Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8910

Search results for: optical sensor ground reaction force platform

8910 Design and Development of Optical Sensor Based Ground Reaction Force Measurement Platform for GAIT and Geriatric Studies

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, S. N. Omkar, B. Vadiraj, S. Asokan

Abstract:

This paper describes an ab-initio design, development and calibration results of an Optical Sensor Ground Reaction Force Measurement Platform (OSGRFP) for gait and geriatric studies. The developed system employs an array of FBG sensors to measure the respective ground reaction forces from all three axes (X, Y and Z), which are perpendicular to each other. The novelty of this work is two folded. One is in its uniqueness to resolve the tri axial resultant forces during the stance in to the respective pure axis loads and the other is the applicability of inherently advantageous FBG sensors which are most suitable for biomechanical instrumentation. To validate the response of the FBG sensors installed in OSGRFP and to measure the cross sensitivity of the force applied in other directions, load sensors with indicators are used. Further in this work, relevant mathematical formulations are presented for extracting respective ground reaction forces from wavelength shifts/strain of FBG sensors on the OSGRFP. The result of this device has implications in understanding the foot function, identifying issues in gait cycle and measuring discrepancies between left and right foot. The device also provides a method to quantify and compare relative postural stability of different subjects under test, which has implications in post surgical rehabilitation, geriatrics and optimizing training protocols for sports personnel.

Keywords: balance and stability, gait analysis, FBG applications, optical sensor ground reaction force platform

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8909 Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking

Authors: Salam M. Elhafez, Ahmed A. Ashour, Naglaa M. Elhafez, Ghada M. Elhafez, Azza M. Abdelmohsen

Abstract:

Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.

Keywords: gait analysis, ground reaction force, moment contribution, normal walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
8908 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.

Keywords: kinemic gait data, neural networks, hip joint implant, hip arthroplasty, rehabilitation engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
8907 Probing Neuron Mechanics with a Micropipette Force Sensor

Authors: Madeleine Anthonisen, M. Hussain Sangji, G. Monserratt Lopez-Ayon, Margaret Magdesian, Peter Grutter

Abstract:

Advances in micromanipulation techniques and real-time particle tracking with nanometer resolution have enabled biological force measurements at scales relevant to neuron mechanics. An approach to precisely control and maneuver neurite-tethered polystyrene beads is presented. Analogous to an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), this multi-purpose platform is a force sensor with imaging acquisition and manipulation capabilities. A mechanical probe composed of a micropipette with its tip fixed to a functionalized bead is used to incite the formation of a neurite in a sample of rat hippocampal neurons while simultaneously measuring the tension in said neurite as the sample is pulled away from the beaded tip. With optical imaging methods, a force resolution of 12 pN is achieved. Moreover, the advantages of this technique over alternatives such as AFM, namely ease of manipulation which ultimately allows higher throughput investigation of the mechanical properties of neurons, is demonstrated.

Keywords: axonal growth, axonal guidance, force probe, pipette micromanipulation, neurite tension, neuron mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
8906 Force Sensor for Robotic Graspers in Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Naghmeh M. Bandari, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy

Abstract:

Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) has been widely performed around the world during the last two decades. RMIS demonstrates significant advantages over conventional surgery, e.g., improving the accuracy and dexterity of a surgeon, providing 3D vision, motion scaling, hand-eye coordination, decreasing tremor, and reducing x-ray exposure for surgeons. Despite benefits, surgeons cannot touch the surgical site and perceive tactile information. This happens due to the remote control of robots. The literature survey identified the lack of force feedback as the riskiest limitation in the existing technology. Without the perception of tool-tissue contact force, the surgeon might apply an excessive force causing tissue laceration or insufficient force causing tissue slippage. The primary use of force sensors has been to measure the tool-tissue interaction force in real-time in-situ. Design of a tactile sensor is subjected to a set of design requirements, e.g., biocompatibility, electrical-passivity, MRI-compatibility, miniaturization, ability to measure static and dynamic force. In this study, a planar optical fiber-based sensor was proposed to mount at the surgical grasper. It was developed based on the light intensity modulation principle. The deflectable part of the sensor was a beam modeled as a cantilever Euler-Bernoulli beam on rigid substrates. A semi-cylindrical indenter was attached to the bottom surface the beam at the mid-span. An optical fiber was secured at both ends on the same rigid substrates. The indenter was in contact with the fiber. External force on the sensor caused deflection in the beam and optical fiber simultaneously. The micro-bending of the optical fiber would consequently result in light power loss. The sensor was simulated and studied using finite element methods. A laser light beam with 800nm wavelength and 5mW power was used as the input to the optical fiber. The output power was measured using a photodetector. The voltage from photodetector was calibrated to the external force for a chirp input (0.1-5Hz). The range, resolution, and hysteresis of the sensor were studied under monotonic and harmonic external forces of 0-2.0N with 0 and 5Hz, respectively. The results confirmed the validity of proposed sensing principle. Also, the sensor demonstrated an acceptable linearity (R2 > 0.9). A minimum external force was observed below which no power loss was detectable. It is postulated that this phenomenon is attributed to the critical angle of the optical fiber to observe total internal reflection. The experimental results were of negligible hysteresis (R2 > 0.9) and in fair agreement with the simulations. In conclusion, the suggested planar sensor is assessed to be a cost-effective solution, feasible, and easy to use the sensor for being miniaturized and integrated at the tip of robotic graspers. Geometrical and optical factors affecting the minimum sensible force and the working range of the sensor should be studied and optimized. This design is intrinsically scalable and meets all the design requirements. Therefore, it has a significant potential of industrialization and mass production.

Keywords: force sensor, minimally invasive surgery, optical sensor, robotic surgery, tactile sensor

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8905 Effects of GRF on CMJ in Different Wooden Surface Systems

Authors: Yi-cheng Chen, Ming-jum Guo, Yang-ru Chen

Abstract:

Background and Objective: For safety and fair during basketball competition, FIBA proposes the definite level of physical functions in wooden surface system (WSS). There are existing various between different systems in indoor-stadium, so the aim of this study want to know how many effects in different WSS, especially for effects of ground reaction force(GRF) when player jumped. Materials and Methods: 12 participants acted counter-movement jump (CMJ) on 7 different surfaces, include 6 WSSs by 3 types rubber shock absorber pad (SAP) on cross or parallel fixed, and 1 rigid ground. GRFs of takeoff and landing had been recorded from an AMTI force platform when all participants acted vertical CMJs by counter-balance design. All data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA to evaluate whether the test variable differed significantly between surfaces. The significance level was set at α=0.05. Results: There were non-significance in GRF between surfaces when participants taken off. For GRF of landing, we found WSS with cross fixed SAP are harder than parallel fixed. Although there were also non-significance when participant was landing on cross or parallel fixed surfaces, but there have test variable differed significantly between WSS with parallel fixed to rigid ground. In the study, landing to WSS with the hardest SAP, the GRF also have test variable differed significantly to other WSS. Conclusion: Although official basketball competition is in the WSS certificated by FIBA, there are also exist the various in GRF under takeoff or landing, any player must to warm-up before game starting. Especially, there is unsafe situation when play basketball on uncertificated WSS.

Keywords: wooden surface system, counter-movement jump, ground reaction force, shock absorber pad

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
8904 Simulation and Experimental Study on Tensile Force Measurement of PS Tendons Using an Embedded EM Sensor

Authors: ByoungJoon Yu, Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

The tensile force estimation PS tendons is in great demand on monitoring the structural health condition of PSC girder bridges. Measuring the tensile force of the PS tendons inside the PSC girder using conventional methods is hard due to its location. In this paper, an embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation of PS tendon was carried out by measuring the permeability of the PS tendons in PSC girder. The permeability is changed due to the induced tensile force by the magneto-elastic effect and the effect then lead to the gradient change of the B-H curve. An experiment was performed to obtain the signals from the EM sensor using three down-scaled PSC girder models. The permeability of PS tendons was proportionally decreased according to the increase of the tensile forces. To verify the experiment results, a simulation of tensile force estimation will be conducted in further study. Consequently, it is expected that both the experiment results and the simulation results increase the accuracy of the tensile force estimation, and then it could be one of the solutions for evaluating the performance of PSC girder.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, PSC girder, EM sensor simulation, cross section loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
8903 The Effect of Taekwondo on Plantar Pressure Distribution and Arch Index

