Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23174

Search results for: operations research applications

23174 Operations Research Applications in Audit Planning and Scheduling

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of the operations research models developed for internal audit planning. Two alternative approaches have been followed in the literature for audit planning: (1) identifying the optimal audit frequency; and (2) determining the optimal audit resource allocation. The first approach identifies the elapsed time between two successive audits, which can be presented as the optimal number of audits in a given planning horizon, or the optimal number of transactions after which an audit should be performed. It also includes the optimal audit schedule. The second approach determines the optimal allocation of audit frequency among all auditable units in the firm. In our review, we discuss both the deterministic and probabilistic models developed for audit planning. In addition, game theory models are reviewed to find the optimal auditing strategy based on the interactions between the auditors and the clients.

Keywords: operations research applications, audit frequency, audit-staff scheduling, audit planning

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23173 Employing Operations Research at Universities to Build Management Systems

Authors: Abdallah A. Hlayel

Abstract:

Operations research science (OR) deals with good success in developing and applying scientific methods for problem solving and decision-making. However, by using OR techniques, we can enhance the use of computer decision support systems to achieve optimal management for institutions. OR applies comprehensive analysis including all factors that affect on it and builds mathematical modeling to solve business or organizational problems. In addition, it improves decision-making and uses available resources efficiently. The adoption of OR by universities would definitely contributes to the development and enhancement of the performance of OR techniques. This paper provides an understanding of the structures, approaches and models of OR in problem solving and decision-making.

Keywords: best candidates' method, decision making, decision support system, operations research

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23172 Developing the Morphological Field of Problem Context to Assist Multi-Methodology in Operations Research

Authors: Mahnaz Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad Reza Mehregan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have developed a morphological field to assist multi- methodology (combining methodologies together in whole or part) in Operations Research (OR) for the problem contexts in Iranian organizations. So, we have attempted to identify some dimensions for problem context according to Iranian organizational problems. Then, a general morphological program is designed which helps the OR practitioner to determine the suitable OR methodology as output for any configuration of conditions in a problem context as input and to reveal the fields necessary to be improved in OR. Applying such a program would have interesting results for OR practitioners.

Keywords: hard, soft and emancipatory operations research, General Morphological Analysis (GMA), multi-methodology, problem context

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23171 The Impacts of Technology on Operations Costs: The Mediating Role of Operation Flexibility

Authors: Fazli Idris, Jihad Mohammad

Abstract:

The study aims to determine the impact of technology and service operations flexibility, which is divided into external flexibility and internal robustness, on operations costs. A mediation model is proposed that links technology to operations costs via operation flexibility. Drawing on a sample of 475 of operations managers of various service sectors in Malaysia and South Africa, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was employed to test the relationship using Smart-PLS procedures. It was found that a significant relationship was established between technologies to operations costs via both operations flexibility dimensions. Theoretical and managerial implications are offered to explain the results.

Keywords: Operations flexibility, technology, costs, mediation

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23170 Humanitarian Supply Chain Management: Extended Literature Review

Authors: Busra Gulnihan Dascıoglu, Ozalp Vayvay, Zeynep Tugce Kalender

Abstract:

Humanitarian supply chain management has gain popularity in recent years in research fields. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on humanitarian operations and crisis/disaster management from 2010 to latest researches in order to identify the current research and to provide direction for future research in this growing field. Researches are classified considering the research publication year, research fields. Articles from humanitarian supply chain management were reviewed, keywords were identified within a disaster management lifecycle framework. Research gaps are identified for future research areas.

Keywords: crisis, disaster, humanitarian supply chain management, relief operations

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23169 Marketing–Operations Alignment: A Systematic Literature and Citation Network Analysis Review

Authors: Kedwadee Sombultawee, Sakun Boon-Itt

Abstract:

This research demonstrates a systematic literature review of 62 peer-reviewed articles published in academic journals from 2000-2016 focusing on the operation and marketing interface area. The findings show the three major clusters of recent research domains, which is a review of the alignment between operations and marketing, identification of variables that impact the company and analysis of the effect of interface. Moreover, the Main Path Analysis (MPA) is mapped to show the knowledge structure of the operation and marketing interface issue. Most of the empirical research focused on company performance and new product development then analyzed the data by the structural equation model or regression. Whereas, some scholars studied the conflict of these two functions and proposed the requirement or step for alignment. Finally, the gaps in the literature are provided for future research directions.

