Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8252

Search results for: optical power generation

8252 Experimental Demonstration of an Ultra-Low Power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser for Optical Power Generation

Authors: S. Nazhan, Hassan K. Al-Musawi, Khalid A. Humood

Abstract:

This paper reports on an experimental investigation into the influence of current modulation on the properties of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a direct square wave modulation. The optical output power response, as a function of the pumping current, modulation frequency, and amplitude, is measured for an 850 nm VCSEL. We demonstrate that modulation frequency and amplitude play important roles in reducing the VCSEL’s power consumption for optical generation. Indeed, even when the biasing current is below the static threshold, the VCSEL emits optical power under the square wave modulation. The power consumed by the device to generate light is significantly reduced to > 50%, which is below the threshold current, in response to both the modulation frequency and amplitude. An operating VCSEL device at low power is very desirable for less thermal effects, which are essential for a high-speed modulation bandwidth.

Keywords: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, VCSELs, optical power generation, power consumption, square wave modulation

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8251 Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links

Authors: Boudene Maamar, Xu Mai

Abstract:

Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.

Keywords: optical intersatellite links, optical wireless communications, free space optical communications, next generation wireless communication

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8250 Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO3 Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ(3)-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ(2)-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ(2) process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the mirror reflectance and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.

Keywords: cavity, periodically-poled LiNbO₃, sum-frequency generation, third-harmonic generation

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8249 All Optical Wavelength Conversion Based On Four Wave Mixing in Optical Fiber

Authors: Surinder Singh, Gursewak Singh Lovkesh

Abstract:

We have designed wavelength conversion based on four wave mixing in an optical fiber at 10 Gb/s. The power of converted signal increases with increase in signal power. The converted signal power is investigated as a function of input signal power and pump power. On comparison of converted signal power at different value of input signal power, we observe that best converted signal power is obtained at -2 dBm input signal power for both up conversion as well as for down conversion. Further, FWM efficiency, quality factor is observed for increase in input signal power and optical fiber length.

Keywords: FWM, optical fiiber, wavelngth converter, quality

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8248 Future of Electric Power Generation Technologies: Environmental and Economic Comparison

Authors: Abdulrahman A. Bahaddad, Mohammed Beshir

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate and describe eight different types of power generation technologies and to understand the history and future trends of each technology. In addition, a comparative analysis between these technologies will be presented with respect to their cost analysis and associated performance.

Keywords: conventional power generation, economic analysis, environmental impact, renewable energy power generation

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8247 Distributed Energy System - Microgrid Integration of Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Planning a hybrid power system (HPS) that integrates renewable generation sources, non-renewable generation sources and energy storage, involves determining the capacity and size of various components to be used in the system to be able to supply reliable electricity to the connected load as required. Nowadays it is very common to integrate solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants for renewable generation as part of HPS. The solar PV system is usually balanced via a second form of generation (renewable such as wind power or using fossil fuels such as a diesel generator) or an energy storage system (such as a battery bank). Hybrid power systems can also provide other forms of power such as heat for some applications. Modern hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: microgrids, hybrid power systems, energy storage, grid code compliance

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8246 Investigation of Solar Concentrator Prototypes under Tunisian Conditions

Authors: Moncef Balghouthi, Mahmoud Ben Amara, Abdessalem Ben Hadj Ali, Amenallah Guizani

Abstract:

Concentrated solar power technology constitutes an interesting option to meet a part of future energy demand, especially when considering the high levels of solar radiation and clearness index that are available particularly in Tunisia. In this work, we present three experimental prototypes of solar concentrators installed in the research center of energy CRTEn in Tunisia. Two are medium temperature parabolic trough solar collector used to drive a cooling installation and for steam generation. The third is a parabolic dish concentrator used for hybrid generation of thermal and electric power. Optical and thermal evaluations were presented. Solutions and possibilities to construct locally the mirrors of the concentrator were discussed. In addition, the enhancement of the performances of the receivers by nano selective absorption coatings was studied. The improvement of heat transfer between the receiver and the heat transfer fluid was discussed for each application.