Authors: Maryam Kakavand, Samira Entezari, Sara Khoshjamalfekri, Raghad Mimar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is 1) to compare elite female and beginner taekwondo players in terms of plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure, and right and left longitudinal arches, and 2) to compare preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite players. To the best of authors’ knowledge, as of yet, there is no information available about the plantar pressure distribution and arch index among taekwondo players. Material and Methods: An analytical-comparative research method is applied. Therefore seven elite athletes and eight novice athletes were selected. The emed-C50 platform was used to assess plantar pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, contact area, mean pressure of different areas, and planter longitudinal arch in a second step protocol. Independent t-test and dependent t-test were used at a level of 0.05 to compare the elites and beginners' right and left feet, and preferred and non-preferred limbs among elite athletes, respectively. Results: In comparing the right and left limbs of elite and beginner groups, findings indicate that there is only a significant difference in the mean pressure of the first metatarsal of the right foot. Findings also showed a significant difference in the contact area of the toes 3, 4, 5 regions between elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups’ right and left limbs and elites’ preferred and non-preferred limbs in terms of pressure distribution, vertical ground reaction force, and arch index. Conclusion: It seems that taekwondo exercises have affected pressure distribution patterns among advanced players causing some differences in their planter pressure distribution pattern when compared to that of beginners. Therefore, taekwondo exercises may be a factor contributing to asymmetry performance in preferred and non-preferred limbs.

Keywords: planter pressure, arch index, taekwondo, elite

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8902 Tensile Force Estimation for Real-Size Pre-Stressed Concrete Girder using Embedded Elasto-Magnetic Sensor

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Jooyoung Park, Aoqi Zhang, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

The tensile force of Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) girder is the most important factor for evaluating the performance of PSC girder bridges. To measure the tensile force of PSC girder, several NDT methods were studied. However, conventional NDT method cannot be applied to the real-size PSC girder because the PS tendons could not be approached. To measure the tensile force of real-size PSC girder, this study proposed embedded EM sensor based tensile force estimation method. The embedded EM sensor could be installed inside of PSC girder as a sheath joint before the concrete casting. After curing process, the PS tendons were installed, and the tensile force was induced step by step using hydraulic jacking machine. The B-H loop was measured using embedded EM sensor at each tensile force steps and to compare with actual tensile force, the load cell was installed at each end of girder. The magnetization energy loss, that is the closed area of B-H loop, was decreased according to the increase of tensile force with regular pattern. Thus, the tensile force could be estimated by the tracking the change of magnetization energy loss of PS tendons. Through the experimental result, the proposed method can be used to estimate the tensile force of the in-situ real-size PSC girder bridge.

Keywords: tensile force estimation, embedded EM sensor, magnetization energy loss, PSC girder

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
8901 A Low-Cost of Foot Plantar Shoes for Gait Analysis

Authors: Zulkifli Ahmad, Mohd Razlan Azizan, Nasrul Hadi Johari

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on development and conducting of a wearable sensor system for gait analysis measurement. For validation, the method of plantar surface measurement by force plate was prepared. In general gait analysis, force plate generally represents a studies about barefoot in whole steps and do not allow analysis of repeating movement step in normal walking and running. The measurements that were usually perform do not represent the whole daily plantar pressures in the shoe insole and only obtain the ground reaction force. The force plate measurement is usually limited a few step and it is done indoor and obtaining coupling information from both feet during walking is not easily obtained. Nowadays, in order to measure pressure for a large number of steps and obtain pressure in each insole part, it could be done by placing sensors within an insole. With this method, it will provide a method for determine the plantar pressures while standing, walking or running of a shoe wearing subject. Inserting pressure sensors in the insole will provide specific information and therefore the point of the sensor placement will result in obtaining the critical part under the insole. In the wearable shoe sensor project, the device consists left and right shoe insole with ten FSR. Arduino Mega was used as a micro-controller that read the analog input from FSR. The analog inputs were transmitted via bluetooth data transmission that gains the force data in real time on smartphone. Blueterm software which is an android application was used as an interface to read the FSR reading on the shoe wearing subject. The subject consist of two healthy men with different age and weight doing test while standing, walking (1.5 m/s), jogging (5 m/s) and running (9 m/s) on treadmill. The data obtain will be saved on the android device and for making an analysis and comparison graph.