Keywords: operations management, marketing, interface, systematic literature review

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23168 From Shop-Floor to Classroom and from Classroom to Shop-Floor: A Way to Bridge Gap between Industry and Academy

Authors: Muhammad Haris Aziz, Shoaib Sarfraz, Chanchal Saha

Abstract:

The basic functions of a university are research and education. Research develops theories and education provides the link between the theory and the practical. Being an applied science, the link between theory and practice needs to be strong in engineering disciplines. But there remains a gap between industry and academy due lack of understanding and awareness from both sides. This gap is been shorten with an industrial engineering graduate class composed of a mix of students from industrial background and from theoretical background. Results are four industrial case studies which are the outcome of group projects in a course on operations research.

Keywords: industrial-academia linkage, operations research, industrial engineering, engineering education.

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23167 Supply Chain Optimization for Silica Sand in a Glass Manufacturing Company

Authors: Ramon Erasmo Verdin Rodriguez

Abstract:

Many has been the ways that historically the managers and gurus has been trying to get closer to the perfect supply chain, but since this topic is so vast and very complex the bigger the companies are, the duty has not been certainly easy. On this research, you are going to see thru the entrails of the logistics that happens at a glass manufacturing company with the number one raw material of the process that is the silica sand. After a very quick passage thru the supply chain, this document is going to focus on the way that raw materials flow thru the system, so after that, an analysis and research can take place to improve the logistics. Thru Operations Research techniques, it will be analyzed the current scheme of distribution and inventories of raw materials at a glass company’s plants, so after a mathematical conceptualization process, the supply chain could be optimized with the purpose of reducing the uncertainty of supply and obtaining an economic benefit at the very end of this research.

Keywords: inventory management, operations research, optimization, supply chain

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23166 Review of the Model-Based Supply Chain Management Research in the Construction Industry

Authors: Aspasia Koutsokosta, Stefanos Katsavounis

Abstract:

This paper reviews the model-based qualitative and quantitative Operations Management research in the context of Construction Supply Chain Management (CSCM). Construction industry has been traditionally blamed for low productivity, cost and time overruns, waste, high fragmentation and adversarial relationships. The construction industry has been slower than other industries to employ the Supply Chain Management (SCM) concept and develop models that support the decision-making and planning. However the last decade there is a distinct shift from a project-based to a supply-based approach of construction management. CSCM comes up as a new promising management tool of construction operations and improves the performance of construction projects in terms of cost, time and quality. Modeling the Construction Supply Chain (CSC) offers the means to reap the benefits of SCM, make informed decisions and gain competitive advantage. Different modeling approaches and methodologies have been applied in the multi-disciplinary and heterogeneous research field of CSCM. The literature review reveals that a considerable percentage of CSC modeling accommodates conceptual or process models which discuss general management frameworks and do not relate to acknowledged soft OR methods. We particularly focus on the model-based quantitative research and categorize the CSCM models depending on their scope, mathematical formulation, structure, objectives, solution approach, software used and decision level. Although over the last few years there has been clearly an increase of research papers on quantitative CSC models, we identify that the relevant literature is very fragmented with limited applications of simulation, mathematical programming and simulation-based optimization. Most applications are project-specific or study only parts of the supply system. Thus, some complex interdependencies within construction are neglected and the implementation of the integrated supply chain management is hindered. We conclude this paper by giving future research directions and emphasizing the need to develop robust mathematical optimization models for the CSC. We stress that CSC modeling needs a multi-dimensional, system-wide and long-term perspective. Finally, prior applications of SCM to other industries have to be taken into account in order to model CSCs, but not without the consequential reform of generic concepts to match the unique characteristics of the construction industry.