Keywords: solar concentrators, optical and thermal evaluations, cooling and process heat, hybrid thermal and electric generation

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8245 Design of a Photovoltaic Power Generation System Based on Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things

Authors: Wei Hu, Wenguang Chen, Chong Dong

Abstract:

In order to improve the efficiency and safety of photovoltaic power generation devices, this photovoltaic power generation system combines Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) to control the chasing photovoltaic power generation device to track the sun to improve power generation efficiency and then convert energy management. The system uses artificial intelligence as the control terminal, the power generation device executive end uses the Linux system, and Exynos4412 is the CPU. The power generating device collects the sun image information through Sony CCD. After several power generating devices feedback the data to the CPU for processing, several CPUs send the data to the artificial intelligence control terminal through the Internet. The control terminal integrates the executive terminal information, time information, and environmental information to decide whether to generate electricity normally and then whether to convert the converted electrical energy into the grid or store it in the battery pack. When the power generation environment is abnormal, the control terminal authorizes the protection strategy, the power generation device executive terminal stops power generation and enters a self-protection posture, and at the same time, the control terminal synchronizes the data with the cloud. At the same time, the system is more intelligent, more adaptive, and longer life.

Keywords: photo-voltaic power generation, the pursuit of light, artificial intelligence, internet of things, photovoltaic array, power management

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8244 Comparison of the Amount of Resources and Expansion Support Policy of Photovoltaic Power Generation: A Case on Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Sumi, Kiichiro Hayashi

Abstract:

Now, the use of renewable energy power generation has been advanced. In this paper, we compared the expansion support policy of photovoltaic power generation which was researched using The internet and the amount of resource for photovoltaic power generation which was estimated using the NEDO formula in the municipality level in Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan. This paper will contribute to grasp the current situation especially about the policy. As a result, there were municipalities which seemed to be no consideration of the amount of resources. We think it would need to consider the suitability between the policies and resources.

Keywords: photovoltaic power generation, dissemination and support policy, amount of resources, Japan

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8243 Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Riad

Abstract:

As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.

Keywords: renewable energy, greenhouse effect, water chamber, water vapour

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8242 Investigation on Biomass as an Alternate Source for Power Generation

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to discuss the biomass as a renewable source of energy for power generation. The setup is designed and fabricated in the Centre for Energy Technology (CET) and four different fuels are tested in the laboratory, but here the focus is on wood blocks (fuel) combustion with temperature, gas composition percentage by volume and the heating values.

Keywords: biomass, downdraft gasifier, power generation, renewable energy sources

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8241 Composite Distributed Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Security

Authors: Amir Lotfi, Seyed Hamid Hosseini

Abstract:

During the recent past, due to the increase of electrical energy demand and governmental resources constraints in creating additional capacity in the generation, transmission, and distribution, privatization, and restructuring in electrical industry have been considered. So, in most of the countries, different parts of electrical industry like generation, transmission, and distribution have been separated in order to create competition. Considering these changes, environmental issues, energy growth, investment of private equity in energy generation units and difficulties of transmission lines expansion, distributed generation (DG) units have been used in power systems. Moreover, reduction in the need for transmission and distribution, the increase of reliability, improvement of power quality, and reduction of power loss have caused DG to be placed in power systems. On the other hand, considering low liquidity need, private investors tend to spend their money for DGs. In this project, the main goal is to offer an algorithm for planning and placing DGs in order to reduce the need for transmission and distribution network.

Keywords: planning, transmission, distributed generation, power security, power systems

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8240 Optimization of Line Loss Minimization Using Distributed Generation

Authors: S. Sambath, P. Palanivel

Abstract:

Research conducted in the last few decades has proven that an inclusion of Distributed Genaration (DG) into distribution systems considerably lowers the level of power losses and the power quality improved. Moreover, the choice of DG is even more attractive since it provides not only benefits in power loss minimisation, but also a wide range of other advantages including environment, economic, power qualities and technical issues. This paper is an intent to quantify and analyse the impact of distributed generation (DG) in Tamil Nadu, India to examine what the benefits of decentralized generation would be for meeting rural loads. We used load flow analysis to simulate and quantify the loss reduction and power quality enhancement by having decentralized generation available line conditions for actual rural feeders in Tamil Nadu, India. Reactive and voltage profile was considered. This helps utilities to better plan their system in rural areas to meet dispersed loads, while optimizing the renewable and decentralised generation sources.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution system, load flow analysis, optimal location, power quality