Keywords: gait analysis, plantar pressure, force plate, earable sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
8900 Localization Problem in Optical Fiber Sensors

Authors: M. Zyczkowski, P. Markowski, M. Karol

Abstract:

The security industry is making many efforts to lower the costs of system installation. However, the dominant technique is the application of fiber optic sensors. It is necessary to determine the location of the disorder of long optical fiber cables. For a number of years, many research centers developed their own solutions. The article presents the construction of the sensor systems with the possibility of disorder location. We present a methodology for determining location of the disorder. The aim of investigations is to answer the question of which of optical sensor configuration offer the best performance for location of the disorder.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, security sensor, fiber cables, system instillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 557
8899 Feasibility Study of Measurement of Turning Based-Surfaces Using Perthometer, Optical Profiler and Confocal Sensor

Authors: Khavieya Anandhan, Soundarapandian Santhanakrishnan, Vijayaraghavan Laxmanan

Abstract:

In general, measurement of surfaces is carried out by using traditional methods such as contact type stylus instruments. This prevalent approach is challenged by using non-contact instruments such as optical profiler, co-ordinate measuring machine, laser triangulation sensors, machine vision system, etc. Recently, confocal sensor is trying to be used in the surface metrology field. This sensor, such as a confocal sensor, is explored in this study to determine the surface roughness value for various turned surfaces. Turning is a crucial machining process to manufacture products such as grooves, tapered domes, threads, tapers, etc. The roughness value of turned surfaces are in the range of range 0.4-12.5 µm, were taken for analysis. Three instruments were used, namely, perthometer, optical profiler, and confocal sensor. Among these, in fact, a confocal sensor is least explored, despite its good resolution about 5 nm. Thus, such a high-precision sensor was used in this study to explore the possibility of measuring turned surfaces. Further, using this data, measurement uncertainty was also studied.

Keywords: confocal sensor, optical profiler, surface roughness, turned surfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
8898 Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors: Based Force Sensor Array for Occlusal Force Measurement

Authors: Sheng-Che Chen, Keng-Ren Lin, Che-Hsin Lin, Hao-Yuan Tseng, Chih-Han Chang

Abstract:

Teeth play an important role in providing the essential nutrients. The force loading of chewing on the crow is important condition to evaluate long-term success of many dental treatments. However, the quantification of the force regarding forces are distributed over the dental crow is still not well recognized. This study presents an industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) force sensor for measuring the distribution of the force distribute over the first molar. The developed sensor array is based on a flexible polyimide electrode and barium titanate-based MLCCs. MLCCs are commonly used in the electronic industry and it is a typical electric component composed of BaTiO₃, which is used as a capacitive material. The most important is that it also can be used as a force-sensing component by its piezoelectric property. In this study, to increase the sensitivity as well as to reduce the variation of different MLCCs, a treatment process is utilized. The MLCC force sensors are able to measure large forces (above 500 N), making them suitable for measuring the bite forces on the tooth crown. Moreover, the sensors also show good force response and good repeatability.

Keywords: force sensor array, multilayer ceramic capacitors, occlusal force, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
8897 Dynamic Analysis of Offshore 2-HUS/U Parallel Platform

Authors: Xie Kefeng, Zhang He

Abstract:

For the stability and control demand of offshore small floating platform, a 2-HUS/U parallel mechanism was presented as offshore platform. Inverse kinematics was obtained by institutional constraint equation, and the dynamic model of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform was derived based on rigid body’s Lagrangian method. The equivalent moment of inertia, damping and driving force/torque variation of offshore 2-HUS/U parallel platform were analyzed. A numerical example shows that, for parallel platform of given motion, system’s equivalent inertia changes 1.25 times maximally. During the movement of platform, they change dramatically with the system configuration and have coupling characteristics. The maximum equivalent drive torque is 800 N. At the same time, the curve of platform’s driving force/torque is smooth and has good sine features. The control system needs to be adjusted according to kinetic equation during stability and control and it provides a basis for the optimization of control system.

Keywords: 2-HUS/U platform, dynamics, Lagrange, parallel platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
8896 Development of Real Time System for Human Detection and Localization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Optical and Thermal Sensor and Visualization on Geographic Information Systems Platform

Authors: Nemi Bhattarai

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVs) in search and rescue (SAR) operations, disaster management, and many more areas where information about the location of human beings are important. This research will primarily focus on the use of optical and thermal camera via UAV platform in real-time detection, localization, and visualization of human beings on GIS. This research will be beneficial in disaster management search of lost humans in wilderness or difficult terrain, detecting abnormal human behaviors in border or security tight areas, studying distribution of people at night, counting people density in crowd, manage people flow during evacuation, planning provisions in areas with high human density and many more.