Keywords: construction supply chain management, modeling, operations research, optimization, simulation

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23165 Human Kinetics Education and the Computer Operations, Effects and Merits

Authors: Kehinde Adeyeye Adelabu

Abstract:

Computer applications has completely revolutionized the way of life of people which does not exclude the field of sport education. There are computer technologies which help to enhance teaching in every field of education. Invention of computers has done great to the field of education. This study was therefore carried out to examine the effects and merits of computer operations in Human Kinetics Education and Sports. The study was able to identify the component of computer, uses of computer in Human Kinetics education (sports), computer applications in some branches of human kinetics education. A qualitative research method was employed by the author in gathering experts’ views and used to analyze the effects and merits of computer applications in the field of human kinetics education. No experiment was performed in the cause of carrying out the study. The source of information for the study was text-books, journal, articles, past project reports, internet i.e. Google search engine. Computer has significantly helped to improve Education (Human Kinetic), it has complemented the basic physical fitness testing and gave a more scientific basis to the testing. The use of the software and packages has made cost projections, database applications, inventory control, management of events, word processing, electronic mailing and record keeping easier than the pasts.

Keywords: application, computer operation, education, human kinetics

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23164 Profitability of Milkfish Production from Three Mariculture Parks in the Philippines

Authors: Rosie S. Abalos, John Patrick M. Dizon

Abstract:

The operation of fish cages in mariculture parks for milkfish production remains a lucrative business for aquaculture operators. Three areas in the Philippines where mariculture parks are still in active operation were identified as study sites for this research. Financial analysis was used to estimate profitability of mariculture operations in the selected study sites. Based on the result of this research, milkfish production in mariculture parks remains profitable both in terms of net profit generation and the return on investment. To improve the profitability of aquaculture operations in mariculture parks, the relatively high price of operational inputs should be managed. As a recommendation, further studies should be conducted on the profitability of aquaculture operations in mariculture parks in the country to include other factors which may cause losses on the part of the operator and factors that may affect price of produce upon harvest.

Keywords: mariculture parks, milkfish production, aquaculture, profitability

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23163 Survey Research Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration into the Mining Industry

Authors: Kateryna Zharan, Jan C. Bongaerts

Abstract:

Mining operations are energy intensive, and the share of energy costs in total costs is often quoted in the range of 40 %. Saving on energy costs is, therefore, a key element of any mine operator. With the improving reliability and security of renewable energy (RE) sources, and requirements to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, perspectives for using RE in mining operations emerge. These aspects are stimulating the mining companies to search for ways to substitute fossil energy with RE. Hereby, the main purpose of this study is to present the survey research assessment in matter of finding out the key issues related to the integration of RE into mining activities, based on the mining and renewable energy experts’ opinion. The purpose of the paper is to present the outcomes of a survey conducted among mining and renewable energy experts about the feasibility of RE in mining operations. The survey research has been developed taking into consideration the following categories: first of all, the mining and renewable energy experts were chosen based on the specific criteria. Secondly, they were offered a questionnaire to gather their knowledge and opinions on incentives for mining operators to turn to RE, barriers and challenges to be expected, environmental effects, appropriate business models and the overall impact of RE on mining operations. The outcomes of the survey allow for the identification of factors which favor and disfavor decision-making on the use of RE in mining operations. It concludes with a set of recommendations for further study. One of them relates to a deeper analysis of benefits for mining operators when using RE, and another one suggests that appropriate business models considering economic and environmental issues need to be studied and developed. The results of the paper will be used for developing a hybrid optimized model which might be adopted at mines according to their operation processes as well as economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, mining industry, photovoltaic, renewable energy, survey research, wind generation

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23162 Operational Software Maturity: An Aerospace Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley

Abstract:

Software applications have become crucial to the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities used during the design, manufacturing and support of aircraft. However, as this criticality increases, so too does the risk for business operations when facing a software failure. Hence, there is a need for new methodologies to be developed to support aerospace companies in effectively managing their software portfolios, avoiding the hazards of business disruption and additional costs. This paper aims to provide a definition of operational software maturity, and how this can be used to assess software operational behaviour, as well as a view on the different aspects that drive software maturity within the aerospace industry. The key research question addressed is, how can operational software maturity monitoring assist the aerospace industry in effectively managing large software portfolios? This question has been addressed by conducting an in depth review of current literature, by working closely with aerospace professionals and by running an industry case study within a major aircraft manufacturer. The results are a software maturity model composed of a set of drivers and a prototype tool used for the testing and validation of the research findings. By utilising these methodologies to assess the operational maturity of software applications in aerospace, benefits in maintenance activities and operations disruption avoidance have been observed, supporting business cases for system improvement.