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8239 Semiconductor Variable Wavelength Generator of Near-Infrared-to-Terahertz Regions

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

Power characteristics are obtained for laser beams of near-infrared and terahertz wavelengths when produced by difference-frequency generation with a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) waveguide made of gallium phosphide (GaP). A refractive-index change of the QPM GaP waveguide is included in computations with Sellmeier’s formula for varying input wavelengths, where optical loss is also included. Although the output power decreases with decreasing photon energy as the beam wavelength changes from near-infrared to terahertz wavelengths, the beam generation with such greatly different wavelengths, which is not achievable with an ordinary laser diode without the replacement of semiconductor material with a different bandgap one, can be made with the same semiconductor (GaP) by changing the QPM period, where a way of changing the period is provided.

Keywords: difference-frequency generation, gallium phosphide, quasi-phase-matching, waveguide

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8238 Reactive Power Cost Evaluation with FACTS Devices in Restructured Power System

Authors: A. S. Walkey, N. P. Patidar

Abstract:

It is not always economical to provide reactive power using synchronous alternators. The cost of reactive power can be minimized by optimal placing of FACTS devices in power systems. In this paper a Particle Swarm Optimization- Sequential Quadratic Programming (PSO-SQP) algorithm is applied to minimize the cost of reactive power generation along with real power generation to alleviate the bus voltage violations. The effectiveness of proposed approach tested on IEEE-14 bus systems. In this paper in addition to synchronous generators, an opportunity of FACTS devices are also proposed to procure the reactive power demands in the power system.

Keywords: reactive power, reactive power cost, voltage security margins, capability curve, FACTS devices

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8237 Role of Power Electronics in Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Systems

Authors: M. N. Tandjaoui, C. Banoudjafar, C. Benachaiba, O. Abdelkhalek, A. Kechich

Abstract:

Advanced power electronic systems are deemed to be an integral part of renewable, green, and efficient energy systems. Wind energy is one of the renewable means of electricity generation that is now the world’s fastest growing energy source can bring new challenges when it is connected to the power grid due to the fluctuation nature of the wind and the comparatively new types of its generators. The wind energy is part of the worldwide discussion on the future of energy generation and use and consequent effects on the environment. However, this paper will introduce some of the requirements and aspects of the power electronic involved with modern wind generation systems, including modern power electronics and converters, and the issues of integrating wind turbines into power systems.

Keywords: power electronics, renewable energy, smart grid, green energy, power technology

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8236 Generation and Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Argon/Air

Authors: R. Shrestha, D. P. Subedi, R. B. Tyata, C. S. Wong,

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique for the determination of electron temperatures and electron densities in atmospheric pressure Argon/air discharge by the analysis of optical emission spectra (OES) is reported. The discharge was produced using a high voltage (0-20) kV power supply operating at a frequency of 27 kHz in parallel electrode system, with glass as dielectric. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. Optical emission spectra in the range of (300nm-850nm) were recorded for the discharge with different inter electrode gap keeping electric field constant. Electron temperature (Te) and electron density (ne) are estimated from electrical and optical methods. Electron density was calculated using power balance method. The optical methods are related with line intensity ratio from the relative intensities of Ar-I and Ar-II lines in Argon plasma. The electron density calculated by using line intensity ratio method was compared with the electron density calculated by stark broadening method. The effect of dielectric thickness on plasma parameters (Te and ne) have also been studied and found that Te and ne increases as thickness of dielectric decrease for same inter electrode distance and applied voltage.