Keywords: UAV, human detection, real-time, localization, visualization, haar-like, GIS, thermal sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
8895 A Calibration Device for Force-Torque Sensors

Authors: Nicolay Zarutskiy, Roman Bulkin

Abstract:

The paper deals with the existing methods of force-torque sensor calibration with a number of components from one to six, analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, the necessity of introduction of a calibration method. Calibration method and its constructive realization are also described here. A calibration method allows performing automated force-torque sensor calibration both with selected components of the main vector of forces and moments and with complex loading. Thus, two main advantages of the proposed calibration method are achieved: the automation of the calibration process and universality.

Keywords: automation, calibration, calibration device, calibration method, force-torque sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
8894 Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot

Authors: Sylvain Devie, Pierre-Philippe Robet, Yannick Aoustin, Maxime Gautier

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied on it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.

Keywords: control, identification, robot, co-manipulation, sensor-less

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8893 Indicator-Immobilized, Cellulose Based Optical Sensing Membrane for the Detection of Heavy Metal Ions

Authors: Nisha Dhariwal, Anupama Sharma

Abstract:

The synthesis of cellulose nanofibrils quaternized with 3‐chloro‐2‐hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) in NaOH/urea aqueous solution has been reported. Xylenol Orange (XO) has been used as an indicator for selective detection of Sn (II) ions, by its immobilization on quaternized cellulose membrane. The effects of pH, reagent concentration and reaction time on the immobilization of XO have also been studied. The linear response, limit of detection, and interference of other metal ions have also been studied and no significant interference has been observed. The optical chemical sensor displayed good durability and short response time with negligible leaching of the reagent.

Keywords: cellulose, chemical sensor, heavy metal ions, indicator immobilization

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8892 Multifunctional Polydopamine-Silver-Polydopamine Nanofilm With Applications in Digital Microfluidics and SERS

Authors: Yilei Xue, Yat-Hing Ham, Wenting Qiu, Wan Chan, Stefan Nagl

Abstract:

Polydopamine (PDA) is a popular material in biological and medical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, outstanding physicochemical properties, and facile fabrication. In this project, a new sandwich-structured PDA and silver (Ag) hybrid material named PDA-Ag-PDA was synthesized and characterized layer-by-layer, where silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are wrapped in PDA coatings, using SEM, AFM, 3D surface metrology, and contact angle meter. The silver loading capacity is positively proportional to the roughness value of the initial PDA film. This designed film was subsequently integrated within a digital microfluidic (DMF) platform coupling with an oxygen sensor layer for on-chip antibacterial assay. The concentration of E. coli was quantified on DMF by real-time monitoring oxygen consumption during E. coli growth with the optical oxygen sensor layer. The PDA-Ag-PDA coating shows an 99.9% reduction in E. coli population under non-nutritive condition with 1-hour treatment and has a strong growth inhibition of E. coliin nutrient LB broth as well. Furthermore, PDA-Ag-PDA film maintaining a low cytotoxicity effect to human cells. After treating with PDA-Ag-PDA film for 24 hours, 82% HEK 293 and 86% HeLa cells were viable. The SERS enhancement factor of PDA-Ag-PDA is estimated to be 1.9 × 104 using Rhodamine 6G (R6G). Multifunctional PDA-Ag-PDA coating provides an alternative platform to conjugate biomolecules and perform biological applications on DMF, in particular, for the adhesive protein and cell study.