Keywords: aerospace, software lifecycle, software maintenance, software maturity

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23161 Exploration and Exploitation within Operations

Authors: D. Gåsvaer, L. Stålberg, A. Fundin, M. Jackson, P. Johansson

Abstract:

Exploration and exploitation capabilities are both important within Operations as means for improvement when managed separately, and for establishing dynamic improvement capabilities when combined in balance. However, it is unclear what exploration and exploitation capabilities imply in improvement and development work within an operations context. So in order to better understand how to develop exploration and exploitation capabilities within operations, the main characteristics of these constructs needs to be identified and further understood. Thus, the objective of this research is to increase the understanding about exploitation and exploration characteristics, to concretize what they translates to within the context of improvement and development work in an operations unit, and to identify practical challenges. A literature review and a case study are presented. In the literature review, different interpretations of exploration and exploitation are portrayed, key characteristics have been identified, and a deepened understanding of exploration and exploitation characteristics is described. The case in the study is an operations unit, and the aim is to explore to what extent and in what ways exploration and exploitation activities are part of the improvement structures and processes. The contribution includes an identification of key characteristics of exploitation and exploration, as well as an interpretation of the constructs. Further, some practical challenges are identified. For instance, exploration activities tend to be given low priority, both in daily work as in the manufacturing strategy. Also, the overall understanding about the concepts of exploitation and exploration (or any similar aspect of dynamic improvement capabilities) is very low.

Keywords: exploitation, exploration, improvement, lean production, manufacturing

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23160 Operations Guide Implementation Practice in Information Technology Organizations

Authors: Ziad M. Hejazi, Hani F. Mokhtar, Mohammed S. Bahabri

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the efforts taken by an Information Technology (IT) organization at Saudi Aramco to establish Operations Guide in a practical manner. A review of related work and literature revealed several important aspects to be considered when implementing the operation guide including identifying supporting IT groups, specifying each group roles and responsibilities, formulating the IT operations in terms of processes (input/output), listing each process main steps, provide the details of each process main step, develop the RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed) chart, highlight the process KPI’s, utilized systems, and forms. Identified aspects were then addressed in the actual implementation via several practices, including developing the operation guide for all IT-supported operations, creating a shared folder for the operations guide, and announcing the implementation to all IT staff. The implementation of the mentioned practice was benchmarked, identified as best in class, and adopted by other internal organizations. Moreover, it was evident and appreciated by IT management. The significance of this study stems from the fact that it might be among the first studies in Saudi Arabia that propose a practical guideline to implement an IT operations guide by IT organizations. Additional research significance comes from the study being conducted in Saudi Aramco, one of the world’s biggest integrated energy and petrochemical companies.

Keywords: operations guide, process implementation, Saudi Aramco company, information technology (IT)

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23159 Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform: Conceptual Design of Control System Software for Autonomous Driving and Agricultural Operations Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh, Y. S. Oh, H. J. Moon, R. Akanksha

Abstract:

This paper discusses about the conceptual design and development of the control system software using Programmable logic controller (PLC) for autonomous driving and agricultural operations of Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform (MARP). Based on given initial conditions by field analysis and desired agricultural operations, the structural design development of MARP is done using modelling and analysis tool. PLC, being robust and easy to use, has been used to design the autonomous control system of robot platform for desired parameters. The robot is capable of performing autonomous driving and three automatic agricultural operations, viz. hilling, mulching, and sowing of seeds in the respective order. The input received from various sensors on the field is later transmitted to the controller via ZigBee network to make the changes in the control program to get desired field output. The research is conducted to provide assistance to farmers by reducing labor hours for agricultural activities by implementing automation. This study will provide an alternative to the existing systems with machineries attached behind tractors and rigorous manual operations on agricultural field at effective cost.

