.015 were recorded below the MRLs.

Keywords: fruits and fruits juices, organochlorine pesticide residue, comparative studies, gc-ms spectrophometer

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2215 Consumer Behavior and Knowledge on Organic Products in Thailand

Authors: Warunpun Kongsom, Chaiwat Kongsom

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness, knowledge and consumer behavior towards organic products in Thailand. For this study, a purposive sampling technique was used to identify a sample group of 2,575 consumers over the age of 20 years who intended or made purchases from 1) green shops; 2) supermarkets with branches; and, 3) green markets. A questionnaire was used for data collection across the country. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed that more than 92% of consumers were aware of organic agriculture, but had less knowledge about it. More than 60% of consumers knew that organic agriculture production and processing did not allow the use of chemicals. And about 40% of consumers were confused between the food safety logo and the certified organic logo, and whether GMO was allowed in organic agriculture practice or not. In addition, most consumers perceived that organic agricultural products, good agricultural practice (GAP) products, agricultural chemicals free products, and hydroponic vegetable products had the same standard. In the view of organic consumers, the organic Thailand label was the most seen and reliable among various organic labels. Less than 3% of consumers thought that the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) Global Organic Mark (GOM) was the most seen and reliable. For the behaviors of organic consumers, they purchased organic products mainly at the supermarket and green shop (55.4%), one to two times per month, and with a total expenditure of about 200 to 400 baht each time. The main reason for buying organic products was safety and free from agricultural chemicals. The considered factors in organic product selection were price (29.5%), convenience (22.4%), and a reliable certification system (21.3%). The demands for organic products were mainly rice, vegetables and fruits. Processed organic products were relatively small in quantity.

Keywords: consumer behavior, consumer knowledge, organic products, Thailand

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2214 Comparison of Efficacy between Low-Residue Diet and Clear-Liquid Diet in Colonoscopic Bowel Preparation at a Surgical Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sopana Wongtawee

Abstract:

Purpose: Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a high quality, effective and safe colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of bowel preparation based on a low-residue diet before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet, and a low-residue diet until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy using sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®), the side effects of the two protocols and the patient satisfaction with them. Method: This was an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy met the criteria.They were randomized to either a low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with either fish, chicken or eggs before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet (Group 1) or a low-residue diet consisting of the same food and drink, until 16:00 the day before colonoscopy(Group 2). All of them received 45 ml of sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®) and three glasses of water (300 ml/glass) the evening before and the morning of the procedure. The cleansing efficacy of bowel preparation was rated according to the modified Rajawithi hospital bowel preparation score scale, patient satisfaction with bowel preparation was rated using Likert scale, and side effects of the 2 protocols was assessed using a patient questionnaire. Results: The cleansing efficacy between the two groups was significantly different (p=0.02). Satisfaction with bowel preparation and side effects were not different, except for the feeling of hunger in the first group (p=0.001). Conclusion: The low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with fish, chicken or eggs until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy achieved a better bowel-cleansing efficacy than the protocol consisting of clear liquid all day and rice porridge only before 8:00 one day before colonoscopy.

Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, sodium phosphate solution, nursing management

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
2213 An Organic Dye-Based Staining for Plant DNA

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Kerime Özkay, Ahmet Yıldırım

Abstract:

In plant biotechnology, electrophoresis is used to detect nucleic acids. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used as an intercalator dye to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this study, a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye (N-719) for staining plant DNA in comparison to EtBr. When prestaining and post-staining for gel electrophoresis, N-719 stained both DNA and PCR product bands with the same clarity as EtBr. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. The organic dye was found to have staining activity suitable for the identification of DNA.Consequently, N-719 organic dye can be used to stain and visualize DNA during gel electrophoresis as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies.

Keywords: agarose gel, DNA staining, organic dye, N-719

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2212 Energy Analysis of Sugarcane Production: A Case Study in Metehara Sugar Factory in Ethiopia

Authors: Wasihun Girma Hailemariam

Abstract:

Energy is one of the key elements required for every agricultural activity, especially for large scale agricultural production such as sugarcane cultivation which mostly is used to produce sugar and bioethanol from sugarcane. In such kinds of resource (energy) intensive activities, energy analysis of the production system and looking for other alternatives which can reduce energy inputs of the sugarcane production process are steps forward for resource management. The purpose of this study was to determine input energy (direct and indirect) per hectare of sugarcane production sector of Metehara sugar factory in Ethiopia. Total energy consumption of the production system was 61,642 MJ/ha-yr. This total input energy is a cumulative value of different inputs (direct and indirect inputs) in the production system. The contribution of these different inputs is discussed and a scenario of substituting the most influential input by other alternative input which can replace the original input in its nutrient content was discussed. In this study the most influential input for increased energy consumption was application of organic fertilizer which accounted for 50 % of the total energy consumption. Filter cake which is a residue from the sugar production in the factory was used to substitute the organic fertilizer and the reduction in the energy consumption of the sugarcane production was discussed