Keywords: electron density, electron temperature, optical emission spectra,

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8235 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani

Abstract:

A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

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8234 Cloud Effect on Power Generation of Grid-Connected Small PV Systems

Authors: Yehya Abdellatif, Ahmed Alsalaymeh, Iyad Muslih, Ali Alshduifat

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems, mainly small scale, are rapidly being deployed in Jordan. The impact of these systems on the grid has not been studied or analyzed. These systems can cause many technical problems such as reverse power flows and voltage rises in distribution feeders, and real and reactive power transients that affect the operation of the transmission system. To fully understand and address these problems, extensive research, simulation, and case studies are required. To this end, this paper studies the cloud shadow effect on the power generation of a ground mounted PV system installed at the test field of the Renewable Energy Center at the Applied Science University.

Keywords: photovoltaic, cloud effect, MPPT, power transients

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8233 On the Transition of Europe’s Power Sector: Economic Consequences of National Targets

Authors: Geoffrey J. Blanford, Christoph Weissbart

Abstract:

The prospects for the European power sector indicate that it has to almost fully decarbonize in order to reach the economy-wide target of CO2-emission reduction. We apply the EU-REGEN model to explain the penetration of RES from an economic perspective, their spatial distribution, and the complementary role of conventional generation technologies. Furthermore, we identify economic consequences of national energy and climate targets. Our study shows that onshore wind power will be the most crucial generation technology for the future European power sector. Its geographic distribution is driven by resource quality. Gas power will be the major conventional generation technology for backing-up wind power. Moreover, a complete phase out of coal power proves to be not economically optimal. The paper demonstrates that existing national targets have a negative impact, especially on the German region with higher prices and lower revenues. The remaining regions profit are hardly affected. We encourage an EU-wide coordination on the expansion of wind power with harmonized policies. Yet, this requires profitable market structures for both, RES and conventional generation technologies.

Keywords: European, policy evaluation, power sector investment, technology choices

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8232 Multicasting Characteristics of All-Optical Triode Based on Negative Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: S. Aisyah Azizan, M. Syafiq Azmi, Yuki Harada, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takaomi Matsutani

Abstract:

We introduced an all-optical multi-casting characteristics with wavelength conversion based on a novel all-optical triode using negative feedback semiconductor optical amplifier. This study was demonstrated with a transfer speed of 10 Gb/s to a non-return zero 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence system. This multi-wavelength converter device can simultaneously provide three channels of output signal with the support of non-inverted and inverted conversion. We studied that an all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion accomplishing cross gain modulation is effective in a semiconductor optical amplifier which is effective to provide an inverted conversion thus negative feedback. The relationship of received power of back to back signal and output signals with wavelength 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, and 1555 nm with bit error rate was investigated. It was reported that the output signal wavelengths were successfully converted and modulated with a power penalty of less than 8.7 dB, which the highest is 8.6 dB while the lowest is 4.4 dB. It was proved that all-optical multi-casting and wavelength conversion using an optical triode with a negative feedback by three channels at the same time at a speed of 10 Gb/s is a promising device for the new wavelength conversion technology.

Keywords: cross gain modulation, multicasting, negative feedback optical amplifier, semiconductor optical amplifier

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8231 Energy Efficient Microgrid Design with Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Today’s electrical networks, including microgrids, are evolving into smart grids. The smart grid concept brings the idea that the power comes from various sources (continuous or intermittent), in various forms (AC or DC, high, medium or low voltage, etc.), and it must be integrated into the electric power system in a smart way to guarantee a continuous and reliable supply that complies with power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid code requirements. This idea brings questions for the different players like how the required power will be generated, what kind of power will be more suitable, how to store exceeding levels for short or long-term usage, and how to combine and distribute all the different generation power sources in an efficient way. To address these issues, there has been lots of development in recent years on the field of on-grid and off-grid hybrid power systems (HPS). These systems usually combine one or more modes of electricity generation together with energy storage to ensure optimal supply reliability and high level of energy security. Hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: microgrids, hybrid power systems, energy storage, power quality improvement

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8230 Simple and Concise Maximum Power Control Circuit for PV Power Generation

Authors: Keiju Matsui, Mikio Yasubayashi, Masayoshi Umeno

Abstract:

Consumption of energy is increasing every year, and yet does not the decline at all. The main energy source is fossil fuels such as petroleum and natural gas. Since it is the finite resources, they will be exhausted someday. Moreover, to make the fossil fuel an energy source causes an environment problem. In such way, one solution of the problems is the solar battery that is remarkable as one of the alternative energies. Under such circumstances, in this paper, we propose a novel maximum power control circuit for photovoltaic power generation system with simple and fast-response operation. In addition to an application to the solar battery, since this control system is possible to operate with simple circuit and fast-response, the polar value control like the maximum or the minimum value tracking for general application could be easily realized.