Keywords: agricultural operations, autonomous driving, MARP, PLC

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23158 The Factors Affecting the Operations of the Industrial Enterprises of Cassava in the Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Thanasuwit Thabhiranrak

Abstract:

This research aims to study factors that affected the operations of the cassava industrial enterprises in northeast of Thailand. Hypothesis was tested by regress analysis and also the analysis in order to determine the relationship between variables with Pearson correlation and show a class action in cassava process including the owner of business executives and supervisors. The research samples were 400 people in northeast region of Thailand. The research results revealed that success of entrepreneurs related to transformation leadership and knowledge management in a positive way at statistical significance level of 0.01 and respondents also emphasized on the importance of transformational leadership factors. The individual and the use of intelligence affect the success of entrepreneurs in cassava industry at statistical significance level of 0.05. The qualitative data were also collected by interviewing with operational level staff, supervisors, executives, and enterprise owners in the northeast of Thailand. The result was found that knowledge management was important in their business operations. Personnel in the organizations should learn from working experience, develop their skills, and increase knowledge from education.

Keywords: transformational leadership, knowledge management (KM), cassava, northeast of Thailand, industrial

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23157 Parallel Vector Processing Using Multi Level Orbital DATA

Authors: Nagi Mekhiel

Abstract:

Many applications use vector operations by applying single instruction to multiple data that map to different locations in conventional memory. Transferring data from memory is limited by access latency and bandwidth affecting the performance gain of vector processing. We present a memory system that makes all of its content available to processors in time so that processors need not to access the memory, we force each location to be available to all processors at a specific time. The data move in different orbits to become available to other processors in higher orbits at different time. We use this memory to apply parallel vector operations to data streams at first orbit level. Data processed in the first level move to upper orbit one data element at a time, allowing a processor in that orbit to apply another vector operation to deal with serial code limitations inherited in all parallel applications and interleaved it with lower level vector operations.

Keywords: Memory Organization, Parallel Processors, Serial Code, Vector Processing

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23156 Western and Eastern Ways of Special Warfare: The Strategic History of Special Operations from Western and Eastern Sources

Authors: Adam Kok Wey Leong

Abstract:

Special operations were supposedly a new way of irregular warfare that was officially formed during World War 2. For example, the famous British Special Operations Executive (SOE) and the Americans’ Office for Strategic Services (OSS) – the forerunners of modern day CIA were born in World War 2. These special operations units were tasked with the conduct of sabotage and subversion activities behind enemy lines, placing great importance in forming Fifth Column activities and supporting resistance movements. This pointed to a paradoxical argument that modern day special operations is a product of Western modern military innovation but utilizing Eastern ways of ‘ungentlemanly’ warfare. This thesis is superfluous as special operations had been well practised by both ancient Western empires such as the Greeks and Romans, and around the same time in the East, such as in China, and Japan. This paper will describe the practice of special operations, first from the Western military history of the Greeks during the Peloponnesian war. It will then highlight the similar practice of special operations by the Near Eastern Assassins and Eastern militaries by using examples from the Chinese and the Japanese. This paper propounds that special operations, or ways of warfare as a whole, has no cultural and geographical divide, but rather very similarly practiced by men from all over the world. Ideas of fighting, killing and ultimately winning a war have similar undertones – attempts to find ways to win economically and at the least time.

Keywords: special operations, strategic culture, ways of warfare, Sun Tzu, Frontinus

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23155 Assessing the Actions of the Farm Mangers to Execute Field Operations at Opportune Times

Authors: G. Edwards, N. Dybro, L. J. Munkholm, C. G. Sørensen

Abstract:

Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field’s readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when fields are unready, or partially unready, which can compromise results incurring environmental impacts, decreased yield and increased operational costs. In order to assess timeliness of operations’ execution, a new scheme is introduced to quantify the aptitude of farm managers to plan operations. Two criteria are presented by which the execution of operations can be evaluated as to their exploitation of a field’s readiness window. A dataset containing the execution dates of spring and autumn operations on 93 fields in Iowa, USA, over two years, was considered as an example and used to demonstrate how operations’ executions can be evaluated. The execution dates were compared with simulated data to gain a measure of how disparate the actual execution was from the ideal execution. The presented tool is able to evaluate the spring operations better than the autumn operations as required data was lacking to correctly parameterise the crop model. Further work is needed on the underlying models of the decision support tool in order for its situational knowledge to emulate reality more consistently. However the assessment methods and evaluation criteria presented offer a standard by which operations' execution proficiency can be quantified and could be used to identify farm managers who require decisional support when planning operations, or as a means of incentivising and promoting the use of sustainable farming practices.