Keywords: energy analysis, organic fertilizer, resource management, sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
2211 Use of Residues from Water Treatment and Porcelain Coatings Industry for Producing Eco-Bricks

Authors: Flavio Araujo, Fabiolla Lima, Julio Lima, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque, Heitor Reis

Abstract:

One of the great environmental problems in the management of water treatment (WTP) is on the disposal of waste generated during the treatment process. The same occurs with the waste generated during rectification of porcelain tiles. Despite environmental laws in Brazil the residues does not have an ecologically balanced destination. Thus, with the purpose to identify an environmentally sustainable disposal, residues were used to replace part of the soil, for production soil-cement bricks. It was used the residues from WTP and coatings industry Cecrisa (Brazil). Consequently, a greater amount of fine aggregate in the two samples of residues was found. The residue affects the quality of bricks produced, compared to the sample without residues. However, the results of compression and water absorption tests were obtained values that meet the standards, respectively 2.0 MPa and 20% absorption.

Keywords: water treatment residue, porcelain tile residue, WTP, brick

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
2210 Res2ValHUM: Creation of Resource Management Tool and Microbial Consortia Isolation and Identification

Authors: A. Ribeiro, N. Valério, C. Vilarinho, J. Araujo, J. Carvalho

Abstract:

Res2ValHUM project involves institutions from the Spanish Autonomous Region of Galicia and the north of Portugal (districts of Porto and Braga) and has as overall objectives of promotion of composting as an process for the correct managing of organic waste, valorization of compost in different fields or applications for the constitution of products with high added value, reducing of raw materials losses, and reduction of the amount of waste throw in landfills. Three main actions were designed to achieve the objectives: development of a management tool to improve collection and residue channeling for composting, sensibilization of the population for composting and characterization of the chemical and biological properties of compost and humic and fulvic substances to envisage high-value applications of compost. Here we present the cooperative activity of Galician and northern Portuguese institutions to valorize organic waste in both regions with common socio-economic characteristics and residue management problems. Results from the creation of the resource manage tool proved the existence of a large number of agricultural wastes that could be valorized. In the North of Portugal, the wastes from maize, oats, potato, apple, grape pomace, rye, and olive pomace can be highlighted. In the Autonomous Region of Galicia the wastes from maize, wheat, potato, apple, and chestnuts can be emphasized. Regarding the isolation and identification of microbial consortia from compost samples, results proved microorganisms belong mainly to the genus Bacillus spp. Among all the species identified in compost samples, Bacillus licheniformis can be highlighted in the production of humic and fulvic acids.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus spp., humic-acids, fulvic-acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
2209 Pruning Residue Effects on Symbiotic N₂ Fixation and δ¹³C Isotopic Composition of Sesbania sesban and Cajanus cajan

Authors: I. T. Makhubedu, B. A. Letty, P. F. Scogings, P. L. Mafongoya

Abstract:

Despite their potential importance in recycling dinitrogen (N2) fixed in alley cropping systems, the effects of tree pruning residues on symbiotic N2 fixation are poorly studied. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pruning residue management and pruning date on symbiotic performance and

Keywords: alley cropping, management, N₂ fixed, natural abundance, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2208 Evaluation of Non-Destructive Application to Detect Pesticide Residue on Leaf Mustard Using Spectroscopic Method

Authors: Nazmi Mat Nawi, Muhamad Najib Mohamad Nor, Che Dini Maryani Ishkandar

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This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of spectroscopic methods to detect the presence of pesticide residues on leaf mustard. A total of 105 leaf mustard used were divided into five batches, four batches were treated with four different types of pesticides whereas one batch with no pesticide applied. Spectral data were obtained using visible shortwave near infrared spectrometer (VSWNIRS) which is Ocean Optics HR4000 High-resolution Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. Reflectance value was collected to determine the difference between one pesticide to the other. The obtained spectral data were pre-processed for optimum performance. The effective wavelength of approximate 880 nm, 675-710 nm also 550 and 700 nm indicates the overtones -CH stretching vibration, tannin, also chlorophyll content present in the leaf mustard respectively. This study has successfully demonstrated that the spectroscopic method was able to differentiate between leaf mustard sample with and without pesticide residue.

Keywords: detect, leaf mustard, non-destructive, pesticide residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 169