Keywords: maximum power control, inter-connection, photovoltaic power generation, PI controller, multiplier, exclusive-or, power system

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8229 Critical Review of Clean Energy Mix as Means of Boosting Power Generation in Nigeria

Authors: B. Adebayo, A. A. Adebayo

Abstract:

Adequate power generation and supply are enormous challenges confronting Nigeria state today. This is a powerful mechanism that drives industrial development and socio-economy of any nation. The present level of power generation and supply have become national embarrassment to both government and the citizens of Nigeria, where over 60% of the population have no access to electricity. This paper is set to review the abundant clean energy alternative sources available in abundance that are capable of boosting power generation. The clean energy sources waiting to be exploited include: nuclear, solar and wind energy. The environmental benefits of these sources of power generation are identified. Nuclear energy is a powerful clean energy source. However, Africa accounted for 20% of known recoverable reserve and uranium produces heat of 500,000 MJ/kg. Moreover, Nigeria receives average daily solar radiation of over 5.249 kWh/m2/day. Researchers have shown that wind speed and power flux densities varied from 1.5 – 4.1 m/s and 5.7 – 22.5 W/m2 respectively. It is a fact that the cost of doing business in Nigeria is very high, leading to winding up of the multi-national companies and then led to increase unemployment level. More importantly, readily available vast quantity of energy will reduce cost of running industries. Hence, more industries will come on board, goods, services, and more job creation will be achieved. This clean source of power generation is devoid of production of green house gases, elimination of environmental pollution, and reduced waste disposal. Then Nigerians will live in harmony with the environment.

Keywords: power, generation, energy, mix, clean, industrial

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8228 Connected Objects with Optical Rectenna for Wireless Information Systems

Authors: Chayma Bahar, Chokri Baccouch, Hedi Sakli, Nizar Sakli

Abstract:

Harvesting and transport of optical and radiofrequency signals are a topical subject with multiple challenges. In this paper, we present a Optical RECTENNA system. We propose here a hybrid system solar cell antenna for 5G mobile communications networks. Thus, we propose rectifying circuit. A parametric study is done to follow the influence of load resistance and input power on Optical RECTENNA system performance. Thus, we propose a solar cell antenna structure in the frequency band of future 5G standard in 2.45 GHz bands.

Keywords: antenna, IoT, optical rectenna, solar cell

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8227 Availability Analysis of a Power Plant by Computer Simulation

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

Reliability and availability of power stations are extremely important in order to achieve a required level of power generation. In particular, in the hot desert climate of Kuwait, reliable power generation is extremely important because of cooling requirements at temperatures exceeding 50-centigrade degrees. In this paper, a particular power plant, named Sabiya Power Plant, which has 8 steam turbines and 13 gas turbine stations, has been studied in detail; extensive data are collected; and availability of station units are determined. Furthermore, a simulation model is developed and used to analyze the effects of different maintenance policies on availability of these stations. The results show that significant improvements can be achieved in power plant availabilities if appropriate maintenance policies are implemented.