Keywords: operation management, field readiness, sustainable farming, workability

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23154 Pre- and Post-Analyses of Disruptive Quay Crane Scheduling Problem

Authors: K. -H. Yang

Abstract:

In the past, the quay crane operations have been well studied. There were a certain number of scheduling algorithms for quay crane operations, but without considering some nuisance factors that might disrupt the quay crane operations. For example, bad grapples make a crane unable to load or unload containers or a sudden strong breeze stops operations temporarily. Although these disruptive conditions randomly occur, they influence the efficiency of quay crane operations. The disruption is not considered in the operational procedures nor is evaluated in advance for its impacts. This study applies simulation and optimization approaches to develop structures of pre-analysis and post-analysis for the Quay Crane Scheduling Problem to deal with disruptive scenarios for quay crane operation. Numerical experiments are used for demonstrations for the validity of the developed approaches.

Keywords: disruptive quay crane scheduling, pre-analysis, post-analysis, disruption

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23153 The Effective Operations Competitive Advantages of Mobile Phone Service Providers across Countries: The Case of Middle East Region

Authors: Yazan Khalid Abed-Allah Migdadi

Abstract:

The aim of this study is identifying the effective operations competitive advantages of mobile phone service providers across countries. All Arab countries in the Middle East region were surveyed except Syria, and 27 out of 31 service providers were surveyed. Data collected from corporations’ annual reports, websites and other professional institutions published sources. Multiple linear regression analysis test was used to identify the relationship between operations competitive advantages and market share. The effective operations competitive advantages were; diversity of offers and service accessibility

Keywords: competitive advantage, mobile telecommunication operations, Middle East, service provider

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23152 The Importance of Information in Psychological Operations for Counterterrorism

Authors: Abbas Fazelinia

Abstract:

Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and to counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken at the same time. Counterterrorism strategies of most countries depend on military measures. However, those strategies should also focus on nonlethal measures, such as economic, political, and social measures. The psychological dimensions of terrorism must be understood, evaluated, and used in countering terrorism. This study suggests that psychological operations, as nonlethal military operations, can be used to influence individuals not to join terrorist organizations and to facilitate defections from terrorist organizations. However, in order to implement effective psychological operations, one has to have appropriate intelligence about terrorist organizations. Examining terrorist organizations help us to identify their vulnerabilities and obtain this intelligence. This article concludes that terrorists’ motivations, terrorist organizations’ radicalization, recruitment, and conversion processes, ideology, goals, strategies, and general structure form the intelligence requirement for psychological operations in counterterrorism. The methodology used in this article is a mixed method.

Keywords: psychological operations, terrorist, counterterrorism, terrorism

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23151 The Strategic Engine Model: Redefined Strategy Structure, as per Market-and Resource-Based Theory Application, Tested in the Automotive Industry

Authors: Krassimir Todorov

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The purpose of the paper is to redefine the levels of structure of corporate, business and functional strategies that were established over the past several decades, to a conceptual model, consisting of corporate, business and operations strategies, that are reinforced by functional strategies. We will propose a conceptual framework of different perspectives in the role of strategic operations as a separate strategic place and reposition the remaining functional strategies as supporting tools, existing at all three levels. The proposed model is called ‘the strategic engine’, since the mutual relationships of its ingredients are identical with main elements and working principle of the internal combustion engine. Based on theoretical essence, related to every strategic level, we will prove that the strategic engine model is useful for managers seeking to safeguard the competitive advantage of their companies. Each strategy level is researched through its basic elements. At the corporate level we examine the scope of firm’s product, the vertical and geographical coverage. At the business level, the point of interest is limited to the SWOT analysis’ basic elements. While at operations level, the key research issue relates to the scope of the following performance indicators: cost, quality, speed, flexibility and dependability. In this relationship, the paper provides a different view for the role of operations strategy within the overall strategy concept. We will prove that the theoretical essence of operations goes far beyond the scope of traditionally accepted business functions. Exploring the applications of Resource-based theory and Market-based theory within the strategic levels framework, we will prove that there is a logical consequence of the theoretical impact in corporate, business and operations strategy – at every strategic level, the validity of one theory is substituted to the level of the other. Practical application of the conceptual model is tested in automotive industry. Actually, the proposed theoretical concept is inspired by a leading global automotive group – Inchcape PLC, listed on the London Stock Exchange, and constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