Keywords: polydopamine, silver nanoparticles, digital microfluidic, optical sensor, antimicrobial assay, SERS

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8891 Encoded Fiber Optic Sensors for Simultaneous Multipoint Sensing

Authors: C. Babu Rao, Pandian Chelliah

Abstract:

Owing to their reliability, a number of fluorescent spectra based fiber optic sensors have been developed for detection and identification of hazardous chemicals such as explosives, narcotics etc. In High security regions, such as airports, it is important to monitor simultaneously multiple locations. This calls for deployment of a portable sensor at each location. However, the selectivity and sensitivity of these techniques depends on the spectral resolution of the spectral analyzer. The better the resolution the larger the repertoire of chemicals that can be detected. A portable unit will have limitations in meeting these requirements. Optical fibers can be employed for collecting and transmitting spectral signal from the portable sensor head to a sensitive central spectral analyzer (CSA). For multipoint sensing, optical multiplexing of multiple sensor heads with CSA has to be adopted. However with multiplexing, when one sensor head is connected to CSA, the rest may remain unconnected for the turn-around period. The larger the number of sensor heads the larger this turn-around time will be. To circumvent this imitation, we propose in this paper, an optical encoding methodology to use multiple portable sensor heads connected to a single CSA. Each portable sensor head is assigned an unique address. Spectra of every chemical detected through this sensor head, are encoded by its unique address and can be identified at the CSA end. The methodology proposed is demonstrated through a simulation using Matlab SIMULINK.

Keywords: optical encoding, fluorescence, multipoint sensing

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8890 The Design, Development, and Optimization of a Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing an Existing 9DOF Platform

Authors: Andrew Randles, Ilker Ocak, Cheam Daw Don, Navab Singh, Alex Gu

Abstract:

Nine Degrees of Freedom (9 DOF) systems are already in development in many areas. In this paper, an integrated pressure sensor is proposed that will make use of an already existing monolithic 9 DOF inertial MEMS platform. Capacitive pressure sensors can suffer from limited sensitivity for a given size of membrane. This novel pressure sensor design increases the sensitivity by over 5 times compared to a traditional array of square diaphragms while still fitting within a 2 mm x 2 mm chip and maintaining a fixed static capacitance. The improved design uses one large diaphragm supported by pillars with fixed electrodes placed above the areas of maximum deflection. The design optimization increases the sensitivity from 0.22 fF/kPa to 1.16 fF/kPa. Temperature sensitivity was also examined through simulation.

Keywords: capacitive pressure sensor, 9 DOF, 10 DOF, sensor, capacitive, inertial measurement unit, IMU, inertial navigation system, INS

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
8889 Development of a System for Measuring the Three-axis Pedal Force in Cycling and Its Applications

Authors: Joo-Hack Lee, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack

Abstract:

For cycling, the analysis of the pedal force is one of the important factors in the study of exercise ability assessment and overuse injuries. In past studies, a two-axis measurement sensor was used at the sagittal plane to measure the force only in the anterior, posterior, and vertical directions and to analyze the loss of force and the injury on the frontal plane due to the forces in the right and left directions. In this study, which is a basic study on diverse analyses of the pedal force that consider the forces on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane, a three-axis pedal force measurement sensor was developed to measure the anterior-posterior (Fx), medio-lateral (Fz), and vertical (Fy) forces. The sensor was fabricated with a size and shape similar to those of the general flat pedal, and had a 550g weight that allowed smooth pedaling. Its measurement range was ±1000 N for Fx and Fz and ±2000 N for Fy, and its non-linearity, hysteresis, and repeatability were approximately 0.5%. The data were sampled at 1000 Hz using a signal collector. To use the developed sensor, the pedaling efficiency (index of efficiency, IE) and the range of left and right (medio-lateral, ML) forces were measured with two seat heights (low and high). The results of the measurement showed that the IE was higher and the force range in the ML direction was lower with the high position than with the low position. The developed measurement sensor and its application results will be useful in understanding and explaining the complicated pedaling technique, and will enable diverse kinematic analyses of the pedal force on the sagittal plane and the frontal plane.

Keywords: cycling, pedal force, index of effectiveness, measuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 553
8888 Integrated Flavor Sensor Using Microbead Array

Authors: Ziba Omidi, Min-Ki Kim

Abstract:

This research presents the design, fabrication and application of a flavor sensor for an integrated electronic tongue and electronic nose that can allow rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in a solution. The odor gas and liquid are separated using hydrophobic porous membrane in micro fluidic channel. The sensor uses an array composed of microbeads in micromachined cavities localized on silicon wafer. Sensing occurs via colorimetric and fluorescence changes to receptors and indicator molecules that are attached to termination sites on the polymeric microbeads. As a result, the sensor array system enables simultaneous and near-real-time analyses using small samples and reagent volumes with the capacity to incorporate significant redundancies. One of the key parts of the system is a passive pump driven only by capillary force. The hydrophilic surface of the fluidic structure draws the sample into the sensor array without any moving mechanical parts. Since there is no moving mechanical component in the structure, the size of the fluidic structure can be compact and the fabrication becomes simple when compared to the device including active microfluidic components. These factors should make the proposed system inexpensive to mass-produce, portable and compatible with biomedical applications.