Keywords: power plants, steam turbines, gas turbines, maintenance, availability, simulation

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8226 The Importance of Generating Electricity through Wind Farms in the Brazilian Electricity Matrix, from 2013 to 2020

Authors: Alex Sidarta Guglielmoni

Abstract:

Since the 1970s, sustainable development has become increasingly present on the international agenda. The present work has as general objective to analyze, discuss and bring answers to the following question, what is the importance of the generation of electric energy through the wind power plants in the Brazilian electricity matrix between 2013 and 2019? To answer this question, we analyzed the generation of renewable energy from wind farms and the consumption of electricity in Brazil during the period of January 2013 until December 2020. The specific objectives of this research are: to analyze the public data, to identify the total wind generation, to identify the total wind capacity generation, to identify the percentage participation of the generation and generation capacity of wind energy in the Brazilian electricity matrix. In order to develop this research, it was necessary a bibliographic search, collection of secondary data, tabulation of generation data, and electricity capacity by a comparative analysis between wind power and the Brazilian electricity matrix. As a result, it was possible to observe how important Brazil is for global sustainable development and how much this country can grow with this, in view of its capacity and potential for generating wind power since this percentage has grown in past few years.

Keywords: wind power, Brazilian market, electricity matrix, generation capacity

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8225 Partial M-Sequence Code Families Applied in Spectral Amplitude Coding Fiber-Optic Code-Division Multiple-Access Networks

Authors: Shin-Pin Tseng

Abstract:

Nowadays, numerous spectral amplitude coding (SAC) fiber-optic code-division-multiple-access (FO-CDMA) techniques were appealing due to their capable of providing moderate security and relieving the effects of multiuser interference (MUI). Nonetheless, the performance of the previous network is degraded due to fixed in-phase cross-correlation (IPCC) value. Based on the above problems, a new SAC FO-CDMA network using partial M-sequence (PMS) code is presented in this study. Because the proposed PMS code is originated from M-sequence code, the system using the PMS code could effectively suppress the effects of MUI. In addition, two-code keying (TCK) scheme can applied in the proposed SAC FO-CDMA network and enhance the whole network performance. According to the consideration of system flexibility, simple optical encoders/decoders (codecs) using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) were also developed. First, we constructed a diagram of the SAC FO-CDMA network, including (N/2-1) optical transmitters, (N/2-1) optical receivers, and one N×N star coupler for broadcasting transmitted optical signals to arrive at the input port of each optical receiver. Note that the parameter N for the PMS code was the code length. In addition, the proposed SAC network was using superluminescent diodes (SLDs) as light sources, which then can save a lot of system cost compared with the other FO-CDMA methods. For the design of each optical transmitter, it is composed of an SLD, one optical switch, and two optical encoders according to assigned PMS codewords. On the other hand, each optical receivers includes a 1 × 2 splitter, two optical decoders, and one balanced photodiode for mitigating the effect of MUI. In order to simplify the next analysis, the some assumptions were used. First, the unipolarized SLD has flat power spectral density (PSD). Second, the received optical power at the input port of each optical receiver is the same. Third, all photodiodes in the proposed network have the same electrical properties. Fourth, transmitting '1' and '0' has an equal probability. Subsequently, by taking the factors of phase‐induced intensity noise (PIIN) and thermal noise, the corresponding performance was displayed and compared with the performance of the previous SAC FO-CDMA networks. From the numerical result, it shows that the proposed network improved about 25% performance than that using other codes at BER=10-9. This is because the effect of PIIN was effectively mitigated and the received power was enhanced by two times. As a result, the SAC FO-CDMA network using PMS codes has an opportunity to apply in applications of the next-generation optical network.

Keywords: spectral amplitude coding, SAC, fiber-optic code-division multiple-access, FO-CDMA, partial M-sequence, PMS code, fiber Bragg grating, FBG

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8224 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: micro-hydraulic turbine, power generation, sewage, sewer pipe

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8223 Improving Power Quality in Wind Power Generation System

Authors: A. Omeiri, A. Djellad, P. O. Logerais, O. Riou, J. F. Durastanti

Abstract:

With the growing of electrical energy demand, wind power capacity has experienced tremendous growth in the past decade, thanks to wind power’s environmental benefits. Direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a full size back-to-back converter set is one of the promising technologies employed with wind power generation. Wind grid integration brings the problems of voltage fluctuation and harmonic pollution. In the present study, the filter is placed between the wind system and the network to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) and enhance power quality during disturbances. The models of wind turbine, PMSG, power electronic converters and the filter are implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

Keywords: wind energy conversion system, PMSG, PWM, THD, power quality, passive filter

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