Keywords: business strategy, corporate strategy, functional strategies, operations strategy

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23150 Factors Effecting the Success and Failure of Social Enterprise in Thailand

Authors: Jatuporn Juyjingam, Pitak Siriwong

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This paper presents a study of factors effecting the success and failure of social enterprise in Thailand identifying communication as one of the criteria for measuring the social impact of social enterprise. The study focused on the communication driver of the SCALERS model. The research examines how communication is viewed in Thailand social enterprise. The research aims to determine how selected social enterprise uses communication in their operations. More specifically, the study aims to 1) describe the profile of social enterprise in Thailand, 2) identify the different roles of communication in the operation of social enterprise in Thailand, 3) determine Thailand social enterprise concept of communication. The study made use of the case study and cross case study research designs. For the profiling of the social enterprises, the case study was used. The researchers made use of the cross-case research design in identifying trends across the ten social enterprises and in determining the social entrepreneurs’ concept of communication. Key informant interviews were conducted with the heads or representatives of selected social enterprises, a three-part interview schedule was used to facilitate data gathering. The three parts included are 1) Profile of social enterprise in Thailand 2) How social enterprises apply communication in their operations 3) What is the key success in using communication among social enterprise in Thailand. This study is an exploratory research.

Keywords: communication, social entrepreneurship, social enterprise, sustainability development

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23149 The Evolution of Strike and Intelligence Functions in Special Operations Forces

Authors: John Hardy

Abstract:

The expansion of special operations forces (SOF) in the twenty-first century is often discussed in terms of the size and disposition of SOF units. Research regarding the number SOF personnel, the equipment SOF units procure, and the variety of roles and mission that SOF fulfill in contemporary conflicts paints a fascinating picture of changing expectations for the use of force. A strong indicator of the changing nature of SOF in contemporary conflicts is the fusion of strike and intelligence functions in the SOF in many countries. What were once more distinct roles on the kind of battlefield generally associated with the concept of conventional warfare have become intermingled in the era of persistent conflict which SOF face. This study presents a historical analysis of the co-evolution of the intelligence and direct action functions carried out by SOF in counterterrorism, counterinsurgency, and training and mentoring missions between 2004 and 2016. The study focuses primarily on innovation in the US military and the diffusion of key concepts to US allies first, and then more broadly afterward. The findings show that there were three key phases of evolution throughout the period of study, each coinciding with a process of innovation and doctrinal adaptation. The first phase was characterized by the fusion of intelligence at the tactical and operational levels. The second phase was characterized by the industrial counterterrorism campaigns used by US SOF against irregular enemies in Iraq and Afghanistan. The third phase was characterized by increasing forward collection of actionable intelligence by SOF force elements in the course of direct action raids. The evolution of strike and intelligence functions in SOF operations between 2004 and 2016 was significantly influenced by reciprocity. Intelligence fusion led to more effective targeting, which then increased intelligence collection. Strike and intelligence functions were then enhanced by greater emphasis on intelligence exploitation during operations, which further increased the effectiveness of both strike and intelligence operations.