Keywords: optical sensor, semiconductor manufacturing, smell sensor, taste sensor

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8887 A Modularized Sensing Platform for Sensor Design Demonstration

Authors: Chun-Ming Huang, Yi-Jun Liu, Yi-Jie Hsieh, Jin-Ju Chue, Wei-Lin Lai, Chun-Yu Chen, Chih-Chyau Yang, Chien-Ming Wu

Abstract:

The market of wearable devices has been growing rapidly in two years. The integration of sensors and wearable devices has become the trend of the next technology products. Thus, the academics and industries are eager to cultivate talented persons in sensing technology. Currently, academic and industries have more and more demands on the integrations of versatile sensors and applications, especially for the teams who focus on the development of sensor circuit architectures. These teams tape-out many MEMs sensors chips through the chip fabrication service from National Chip Implementation Center (CIC). However, most of these teams are only able to focus on the circuit design of MEMs sensors; they lack the key support of further system demonstration. This paper follows the CIC’s main mission of promoting the chip/system advanced design technology and aims to establish the environments of the modularized sensing system platform and the system design flow with the measurement and calibration technology. These developed environments are used to support these research teams and help academically advanced sensor designs to perform the system demonstration. Thus, the research groups can promote and transfer their advanced sensor designs to industrial and further derive the industrial economic values. In this paper, the modularized sensing platform is proposed to enable the system demonstration for advanced sensor chip design. The environment of sensor measurement and calibration is established for academic to achieve an accurate sensor result. Two reference sensor designs cooperated with the modularized sensing platform are given to show the sensing system integration and demonstration. These developed environments and platforms are currently provided to academics in Taiwan, and so that the academics can obtain a better environment to perform the system demonstration and improve the research and teaching quality.

Keywords: modularized sensing platform, sensor design and calibration, sensor system, sensor system design flow

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8886 Identification of Force Vector on an Elastic Solid Using an Embeded PVDF Senor Array

Authors: Andrew Youssef, David Matthews, Jie Pan

Abstract:

Identifying the magnitude and direction of a force on an elastic solid is highly desirable, as this allows for investigation and continual monitoring of the dynamic loading. This was traditionally conducted by connecting the solid to the supporting structure by multi-axial force transducer, providing that the transducer will not change the mounting conditions. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is a versatile force transducer that can be easily embedded in structures. Here a PVDF sensor array is embedded inside a simple structure in an effort to determine the force vector applied to the structure is an inverse problem. In this paper, forces of different magnitudes and directions where applied to the structure with an impact hammer, and the output of the PVDF was captured and processed to gain an estimate of the forces applied by the hammer. The outcome extends the scope of application of PVDF sensors for measuring the external or contact force vectors.

Keywords: embedded sensor, monitoring, PVDF, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
8885 Simulation with Uncertainties of Active Controlled Vibration Isolation System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Shield B. Lin, Ziraguen O. Williams

Abstract:

In a task to assist NASA in analyzing the dynamic forces caused by operational countermeasures of an astronaut’s exercise platform impacting the spacecraft, an active proportional-integral-derivative controller commanding a linear actuator is proposed in a vibration isolation system to regulate the movement of the exercise platform. Computer simulation shows promising results that most exciter forces can be reduced or even eliminated. This paper emphasizes on parameter uncertainties, variations and exciter force variations. Drift and variations of system parameters in the vibration isolation system for astronaut’s exercise platform are analyzed. An active controlled scheme is applied with the goals to reduce the platform displacement and to minimize the force being transmitted to the spacecraft structure. The controller must be robust enough to accommodate the wide variations of system parameters and exciter forces. Computer simulation for the vibration isolation system was performed via MATLAB/Simulink and Trick. The simulation results demonstrate the achievement of force reduction with small platform displacement under wide ranges of variations in system parameters.