Keywords: counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, intelligence, irregular warfare, military operations, special operations forces

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23148 Towards Better Quality in Healthcare and Operations Management: A Developmental Literature Review

Authors: Marc Dorval, Marie-Hélène Jobin

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This work presents the various perspectives, dimensions, components and definitions given to quality in the operations management (OM) and healthcare services (HCS) literature in time, highlighting gaps and learning opportunities between the two disciplines through a thorough search into their rich and distinct body of knowledge. Greater and new insights about the general nature of quality are obtained with findings such as in OM, quality has been approached in six fairly distinct paradigms (excellence, value, conformity to specifications, attributes, satisfaction and meeting or exceeding customer expectations), whereas in HCS, two approaches are prominent (Donabedian’s structure, process and outcomes model and Lohr and Schroeder’s circumscribed definition). The two disciplines views on quality seem to have progressed much in parallel with little cross-learning from each other. This work then proposes an encompassing definition of quality as a lever and suggests further research and development avenues for a better use of the concept of quality by academics and practitioners alike toward the goals of greater organizational performance and improved management in healthcare and possibly other service domains.

Keywords: healthcare, management, operations, quality, services

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23147 Enhancing Sustainability Awareness through Social Learning Experiences on Campuses

Authors: Rashika Sharma

Abstract:

The campuses at tertiary institutes can act as a social environment for peer to peer connections. However, socialization is not the only aspect that campuses provide. The campus can act as a learning environment that has often been termed as the campus curriculum. Many tertiary institutes have taken steps to make their campus a ‘green campus’ whereby initiatives have been taken to reduce their impact on the environment. However, as visible as these initiatives are, it is debatable whether these have any effect on students’ and their understanding of sustainable campus operations. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable campus operations in raising students’ awareness of sustainability. Students at two vocational institutes participated in this interpretive research with data collected through surveys and focus groups. The findings indicated that majority of vocational education students remained oblivious of sustainability initiatives on campuses.

Keywords: campus learning, education for sustainability, social learning, vocational education

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23146 Deployment of Attack Helicopters in Conventional Warfare: The Gulf War

Authors: Mehmet Karabekir

Abstract:

Attack helicopters (AHs) are usually deployed in conventional warfare to destroy armored and mechanized forces of enemy. In addition, AHs are able to perform various tasks in the deep, and close operations – intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, air assault operations, and search and rescue operations. Apache helicopters were properly employed in the Gulf Wars and contributed the success of campaign by destroying a large number of armored and mechanized vehicles of Iraq Army. The purpose of this article is to discuss the deployment of AHs in conventional warfare in the light of Gulf Wars. First, the employment of AHs in deep and close operations will be addressed regarding the doctrine. Second, the US armed forces AH-64 doctrinal and tactical usage will be argued in the 1st and 2nd Gulf Wars.

Keywords: attack helicopter, conventional warfare, gulf wars

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23145 Investigation of Online Child Sexual Abuse: An Account of Covert Police Operations Across the Globe

Authors: Shivalaxmi Arumugham

Abstract:

Child sexual abuse (CSA) has taken several forms, particularly with the advent of internet technologies that provide pedophiles access to their targets anonymously at an affordable rate. To combat CSA which has far-reaching consequences on the physical and psychological health of the victims, a special act, the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, was formulated amongst the existing laws. With its latest amendment criminalizing various online activities about child pornography also known as child sexual abuse materials in 2019, tremendous pressure is speculated on law enforcement to identify offenders online. Effective investigations of CSA cases help in not only to detect perpetrators but also in preventing the re-victimization of children. Understanding the vulnerability of the child population and that the offenders continue to develop stealthier strategies to operate, it is high time that traditional investigation, where the focus is on apprehending and prosecuting the offender, must make a paradigm shift to proactively investigate to prevent victimization at the first place. One of the proactive policing techniques involves understanding the psychology of the offenders and children and operating undercover to catch the criminals before a real child is victimized. With the fundamental descriptive approach to research, the article attempts to identify the multitude of issues associated with the investigation of child sexual abuse cases currently in practice in India. Then, the article contextualizes the various covert operations carried out by numerous law enforcement agencies across the globe. To provide this comprehensive overview, the paper examines various reports, websites, guidelines, protocols, judicial pronouncements, and research articles. Finally, the paper presents the challenges and ethical issues that are to be considered before getting into undercover operations either in the guise of a pedophile or as a child. The research hopes to contribute to the making of standard operating protocols for investigation officers and other relevant policymakers in this regard.

Keywords: child sexual abuse, cybercrime against children, covert police operations, investigation of CSA

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