Keywords: control, counterweight, isolation, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
8884 Real-Time Recognition of the Terrain Configuration to Improve Driving Stability for Unmanned Robots

Authors: Bongsoo Jeon, Jayoung Kim, Jihong Lee

Abstract:

Methods for measuring or estimating of ground shape by a laser range finder and a vision sensor (exteroceptive sensors) have critical weakness in terms that these methods need prior database built to distinguish acquired data as unique surface condition for driving. Also, ground information by exteroceptive sensors does not reflect the deflection of ground surface caused by the movement of UGVs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of recognizing exact and precise ground shape using Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) as a proprioceptive sensor. In this paper, firstly this method recognizes attitude of a robot in real-time using IMU and compensates attitude data of a robot with angle errors through analysis of vehicle dynamics. This method is verified by outdoor driving experiments of a real mobile robot.

Keywords: inertial measurement unit, laser range finder, real-time recognition of the ground shape, proprioceptive sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
8883 Theoretical Investigations on Optical Properties of GaFeMnN Quaternary Compound

Authors: H. A. Bentounes, A. Abbad, W. Benstaali

Abstract:

Using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory and local spin density approximation, we investigate optical properties of GaFeMnN quaternary compound. Results show that optical properties confirm that GaFeMnN can be a good candidate in the design of thin film solar cells in the visible and ultraviolet parts of the spectrum, and a good sensor in the infrared

Keywords: GaN, optical absorption, semi-metallic, dielectric function

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
8882 Design and Fabrication of ZSO Nanocomposite Thin Film Based NO2 Gas Sensor

Authors: Bal Chandra Yadav, Rakesh K. Sonker, Anjali Sharma, Punit Tyagi, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar

Abstract:

In the present study, ZnO doped SnO2 thin films of various compositions were deposited on the surface of a corning substrate by dropping the two sols containing the precursors for composite (ZSO) with subsequent heat treatment. The sensor materials used for selective detection of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were designed from the correlation between the sensor composition and gas response. The available NO2 sensors are operative at very high temperature (150-800 °C) with low sensing response (2-100) even in higher concentrations. Efforts are continuing towards the development of NO2 gas sensor aiming with an enhanced response along with a reduction in operating temperature by incorporating some catalysts or dopants. Thus in this work, a novel sensor structure based on ZSO nanocomposite has been fabricated using chemical route for the detection of NO2 gas. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of prepared films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy respectively. The effect of thickness variation from 230 nm to 644 nm of ZSO composite thin film has been studied and the ZSO thin film of thickness ~ 460 nm was found to exhibit the maximum gas sensing response ~ 2.1×103 towards 20 ppm NO2 gas at an operating temperature of 90 °C. The average response and recovery times of the sensor were observed to be 3.51 and 6.91 min respectively. Selectivity of the sensor was checked with the cross-exposure of vapour CO, acetone, IPA, CH4, NH3 and CO2 gases. It was found that besides the higher sensing response towards NO2 gas, the prepared ZSO thin film was also highly selective towards NO2 gas.

Keywords: ZSO nanocomposite thin film, ZnO tetrapod structure, NO2 gas sensor, sol-gel method

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
8881 Coupled Analysis with Fluid and Flexible Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Platform with Liquid Sloshing Tank

Authors: Sung-Pill Kim, Dae-Gyu Sung, Hee-Sung Shin, Jong-Chun Park

Abstract:

When a sloshing tank filled partially with liquid is excited with the motion of platform, it can be observed that the center of mass inside the tank is changed and impact loads is instantaneously applied to the wall, which causes dynamic loads additionally to the supporting links of platform. In this case, therefore, the dynamic behavior of platform associated with fluid motion should be considered in the early stage of design for safety and economics of the system. In this paper, the dynamic loads due to liquid sloshing motion in a rectangular tank which is loaded up on the upper deck of a Stewart platform are simulated using a coupled analysis of Moving Particle Simulation (MPS) and Flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (FMBD). The co-simulation is performed using two commercial softwares, Recurdyn for solving FMBD and Particleworks for analyzing fluid motion based on MPS method. For validating the present coupled system, a rectangular sloshing tank being enforced with inline sway motion by 1-DOF motion platform is assumed, and time-varied free-surface elevation and reaction force at a fixed joint are compared with experiments.

Keywords: dynamic loads, liquid sloshing tank, Stewart platform, moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, flexible multi-body dynamics (FMBD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 452